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FluidMechanicsandHydraulicMachines

Department of Mechanical
Engineering

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A30181FLUIDMECHANICSANDHYDRAULICMACHINES

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W LABMANUAL
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EX.No NameofExperiment PageNo


1 CalibrationofVenturimeter 1
2 CalibrationofOrificemeter 5
3 Determinationoffrictionforagiven 8
pipeline
4 VerificationofBernoullisTheorem 12

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5 ImpactofJetonVanes 16
6 PerformancetestonPeltonwheel 20
7 PerformancetestonFrancisTurbine 24
8 PerformancetestonKaplanturbine 29

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9 PerformancetestonCentrifugal 33
pump
10 PerformancetestonTwostage 37
Centrifugalpump
11 PerformancetestonReciprocating 41
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pump
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ExperimentNo:1CalibrationofVenturimeter

:
Aim Todeterminethecoefficientofdischargeofthegivenflowmeter.

Apparatus
:Venturimeterexperimentalsetup,stopwatch.

Theory :Aflowmeterisusedtomeasuretheflowrateofafluidinapipe.Aventurimeterconsistofshort

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lengthofapipenarrowingtoathroatinthemiddleandthendiverginggraduallytotheoriginaldiameter
ofthepipe.Asthewaterflowthroughthesemeters,velocityisincreasedduetothereducedareaand
hencethereisapressuredrop.

Theory/Description
:

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Aventurimeterisadevicewhichisusedformeasuringtherateofflowoffluidthroughthepipe.

Principle
:Thebasicprincipleonwhichaventurimeterworksisthatbyreducingthecrosssectional
areaoftheflowpassage,apressuredifferencecreatedandthemeasurementofthepressuredifference
enablesthedeterminationofthedischargethroughthepipe.
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Venturimetersconsistof1.Aninletsectionwhichisintheformofconvergentcone2.Throat3.outlet
sectionwhichisintheformofdivergentcone.Theinletsectionoftheventurimeterisofthesame
diameterasthatofthepipediameter.Theconvergentconeisashortpipewhichtapersfromtheoriginal
sizeofthepipesothatthethroatoftheventurimeter.Thethroatisashortpipehavingitscrosssectional
areasmallerthanthatofthepipe.Thedivergentconeoftheventurimeterisagraduallydivergingpipe
withitscrosssectionareaincreasingfromthatofthroati.e1and2oftheventurimeter
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Pressuretapsareprovidedthroughthepressureringasshowninthefigure.

Thelengthofconvergentconeisequaltothe(Dd).whereDisthediameteroftheinletsectionandd
diameterofthroat.Thelengthofthepipeisequaltothediameterofthepipe.Thediameterofthethroat
mayvaryfrom1/3toofthepipediameter.

Thedivergentconehasmorelengthasthatoftheconvergentconeduetoavoidthepossibilityofflow
separation(eddies)andenergyloss.
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Thecrosssectionareaofthethroatissmallerthanthecrosssectionareaoftheinletsection.Accordingto
thetheflowatthethroatresultinthedecreaseinthepressure.sothe
pressuredifferencewillbedevelopedbetweentheinletandthethroat.Thispressuredifferencecanbe
determinedbyusingsuitablemanometer.

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ExperimentalProcedure
:

1.Selecttherequiredflowmeter.

2.Openitspressurevalvesandclosetheotherpressurevalves,sothatonlypressurefortheflowmeterin

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useiscommunicatedtothemanometer.

3.Opentheflowcontrolvalveandallowacertainflowrate.

4.Observethereadingofthemanometer.Andchangetheflowrate.

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5.Notedownthereadingsofthemanometer.

6.Collectthewaterinthecollectingtank.Closethedrainvalveandfindthetimetakenfor5cmriseinthe
tank.

Schematicdiagramofventurimeter
:


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venturimeter

Calculations:

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h manometricheadintheleftlimb.
1=

h manometricheadintherightlimb.
2=

t=timetakenforh riseofwaterintank.
cm

h
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venturiheadintermsofflowingliquid.
w=

specificgravityofccl4
m=(h h
2 )x specificgravityofwater
1 1

Specificgravityofccl=1.6.
4

Specificgravityofwater=1.
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2
TheoreticaldischargeQ=kx (h) Cm
t /s.

K= a12a22
a1xa2 2g

Wherea=areaofcrosssectionofpipe.
1

a=areaofcrosssectionofthethroat.
2
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Qa =volumeofthewatercollectedinthetanki.e.[areaofthetankxriseofwaterlevelinthetank]
3
cm/s.
Qa
Coefficientofdischarge(C)= Qt
d

TabularColumnforventurimeter:

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S.N Manometericreading Theoretica Actual


o Timetakenforhcm l discharg Coefficient
riseofwaterintank discharge eQ
a ofdischarge
3 3
1 h(cm)
1 h(cm)
2 (s) Qtcm/sec cm/sec (C )
d
2
3
4
5

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Graphs:
1. CoefficientofDischarge(C)versusActualdischarge(Q
d ).
a
2. CoefficientofDischarge(C )versusTheorticaldischarge(Q
d t).

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Result:
ThecoefficientofdischargeofventurimeterisC
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ExperimentalNo:2 Calibrationofanorificemeter

:
Aim Todeterminethecoefficientofdischargeofthegivenflowmeter.

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Apparatus:
orificemeterexperimentalsetup,stopwatch.

Theory
:
Anorificemeterisanothersimpledeviceusedformeasuringthedischargethroughapipe.
Orificemeteralsoworksonthesameprincipleasthatofventurimeteri.e.byreducingthecrosssectional

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areaoftheflowpassageapressuredifferencebetweenthetwosectionsisdevelopedandthemeasurement
ofthepressuredifferenceenablesthedeterminationofthedischargethroughthepipe.Anorificemeteris
acheaperarrangementfordischargemeasurementthroughpipesanditsinstallationrequiresasmaller
length,ascomparedwithventurimeter.Assuchwherethespaceislimited,theorificemetermaybeused
fordischargeofthroughpipes.
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Anorificemeterconsistsofaflatcircularplatewithcircularperforatedholecalledorificewhichis
concentricwiththepipeaxis.Thethicknessoftheplateislessthananequalto0.05timesthediameterof
thepipe.Thediameteroftheorificemayvaryfrom0.2to0.85timesthepipediameterbutgenerallythe
diameteriskeptas0.5timespipediameter.

