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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008

Certified QMS 1

Subject Duration
Knowledge Level

4.2.4 - Aircraft Engineering Technology 70 hours


Engineering Drawing and Technical Information
Drawing details - common practices, plan, elevations, isometric, 2
sections, scale, dimensional and indicating presentation

Use, validity, interpretation


2
Maintenance Manuals, Parts Catalogues, Overhaul Manuals
Service Bulletin and Modification Data 1
Maintenance Schedules: Approved and Otherwise

Hangar/Workshop Common Practices and Tools


Lubrication methods and application, Hand tools, simple machine tools,
Go/No Go gauges, fits and clearances, 1

Torque Loading
2
Assessment of in service condition of soldered, brazed and welded Joints
Inhibiting and corrosion protection, Painting and paint stripping 1
Fire protection and safety in and around the Workshop/Hangar/Aircraft
Storage and handling, jacking and towing

Common Parts 2
Control Cables and fittings
Fastening Devices - threaded, riveted and swaged
V-band clamps and couplings
Locking: parts and methods
Bearings
Pipes: rigid and flexible
Keys and keyways
Worm drives and other types of band clips

Gases & Compounds 2


Air, Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen, Helium, Acetylene, Safety Aspects,
Adhesives, Oils, Greases, Sealing and Compounds.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 2

CONTENTS

1. Objectives/Advice
2. Introduction
3. Activity 1.
4. Drawing Practices
5. Scale
6. Types and use of Lines
7. Orthographic Projection
8. Activity 2.
9. Sectional Views
10. Activity 3.
11. Part, Half, and Staggered Sections
12. Auxiliary Views
13. Symmetrical Parts
14. Break Lines
15. Repetitive Information
16. Self Assessment
17. Self Assessment Review
18. Practical Activity
19. Summary
20. Recommended Reading
21. Typical Examination Questions
22. Answers to Typical Examination Questions
23. Objectives/Advice
24. Introduction
25. Isometric Projection
26. Activity 1
27. Oblique projection
28. Activity 2
29. Dimensioning
30. Activity 3
31. Representation of Standard Parts
32. Symbols and Abbreviations
33. Drawing Authorisation and Validity
34. Drawing Amendment Procedures
35. Self Assessment
36. Self Assessment Review
37. Practical Activity
38. Summary
39. Recommended Reading
40. Typical Examination Questions
41. Answers to Typical Examination Questions
42. Objectives/Advice
43. Introduction
44. ATA 100

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 3

45. Chapter Layout


46. Activity 1
47. Maintenance Manuals
48. Illustrated Parts Catalogue
49. Overhaul Manuals
50. Structural Repair Manual
51. Summary
52. Recommended Reading
53. Suggested Practical Activity
54. Typical Examination Questions
55. Answers to Typical Examination Questions

AIRCRAFT HARDWARE AND COMMON PRACTICES

1. Common Parts
2. American Cables
3. Bracing wires and Tie rods
4. British Tension Rod type Turnbuckles
5. American Turnbuckles
6. Lockclad Cables
7. Fork Joints
8. Chains
9. Fastening Devices
10. Screw Threads
11. Right and Left hand Threads
12. Unified Thread System
13. Identification Markings on Nuts, Bolts and Screws of British Manufacture
14. Introduction
15. Diameter code letters unified bolts and nuts
16. Nuts of British Manufacture
17. Diameter
18. An machine Screw
19. Studs
20. Locking Devices and Quick release fasteners
21. Circlips and locking rings
22. Rivets and Riveting
23. Strength of Joints
24. Types of Joints
25. British American Rivet Equivalents
26. Tinner Hose Clamp
27. Grading of Bearings
28. Bearing Faults
29. Rigid Pipes
30. Keys and Keyways
31. Table 1- pipe system and symbols
32. Gasses and Compounds

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 4

33. Adhesives
34. Greases

AIRCRAFT HANDLING
1. Ramp Maintenance
2. Picketing
3. Cold weather Precautions
4. Welding
5. Soldering and Brazing
6. Torque Loading

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 5

ENGINEERING
DRAWING

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 6

OBJECTIVES/ADVICE

When you have completed this booklet you should be able to:

Read and understand engineering drawings,


Use the common practices in making drawings
Describe the types of projection used in preparing engineering drawings
Explain how the various views on drawings are derived.

In working your way through this booklet it is not expected that you make draughtsman
like drawings when doing the activities, but simply to make fair free-hand sketches that
will help you to apply and understand the conventions used by draughtsman and
designers.

No special drawing instruments are needed. A soft leaded pencil, rubber, and scale or
ruler, will be all that you require to undertake the activities.

It should take you between one and one and a half hours to complete this booklet.

INTRODUCTION

Engineering Drawing is the language of engineers. Drawings convey the designers


requirements in a much clearer way than could be done by the use of words.

Drawings are widely used for all these purposes they must give the particulars shown in
the list below plus other information. State what other information will be required on a
component drawing by completing the list in the box below.

1. Shape

2.

3.

4. Material finish

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 7

Comments on Activity 1.

As well as showing the shape by drawing, the actual size of the shape must be given. For
reasons that will be explained later, engineers do not measure drawings to determine
sizes, they refer to dimensions which are given on the drawings.

As is shown in the box, the engineer will need to know the finish required on the
material. He must, of course, also know the specification of the material from which the
component is to be made.

If you have previously used drawings your list may have been completed as follows:

1. shape

2. size or dimensions,

3. material specification,

4. material finish.

Other information relevant to any of the requirements listed in the introduction could also
have been inserted.

If you have not used drawings and were unable to complete the list, do not worry, the
means of showing this information will be fully explained later.

DRAWING PRACTICES

To understand drawings, the engineer must be familiar with common drawing practices.
These practices follow recommendations contained in the publication British Standards
(BS) 308 and in particular for the aircraft industry, the Society of British Aerospace
Companies (SBAC) Technical Specification (TS) 88.

At this stage it is not necessary to obtain these publications, as the most common
practices will be explained in the following pages and will include the important aspects
of:

scale
use of lines
methods of presentation,
types of projections,
special views.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 8

SCALE

Drawings are normally drawn to a uniform scale which is stated on the drawing and is
usually shown in a SCALE BOX by a ratio e.g. 1:1 (full scale), 1:2 (half size), etc.

In practice, no drawing should be measured to obtain a dimension which is not


shown. If a particular dimension has been omitted, enquiry must be made to
the Design Office or appropriate authority for the information.

TYPES AND USE OF LINES

Different types and thicknesses of lines are used on drawings for the purposes as shown
in the table below.

Width
Example Description Application
(mm)
Continuous (thick) 0.7 Visible outlines and edges.
Continuous (thin) 0.3 Fictitious outlines and edges,
dimensions and leader lines,
hatching, outlines of adjacent
parts and resolved sections.
Continuous irregular 0.3 Limits of partial views or
(thin) sections when the line is not
on axis.
Short dashes (thin) 0.3 Hidden outlines and edges.
Chain (thin) 0.3 Centre lines and extreme
positions of moveable parts.
Chain (thick at ends 0.7 Cutting planes
and changes of
direction, thin
elsewhere). 0.3
Chain (thick) 0.7 Indicates surfaces which
have to meet special
requirements.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 9

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

In order that drawings show clearly the designers requirements, and to provide the
opportunity of showing all dimensions, they are usually drawn in either first or third
angle orthographic projection. Figs. 1 and 2 show how these projections are derived.

First Angle Projection

The principle of first angle projection is shown in Fig. 1. Each view represents the side
of the object remote from it in the adjacent view.

Fig. 1

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 10

Third Angle Projection


The principle of third angle projection is shown in fig. 2. each view represents the side of
the object nearest to it in the adjacent view.

The majority of drawings produced for aircraft purposes show the parts in third angle
projection but you may have occasion to use older drawings that were produced in first
angle projection.

Both systems show objects as they actually are, both in size (unless for
convenience the drawing is scaled up or down) and shape, when reviewed in
the vertical and horizontal planes.

The projection used for a drawing must be clearly stated, and the appropriate
international projection symbol must be placed in a prominent position on the
drawing. Any views not complying with the projection stipulated, e.g. a view
showing the true shape of an inclined face, as will be explained later, are
generally marked with an arrow, and suitably annotated.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 11

ACTIVITY 2 10 Minutes

Sketch in third angle projection the front view, side view and plan on the bearer
block shown in Fig. 3. Show hidden detail in front view.

Sketch Activity 2 in this space.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 12

COMMENTS ON ACTIVITY 2
Your sketch should look like this. Note the international symbol for third angle projection
in the top left hand corner.

The activity called for three views to be drawn. There are of course six views that can be
drawn front, top, bottom, rear, right side and left side. It is rarely necessary to show all
six views on a drawing; only those necessary to present the shape clearly and to give all
dimensions need to be drawn. One-view, two-view, and three-view drawings are most
common.

One-view drawings are used for objects of uniform thickness, such as


gaskets and plates. A dimensional note gives the thickness.

Two-view drawings are commonly used for parts which are cylindrical or
square.

Three-view drawings are used for irregular shaped objects which demand
the shapes to be shown from three directions.

In general, all principle elevations are shown looking at the left side of the
aircraft, and the left hand item of handed parts is drawn.

On some drawings special additional views may be required, as explained on the


following pages.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 13

SECTIONAL VIEWS

A sectional view shows the object drawn as if part of it is removed so that the interior
shape is seen clearly. For this purpose the cutting plane selected must be clearly shown on
one of the other views as shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4

As the example shows, section lines are drawn equally spaced across the material
which has been cut. These section lines, sometimes called hatching lines, are
drawn at 45o to the axis of the section.

If the drawing shows an assembly of parts, adjacent parts are hatched in different
directions so as to distinguish the separate parts clearly.

Nuts, bolts, rivets, shafts, and ribs are not normally shown in longitudinal section.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 14

ACTIVITY 3 6 Minutes

Fig. 5 shows two views of a swivel bracket. Add to the drawing a section as seen
through the cutting plane B B. State which type of orthographic projection has been
used in this activity and show the appropriate symbol.

Fig. 5

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 15

COMMENTS ON ACTIVITY 3

This is what your sectional view should show.

Did you remember to: -

Sketch the section lines at approximately 45?

Equally space the section lines?

Show centre lines through the holes?

State the cutting plane of the section?

Lets move on.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 16

PART, HALF, AND STAGGERED SECTIONS

If full sectioning is considered unnecessary, a part or half section may be used, and
staggered sections are often used to illustrate particular features. Examples of these are
shown in Figs. 6, 7, and 8.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 17

AUXILIARY VIEWS

None of the types of view mentioned will show the true shape of a surface if it is inclined
to the normal planes of projection.

The true shape of such a surface is shown by means of an auxiliary view drawn at
right angles to the surface.

An example of this is shown at Fig. 9.

AUXILIARY VIEW

Fig. 9

SYMMETRICAL PARTS

Parts which are symmetrical, or nearly so, may not be fully drawn.

Sufficient information is normally provided by drawing one half or segment of the


part. Any asymmetry is identified by a note.