Twopressuretapsareprovidedatsection1ontheupstreamsideoftheorificeplateandotheratsection
2onthedownstreamsideoftheorificeplatesinceinthecaseofanorificechangeinthecrosssectionas
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areaoftheflowpassageisprovidedandtherebeingagradualchangeinthecrosssectionalareaofthe
flowpassageasinthecaseofventurimeterthereisagraduallossofenergyinaorificemeterthanina
venturimeter.

Theexperimentalsetupconsistof20mmpipelinesfixedtoanMSstand.Thepipeisconnectedwithan
orificemeterwiththeactionvalvesforpressuretappings.Themeterisconnectedtoacommonmiddle
chamber,whichisinturnconnectedtoamercurychamber.Thepipelineisprovidedwithaflowcontrol
valve.
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ExperimentalProcedure
:

1. Selecttherequiredflowmeter.

2. Openitspressurevalvesandclosetheotherpressurevalvessothatonlypressureforthemeterinuseis
communicatedtothemanometer.

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3. Opentheflowcontrolvalveandallowcertainaflowrate.

4. Ventthemanometerifrequired.

5. Observethereadinginthemanometer.

6. Collectthewaterinthecollectingtank.closethedrainvalveandfindthetimetakenfor5cmriseinthe
tank.

Calculationsof
O
rificemeter

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:

Theoreticaldischarge(Q)
t

h manometricheadintheleftlimb.cm
1=

or
h manometricheadintherightlimb.cm
2=

Differenceinthemanometerlevel=h=h
x h
1 cm
2

t=timetakenforh riseofwaterintank.
cm

TheoreticaldischargeQ=K h
t

K= a*a* 2g
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1 2

a areaofcrosssectionofthepipe.
1=

a areaofthethroat.
2=

Actualdischarge(Q)
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Theareaofthecollectingtank=50cm*50cm

Riseofwaterlevelinthetank=5cm

Timetakenforcollectinghinthecollectingtank

Qa=AR/t
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CoefficientofdischargeC=Q
d /Q
a t

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Tabularcolumnoforificemeter
:

S.n ManometerReading H=x( SO


Sw Timetaken Q =K
t Q AR/t Coefficient
a=
o 1) (tsec)for h Cm3
/sec dischargeof
H h
x= h
2 1(cm) 5cmrise (cm 3
/sec) orificemeter

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h
1(Cm) h cm
2( ) water (Cd)

1
2
3
4

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Graphs:
1. ActualdischargeversusTheoreticaldischarge.
2. ActualdischargeversusCoefficientofdischarge.


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Result:
Thecoefficientofdischarge(C)fororificemeteris_______________
d

Precautions:
1. WeartightoverallsandSafetyshoes.
2. Takereadingproperly.


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Experimentno3 DeterminationofFrictionforagivenpipeline

:
Aim
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TodetermineCoefficientofFrictionfactorforagivenpipeline.

:
Apparatus
FrictionfactorExperimentalTestRig,stopwatch.

Theory
:

FrictionalfactorExperimentalsetupconsistofpipesystemwithtwopipelinesofsize20mm(Square)and
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15mm(Round)withpressuretappingsareconnectedtoamultiportmanifoldwhichinturnisconnected
tomanometer.

Mostlytheflowinthepipeisturbulent.Thevelocityinturbulentflowisrelativelyuniformandthe
velocityprofileofturbulentflowismuchflatterthan

Whenwaterflowsthroughapipe,acertainamountofenergy(orpressureenergy)hastobespentto
overcomethefrictionduetotheroughnessofthepipesurface.Thisroughnesseffectdependsonthe
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roughnesseffectorfrictionaleffectdependsonthematerialofthepipeandscaleformationifany.Ifthe
surfaceissmooththefrictioneffectislessfirst.Foranoldpipeduetothescaleformationorchemical
depositstheroughnessandhencethefrictioneffectishigher.

Pipelinesystemingeneralincludesseveralauxiliarycomponents.Inadditiontotypes.Thesecomponents
includethefollowing:

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1.TransitionsorsuddenexpansionAndcontractionforchangingpipesize.

2.Elbowsandbendsforchangingflowdirections.

Thesecomponentsintroducedisturbancesintheflowthatcauseturbulenceandasmechanicalenergyloss
inadditiontothatwhichoccurinbasictypeflowduetofriction.Theenergylossalthoughoccursovera
finitedistance,thenviewedfromtheperspectiveofanentirepipesystemarelocalizednearthe
component.Hencetheselossesarereferredtoaslocallossesorminorlosses.Itshouldberemembered
thattheselossessometimesarethedominantlossesinpipingsystemandhencethetermminorlossesisa

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misnomeroften.

Experimentalprocedure:

1. Selecttherequiredpipeline
2. Connectthepressuretappingsoftherequiredpipelinetothemanometerbyopeningthe

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appropriatepressurevalvesandclosingallthepressurevalves.
3. Notedownthepressuredifferencefromthemanometermercurycolumn.
4. Collectthewaterinthecollectingtankfor5cmriseoflevelandnotedownthetimetaken.
5. Repeattheexperiment,atotherflowrates.

Schematicdiagramoffrictionlossesthroughapipe(Squareandcircularpipe)
:
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Tabularcolumn
:

(I)Forsquarepipe:

S.N Manometrichead Timetakenforh Discharg Velocity Friction

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O cmraiseofwater e
(Q) (v) factor(f)
h intankt Cm 3
/sec m/s
1(Cm
h
2(cm) h
f(cm)
)
1

or
2

3

4

5
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(II)Forcircularpipe:
S.N Manometrichead Timetakenforh Discharg Velocity Friction
O cmraiseofwater e
(Q) (v) factor(f)
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h
1(Cm intankt Cm 3
/sec m/s
h2(cm) h
f(cm)
)
1

2

3
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4

5

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Calculations:

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ThedistancebetweenthepressuretappingsandpipelineL=200cm.

Diameterofroundpipe=1.5cm.

Lossofheadduetofrictionh=( Sm
f S 1)

or
2
AreaofthecollectingtankA=50x50cm.

WhereS :specificgravityofmercury13.6
m

S:specificgravityofwater1

Riseofwaterlevelfor5cmincollectingtankR=5cm
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Timetakenforcollectingwater=tsecs.
3
DischargeQ=(AXR/t)cm/sec

ManometerReadings

Readingintheleftlimb=h v
cm
1
2
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Readingintherightlimb=h cm
2

Darcysconstantf:

HeadlossH= 2gdhf
4flv2

Result
:Thefrictionfactor(f)forsquarepipeis______________.
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Thefrictionfactor(f)forcircularpipeis______________.

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Experiment:4VerificationofBernoullisTheorem

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AIM:
ToverifytheBernoullistheorem.

APPARATUS:
A supply tank of water, a tapered inclined pipe fitted with no. of piezometer tubes point,
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measuringtank,scale,andstopwatch .

THEORY:
Bernoullis theorem states that when there is a continues connection between the particle of
flowing mass liquid, the total energy of any sector of flow will remain same provided there is no
reductionoradditionatanypoint.I.e.sumofpressureheadandvelocityheadisconstant.

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PROCEDURE:
1. Opentheinletvalveslowlyandallowthewatertoflowfromthesupplytank.
2. Nowadjusttheflowtogetaconstantheadinthesupplytanktomakeflowinandoutflowequal.
3. Underthiscondition the pressureheadwill becomeconstantinthepiezometertubes.Notedown
piezometerreadings.
4. Notedownthequantityofwatercollectedinthemeasuringtankforagivenintervaloftime.
5. Computetheareaofcrosssectionunderthepiezometertube.
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6. Computethevaluesofvelocityheadandpressurehead.
7. Changetheinletandoutletsupplyandnotethereading.
8. Takeatleastthreereadingsasdescribedintheabovesteps.


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or

SCHEMATICDIAGRAM:

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or
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TABULARCOLUMN:
Trail1:
S.No Duct Pizeometer timefor Discharge Pressure Velocity Datum TotalHead
point Reading 5cmrise Qm3
/s Headm Headm headm m
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1
2
3
4
5
6
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TrailII
S.NO Duct Pizeometer timefor Discharge Pressure Velocity Datum TotalHead
Point Reading 5cmrise Qm3
/s Headm Headm headm m

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1
2
3
4
5
6

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7
TrialIII
S.NO Duct Pizeometer timefor Discharge Pressure Velocity Datum TotalHead
Point Reading 5cmrise Qm3
/s Headm Headm headm m

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1
2
3
4
5
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6
7

CALCULATIONS:
P
Pressurehead = g
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v2
Velocityhead = 2g
Datumhead =Z=0(forthisexperiment)
Velocityofwaterflow=v
Q(Discharge)=[Volumeofwatercollectedintank/timetakentocollectwater]
=[Areaoftankheightofwatercollectedintank]/t
Also
Q=velocityofwaterinpipeareaofcrosssection=vA
x
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Areaofcrosssection(A)=A
x +[ (AiAt)Ln
t L ]
A =AreaofThroat
t

A =AreaofInlet
i

Diameterofthrot=25mm

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Diameterofinlet=50mm
L =distancebetweenthroatandcorrespondingpizeometer
n

L=lengthofthedivergingductorconvergingduct=300mm
Distancebetweeneachpiezometer=75mm

P + v2 +Z
TotalHead= g 2g

RESULT:

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By conducting experiment on Bernoullis apparatus and taking TrailI,TrailII,TrailIII,we
havegotconstanttotalhead.
HenceBernoullistheoremisproved.

PRECAUTIONS:

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.
1.Notethepiezometerreadingscarefully





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Experimentno6Impactofjetonvanes
Aim:
ofindthecoefficientofimpactofjetonvanes
T .

Apparatus
: Impact of jet on vanes experimental test rig, Flat vane, curved vane, Dead weights,
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stop watch.

Theory
:
Ajetoffluidemergingfromanozzlehassomevelocityandhenceitpossessesacertain
amountofkineticenergy.Ifthejetstrikesanobstructionplacedinitspath,itwillexertforceon
obstruction.Thisimpressedforceisknownasimpactofjetanditisdesignatedashydrodynamicforce,in
ordertodistinguishitfromtheforceduetohydrostaticpressure.sinceadynamicforceisexertedby

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virtueoffluidmotion,italwaysinvolvesachangeofmomentum,unlikeaforceduetohydrostatic
pressurethatimpliesnomotion.

Principle:

Theimpulsemomentumprinciplemaybeutilizedtoevaluatethehydrodynamicforce
exertedonabodybyafluidjet.

(1)WhenjetstrikesastationaryFlatvane

Inthiscasetheflatvaneisstationaryandjetstrikesonitatthemiddleandthensplitsintwopartsleaves

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thecornerstangentiallyso

P=m/v

M=pa.s

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Nowdividingtheequationwithtimet.

M/t=pa.s/t

M=av

Sinceweknowthattheimpactofjetonvaneis
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F=Ma

F=M vt

F=(M/t).v

F=M(v v )
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inletoutlet

F=M(v+vcos
)
2
F=av(1+cos
)

TheforceofImpactwillbemaximumiftheangleofdeclinationis
=90
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Experimental procedure
:

1.Fixthevanetobetestedinsidethetestingchamberbyopeningthentransparentdoorprovided.Close
thedoorandtightenthelock.