Fig. 10 shows a symmetrical part, and illustrates the method of defining the line of
symmetry.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 18

BREAK LINES

Because of limited space on a sheet of drawing paper, and so as to produce a compact


drawing, the use of break lines is often practiced as shown in Fig. 11.

BREAK LINES

Fig. 11

REPETITIVE INFORMATION

Where several features are repeated in a regular pattern, such as rivets, bolts, or slots,
only the number required to establish the pattern may be shown, by marking their centre
lines. Any further information may be given in a note.

Fig. 12 shows a typical skin joint which could be drawn I this manner.

REPETITIVE FEATURES

Fig. 12.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 19

SELF ASSESSMENT

To recap what you have done so far, have a go at answering these questions.

1. Where would you expect to find the scale of a drawing stated?

2. Should you expect all drawings you are likely to use to be prepared in metric
units?

3. Should section lines be drawn thin or thick?

4. Look through the previous pages of the booklet and list all the printed figures
which you think have been drawn in: -

(a) first angle projection,

(b) third angle projection.

5. What sort of objects may be represented by one-view drawings?

6. What is the purpose of drawing a sectional view?

7. When would you draw a half section instead of a full section?

8. What type of view would be used to show the true shape of a face which is
inclined to the normal planes of projection?

1.

2.

3.

4. First angle:

Third angle:

5.

6.

7.

8.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 20

SELF ASSESSMENT REVIEW

Your answers should be similar to these.

1. In the scale box.

2. No. Some prepared in imperial units are still in use.

3. Thin.

4. First angle Figs. 1, and 4.

Third angle Figs. 2, 5, 8, and 9.

5. Objects of uniform thickness, such as gaskets and plates.

6. So as to show the interior shape clearly.

7. When the object is symmetrical and a full section is unnecessary.

8. An auxiliary view.

PRACTICAL ACTIVITTY

As stated earlier, you are not studying to be a draughtsman, but it will help you to
understand drawings if you spend time sketching various views of aircraft parts or
other engineering components, and also to make sketches of additional views
from existing drawings.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 21

SUMMARY

In working through the booklet you should now have an initial understanding of
this special language used by engineers. You will appreciate that if the
conventions are followed there is little chance of misunderstanding by those
employed within the industry.

Most drawings issued for your use will normally be prepared in either third or
first angle projection and will give sufficient views for you to understand clearly
the shape of an aircraft part or assembly of various components. The next booklet
in this series will deal with: -

Geometric projection

Oblique projection

Dimensions

Representation of standard parts

Symbols and abbreviations

Drawing authorization and validity

Drawing amendment procedures

RECOMMENDED READING

1. Civil Aircraft Inspection Procedures:


Leaflets BL 1-4

These leaflets also cover the items of the next booklet, so do not dwell too
long on these aspects, as further explanation will be given.

2. You should find out where you can make reference to:

British Standard (BS) 308


and,
Society of British Aerospace Companies (SBAC) Technical Specification
(TS) 88

Should you need to do so.

3. Further examples of projection and use of views may be found in text


books currently published on Engineering Drawing.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 22

TYPICAL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

To help you with your examination a few typical questions are given. Your examination
will be of the multiple choice question type and must be answered in the way stated on
the question paper.

1. The majority of drawings produced for aircraft purposes are: -


(a) first or second angle orthographic projections.
(b) first or third angle orthographic projections.
(c) second or third angle orthographic projections.

2. Lines of short dashes indicate: -


(a) cutting planes.
(b) limits of partial view.
(c) hidden outlines and edges.

3. A centre line is represented by: -


(a) a thin chain line.
(b) a thick chain line.
(c) a thin continuous line.

4. Hatching lines are usually drawn: -


(a) at 30o.
(b) at 45o.
(c) at 60o.

5. If the scale of a drawing is shown as 1:4, it is drawn at: -


(a) four times the actual size.
(b) half the actual size.
(c) a quarter of the actual size.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 23

6. If this symbol is shown on a drawing

the drawing is in: -


(a) first angle projection.
(b) second angle projection.
(c) third angle projection.

7. A view drawn from a changing cutting plane is known as: -


(a) a changing section.
(b) a variable section.
(c) a staggered section.

8. If this symbol is seen on a drawing

it defines: -
(a) the line of symmetry.
(b) lines of equal length.
(c) the centre line of several components.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 24

ANSWERS TO TYPICAL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

1. (b)
2. (c)
3. (a)
4. (b)
5. (c)
6. (c)
7. (c)
8. (a)

S. C. B. Hailey
Southhall College of Technology

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 25

OBJECTIVES/ADVICE

This booklet reinforces the objectives outlined in the booklet entitled drawing Practices
(I). On completion of this study you will be able to: -
explain the common forms of pictorial projection,
read dimensions on drawings,
recognize the representation of standard parts,
describe symbols and abbreviations used on drawings,

Fair freehand drawings may be used when undertaking the activities, and no special
instruments are required.

INTRODUCTION

Although orthographic projection is the usual way of presenting engineering drawings, it


is sometimes helpful to show objects in pictorial projection. This type of projection
shows the object as it would be shown by a photograph. The drawing shows the front,
side and depth in one view, thereby giving a quick indication of the complete shape.

This booklet will show you two methods of presenting pictorial views.

Booklet No. 1 stated that sizes of parts were given by the use of dimensions. You will
now learn how this is done on drawings, how various symbols are used and how standard
parts are represented.

It will also be explained how aircraft drawings are authorized and how amendments to
drawings may be made.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 26

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

It shows one corner of the object foremost with the sides being drawn at 30o from
the corner as shown in Fig. 1.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 27

ACTIVITY 1 (10 Minutes)

From the orthographic projection shown in Fig. 2, sketch an isometric projection in the
box below.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 28

COMMENTS ON ACTIVITY 1

It is helpful when making an isometric drawing to calculate the overall dimensions and to
first draw an isometric box to these sizes in feint lines to ensure your drawing will fit in
the space and to help you position the other lines back and up from the front corner. This
method was used to show you the answer to the activity, see below.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 29

OBLIQUE PROJECTION

Another way of showing a pictorial view is by oblique projection.

This shows one face foremost with the other faces down at 45o.

The example used for Activity 1 is shown in oblique projection in Fig. 3.

To improve the perspective of oblique drawings the depth lines may be drawn to a
shortened length of half of the scale to which the front face is drawn.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 30

Activity 2 10 Minutes

Sketch the part shown in Fig. 2 in oblique projection with the face shown as the side
elevation as the foremost face. Sketch Activity 2 in the box.

The answer to Activity 2 is on the next page.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 31

It is helpful to remember if you need to draw a pictorial view that: -

if the object you wish to draw has holes drilled in one face or a face has a curved
profile it is easier to draw it in oblique projection rather than isometric projection
as that face may be selected as the foremost face. Holes in the foremost face
would be drawn as circles whereas in isometric projection they would need to be
drawn as ellipses. Curves would also be drawn as their true shape.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 32

COMMENTS ON ACTIVITY 2

This is what your sketch should look like: -

Although oblique projection views are usually drawn at 45o this angle may be
changed to either 30 o or 60 o if a clearer view results. The same applies to shortening
the depth scale, this may be varied if it improves the perspective of the shape being
drawn.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 33

DIMENSIONING

Dimensioning is the means by which the sizes relative to the shape of the component
are given on a drawing. They are a very important part of the drawing as craftsmen
use these figures for the actual manufacture. They also locate positions of components
in assemblies and, as will be explained later, provide the means of giving allowed
tolerances.

Dimensions are given by the use of projection and dimension lines with arrows as
shown in Fig. 4.

All dimensions necessary for the manufacture of the part or assembly must be
given on the drawing.

Dimensions are placed so that they may be read from the bottom or right hand
side of the drawing.

Dimensions are normally given once only and not repeated in other views.

The units of measurement used are usually stated on the drawing as a note, to
avoid repetition, but any dimension to which this general note does not apply
must be appropriately annotated.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 34

One of the methods shown in Fig. 5 is usually used when dimensions are given from
a common datum. Dimensions between holes are not often used since this allows a
build up of tolerances. An alternative method, used with riveted joints, is to locate the
end holes and add a note such as 11 rivets equally spaced.

Fig. 5 DIMENSIONING FROM A COMMO DATUM

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 35

Activity 3 5 Minutes

Fig. 6 has been incorrectly dimensioned. Repeat the sketch in the box following the
figure and add the dimensions as you think they should be given.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 36

COMMENTS ON ACTIVITY 3

The answer to Activity 3 is shown at the bottom of this page.

Dimensions are given from datums instead of the chain.


Note given stating units of measurement instead of having to add several
dimensions to get these figures.

Your answer to activity 3 is should have been similar to this

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
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Machined parts have what is known as functional and non-functional dimensions.

Functional dimensions are those which directly affect the function of a


component, e.g., the length of the plain portion of a shouldered bolt.

A non-functional dimensions would be the depth of the bolt head, and


other dimensions chosen to suit production or inspection.

Auxiliary dimensions may also be given, without tolerances, for


information.

Curves are dimensioned by means of radii as shown in Fig. 7 (a). Where a radius is very
large, and the centre of the arc may not be shown on the drawing, the method shown for
the R150 dimension may be used.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 38

An alternative method for showing curves and profiles is with the use of ordinates as
shown in fig. 7 (b).

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 39

DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES

A general tolerance is usually given for all dimensions on a drawing and is generally
stated in a printed box on the drawing. When the general tolerance is not appropriate an
individual tolerance may be expressed by: -

Quoting the upper and lower limits, or by

Quoting the nominal dimension and the limits of tolerance above and below
that dimension.

Machining and Surface Finish

When a machining operation is required on a particular surface, the symbol .. is used,


and is located normal to that surface. When the component is to be machined all over the
symbol L ALL OVER is used, and, in some cases, the type of machining is indicated
with a noteAsuch as:
P

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008
Certified QMS 40

REPRESENTATION AND STANDARD PARTS

The British Standards Institution has published symbolic drawings which represent
standard parts and machining processes frequently used in engineering. Many of these
parts are used on aircraft and a few examples are shown in Fig. 9.

CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATIONS

The above illustrates just a few of the accepted conventions but the value of their use is
expressed in the drawing time saved.

Similar conventions are used to show common electrical parts.

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SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Many engineering that often need to e used on aircraft drawings are expressed in symbols
or abbreviations. Table 1 lists those most commonly used.

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Drawings will often call for identification markings on parts, and will indicate both the
position of the markings and the method of marking. Sometimes it is necessary to mark
the component to show that a particular process has been carried out, and this will also be
specified on the drawing. Symbols are normally used for this purpose, and some of the
more common ones are shown in Table 2.

PROCESES AND TREATMENT SYMBOLS Table 2

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DRAWING AUTHORISATION AND VALIDITY

British aircraft design drawings are normally produced by an organization which ahs
been: -

Approved by the Civil Aviation Authority in accordance with British Civil


Airworthiness Requirements (BCAR)

BCAR require that: -

all calculations on which the airworthiness of an aircraft depends, must be


independently checked.

The drawings and parts produced to its requirements are subject to a


system of inspection.

Any deviation from the approved drawing during manufacture must be


covered by an official concession.