2.Notetheinitialreadingonthescale.

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3.Opentheinletwater.Thewaterjetfromthenozzlestrikesonvanegetsdeflectedanddrainsbackto
collectingtank.

4.Closethecollectingtankdrainvalveandnotedownthetimetakenfor2cmriseinwaterlevelinthe
collectingtank.Openthedrainvalve.

5.Adddeadweighttobringthepointerbacktotheinitialreadingonthescale.Notedownthedead
weights.

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6.Repeattheexperimentfordifferentflowratesbyadjustingthepositionoftheinletvalvesandfor
differentvanes.

Schematicdiagram
:

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Tabularcolumn
:

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(I) Flat vane:

S.N F(Actual
a Ft t Q= Ah
t K=F /F
a t
O Force) (Theoretical (Time taken for m/s
3 (coefficientof
N force)N h cm raise of Impact)
waterintank)S
1

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2

3

4

or

5


(II) Curved vane:
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S.N F
a Ft t Q= Ah
t K=F /F
a t
O (Actual (Theoretical (Time taken for m/s
3 (coefficientof
Force)N force)N h cm raise of Impact)
waterintank)s
1

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2

3

4

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Calculations
:
2
Theoreticalforce(N):F=av
t (1+cos)
av2
ForFlatvane= g

Forcurvedvane= av2
g (1 + cos
)

Wherediameterofnozzle=1cm

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Areaofcollectingtank= AR
t

WhereA=Areaofcollectingtank

R=riseinwaterlevel.

or
Coefficientofimpactonvanes= Fth
Fa

Result:ThecoefficientofimpactofjetonvanesforFlatvaneis____________.

ThecoefficientofimpactofjetonvanesforCurvedvaneis___________.

Precautions
:
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1. Wear tight overhauls and safety shoes.

2. Fix correct vane for the hanger.

3. Dont start the motor by closing the supply valve.


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ExperimentNo:7 P
erformancetestonPeltonwheel

Aim
:-To conduct the performance test and to plot the operating characteristics of Pelton wheel

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turbine.

Apparatus
: Pelton wheel test rig, Tachometer.

Theory
:-

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Peltonturbineisaimpulseturbine.Whichuseswateravailableathighheads(pressure)forgenerationof
electricity.Alltheavailablepotentialenergyofthewaterisconvertedintokineticenergybyanozzle
arrangement.ThewaterleavesthenozzleasajetandstrikesthebucketsofthePeltonwheelrunner.
Thesebucketsareintheshapeofdoublecups,joinedatthemiddleportioninaknifeedge.Thejetstrikes
theknifeedgeofthebucketwiththeleastresistanceandshockandglidesalongthepathofthecup,
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deflectingthroughanangleof160to170.Thisdeflectionofthewatercausesachangeinmomentumof
thewaterjetandhenceanimpulseforceissuppliedtothebuckets.Asaresult,therunnerattachedtothe
bucketmoves,rotatingtheshaft.ThespecificspeedofPeltonwheelvariesfrom10to100

InthetestrigthePeltonwheelissuppliedwithwaterunderthehighpressurebyacentrifugalpump.The
waterflowsthroughtheventurimetertothePeltonwheel.Agatevalveisusedtocontroltheflowrateto
theturbine.Theventurimeterwithpressuregaugesisconnectedtodeterminetheflowrateinthepipe.
Thenozzleopeningcanbedecreasedorincreasedbyopeningthespearwheelatentrancesideofthe
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turbine.

Theturbineisloadedbyapplyingthedeadweightsonthebrakedrum.Placingtheweightsontheweight
hanger.Theinletheadisreadfromthepressuregauge.Thespeedoftheturbineismeasuredwiththehelp
oftachometer.

Experimentalprocedure
:
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1. Prime the pump with water and start the pump.

2. Gradually open the delivery valve of the pump.

3. Adjust the nozzle at the half of the opening by operating the needle valve by using the spear wheel .

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4. The head should be made constant by operating the delivery valve and the head shows be
maintained at constant value.

5. Measure the turbine rpm with the tachometer.

6. Note the pressure gauge reading at the turbine inlet.

7. Observe the readings of h


1 and
h
2 corresponding
the fluid level in the two manometer links which
are connected to venturimeter.

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8. Adjust the load on the break drum and note down the speed of the turbine, using the tachometer
and spring balance reading.

9. Add additional weights and repeat the experiment for other loads.

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10. For constant speed tests, the main valve has to be adjusted to reduce or increase the inlet head to
the turbine for varying loads spring balance reading.

9. Add additional weights and repeat the experiment for other loads.

10. For constant speed tests, the main valve has to be adjusted to reduce or increase the inlet head to
the turbine for varying loads.
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Schematicdiagramofpeltonwheelturbine
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or
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TU
JN

Cut- Sectional view of pelton wheel turbine

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TABULARCOLUMN:
S.No Gate Pressure Vacuu Manomete Speed of Spring P
i P
o %
openin gauge m rreading rotation balance KW KW
g (kg/cm ) pressur
2
h
1 h2 T
1 T2
e cm cm kg kg

ld
mm of
Hg
1

2

or

3

4

5
W





TU




Electricaloutput

Load(kw) Voltage Current (I) Speed(N)
JN

V A rpm



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CALCULATIONS:
Inputpower(P )=(
i
gQ h)W
a1a22gH
FlowrateofwaterQ=C
d
a12a22
d =diameterOfventureinlet=65mm
1

ld
d =diameter.Ofventurethroat=39mm
2
C =coefficientofdischargeofventurimeter=0.9
d
Wherea =areaofinletoftheventurimeter.
1
a =areaoftheventurimeterthroat.
2
H=h h s1
[ s2 1]
1 2

or
h=Totalheadofwater(m)
h=suctionhead(h )+deliveryHead(h
s )+DatumHead
d
Where h =deliveryhead=P
d /
d
h =suctionhead= Ps13600
s
Outputpower(P )= 2NT
o 60 watts
T=(T T )

g

d ia.Ofbreakdrum
1 2
W
dia.Ofbreakdrum=0.15m
N=speedintachometer
Efficiencyoftheturbine m%=P /P
o i

Electricalefficiency=%=p
e /P
o i

p=electricaloutput=V
o
I
GRAPHS:
TU

1. speedvs.efficiency
2. speedvs.powerinput
3. speedvs.poweroutput.
RESULT:heefficiencyofpeltonwheelis_________%.
T
PRECAUTIONS:

JN

Experiment no-7 Performance test on Francis turbine

Aim
:
ToconductperformancetestandtoplottheoperatingcharacteristicsofFrancisturbine
.

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Apparatus
: Francis turbine rig, tachometer.

Theory
:

Francis turbine is a reaction type hydraulic turbine, used in dams and reservoir of medium height to
convert hydraulic energy into mechanical and electrical energy. Francis turbine is radial inward flow
reaction turbine. This has the advantage of centrifugal forces acting against the flow, thus reducing
the tendency of the turbine to over speed. Francis turbines are best suited for medium heads. The

ld
specific speed ranges from 25 to 3oo.

The turbine test rig consist of a 1.0 KW (1.34 HP) turbine supplied with water from a suitable 5HP
centrifugal pump through suitable pipelines, a gate valve, and a flow measuring venturimeter. The
turbine consists of a cast iron body with a volute casing and gun metal runner consisting of two
shrouds with an aerofoil shaped curved vanes in between. The runner is surrounded by a set of brass

or
guide vanes. At the outlet, a draft tube is provided to increase the net head across the turbine. The
runner is attached to the output of the shaft with a brake drum to absorb the energy.

Water under the pressure from the pump enters the guide vanes into the runner while passing
through the spiral casing and guide vanes; a portion of pressure energy is converted into velocity
energy. Water thus enters the runner at high velocity and as it passes through the runner vanes, the
W
remaining pressure energy converted into kinetic energy. Due to the curvature of the vanes, the
kinetic energy is transformed into mechanical energy. The water head is converted into mechanical
energy and hence the runner rotates. The water from the runner is then discharged into the tail race.
The discharge through the runner can be regulated also by operating the guide vanes.

The flow through the pipeline into the turbine is measured with the venturimeter fitted in the
pipeline. The venturimeter is provided with the set of pressure gauges. The net pressure difference
TU

across the turbine inlet and outlet is measured with a pressure gauge and a vacuum gauge. The
turbine output is torque is determined with a rope brake drum dynamometer. A tachometer is used
to measure
JN


SPECIFICATION:
1. Spiralcasing
:madeofcastironwithsmoothinnersurface.
2. Runner: madeofgunmetalcastingdesignedforefficientoperation.
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Accuratelymachinedandsmoothlyfinished.
3. Guidevane :consistsofguidevanesrotatingingunmetalbushes
Mechanism operatedbyhandwheelthroughalinkmechanism.
4. Shaft
:stainlesssteelaccuratelymachined
5. Bearing: onenumberballbearingandonenumbertaperrollerbearing.
6. Draft tubebend :providedatthe exit oftherunnerwitha transparent cylindricalwindowfor
observation of flow past the runner to the bend is connected a draft tube of mild steel
fabrication.

ld
7. Brake arrangement :consists of amachinedandpolishedcastironbrakedrum,coolingwater
pipes, internal water scoop discharge pipe, spring balances, screw rod, and belt brake
arrangement.

PROCEDURE:

or
1. Add minimum load to the weight hanger of the brake drum say 1 kg.

2. Close the main gate valve and start the pump.

3. Open the gate valve while monitoring the inlet pressure to the turbine .set it for the design value of
1.0 kg/sq.cm
W
4. Open the cooling water valve for cooling the brake drum.

5. Measure the turbine rpm with the tachometer.

6. Note the pressure gauge and vacuum gauge reading at the turbine inlet and outlet.

7. Note the venturimeter pressure gauge reading, P1 and p2.


TU

8. Add additional weights and repeat the experiment for other loads

9. For constant speed test, the main valve has to be adjusted to reduce or increase the inlet head to
turbine for varying loads.



SUPPLYPUMP:
JN

1. Ratedhead :20m
2. Discharge :2000Lpm
3. normalspeed :1440Rpm
4. Powerrequired :15hp(11.2Kw)
5. Sizeofpump 1
:100 00mm
6. Type :centrifugalhighspeedsinglesuctionvolute.
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FRANCISTURBINE:
1. ratedsupplyhead :15.0m
2. discharge :2000Lpm
3. ratedspeed :1250Rpm
4. unitspeed :51.5Rpm
5. specificspeed :95.5Rpm
6. runnerdiameter :150mm

ld
7. no.ofguidevanes :8
8. brakedrumdiameter :300mm
FLOWMEASURINGUNIT:
Sizeofventurimeter100mm

or
Throatdiameterforventurimeter60mm
ManometerDoublecolumndifferentialtype.