Types of Drawings

A complete set of drawings for an aircraft, and any documents or specification referenced
on the drawings, present a complete record of the information required to manufacture
and assemble that aircraft, and they also form part of the inspection records. The manner
in which a set of aircraft drawings is arranged and referenced `enables any particular
component, dimension, procedure or operation, to be traced. During overhaul,
modification, maintenance and repair, the approved organization or the appropriate
licensed engineer, should ensure that all replacement parts, or repairs carried out, are in
accordance with the approved drawings and associated documents.

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A set of aircraft drawings would comprise: -

General arrangement drawings which contain overall profile particulars only, with
locations and references of the associated main assembly and installation
drawings.

Main assembly drawings which show the information required for the assembly
of individual parts or sub-assemblies. The sequence of assembly is given where
appropriate.

Installation drawings which clarify the details of external dimensions and attitudes
of components, locations, adjustments, clearances, settings, connections, adaptors,
and locking methods between components and assemblies.

Sub-assembly drawings which convey specific information on the assembly of


component parts.

Drawings of individual parts which contain all the information necessary to


enable the parts to be manufactured to design requirements. The material
specification, dimensions and tolerances, machining details and surface finish,
and any treatment required, will be specified on these drawings.

Each drawing will show a descriptive title, drawing number, issue number and date of
issue.

Figure 10 shows a typical drawing and, by careful study of it, you will see how many of
the points mentioned have been included in its layout and it will be useful when studying
the following section on drawing amendment procedures.

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DRAWING AMENDMENT PROCEDURES

Design offices maintain a register of all drawings issued and alternations to drawings are
made in accordance with a drawing amendment system which include the following: -

A new issue number and date.

New parts added to the drawing, or drawn on parts affected by the change, take
the new issue number, and parts which are not affected retain the original issue
number. In all cases where interchangeability is affected, a new drawing number
and part number are allocated.

Detail of the drawing changes are recorded in the appropriate column on the
drawing, or recorded separately on an Alternation Sheet, which is referenced on
the drawing. Changes are related to the change number quoted in the change of
issue columns on the drawing, and the marginal grid reference is given to identify
the altered features.

When required, a drawing instruction sheet is published with the reissued


drawing, to detail the effects the amendment will have on other drawings, on work
in progress, and on existing stock. Some systems include the publication of
Drawing Master Reference Lists which give details of the current issues of all
drawings which are associated with a particular component or assembly.

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Should a query arise relative to a drawing it should be referred to the design office by
means of a Drawing Query Form. The answer to the query may be an immediate
provisional one, detailed on the query form; a temporary fully approved answer,
issued by means of a Drawing Office Instruction, and having the same authority as
the drawing to which it refers; or a permanent answer provided by means of a new or
reissued drawing.

Drawing Query Forms and Drawing Office Instructions should be suitably


identified, and should be referenced on the amended drawing. The effects on
other drawings, on existing stock, and on work in progress, should be included
in the answer to the query.

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SELF ASSESSMENT

To check on what you have learned from this booklet have a go at answering these
questions on a separate sheet of paper.

1. Name one form of pictorial drawing.

2. From which side of the drawing should vertical dimensions be read?

3. Is it good practice to repeat dimensions on several views of the drawing?

4. How should units of measurement be given on a drawing?

5. State one method of showing a dimensional tolerance if the drawing general


tolerance is not applicable.

6. What symbol is used to show that a particular surface has to be machined.

7. When showing a screw thread on a drawing, must the vee section be drawn?

8. What abbreviation is used on a drawing to represent pitch circle diameter?

9. What specific information is given on a sub-assembly drawing?

10. What is the issue number of the drawing shown as Fig. 10?

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SELF ASSESSMENT REVIEW

Your answers should be similar to those` given below: -

1. Isometric or oblique.

2. right hand side.

3. No.

4. Usually given by means of a note on the drawing.

5. By giving the upper and lower limits, or by quoting the nominal dimension and
the limits of tolerance above and below that dimension.

6.

7. No.

8. PCD.

9. It gives information on the assembly of component parts.

10. 2.

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PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

Practice making a few pictorial sketches from orthographic drawings of simple


components. Make your sketches in either isometric or oblique projection instead of
trying to produce them in true perspective.

Sketch common items in the home in pictorial form. Follow this by sketching them in
orthographic projection, measuring them, and adding dimensions to your drawings
ensuring that the items could be made from sketches.

Make an assembly drawing of a simple domestic appliance ensuring that the drawing
gives full information on how all components are correctly assembled.

SUMMARY

This booklet completes the specific study of drawing practice and it is hoped that you
have achieved all the objectives stated and now have a clearer understanding of the
practices adopted and that you have gained confidence to enable you to prepare sketches
yourself. As stated at the beginning, and will be able convey information and your ideas
to others much better by the use of drawings instead of by words alone.

Many of the other booklets in the series will include the use of drawings and it is hoped
you will now find it easier to continue your studies.

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RECOMMENDED READING

Further study of the appropriate sections of: -


Civil Aircraft Inspection Procedures Leaflets BL 1-4.

British Standards (BS) 308.

Society of British Aerospace Companies (SBAC) Technical Specification (TS)


88.

British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCAR).

Drawing Office Standards that have been prepared by your own employing
organization.

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TYPICAL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

Further typical examination questions covering the topics of this booklet are
given. As for the previous examples simply state whether (a), (b) or (c) is correct.

1. A pictorial view of a component which is drawn with the axes inclined at


an angle is known as: -

(a) a geometric projection.


(b) A three angle projection.
(c) An isometric projection.

2. Which pictorial projection shows one face in its true shape and a second
face is drawn at 30o or 45o to the horizontal?

(a) Isometric.
(b) Oblique.
(c) Perspective.

3. Dimensions are planned on a drawing so that they may be read from: -

(a) the bottom or left hand side.


(b) the bottom or right hand side
(c) the bottom only.

4. A dimension on a drawing has a suffix 0.001, this is: -

(a) the tolerance of the dimension.


(b) the permissible worn clearance,
(c) the allowance of the parts dimension.

5. The thickness of a bolt head would be regarded as: -

(a) a functional dimension.


(b) a non-functional dimension.
(c) An auxiliary dimension.

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6. The convention for showing that the end portion of a shaft was to be
square would be by: -

(a) shading that portion.


(b) Drawing a square on the centre line.
(c) Drawing diagonals across the portion.

7. The abbreviation TPI refers to: -

(a) taper per inch.


(b) Tolerance per inch.
(c) Threads per inch.

8. The symbol HT specifies that a part is: -

(a) heat treated.


(b) Hardened and tempered.
(c) Subject to high tension.

9. Drawing master reference lists give details of: -

(a) current issues of drawings.


(b) all components used.
(c) standard part references.

10. If a design amendment is made to a drawing: -

(a) the old issue number is retained, with the amendment date added.
(b) a new issue number and date must be allocated to the drawing.
(c) No change in issue number or date is necessary.

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ANSWERS TO TYPICAL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

1. (c)
2. (b)
3. (b)
4. (a)
5. (b)
6. (c)
7. (c)
8. (b)
9. (a)
10. (b)

S. C. B. Hailey
Southhall College of Technology

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AIRCRAFT
MAINTENANCE
ENGINEERING

Mechanical

Module No: 2

Study Plan No. 1

Booklet No. 3

TECHNICAL INFORMATION

ATA 100

Maintenance Manuals

Structural Repair Manuals

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OBJECTIVES/ADVICE

This booklet has been designed to introduce you to the various types of manual and
publication in current use in aircraft maintenance. These manuals enable you to carry out
your maintenance functions in a correct and proper manner. They are a constant source of
information to you as an Aircraft Maintenance Engineer, so it is most important that you
understand their layout and function.

This booklet should take you about one hour to complete.

INTRODUCTION

This booklet covers the main types of manual and publication in daily use.

However, before we begin, it may be appropriate to consider the reasons why these
manuals have been published. Imagine all aircraft manufacturers printing their own
aircraft manuals without consultation with other manufacturers. The Engineer would have
no idea where to begin to look for information relating to a particular subject if all
manuals were different. It would result in total confusion!

Out of this confusion was born the Air Transport Association of America Specification
100, or ATA 100. This specification standardized all aircraft manufacturers manuals into
one simple format for use world-wide. What it did for the Aircraft Engineer was to enable
him, no matter which aircraft he was maintaining, to find the relevant information on a
particular subject with ease. The confusion was removed!

Now lets look at ATA Series in more detail.

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ATA 100 SERIES

This can best be summed up by quoting from the specification: -

This specification established a Standard for the presentation of technical data, by


an aircraft accessory, or component manufacturer.

In order to standardise the treatment of the subject matter and to simplify the
users problem in locating instructions, a uniform method of arranging material in
all publications has been developed.

The above sums up the requirements of ATA 100, which has been in force since 1956. All
aircraft manufacturers now conform to this requirement.

Lets go a little deeper into ATA 100, and see how it works.

CHAPTER LAYOUT

This subject matter in the manuals is divided into chapters and groups of chapters to
facilitate the location of information by the user. This chapter system provides a
breakdown of all the aircraft systems. Information relating to all the components in a
system will be found in the chapter identified by that system.

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Fig. 1 is the standard format for aircraft systems that conforms to ATA 100 Series.
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE
TIME LIMITS/MAINTENANCE CHECKS 5 STRUCTURES ........................ 51
DIMENSIONS AND AREAS....6 DOORS 52
LIFTING AND SHORING ...7 FUSELAGE ..53
LEVELING AND WEIGHING 8 NACELLES/ PYLONS 54
TOWING AND TAXING .9 STABILIZERS .55
PARKING AND MOORING .10 WINDOWS ..56
PLACARDS AND MARKINGS 11 WINGS .57
SERVICING ...12
AIRFRAME SYSTEMS POWER PLANT

STANDARD PRACTICES - AIRFRAME 20 STANDARD PRACTICES ENGINES .70


AIR CONDITIONING 21 POWER PLANT ...71
AUTOPILOT ...22 ENGINE 72
COMMUNICATIONS 23 ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ...73
ELECTRICAL POWER .24 IGNITION .74
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS .25 AIR 75
FIRE PROTECTION ..26 ENGINE CONTROLS ..76
FLIGHT CONTROLS 27 ENGINE INDICATING ...77
FUEL ..28 EXHAUST 78
HYDRAULIC POWER .29 OIL 79
ICE AND RAIN PROTECTIONS .30 STARTING ...80
INSTRUMENTS ....31
LANDING GEAR ..32 CHARTS ...91
LIGHTS ..33
NAVIGATION ...34
OXYGEN 35
PNEUMATIC .36
WATER/ WASTE .38
AIRBORN AUXILIARY POWER ...49

Fig. 1 ATA 100 SYSTEM CHAPTERS

As you can see from above, all the components relating to electrical generation and
distribution systems are contained in Chapter 24, whilst electrically driven pumps and
valves contained in the fuel system will be found in chapter 28.

Although we have looked at the general arrangement of chapters in accordance with ATA
100 Series, each chapter is further broken down into individual subjects within the
chapter. Lets see how this is down.