Tabularcolumn:
S.n Gate Pressure Vacuu Manometer Speed of Spring P
i P
o
o opening gauge m reading rotation balance
W
(kg/cm ) pressur
2
h
1(cm) h
2(cm)
(Rpm) T
1 T2 (KW) (KW) %
e
(kg/cm
2

)
1


TU

2

3

4

5
JN






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Schematicdiagramoffrancisturbine:

ld
or
W
TU
JN

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ld


or

Francisturbine


CALCULATIONS:

Inputpower(P g
)=(
i Q

h
W
)watts
Cda1a22gH
FlowrateofwaterQ=
a12a22
d =dia.Ofventureinlet=100mm
1
d =dia.Ofventurethrought=60mm
2
C =coefficientofdischargeofventurimeter=0.9
d
TU

Wherea =areaofinletoftheventurimeter.
1
a
2=areaoftheventurimeterthroat.
H=h h s1 1]
[ s2
1 2


h=Totalheadofwater(m)
h=suctionhead(h )+deliveryHead(h
s )+DatumHead
d
Where h =deliveryhead=P
d /
d
JN

h =suctionhead= Ps13600
s


Outputpower(P )= 2NT
o 60 watts
T=(T T
1 )
2
g
dia.Ofbreakdrum
dia.Ofbreakdrum=0.15m
N=speedintachometer
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Efficiencyoftheturbine%=P
m /P
o i

Electricalefficiency= %=p
e /P
o i

p =electricaloutput=V
o
I

GRAPHS:

ld
1. speedvs.outputpower
2. speedvs.efficiency

RESULT: The efficiency of Francis turbine is _____________%.The characteristics
curvesaredrawn.

or


PRECAUTIONS:



W
ExperimentNo:8PerformancetestonKaplanturbine
:
AimTo conduct the performance test and to plot the operating characteristics of Kaplan turbine

Apparatus:
Kaplan turbine test rig, Tachometer.
TU

Theory:
A Kaplan turbine is a type of reaction turbine. It is an axial flow turbine which is suitable for relatively
low heads, and requires a large quantity of water to develop large amount of power. It is a reaction
type turbine and hence it operates entirely in a closed conduit from head race to tail race.

The test rig consist of a 1 kW Kaplan turbine supplied with water from a suitable 5HP pump through
JN

pipe lines, a valve and a flow measuring venturimeter. The turbine consists of a cast iron body with a
volute casing, an axial flow gunmetal runner, a ring of adjustable guide vanes and a draft tube. The
runner consists of three aerofoil section. The guide is vanes can be rotated about their axis by means
of hand wheel. A rope brake drum is mounted on the turbine to absorb the power developed.
Suitable dead weight and a hanger arrangement, a spring balance and cooling water arrangement is
provided for the brake drum.

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Water under pressure from the pump enters through the volute casing and the guide vanes into the
runner .while passing through the spiral casing and guide vanes, a portion of the pressure energy (
potential energy) is converted into velocity energy (kinetic energy) .Water thus enters the runner at
high velocity and it passes through the runner vanes, the remaining potential energy is converted into
kinetic energy . Due to the curvature of the vanes, the kinetic energy is transformed into the
mechanical i.e. the water head is converted into mechanical energy hence the runner rotates. The
water from the runner is then discharged into the draft tube.

The flow through the pipe lines into the turbine is measured with the venturimeter fitted in the pipe

ld
line. Two pressure gauges are provided to measure the pressure difference across venturimeter. The
net pressure difference across the turbine inlet and exit is measured with a pressure gauge and
vacuum gauge. The turbine output is determined with the rope brake drum. A tachometer is used to
measure the speed.

or
ExperimentalProcedure
:

1. Add minimum load to the weight hanger of the brake drum say 1 kg.

2. Close the main gate valve and start the pump.

3. open the gate valve while monitoring the inlet pressure to the turbine .set it for the design value of
1.0 kg/sq.cm
W
4.Open the cooling water valve for cooling the brake drum.

5. Measure the turbine rpm with the tachometer.

6.Note the pressure gauge and vacuum gauge reading at the turbine inlet and outlet.
TU

7. Note the venturimeter pressure gauge reading, P1 and p2.

8. Add additional weights and repeat the experiment for other loads

9. For constant speed test, the main valve has to be adjusted to reduce or increase the inlet head to
turbine for varying loads.

SchematicdiagramofKaplanturbine:
JN

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or
Schematic diagram of Kaplan turbine

W
TU
JN

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TabularcolumnKaplanturbine:

S.N Gate Pressure Vacuu Manomete Speed of Spring Pi P


o
o opening gauge m rreading rotation balance (KW) (KW)
%
(kg/cm
2
) pressure h
1 h
2
(N)Rpm T 1(kg) T
2(kg)
(kg/cm)
2

ld
2

3

4

or

5



W
Electricaloutput:
Load(kw) Voltage Current (I) Speed(N)
V A rpm


TU








JN

CALCULATIONS:
Inputpower(P
)=(
i
gQh)kW
a1a22gH
FlowrateofwaterQ=C
d
a12a22
d=dia.Ofventureinlet=0.13m
1
d=dia.Ofventurethroat=0.078m
2
C =coefficientofdischargeofventurimeter=0.9
d

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Wherea 1=areaofinletoftheventurimeter.
a =areaoftheventurimeterthroat.
2
H=h h [ s1 1]
1 2 s2

h=Totalheadofwater(m)
h=suctionhead(h )+deliveryHead(h
s )+DatumHead
d
Where h =deliveryhead=P
d /
d
h =suctionhead= Ps13600
s
Outputpower(P )= 2NT watts

ld
o 60
T=(T T
1 2 )

g
d ia.Ofbreakdrum
dia.Ofbreakdrum=0.15m
N=speedintachometer
Efficiencyoftheturbine%=P /P
o i

or
Electricalefficiency= %=p
e /P
o i

po=electricaloutput=V
I
GRAPHS:
1. speedvs.efficiency
2. speedvs.powerinput
3. speedvs.poweroutput
W
RESULT:heefficiencyoftheKaplanturbine___________.Thecharacteristicscurvesaredrawn.
T
PRECAUTIONS:
ExperimentNo:9PerformancetestonCentrifugalPump
Aim:
.
Tofindtheefficiencyandperformanceofcentrifugalpump
TU

APPARATUS
: .
CentrifugalpumptestRig,Stopwatch

Theory:

Thepumpwhichraiseswaterfromalowerlevelbytheactionofcentrifugalforceisknownas
centrifugalpump.Thepumpliftswaterbecauseofatmosphericpressureactingonthesurfaceofwater.