Each chapter is broken down into sections and subjects, each of which is numbered in a
three part numbering system.

The first number of the three part numbering system identifies the chapter number of the
major system to which the subject belongs.

The second number is the section number that serves to identify all of the information
pertaining to a system, sub-system or group of assemblies.

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The third number is the subject number that serves to identify a specific unit or
component within a subject.

A typical example of the numbering system is shown in Fig. 2.

27 31 - 14

CHAPTER SUBJECT

FLIGHT CONTROLS - 0 FOR COMPLETE SYSTEM INFORMATION


- 14 OR HIGHER NUMBER FRO INDIVIDUAL
COMPONENT (UNIT) COVERAGE
SECTION

ELEVATOR & TAB CONTROL SYSTEM

Fig. 2 ATA 100 NUMBERING SYSTEM


NOTE

All manuals associated with Aircraft maintenance conform to the numbering system
shown in Fig. 2.

As an aid to maintenance personnel, the last set of numbers, that is the subject number, is
even broken down further into page numbers, as shown in Fig. 3.

27 31 - 14

CHAPTER SUBJECT

FLIGHT CONTROLS - 0 FOR COMPLETE SYSTEM INFORMATION


- 14 OR HIGHER NUMBER FRO INDIVIDUAL
COMPONENT (UNIT) COVERAGE
SECTION

ELEVATOR & TAB CONTROL SYSTEM

Elevator Feel Computer


Figure 201
EFFECTIVITY
ALL

27 31 14
PAGE 202

TOPIC OR SUBTOPIC PAGE BLOCK

DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 1 to 100


TROUBLESHOOTING 101 to 200
MAINTENANCE PRACTICES 201 to 300
SERVICING 301 to 400
REMOVAL/ INSTALLATION 401 to 500
ADJUSTMENT/ TEST 501 to 600
INSPECTION/ CHECK 601 to 700
CLEANING/ PAINTING 701 to 800
APPROVED REPAIRS 801 to 900

Fig. 3 ATA 100 PAGE NUMBERING SYSTEM

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The pages refer to various topics or sub-topics that relate to the subject.

One important point to bring to your attention is that the lower left portion of the page
has an Effectivity Number. This number normally identifies the aircraft serial number or
manufacturers number that the subject refers to. If the Effectivity reads all then the
subject information relates to all types of equipment or aircraft irrespective of any other
serial numbers.

We can now appreciate how the ATA 100 system has simplified the format of aircraft
manuals. Irrespective of aircraft type or manufacture we can find any particular subject
with ease and speed.

Well, that has given you a good insight into how ATA 100 operates. Let us see if you have
managed to absorb this information.

ACTIVITY 1 5 Minutes

1. What are the main objectives of ATA 100 Series?


2. How many sets of numbers are there in the coding system?
3. What does the last set of numbers in the ATA 100 coding system indicate?
4. How do we know that the information on a particular page relates to the aircraft
we are maintaining?

1.

2.

3.

4.

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COMMENTS ON ACTIVITY 1

Check your answers.

1. In broad terms to standardize aircraft manuals and information world-wide.

2. Three sets of numbers.

3. The particular subject within a chapter.

4. Refer to the Effectivity number bottom left hand side of page.

Well done if you got them all right!

Now that we have dealt with the ATA 100 Numbering system, we will move on and
discuss the various aircraft manuals used during aircraft maintenance. I will at this point
stress that the ATA 100 Numbering system applies to all the following manuals.

MAINTENANCE MANUALS

The Maintenance Manual contain all the necessary information to enable Aircraft
Engineers to service, troubleshoot, functionally check and repair all the systems installed
in the aircraft. It includes information that is necessary for the Engineer to perform
maintenance tasks or minor adjustments to components on the flight line or in the hangar.
The information in the manual relates to the particular aircraft configuration that is
operated by the company.

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An example of a page from a typical maintenance manual is shown in Fig. 4.

In addition to information relating to the repair and the functioning of a system, the
Maintenance Manual lists special precautions relating to the safety of personnel and
equipment and how to carry out such checks. It also lists special tools that are required to
carry out these checks and repairs.

However, it must be stated that the Aircraft Maintenance Manuals do not cover work
carried out on components and units away from the aircraft.

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ILLUSTRATED PARTS CATALOGUE

Because of the complexity of aircraft systems and structures, we need to identify


components for removal or replacement. It can be said that most components and
structures should have Part Numbers stamped on them, however, maybe due to the
environmental problems or just age these markings do get removed. So, we must have
some means available to isolate and identify components or aircraft parts. This is
achieved by using the Illustrated Parts Catalogue.

This manual presents component breakdown of structure and equipment in disassembly


sequence. It includes cut-aways and exploded diagrams with each individual part
numbered. This manual uses the same ATA 100 coding system (Figs. 5 and 6).

Fig. 5 EXPLODED VIEW

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The Maintenance Manual and Illustrated Parts Catalogue will be the most used of all
manuals in a line/hangar environment. It is therefore important to practice using them at
the earliest opportunity.

We have so far discussed the Maintenance Manual and seen that it refers to aircraft
systems and components fitted to the aircraft. However, many components of a
mechanical nature required to be removed from the aircraft and sent away either to a
support bay or back to the manufacturer for overhaul. To accomplish this task, the
manufacturer or approved company has to work to an Overhaul Manual.

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OVERHAUL MANUALS

These manuals are compiled by the component manufacturer or approved company to


overhaul their own components away from the aircraft. Using the same format as Aircraft
Maintenance Manuals, the instructions contained in the Overhaul Manual enable an
experienced Engineer to rebuild and fully test overhauled components removed from the
aircraft.

As previously mentioned, the Aircraft Maintenance Manual gives guidance to the


Engineer in respect of minor repair procedures to the aircrafts structure. As this is only
basic information, there is a need to go deeper into aircraft structural repairs. This is
accomplished by the use of the Structural Repair Manual.

STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

The Structural Repair Manual contains details of repair materials to be used for structures
which are subjected to field repairs, that is, typical repairs generally applicable to the
structural components of the aircraft that are likely to be damaged. It also contains
information relative to: -

Material identification and substitution,

Corrosion control,

Riveted repairs,

Descriptions of procedures that must be carried out, lists of riveted fastener


installation,

Fastener codes.

It also lists appropriate protective treatments which must be carried out after all the
repair work has been completed.

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Fig. 7 shows a page from a typical Structural Repair Manual.

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SUMMARY

We have now completed an introduction to the more widely used aircraft manuals that
you will encounter. We have outlined the use of the ATA 100 Series coding system
and its application to Aircraft Maintenance Manuals and discussed the uses of the
Aircraft Maintenance Manual and Illustrated Parts Catalogue. The Structural Repair
Manual has been introduced to indicate the information that it contains.

RECOMMENDED READING

British Civil Airworthiness Requirements Chapter A6-2.

SUGGESTED PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

Use the ATA 100 Series coding system to select from the Maintenance Manual for the
aircraft that your company operates, a component from an aircraft system, lets say
Aircraft Fuel. When you have selected a component, use the Illustrated Parts
Catalogue to obtain the location of the component and also the Part Number of the
item.

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TYPICAL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

Complete as many of these questions as you can. A knowledge of this subject will
enhance your chances of passing any future LWTR examination.

Dont hurry. Read the question and suggested answers before deciding on your
response.

Dont cheat, and the best of luck.

1. Who would use Overhaul Manuals?

(a) Hangar personnel.


(b) Aircrew.
(c) Vendors and manufacturers.

2. In the ATA 100 Series, what chapter is designated for Aircraft Fuel?

(a) Chapter 5.
(b) Chapter 28.
(c) Chapter 32.

3. Where in the Maintenance Manual will we find the Effectivity Number?

(a) The top right hand corner of the page.


(b) The bottom right hand corner of the page.
(c) The bottom left hand corner of the page.

4. In which manual will we find information on corrosion control and rectification?

(a) Overhaul Manual.


(b) Structural Repair Manual.
(c) Illustrated Parts Catalogue.

5. How many sets of numbers are there in the ATA 100 Series coding system?

(a) Three.
(b) Two.
(c) Six.

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ANSWERS TO TYPICAL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

1. (c)

2. (b)

3. (c)

4. (b)

5. (a)

If you managed to get them all right, well done! Re-read if you are still unsure.

N. Glenn
Southall College of Technology

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AIRCRAFT HARDWARE

AND

COMMON PRACTICES

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COMMON PARTS

AIRCRAFT CONTROL CABLES


These are made of extra flexible galvanized HTS wire or HTSS wire. The majority of the
cables used on British Aircraft are of the preformed type, which have the following
advantages:-
Cable will resist unstranding.
Resist kinking.
Are more easily spliced.
If a wire breaks it will tend to lie flat.

To form a cable, a number of wires are wound together to form a strand, and a number of
strands are wound together to form a cable. The straight strand running through the centre
of the cable is known as the heart strand. British cables are classified by the minimum
breaking load in CWTS. American cables are classified by their diameters, and a
minimum breaking load in lbs.

BRITISH CABLE

Minimum Breaking No. of Wires No. of Strands Cable Diameter


Load per Strand per Cable
5 cwt. 7 7 0.08 in
10 cwt. 14 7 0.12 in.
15 cwt. 19 7 0.15 in.
20 cwt. 19 7 0.16 in.
25 cwt. 19 7 0.18 in.
30 cwt. 19 7 0.21 in.

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AMERICAN CABLE

Diameter (in) No. of Wires No. of Strands Minimum Breaking


per Strand per Cable load (lbs)
1/16 7 7 480
3/32 7 7 920
1/8 19 7 2000
5/32 19 7 2800
3/16 19 7 4200
7/32 19 7 5600

CABLE SPLICING
Formerly, aircraft control cables were made up by splicing thimbles or pulleys on to the
end of the cable.

CABLE SWAGING
The spliced type of end fitting has been superseded by swaged end fittings; swaging is
cheaper and more efficient. Cables are normally supplied made up to length by the
manufacturer. However, occasions when it is necessary to make up a cable do arise, in
which case the aircraft manufacturers drawings and instructions must be available.

PROOF LOADING
All cables must be proof loaded after swaging or splicing. This is to ensure that the end
fittings are secure and to pre-stretch the cable.

British cables are proof loaded to 50% of their minimum breaking strain, and American
cables to 60% of their minimum breaking strain.

CONTROL CABLE END FITTINGS


Cable end fittings in use today are shown in the illustration. After a fitting is swaged on it
is checked with a go no-go gauge to ensure that the swaging has been carried out
properly.

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BRACING WIRES AND TIE RODS


Bracing wires are streamlined in form and are used for interplane bracing on Biplanes.
They are made from medium carbon steel, cold rolled and cadmium plated, or from
H.T.S.S.

Swaged tie rods are made from H.T.S., zinc or cadmium coated. They may be used in
control systems or for internal bracing. Size is indicated by a letter and a number on the
right hand threaded end, e.g., E 174 would be in. B.S.F., 17.4in. long.

A squared section at each end enables the tie rod to be turned with a spanner into the fork
joint.

NOTE: - When fitting, ensure threads start equally at both end. If too long (Butting
occurs) ensure wire is not over tensioned, shorten as necessary at right hand threaded end.

TURNBUCKLES
These are fitted in control systems so that the control cable tension can be adjusted to the
correct value.

BRITISH BARREL TYPE TURNBUCKLE


The barrel is tapped with right hand and left hand threads at opposite ends, to take eye
and/or fork end fittings. Safety is indicated by the end fitting threads being beyond the
safety holes, or by all the threads being out of sight.

It is wire locked with the appropriate locking wire as shown, with the slope of the wire
tending to tighten the turnbuckle.

The sizes are stamped on the eye or fork end.


5 cwt. - 4 BA
10 cwt. - 2 BA
15 cwt. - 2 BA
20 cwt. - in BSF
25 cwt. - in BSF
35 cwt. - 5/16 in BSF

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BRITISH TENSION ROD TYPE TURNBUCKLE


This is threaded left and right hand at opposite ends to take fork joints. It is locked with
lock nuts and an appropriate locking wire.
Turnbuckle checks for safety:-

Safety holes blind

Locknuts tight

Shackle pins split pinned

Correctly locked with appropriate wire

Fork joints free from butting

SHACKLE PINS
These are used with fork joints, fork ends and other applications where they take shear
loads. They are secured in place with split pins. While non-standard end fittings are used,
a collar may be placed over the small end and the split pin passed through the collar and
shackle pin.

Shackle pins are made from High Tensile Steel and High Tensile Stainless Steel. H.T.S.S.
shackle pins have a dimple at the shank end and/or the letter Z marked on the head.

The diameter is denoted by a letter starting from A which is 5/32in. and rising by 1/32in.
for each letter up to T.

Length is indicated by a number starting with 1 which is 0.25in. and rising 0.050in. per
number, and is measured from the underside of the head to the nearer side of the split pin
hole.

Example D9 is in diameter, 0.65 in. long.

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AMERICAN TURNBUCKLES
An American turnbuckle consists of a brass barrel having a left hand thread at one end
and a right hand thread at the other. End fittings may be eye ends, fork ends or swaged
on, cable end fittings. A groove on the turnbuckle barrel indicates the left hand threaded
end.

The turnbuckle is in safety when not more than three end fitting threads are visible. It is
locked using locking wire. Clip type locks may be used in place of locking wire if the
turnbuckle barrel is drilled to accommodate this type of clip. The locking clips are used
once only.

TURNBUCKLE NOMENCLATURE
A - Assembled turnbuckle
B - Turnbuckle barrel
C - Turnbuckle fork
D - Turnbuckle pin
E - Turnbuckle eye

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LOCKCLAD CABLES
Lockclad is a standard twisted steel wire cable with an aluminium tube swaged around it.
This type of cable has two advantages. One is that the cables co-efficient of expansion is
nearer that of the aircrafts fuselage than the standard steel wire cable. With temperature
changes, they expand or contract by almost the same amount.

The other advantage is that Lockclad cable is more rigid. There is less cable sag and
fewer supports are needed for a given length of cable.

A - Nicopress oval sleeve cable termination.


B - Nicopress sleeve before it is placed on the control cable.
C - Hand tool for compressing Nicopress sleeves.
D - Proper crimping sequence. The sleeve is slipped on the cable and the
end bent back over the thimble and stuck through the sleeve. Three
squeezes are taken, the centre squeeze first, then the squeeze nearest the
thimble and finally the squeeze on the end.
E - The compressed sleeve is checked with a go no-go gauge to determine if it
has been properly installed.

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FORK JOINTS
These are used in conjunction with bracing wires, tie rods, tension rod turnbuckles, etc.
Identification is as follows:-
Low Tensile Steel Plain collar.
Stainless Steel No collar or groove.
High Tensile Steel Groove around collar.
H.T. Stainless Steel Groove around shank.

Size and nominal thread diameter is determined by a code marked on the shank. Code
numbers commence from:-
412 which is 4 B.A.
413 which is 2 B.A.

For numbers starting from 414, subtract 406 the size being in 1/32 in. The letter R or L
added as a suffix indicates left hand or right hand thread e.g. 420R.

420 = 7/16 in. B.S.F.


R = Right hand thread

FORK JOINTS - Materials and Markings

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CHECKS ON CONTROL CABLES


1. Before examining a cable it must be cleaned by wiping with a cloth.

2. If the end fittings are spliced, check that the thimbles are tight and that the splice is not
pulling apart. Check the security of the waxed cord whipping.

3. Check for broken wires by drawing a cloth along the length of the cable in both
directions. Note that wear may occur internally where a cable flexes during operation,
e.g., around a pulley. This might result in breakage of internal wires. If the cable is bent
in a curve as it is passed from one hand to another, any broken internal wires will
protrude from the surface. Cables with broken wires must be rejected.

4. Check for corrosion. A whitish deposit on High Tensile Steel galvanized cables
indicates corrosion of the zinc coating. Red rust indicates that the steel wires are
corroding. Corroded cables must be rejected.

5. Check for shiny portions indicating flattening of the wires due to external wear at fair
leads or jammed pulleys. A galvanized H.T.S. cable which has had the zinc coating
removed must be rejected. If the cable is of stainless steel, flex the cable at the shiny
portion to see if any wires break. If the flattening of the wires exceeds 40% of the wire
diameter, the cable is usually rejected.

Replace jammed pulley or damaged fairlead.

6. Examine for bird-caging. This is caused when the cable is subjected to a sudden
tensile load which, although insufficient to break the cable causes the preformed strands
to straighten out at the point of maximum stress. When the load is removed from the
cable these strands strand out causing bird-caging. Affected cables must be rejected.

7. Check for kinking. Here the heart strand protrudes from between the performed
strands.

8. Check swaged and fittings for cracks and signs of pulling off the cable indicated by a
shiny portion or cracked paint on the cable adjacent to the end fitting. Check the hole in
the end fitting for elongation using a new bolt.

9. Check for a broken heart strand, indicated by thinning of the cable, or loss of tension in
an installed cable.

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The aircraft manufacturer may specify that H.T.S. galvanized control cables be protected
by applying a coating of Lanolin resin solution DTD 279B. This contains lanolin and zinc
chromate.

CHECKING THE TENSION OF INSTALLED CABLES


The correct tension for a control cable is specified in the Manufacturers Maintenance
Manual. It is checked by the use of a Tensionmeter and adjusted on the turnbuckles. The
British tensionmeter consists of a system of pulleys, two fixed and one connected to a
pointer and spring loaded. The deflection of the pointer indicates the tension on a scale
appropriate to the size of cable. It is essential to use the correct type of tensionmeter for
the cable size.

FAIRLEADS AND PULLEYS


To prevent chafing of the cables, fairleads are fitted to the aircraft structure where the
cables pass through, e.g., bulkheads and frames. They are made of Tufnotl, Micarta or
nylon, and are normally of two halves bolted together. The cable runs through a hole in
the fairlead.

Fairleads must not be lubricated as they will collect dust and dirt.

Pulleys are fitted to change the direction of a cable run. They are made from Turfnol or
Micarta. An integral sealed ball bearing is provided. Cable guards are provided to prevent
the cable coming off the pulley.

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Wire-locking of turnbuckle with swaged end-fittings

Insert diagram

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CHAINS
Chains are used to change direction of control runs in systems where considerable force
is required, such as aileron and elevator controls. Chain assemblies are used generally to
BS 228:1934.

Chain consists of a series of inner plates, rollers and bushes, connected together by outer
plates and bearing pins.

Chain Pitch Min Breaking Load Proof Load


8 mm 800 lb. 267 lb.
0.375 in. 1900 lb. 634 lb.
0.5 in. 1800 lb. 600 lb.
0.5 in. 3500 lb. 1166 lb.
Joining the chain to an end connector is achieved by a bolt, which passes through the
outer plate, and into a threaded hole in the opposite outer plate, then a nut is fitted to the
protruding thread, and split pinned. In the case of the 8 mm size only, a nut is not fitted,
but the bolt is peened.

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The control chain will transfer straight line motion to rotary motion and also change
direction. Change of direction of straight line motion in two planes is achieved by using a
bi-planar block. Change to rotary motion is achieved by sprockets.

A number of features are used to obviate the danger of crossing of controls.

These include:-
Non-reversible chain.
Shrouded chain wheels.
Chain guards.
Non-interchangeable end fittings.
Correct positioning of wheels on shafts by keys, collars, or flats etc.
Master link on chain and master register on chain wheel.

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The following procedure is used when a chain assembly is inspected at overhaul:-


Remove the chain from the aircraft in accordance with the aircraft manufacturers
manual.

Immerse the chain in clean paraffin and brush with a stiff brush to remove all
traces of dirt etc.

Dry the chain with hot air to ensure that all the paraffin is removed in order to
prevent corrosion.

Check the chain for elongation when clean and dry, as follows:-
(a)Place the chain on a flat surface and apply the correct tension load according to the
following list:-
8mm 12 lbs., 0.375in. - 16 lbs., 0.5in. - 28 lbs.

(b)Measure the chain and calculate the percentage extension using the formula:-
M (X x P) x 100
(X x P)
Where M = Measured length of chain under load,
X = Number of pitches measured,
P = Pitch of chain.

(c)The total length or any section of the chain may be checked as above, and an
elongation of more than 2% of any part will render the complete assembly
unserviceable.

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Suspend the chain freely and check for kinks and twists by sighting along the
length.

Check the chain for tight joints by articulating each link over the finger through
180o. If further cleaning does not cure stiffness, try carefully tapping the ends of
the bearing pins with a light hammer.

Examine throughout the length of the chain for corrosion and damage, such as: -
cracked plates or rollers, worn or seized rollers, worn or scored plates, loose
bearing pins.
If the chain is serviceable, it should be soaked in oil, (generally to DTD 417A),
and if not being immediately re-fitted, it should be coiled flat and wrapped in
greaseproof paper.

Maintenance of chains

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FASTENING DEVICES

TAPER PINS
Taper pins are used to secure socketed joints in tubular or solid shafting. They are used in
particular when the shafting is required to transmit relatively light mechanical effort in
both directions of rotation. A typical use is in remote control shafting. The pins are driven
into tapered holes drilled through the diameters of the two components after they are
socketed together.

The pins have a standard taper of 1 in 48 and are usually made of mild steel. They are
classified by length and the diameter of the small end.

FITTING TAPER PINS


To fit a taper pin in a tubular section, the work is drilled from opposite sides across the
diameter of the tube. The drill must be one sixty fourth of an inch (0.4mm) smaller than
the small end diameter of the taper pin. The hole is reamed with a taper reamer of the
correct size. The holes are enlarged until the pin can be pushed through by hand until its
small end is flush with the outer surface of the tube. The tube is supported firmly on
either side of the small end and the pin driven home.

The procedure for fitting taper pins in solid shafts is similar to that used for tubes.