Principle
:
AcentrifugalpumpisRotodynamicpumpthatusesarotatingimpellertothepressureofa
fluid.Itworksbytheconversionofrotationalkineticenergy,typicallyfromanelectricmotortoan
increasedstaticfluidpressure.Theyarecommonlyusedtomovetheliquidsinpipesystem.
JN

Fluidentersaxiallythroughthehollowmiddlesectionofthepumpcalledeye,afterwhichencountersthe
rotatingblades.Itacquirestangentialandradialvelocitybymomentumtransferwithimpellerbladesand
acquiresradialvelocitybycentrifugalforces.

Theperformanceofapumpischaracterizedbyitsnetheadh.whichdefinedasthechangeinBernoullis
betweenthesuctionanddeliveryofthepump.hisexpressedinequivalentcolumnheightofwater.

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Hw=(2/2g+v2+Z)delivery(2/2g+v2+Z)suction

=Absolutewaterpressure(N/m2)

V=velocityofwaterinsidethepipe,(m/s)

=Densityofwater,(kg/m3)

g=Accelerationduetogravity(m/s2)\

Z=Elevation,(m)

ld
Thevelocityofwatercanbecalculatedusingdischargeanddiameterofpipes.Thedischargeproducedby
thepumpcanbedeterminedusingthecollectingtankandstopwatch.

Discharge,

or
Q=A*R/t

WhereA=Areaofthecollectingtank,m2

R=RiseofwatercolumninthePiezometer(cm)

t=timetakenfor10cmrise(sec).
W
Thenetheadisproportionaltousefulpoweractuallydeliveredtofluidinthepump.Traditionallyitis
calledthewaterhorsepowerevenifthepowerisnotmeasuredinwhp

P=Qxghw(W)

Theinputelectricalenergytothemotorcanbedeterminedbyusingwatthourenergymetertheexpansion
forpoweris

Ein= 3600XN
TU

KXT

Wheren=numberofrevolutionsofenergymeterdisk.

K=energymeterconstantrev/kwhr.

T=timefor3revolutions(sec).
JN

Inthepumpterminologytheexternalenergysuppliedtothepumpiscalledbrakehorsepowerofpump

Pbhp=nmotorxEin

Thepumpefficiencyisdefinedaspump= Pumpoutput
Pumpinput * 100

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Procedure:
1)Primethemotor,closethedeliveryvalveandswitchontheunit

2)openthedeliveryvalveandmaintaintherequireddeliveryhead.Notethereading.

3)Notethecorrespondingsuctionhead.

ld
4)Measuretheareaofthecollectingtank.

5)Closethedrainvalveandnotedownthetimefor10cmriseofwaterlevelinthecollectingtank

6)Forthedifferentdeliveryheadsrepeattheexperiment.

7)Foreverysetofreadingnotethetimetakenfor10revolutionofenergymeter.

or
Schematicdiagramofcentrifugalpump
:


TU

Tabularcolumnforcentrifugalpump:
S.NO Pressure Vacuum Timefor Timefor10
JN

gauge gauge 3revof cmrisein


reading reading Energy collecting Discharge Input Output
3
P mmof meter tank(t) (Q)m /sec Power Power
d %
(Kg/cm ) Hg(P
2 )
s seconds seconds P
i P
o

(t)
e
(KW) (KW)

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1

2

3

4

ld
5


or
Calculations:
ThetotaleffectivehandHinmetersofWorkingofcentrifugalpump

W.C=Hd+Hs+x

Sincethedeliverypressureisinkg/cm2andsuctiongaugepressureareinmmofHgthetotalhead
W
developedbythepumptobeconvertedintometersofwatercolumn.

WhereHd=Deliveryhead

Hs=Suctionhead

X=Datumleveldifference

Note:Thevelocityandthelossofheadinthesuctionpipeareneglected
TU

WeknowthedischargeQ= AR
/t
m3/sec.

Theworkdonebythepumpisgivenbypo(p+g+Q+H)/1000KW
TheinputpowerPi=3600/Ex10/teKW

Theefficiencyofthepump=Po/Pix100

n=Po/Pix100%.
JN

Graphs:
1)PlotPiandPoversusSpeedN

.
2)SpeedversusEfficiency

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Results:
Theefficiencyofcentrifugalpumpis____________.Thecharacteristicscurvesaredrawn.

Precautions:
1.Weartightoveraulsandsafetyshoes.

2.Takereadingscorrectly

ld

or


TU


JN

Experiment10

PerformanceTestonTwostagecentrifugalpump

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A :
im
Toconducttheperformancetestandtoplottheoperatingcharacteristicsoftwostagecentrifugal
pump.

Apparatus
:
Twostagecentrifugalpumptestrig,stopwatch,andtachometer.

Theory
:

Twostagecentrifugalpumpsareusedinapplicationwherehighdeliverypressurearerequired.Water

ld
comingfromoutofthefirststageisfedintotheinletofsecondstageandthisresultinhigherdelivery
pressureatthesecondstageoutlet.

Thetestpumpisaselfprimingtypemonoblocktwostagecentrifugalpumpofsize1x1operatingon
on220v,50Hz.Thetwoimpellersareconnectedtoasingleshaftdrivenbyanelectricmotor.Each
impellerisencasedseparatelyandsuitablepassageconnectsthefirststageoutlettosecondstageinlet.An

or
energymeterandastopwatchareprovidedtomeasuretheinputtothemotorandacollectingtankto
measuretheactualdischarge.Apressuregaugeandavacuumgaugearefittedinthedeliveryandsuction
pipelinestomeasurethepressure.

Experimentalprocedure
:
W
1.Primethepumpwithwaterifrequired.

2.Openthedeliverygatevalvecompletely.

3.Startthegatevalveandadjustthegatevalvetorequiredpressureanddelivery.