LOCKING TAPER PINS


The small ends of taper pins may be solid plain, solid threaded, or split. Plain pins, after
fitting, are secured by peening over the small end. Pins having threaded small ends are
secured by locknuts. The nut is purely a locking device and is not used for pulling the pin
into position. Split end pins are secured by opening out the two parts of the small end. A
correctly fitted split taper pin should have the large end projecting at least one eighth of
an inch (3mm). The small end, before opening to lock, should project at least one quarter
of an inch (6mm). Part of the split should be inside the wall of the tube. The split ends
must be opened across the tube, not along its length.

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RECTIFICATION OF A TAPER PIN WHICH HAS BECOME LOOSE


Refer to the Aircraft Repair Manual for any special instructions. In general the procedure
will be as follows:-
Carefully remove the loose taper pin by filing off the peening or by cutting off the
split legs.
Carefully ream the hole to remove any elongation of the original hole.
Select an oversize taper pin which when tapped into place protrudes by amount
necessary to effect locking by the specified method.

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SCREW THREADS

INTRODUCTION
A new thread is a helical groove cut into a round bar for an external or male thread. For
an internal or female thread it is cut in a cylindrical hole.

Insert diagrams

External Thread Internal Thread

PARTS OF A THREAD
The principle terms used concerning screw threads:-
PITCH - The pitch of a thread is the distance from a point on one thread to the
corresponding point on the next thread.
CREST - The crest is the prominent part of the thread. The crest diameter.
ROOT - The bottom of the thread groove. The root or core diameter for a male
thread is the diameter of the material at the base of the thread.
FLANK - The flank of the thread is the straight part of the thread which connects
the crest and root.
THREAD ANGLE - The thread angle is the angle between the flanks and varies
for different screw systems, e.g., 55o for B.S.F. threads. 471/2o for B.A. threads
and 60o for UNF threads.

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LEAD - Lead is the distance traveled axially for one complete revolution of the
screw thread. Lead equals pitch for a single start thread.
COARSE PITCH - The pitch is said to be coarse when there are few threads per
inch. A coarse pitch thread has strong threads but a weak core diameter.

FINE PITCH - The pitch is said to be fine when there are more threads per inch.
A fine pitch thread has weaker threads but a stronger core diameter.

SINGLE AND MULTI-START THREADS


The single-start thread is formed when a single continuous groove is cut. All standard
bolts, nuts, studs, etc., have single start threads.

The multi-start thread is formed by cutting more than one groove, the starts of the
grooves being arranged symmetrically around the circumference.

The terms lead and pitch still apply but the lead is equal to the pitch multiplied by the
number of starts, thus the lead for a two start thread would be twice the pitch.

Multi start threads are used where rapid linear movement is required without a decrease
of core diameter.

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RIGHT AND LEFT HAND THREADS


A right hand thread is one on which the thread is cut so that turning of the nut in a
clockwise direction will tighten it on a bolt. A left hand thread requires the nut to be
turned anti-clockwise to tighten it. Left hand threads are only used for special purposes.

THREAD SYSTEMS
British
American
Unified
Metric (Systems International S.I.)

BRITISH THREAD SYSTEM


The British thread system consists of:-
British Standard Whitworth (B.S.W.) This is a coarse thread having a thread angle of
55o with both the crest and root of the thread radiused.
(ii)British Standard Fine (B.S.F.) This is identical in form to B.S.W. but is a finer thread
(i.e. has more threads per inch).
(iii)British Standard Pipe (B.S.P.) This has the same thread form as B.S.W. and was
designed for gas and water pipes, where a larger diameter is required for a relatively fine
thread.
(iv)British Association (B.A.) This is a V thread with a thread angle of 471/2 o and the
root and crest of the thread is radiused.
The various sizes of threads are expressed as numbers from O.B.A. 0.2362 outside
diameter to 12 B.A. 0.0511 outside diameter.

Widely used in electrical work, optical gear, cameras, clocks etc.

AMERICAN THREAD SYSTEM


There are two types of American thread. American National Coarse (A.N.C.) and
American National Fine (A.N.F.) both have V thread with an angle of 60 o, the root and
crest of the thread are flattened.

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UNIFIED THREAD SYSTEM


A common standard V thread agreed upon by the governments of Britain, America and
Canada, to fulfill a need for interchangeability of threaded products. The thread angle is
60o and the thread root is always radiused where as the thread crest can be either radiused
or flattened. The types of unified threads are:-
U.N.C. Unified Coarse
U.N.F. Unified Fine
U.N.E.F. Unified Extra Fine
U.N. Unified with constant pitch regardless of diameter.
U.N.S. _ Unified with special pitch/diameter combination.
U.N.J.F. Unified Fatigue Resistant Fine Thread.
Unified threads are available in English and Metric sizes.

METRIC THREAD OR S.I. THREADS


These are V threads with the crest and roots of the thread flattened, the thread angle is
60o.
NOTE Thread types are not interchangeable i.e. a B.S.F. screw must be used with a
B.S.F. not of the same size.

TRANSMISSION THREADS
These are threads used to transmit motion in machinery parts such as: lifting jacks,
spindles, bench vices, lathes etc. There are three forms in common use:-

1. SQUARE THREAD
The thread form is a square.

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2. ACME THREAD
A modified form of square thread with sloping faces and flat roots and crests.

3. BUTTRESS THREAD
The form is triangular with one face 90o, or nearly so to the screw axis and a second face
inclined at 45o. It combines low friction with resistance to shear.

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IDENTIFICATION MARKINGS ON NUTS, BOLTS AND


SCREWS OF BRITISH MANUFACTURE

1. INTRODUCTION
These items are common to all types of aircraft of British manufacture. They are made in
a range of sizes, and as similar parts are made of different materials, a distinguishing
system of identification is in use. Special parts made for specific aircraft have no marking
to indicate size or material, but are marked with a manufacturers part number.

It must be emphasized that these notes serve only as a guide.

2. GENERAL
B.S.F. or U.N.F. threads are used on all standard bolts of 1/4inch diameter and over, No.
2, 4 and 6BA or U.N.F. and U.N.C. are used for smaller sizes. The bolt type is indicated
by the shape of the head and each type is made in various lengths and diameters. The
dimensions of the head and the length of the thread are standardized for each diameter of
bolt.

Information such as British standard number, material, thread diameter, length of the
plain unthreaded portion, whether the thread is left of right hand and whether the bolt is
corrosion resistant is marked on the carton label and may be stamped on the bolt head.
This information is abbreviated and in the form of a part number consisting of letters and
figures which are related to a size code.

3. BOLTS AND SCREWS WITH B.A. OR B.S.F. THREADS (BRITISH


STANDARD AIRCRAFT A SERIES)
Hexagon headed bolts of inch diameter and over are stamped with a two digit British
standard number e.g. A25. Bolts of 7/16 inch diameter and over are stamped with a part
number in addition to the B.S. number e.g., A25 32L. The number equals the length of
the plain unthreaded portion of the shank in 1/10 ths of an inch, that is 3.2 inch and the
letter L indicates that the thread diameter is 7/16 inch.

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DIAMETER CODE LETTERS, BA AND BSF BOLTS AND NUTS

DIAMETER 6BA 4BA 2BA in 5/16 in 3/8 in 7/16 in in 9/16 in 5/8 in


LETTER A B C E G J L N P Q

DIAMETER IN 7/8 in 1 in 12 BA 10 BA 8 BA
LETTER S U W X Y Z

V grooves cut in the head at right angles to the bolt axis indicate that the bolt is made of
High Tensile Steel (H.T.S.) a Z before the part number indicates that the part is of
stainless steel. Bolts with left hand threads have a letter L after the part number.

Close tolerance bolts are made of H.T.S. and have a raised disc on the head. Shear bolts
are made of H.T.S. and always have thin heads.

Cold forged H.T.S. bolts have an embossed ring on the head. Aluminium alloy hexagon
headed bolts will have an L or two parallel lines (=) stamped on the head, and will be
anodized green.

Non hexagon headed screws (B.S. A 31 to A46) have various types of head which include
countersunk, round, mushroom and cheese head. They are not marked to indicate their
thread size or length. However their package will indicate the British standard number
followed by the part number of the particular screw. The part number consists of a
number indicating the nominal length of the screw in thirty seconds of an inch preceded
by a letter indicating the nominal diameter in accordance with the previous diameter
code.

The code system used for grub screws consists of the B.S. number followed by the part
number of the particular screw. The part number consists of a number indicating the
overall length of the screw in sixteenths of an inch, proceeded by a letter indicating the
nominal diameter.

4. BOLTS AND SCREWS HAVING UNIFIED THREADS.


BRITISH STANDARDS AIRCRAFT A SERIES
Bolts having unified threads and hexagon heads are stamped with the British standard
number and a three digit part number. The diameter code letters are shown. The
measurement of length varies with different standards.

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DIAMETER CODE LETTERS UNIFIED BOLTS AND NUTS

DIAMETER 0-80 UNF 2-64 UNF 4-40 UNC 6-32 UNC 8-32UNC 10-32 UNJF
LETTER Y Z A B C D

DIAMETER IN UNJF 5/16 in UNJF 3/8 in UNJF 7/16 in UNJF in UNJF 9/16 in UNJF
LETTER E G J L N P

Most bolts and screws are marked with a symbol to show that they have unified threads.
Machined hexagon headed bolts have three contiguous circles stamped on the head. Cold
forged bolts have a shallow depression in the centre of the head equal to the shank
diameter. Small screws have a shank dog point.

Close tolerance bolts have a raised disc on the head. Shear bolts always have thin heads.
Aluminium alloy bolts and screws are always anodized green.

5. AS BOLTS AND SCREWS


These bolts and screws are manufactured to a series of standards drawn up by the Society
of British Aerospace Companies. The specifications provide a range of bolts and screws
in sizes and head shapes not found in British standard specifications.

A.G.S. PARTS
Aircraft General Standards, now obsolescent, provided a range of bolts and screws which
will be found on older types of British aircraft. Identification features were similar to
those used for the present B.S. specifications. All machined high tensile steel hexagon
headed bolts had grooves cut out in the corners of the head. H.T.S. countersunk and round
head bolts and screws were identified by having a conical recess in the centre of the head.

Bolts and screws made of high tensile corrosion resistant steel were distinguished by an
annular groove in the head. Hexagon headed bolts of H.T. corrosion resistant steel had a
Z on the head.

NUTS OF BRITISH MANUFACTURE

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BRITISH STANDARDS NUTS HAVING BA OR B.S.F. THREADS


Identification of a particular nut may be effected from its shape and anti-corrosive
treatment; in addition, all nuts larger than 3/8 in. B.S.F. is marked with the British
Standard number, and parcels of nuts are labeled with the complete part number.

The size coding letters are the same as for bolts. Where nuts have a left hand threaded the
letter L is added to the part number and is marked on one of the hexagonal surfaces of
the nut. Shear nuts are always 0.2 in. thick in all sizes. Light alloy nuts have an anodic
finish.

BRITISH STANDARDS NUTS HAVING UNIFIED THREADS


Nuts with Unified threads may be identified by their shape, type of finish and thread size.
All nuts other than anchor nuts, 8-32 UNC and larger are marked with the Unified
symbol of contiguous circles. Nuts larger than 3/8 inch are marked with the B.S. number.

Stiffnuts in. UNF and larger which are manufactured from corrosion resistant steel, are
marked with the letter Z either on one flat or on the base plate of anchor nuts. When the
nut is silver plated, the letter X is added or replaces the Z. Brass anchor nuts are
marked with the letter B and all hexagon brass stiffnuts have a washer face.

Light alloy nuts are always anodized green. The part number of the nut is not applied to
stiffnuts, but over 3/8 in. thread diameter a letter indicating thread size is applied.

Anchor nuts do not bear the Unified symbol. In the Unified anchor nut the base plate is
integral with the nut body, but the nut portion of an A.G.S. anchor nut is retained inside a
cage. A.G.S. anchor nuts have B.A. or B.S.F. threads.

When it is necessary to differentiate on the drawing or order between metallic and non-
metallic friction element stiffnuts in the steel and corrosion resisting steel (-75 oC to
+200oC) ranges, the suffix /66 or /77 respectively is added to the part reference. A part
reference without such a suffix indicates that either type of nut may be used. No stiffnuts
with left hand threads are manufactured to B.S. specifications. The letter L is applied to
one of the hexagon faces of other types of nuts having left hand threads.
Shear nuts are 0.2 in thick in all sizes.

A.S. NUTS
These are special lightweight stiffnuts, they can be identified by their shape. The thread
form used is UNJ.

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Typical forms of bolt and screw heads

Insert whole page diagrams

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Non-hexagon headed bolts

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IDENTIFICATION OF STANDARD FASTENERS OF AMERICAN


MANUFACTURE
These notes are intended to be used as a guide to the identification of American standard
fasteners.

No attempt has been made to cover the entire range of fasteners, but certain important
points are given.

There are many types of American nuts and bolts used on aircraft other than those
manufactured to American National Standards. These fasteners will not necessarily be
marked or identified in accordance with the national standards, but will comply with
information published by the manufacturer.

The three most generally used in aircraft construction are:-


AN (Air Force-Navy) standards
NAS (National Aerospace Standards)
MS (Military Standards)

Fasteners made to these standards use UNC, UNF and UNJF threads in inch units. Some
American fasteners are supplied with both UNC and UNF threads. Great care is required
when matching up the nuts, bolts and screws in these series.

AN FASTENERS
Early series fasteners occupy the range of numbers from 3 to 1000. These fasteners are
made from low alloy steel or aluminium alloy. If they are non-corrosion resistant they are
cadmium plated. Aluminium alloy parts are anodized.

Later series parts have 6 figure numbers commencing with 10000. They are made from
higher strength materials.

The AN3 through AN20 bolt has a hexagonal head and is used for airframe structural
applications. It is available in cadmium plated nickel steel, in corrosion resistant steel ,
and in 2024 aluminium alloy (DD). All of these bolts have UNF threads.

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DIAMETER
The specification number of the bolt identifies its diameter in 1/16 inch increments. E.g.
an AN3 bolt has a shank diameter of 3/16 inch. An AN4 bolt has a diameter of 4/16 or
inch. This designation continues up to the AN20 bolt which has a shank diameter of
20/16, or 1-1/4 inch.

The FAA does not allow the use of steel bolts smaller than 3/16 inch or aluminium alloy
bolts smaller than inch for structural applications.

LENGTH
The dash number of these standard bolts indicates their length in 1/8 inch increments.
From 3/8 inch up through 7/8 inch, the dash number is the length (-4 indicates 4/8,-6
means 6/8). A bolt one inch long, however, is -10 which means it is one inch plus zero
eighths of an inch long.

A bolt of 1 inches would be -14 which means 1 inch plus 4/8 inch. This type of
measurement continues, with the first digit indicating the number of inches and the
second the number of eighths.

MATERIAL
The material from which the bolt is made is identified by marks on its head, as shown in
the illustration.

Aluminium alloy bolts are coded with the letter DD in place of the dash. Corrosion
resistant steel bolts are coded with the letter C, e.g., an AN4DD14 bolt is a inch
diameter aluminium alloy bolt 1-1/2 inch long.

An AN5C36 bolt is made of corrosion resistant steel, has a diameter of 5/16 inch and is 3-
3/4 inches long.

In the past bolts were drilled in the thread area for a split pin. When stiff nuts came into
general use many standard AN bolts, were made without the hole in the shank.

An undrilled bolt is identified by the letter A following the dash number. An AN6C12A
bolt is made of corrosion resistant steel, is 3/8 inch in diameter, 1-1/4 inches long and
does not have a hole drilled in its shank.

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Some AN bolts have a hole drilled through the head for locking wire. These bolts have
the letter H preceding the number indicating its length. An AN6H34A would be made of
nickel steel, 3/8 inch in diameter, 3-1/2 inches long, and having a hole drilled in its head,
but none in the shank.

DRILLED HEAD ENGINE BOLTS


AN73 (MS20073) through AN81 (MS20081) bolts are hexagon headed, nickel steel
bolts. They have a thicker head that is drilled with a small hole across each of the flats
and an intersecting axial hole in the centre of the head. An AN73 bolt has a diameter of
3/16 inch. The diameters continue up in 1/16 inch increments to the AN81 which has a
diameter of 11/16 inch.

The lengths of these bolts are specified in the same way as the lengths of the airframe
bolts.

These bolts are available with fine or coarse threads. An AN75-16 would be a fine thread
engine bolt, 5/16 inch diameter and 1-3/4 inches long. If it were AN75A16 it would have
coarse threads.

CLOSE TOLERANCE BOLTS


AN173 to AN186. These bolts have unplated shanks. They are measured in the same
increments of diameter and length as the standard airframe bolts. On the head they have a
triangle around the cross or an asterisk. AN175-26A is a 5/16 inch diameter close
tolerance bolt 2-3/4 inches long with no hole in the shank.

CLEVIS BOLTS
These are bolts loaded in shear only. Used to attach control cables to control horns for
example.

The AN21 through AN36 clevis bolt has a domed head slotted or recessed to accept a
screwdriver.

The nut on clevis bolts may be either self locking or locked with a split pin. If the clevis
pin is not drilled for a split pin, the letter A follows the dash number, e.g. AN22-8A.

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AN MACHINE SCREWS
Screws differ from bolts in being made from a lower strength material and having a
looser fit. They have a slotted or a cruciform recessed head.
Screws are coded by an AN number to indicate the type e.g. round head, letters to
indicate material and two dash numbers indicating diameter and length.

MS BOLTS AND SCREWS


These are mainly Internal Wrenching bolt types and 12 Point types. These are high
strength steel bolts.

MS20004 through MS 20024 bolts are high strength steel bolts used primarily for tensile
loads.

NUTS

AN310 AIRCRAFT CASTLE NUT


Designed to fit on the standard airframe bolt (AN3 AN20). Nut size is shown by the
dash number which is the size of the bolt it fits. An AN 310-6 nut fits an AN6 bolt which
has a diameter of 3/8 inch. Available in cadmium nickel steel, in corrosion resistant steel
and 2024 aluminium alloy.

A corrosion resistant steel nut is an AN310C6. An al. alloy nut is an AN310D6.

AN320 AIRCRAFT SHEAR CASTLE NUT


Similar to the AN310 nut, except that it is a thin shear nut.

AN365 LOW TEMPERATURE SELF-LOCKING NUTS


Have a nylon insert. Should not be used where the temperature exceeds 120oC.

AN363 HIGH TEMPERATURE SELF-LOCKING NUTS


Use a metallic locking device formed during the manufacture of the nut. Used where the
temperature exceeds 120oC.
NAS FASTENERS
NAS specifications provide a wide range of fasteners with a variety of head shapes and
wrenching recesses. The range of bolts and screws includes both self-locking and non-
locking versions. Many varieties are also available with oversize shanks for repair work.

A few washers and nuts are also included in the NAS Specifications.

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Early series AN bolts

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AN73 through AN81 drilled head engine bolts AN21 through AN36 clevis

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National Aircraft Standard Head Markings Bolts and Screws

Insert diagrams

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Insert diagrams

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American bolt head markings


STUDS

A stud is a cylindrical bar which has a male thread at either end of a plain portion. Studs
like any other type of fastening device are standardized into four main groups.

Standard Stud
By far the most widely used type of standard stud is the plain or parallel type in which the
diameter of the unthreaded portion is the same as the major diameter of the screw thread
at either end.

Waisted Stud
These studs are used where reduction of weight without loss of strength is of most
importance, the diameter of the plain portion of the stud is reduced to the minor diameter
of the threaded portions of the stud, thus lightening the stud without impairing its
effective strength.

Stepped Stud
This type of stud provides a stronger anchorage than the plain stud if the stud is used in
soft or weak material. One thread is one size larger than the other. Stepped studs can also
be used as replacement for plain studs when tapped stud hole becomes damaged and has
to be re-drilled and tapped with a larger thread.

Shouldered Stud
This type is used where maximum rigidity of assembly is of primary importance. The
stud is machined from oversize bar, and a projecting shoulder if left between the two
threaded portions. This shoulder seats firmly on the surface of the component and gives
additional resistance to sideway stresses.

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LOCKING DEVICES AND QUICK RELEASE FASTENERS

1. INTRODUCTION
When two parts are bolted or screwed together there is a tendency for one part to move
relative to the other, or the whole assembly is vibrating there is a risk of the bolts
slackening and allowing parts to separate. This is prevented by locking threaded parts to
each other or to adjacent fixtures.

2. METHODS OF LOCKING
The following methods of locking are in common use:-
Split Pinning.
Wire Locking.
Locking Washers.
Locknuts
Stiffnuts.
Locking Plates.
Circlips and Locking rings.
Peening.
Locking by Adhesives.

3. SPLIT PINNING
The following must be observed when fitting split pins:-
Use correct size split pin.
Use split pins once only.
Do not slacken nuts to fit split pin, tighten instead.
If the split pin is difficult to fit, DO NOT file the pin or enlarge the hole. Check
that the hole is lined up and the pin is the correct size, also examine the hole for
burrs.

After fitting the pin, the legs are bent in one of the following methods illustrated. The
method used may depend on the location of the nut, for example on a moving part or next
to a moving part. It is important that the split pin is free from fouling.

The legs should be cut to a suitable length, and the cut ends removed to prevent a loose
article hazard.

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4. Wire Locking
Locking wire is made in different gauges (thickness) and from different materials, it
is important that the wire stated in the technical manuals is used.

Attention should be paid to the following details when using locking wire.
(a) The wire should be tight but not over-tightened as it may strain or break the wire,
or damage the nut or union particularly if made of light alloy.
(b) The wires must be twisted together so that each wire is twisted around each other.
(c) Always cut away old wire from nuts, bolts, etc, as trying to break it can result in
damage to the item.
(d) Keep the length of wire between each anchorage as small as possible, it is difficult
to pull long lengths of wire tight enough.
(e) Ensure correct angular approach of wire as shown.
(f) Finish each run of locking wire with approximately five complete twists of wire
and cut off excess. Bend sharp end back double and tuck away to avoid fouling of
moving parts or injury.
(g) Never use locking wire more than once.

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5. Locking Washers
There are several types of locking washers in general use consisting of spring
washers, cup washers, shakeproof washers, crinkle washers and tab washers.