4.Notethefollowingreadings
TU

(a)ThepressuregaugereadingPkg/sq.cm

(b)ThevacuumgaugereadingVkg/sq.cm

(c)Timetakenforeverysetofreadingnotethetimetakenfor3rev.Energymeter.

(d)Closethedrainvalveandnotedownthetimetakenfor10cmriseofwaterincollectingtank.

5.Take3or4setsofreadingbyavaryingtheheadforminimumtoamaximumofabout3kg/sq.cm.
JN

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SchematicdiagramofTwostagecentrifugalpump
:

ld

or


TU

Tabularcolumn:
S.NO Pressure Pressure Vacuum Timefor3
readings gauge gauge revof Input Output
reading reading Energy Discharge Power Power
3 %
h h P mmof meter (Q)m/sec P P
d
1 2 i o

(cm) (cm) (Kg/cm 2


) Hg(P)
s seconds(t )
e KW KW
JN

1

2

3

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Calculations:

ld
a1a22gH
FlowrateofwaterQ=C
d
a12a22
d =dia.Ofventureinlet=65mm
1
d =dia.Ofventurethroat=39mm
2
C =coefficientofdischargeofventurimeter=0.9
d

or

Wherea =areaofinletoftheventurimeter.
1
a =areaoftheventurimeterthroat.
2
H=h h s1 1]
[ s2
1 2

h=Totalheadofwater(m)
h=suctionhead(h )+deliveryHead(h )+DatumHead
Where h
W
s
=deliveryhead=P /
d

d d
h =suctionhead= Ps13600
s
1. TheworkdonebythepumpisgivenbyP = gQH
o 1000 Kw
Where,
=Densityofwater(kg/m)
2
g=Accelerationduetogravity(m/s )
H=Totalheadofwater(m)
TU



2. TheinputpowerP = 3600N
i Ete Kw

Where
N=Numberofrevolutionsofenergymeterdisc
E=Energymeterconstant=150(rev/Kwhr)
JN

T=timetakenforNrevolutions(seconds)
r

3. Theefficiencyofthepump=(P/P
o )100%
i


GRAPH:
1.ActualdischargeVsTotalhead

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2.ActualdischargeVsEfficiency
3.ActualdischargeVsInputpower
4.ActualdischargeVsOutputpower

RESULT: The efficiency of two stage centrifugal pump is ____________%. The performance
characteristicsaredrawn.
PRECAUTIONS:

Experimentno:10PerformanceTestonReciprocatingPump

ld

AIM:
TostudythecharacteristicsofReciprocatingpump.

or
APPARATUS:

1)Reciprocatingpumptestsetup
2)Stopwatch

DESCRIPTION:
W
Reciprocating pumps also classified aspositive displacement pumps a
s a definite volume of
liquid istrappedin achamber which isalternativelyfilledfromtheinletandemptiedatahigherpressure
throughthe discharge. Mostpistonpumpsareactingwithliquidadmittedalternativelyoneachsideofthe
piston so that one part of the cylinder is being filled while the other is being emptied to minimize
fluctuationsinthedischarge.

ItconsistsofadoubleactionReciprocatingpumpofsize25 20mmwithairvesselcoupledtoa1
TU

HP, 1440rpm single phasemotor, pipingsystemconsisting ofpipes,gatevalve,footvalve,pressureand


vacuum gauges.Collectingtank with gauge glassscalefittingsanddrainvalve.Panelwithswitch,starter
andenergymeter.

PROCEDURE:

1. Keep the delivery valve open and switch on the pump. Slowly close the delivery valve and
maintainaconstanthead.
JN

2. Notethedeliveryandsuctiongaugereading.
3. Notethetimefor10revofEnergymeter.
4. Notethetimefor10cmriseinwaterlevelinthecollectingtank.
5. Notethespeedofthepump(N)rpm.
6. Repeattheprocedureforvariousopeningsofthedeliveryvalves.

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ld



or
Schematicdiagramofreciprocatingpump:





W


SCHEMATICDIAGRAM:


TU








JN

Reciprocatingpump




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ld



or





TABULARCOLUMN:
S.NO Pressure Vacuu
W Time Timefor Speed Discharg Input Output %
gauge m for3 10cm NP e Power Power
reading gauge revof risein rpm (Q) P
i P
o
P
d
reading Energy collecting m /sec
3
KW KW
(Kg/cm ) mmof meter
2 tank
Hg(P ) (t
s )sec
e (t)sec
TU

4
JN

5
`


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CALCULATIONS:

Strokelengthofthepump(L)=0.045m
Bore(d)=0.04m
2
Pistonarea(a)=(
/4)
(0.04)
2
Areaofthecollectingtank(A)=50X50cm
NP=speedofmortarinrpm
Tofindthepercentageofslip= QtQa
Qt 100
2LaNp

ld
Q =theoreticaldischarge= 60 m/sec
t
Q =Actualdischarge=Q
a = Ah
t m/sec
A=Areaofthecollectingtank
t=timefor(h)riseinwaterlevel.

Tofindtheoverallefficiencyofthepump=P /P

or
o i


TheinputpowerP = 3600N
i Ete Kw
Where
N=Numberofrevolutionsofenergymeterdisc
E=Energymeterconstant=1600(rev/Kwhr)
T=timetakenforNrrevolutions(seconds)

W
OutputpowerP = gQH
o 1000 Kw
Where,
=Densityofwater=1000(kg/m)
2
g=Accelerationduetogravity=9.81(m/s )
H=Totalheadofwater(m)
H=suctionhead(H )+deliveryHead(H
s )+DatumHead
d
TU

Where H =deliveryhead=P
d /
d
H =suctionhead= Ps13600
s
Z=datumleveldifference=2.8m

GRAPH:

1. ActualdischargeVsTotalhead
2. ActualdischargeVsEfficiency
JN

3. ActualdischargeVsInputpower
4. ActualdischargeVsOutputpower

RESULT: The efficiency of the reciprocating pump is__________%. To study and draw the
characteristicscurves.

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JN

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