Spring Washers

Consists of single or double coils of flat or square section spring steel with sharp
corners at the ends. They are used with a plain washer between them and the face
of the components to prevent damage to the surface. When the nut is tightened,
compression of the spring gives a lot of friction between the faces of the thread,
preventing the nut from slackening. It is good practice to renew spring washers.

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CUP WASHERS
These washers are manufactured from spring steel and are dished to form a spring. They
are only used once.

SHAKEPROOF WASHERS
A spring steel washer with slanted serrations on its internal or external edges, formed so
that the nut rides over them when being tightened but they tend to bite into the nut if it
slackens. The friction prevents the nut from turning. Shakeproof washers should only be
used once.

CRINKLE WASHERS
These washers are used for lightly loaded applications in instrument and electrical
installations.

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TAB WASHERS
Tab washers may be single tab or multi-tab. The tabs are only bent once. With multi-tab
washers the used tab must be removed, then the tab washer discarded when all the tabs
have been used. The tabs must not be bent against a curved surface.

LOCKNUTS
A locknut is a thin nut which is tightened down firmly on top of the main nut after it has
been correctly tightened. This action wedges the threads and prevents the main nut
slackening. The locknut must not be over-tightened, as stripping or over-stressing of the
thread may occur. Before re-using locknuts ensure the threads are not damaged.

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STIFFNUTS
A stiffnut is a self-locking nut with a built-in friction locking device which grips the bolt
when tightened. There are several types of stiffnuts. But only two basic types, nylon or
fibre insert and all-metal. Stiffnuts with nylon or fibre insert should only be used once,
and not be used where all-metal stiffnuts are specified. All-metal stiffnuts can be re-used
as long as their locking quality is still good.

A check on the stiffnuts ability to lock is by trying to tighten by hand, where if the bolt
protrudes, the nut should be discarded.

NYLOC NUT

The nyloc insert is not threaded initially, but has an internal diameter slightly less than the
effective diameter of the bolt. On assembly, the bolt displaces the nylon, forming a thread
and giving a high friction between the load carrying faces of the thread in contact with
the nylon. Over a period of time, the nylon insert takes up the shape it has been deformed
into, and hence the self locking properties begin to diminish. For this reason, nyloc nuts
are used only once on aircraft.

NYLOC CAP NUT

Similar to the nyloc nut, except that the nylon insert is in the form of a cap which seals
off the end of the bolt or screw. They are used on pressurized cabins, fuel and oil tanks,
etc.

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ODDIE NUT

The top of the nut is counterbored, slotted vertically in three places and pressed inwards
to form a circle of six tongues, with a diameter slightly less than that of the bolt core
diameter. As the nut is screwed on to the bolt, the threads of the bolt displace the tongues
upwards, applying a load to the contacting thread faces of the nut and bolt.

PHILIDAS NUT

This is made with a circular crown in which two slots are cut, one above the other with an
arc of 2700 . The wings thus formed are depitched inwards to provide a locking friction.

AEROTIGHT NUT

These nuts are made with a circular crown, which in the Mk. 1 version has two slots cut
across the diameter and around the periphery through 1500, while the Mk.2 version has
only one slot. The resulting wings are depitched and forced inwards, giving inward and
downward friction on the bolt threads.

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LIGHTWEIGHT STIFFNUTS
These are made of specially heat treated steel or titanium alloy, and as their names
suggest the minimum of materials are used. The nuts are deformed across the diameter so
that the threaded hole is elliptical, and a locking friction is obtained by the bolt or stud
threads forcing the hole back to its original shape.

CHECKS ON STIFFNUTS

When fitting stiffnuts the following checks should be carried out:


a. Check the friction value. If small nuts can be fully screwed on by hand, they must
be considered unserviceable.
b. A minimum of 1 threads must protrude after tightening.
c. Always replace a removed nut with the same type.
d. Ensure the bolt or stud thread is serviceable.
e. Never use taps through stiffnuts.

NOTE:
Nyloc stiffnuts are never re-used on aircraft. Metal stiffnuts may be re-used as long as
they are serviceable, BUT they must not be re-used in places vital to the safety of the
aircraft, such as control systems, etc.

ANCHOR NUTS

Anchor nuts of various types are used, embodying all of the stiffnuts previously
described. The same rules regarding serviceability apply to anchor nuts, but where the
nyloc types are used it is generally for ease of manufacture in places where frequent
removal/replacement of screws will not be required, and often the screws fitted into nyloc
anchor nuts will have additional locking, such as spring washers or wire locking.

SECURITY OF STIFFNUTS

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Modern aircraft designs use, where suitable, lightweight stiffnuts in free or anchor form
as a means of saving weight. These nuts require a positive method of assessing their
serviceability which is easy to carry out without taking too much time or effort.

A general method of achieving this is to use the run-down torque system in which the
torque required to put the nut completely on the bolt, (or the bolt or screw into the nut),
until just before the joint faces meet is measured. The measurement is made by using a
screwdriver or wrench which combines a torque loading indicator.

Typical run-down torque values, which only reflect the self locking properties of the nuts
are approximately 20% to 30% of the final torque value for the assembly.

(Reference CAIP BL/6-30, Torque Loading)

Another use of stiffnuts in situations requiring toque loading occurs where a torque
wrench can not be used due to accessibility, or where the value of torque is required an
not be accurately obtained due to the operating tolerances of standard torque wrenches, or
where aligning slotted nuts to insert split pins would alter a critical torque value. This
method employs the Pre-Load Indicating Washer, which is made u of 2 steel washers
enclosing an inner thick aluminium washer and an outer thin aluminium washer.

On tightening, the thick aluminium washer is compressed until the required torque
loading is obtained. This is indicated by the thin aluminium washer being trapped
between the steel washers where at lower torque valves it was free to rotate.

NOTE: It at any time the assembly is slackened, a new P.L.I washer must be used due to
the permanent deformation of the thick aluminium washer.

(Reference CAIP Al/7-8, Critical Bolted Joints.)

LOCKPLATE

Consists of a thin plat fitted over the hexagon of the nut or bolt after tightening and
secured against rotation by a small screw and spring washer. Can be used repeatedly if
still serviceable.

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CIRCLIPS AND LOCKING RINGS

Circlips are made of spring steel and are used to lock round shaped threaded parts, or to
prevent end float of a bolt or shaft. There are tow types, one made from spring steel wire
and the other from plate. The second type should always be removed and fitted using
special circlip pliers. Locking rings are similar to circlips.

When fitting circlips and locking rings, care must be taken to ensure that the grooves are
free from dirt, deformation or burrs, and that they are bedding correctly. Identification of
these items is difficult, and should be identified from the manual, old ones may have
different diameters to new ones.

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PEENING
When the nut is fully tightened two threads of the bolt are left protruding and these are
then burred or crushed over onto the face of the nut. Alternatively the nut is locked by
centre punching between the thread of the nut and bolt.

Slotted screws may be locked by burring the surrounding metal into the slot.

LOCKING BY ADHESIVES
Locking by adhesives must only be used if stipulated in the drawing or manual, and only
the approved adhesive used to DTD 900 specification.

Many small components are secured by adhesives such as Loctite, Shellac, Araldite, etc.
applied to bolt threads, shanks, under the heads, etc. Only use as stated in drawings or
publications, and always ensure no adhesive gets into bearings, etc.

In most cases it is necessary to degrease the parts prior to using adhesives, or maximum
locking strength will not be achieved.

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QUICK RELEASE FASTENERS


INTRODUCTION
Various types of quick release fasteners are in use, but they all have the same function, to
allow easy access to permit servicing operations to be carried out in the shortest time.

Typical common fasteners are described, but in every case the Manufacturers Manual
must be consulted, particularly with reference to locking indications.

Dzus, Oddie and Camloc fasteners normally have lines painted on the panel which line
up with the screwdriver slot to indicate correct locking.

DZUS FASTENERS
This consists of a catch and a spring. The catch is secured to the detachable panel by a
metal grommet, and the spring is fixed to the underside of the main assembly, usually by
rivets. A helical slot in the body of the catch engages with the spring, drawing it up when
the catch is turned 90o clockwise.

The fastener is unlocked by a quarter turn anti-clockwise.

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ODDIE FASTENER
This fastener has a central stud which is held in position in the panel by a rubber washer
or a coiled spring. A two-legged spring clip is fastened to the fixed component, usually by
rivets. The stud is bullet-shaped and has two recesses diametrically opposite each other,
at the jointed end. The fastener is locked by positioning the recesses in line with the legs
of the spring and pressing the stud home. There should be a definite click as the fastener
engages.

The fastener is unlocked by giving the stud a quarter turn in either direction, thus turning
the recesses out of engagement with the spring legs.

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CAMLOC FASTENER
This fastener consists of a spring loaded stud assembly and a receptacle. The stud
assembly is fitted to the removable panel and the receptacle is usually riveted to the
airframe. To lock the fastener the stud is pushed against its spring with a screwdriver, and
given a quarter turn clockwise. As a result, the cross pin on the stud rides up a cam in the
receptacle and draws the two components together. Finally, the stud spring pulls the cross
pin into a locking groove at the end of the cam.

The fastener is unlocked by a quarter turn anti-clockwise, when the stud spring causes the
stud to snap outwards.

PIP PINS
These are used to lock parts together, and also for securing ground locks and as rigging
pins.

Pip Pins operate on a push-pull principle. The hollow body contains a spring loaded
plunger. When the pin is pushed into a hole, two steel locking balls held in the shank of
the pin move into a recess in the plunger. When the pin is fully home and the pressure is
removed, the balls are forced to protrude from the shank as the spring around the plunger
expands, and so lock the pin in position. A similar action takes place when the pin is
removed.

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SCREW THREAD INSERTS


As the name implies, screw thread inserts are installed in soft materials, such as
aluminum, wood, plastics, magnesium and light castings to strengthen and protect
threaded holes against galling, seizure, thread wear, etc.
There are a number of different type screw thread inserts made, a few of which are
illustrated and their design principles explained. No attempt will be made to explain their
respective callout systems. For this information refer to the manufacturers catalog.

The Heli-coil inserts are made from stainless steel or phosphor bronze and are precision
shaped coils that fit standard tapped threads from sizes 6-32 to 1-1/2 12 NF and NC
series. The inserts are installed by using special hand or machine tools which screw the
insert into the thread hole. Figure 52 illustrates.

Fig. 53
Rosan inserts are made of steel cadmium plated. The Rosan insert consists of an integral
assembly of the insert and the serrated lock ring (Fig. 53). The insert is threaded both
internally and externally as shown with a serrated rim at the upper end. By drilling and
tapping a large coarse threaded hole which is counter-bored at the surface, the insert is
screwed into the hole and an externally and internally serrated lock ring used in
conjunction with the insert is pressed into the counterbored area and soft material
surrounding the insert. The internal serration of the lock ring mate with the serrating on
the insert while at the same time the outer serration of the lock ring engage the soft metal,
thus preventing the insert from turning or vibrating loose.

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When thus installed, the insert becomes an integral part of the surrounding material. The
external threads resist pull-out and the lock ring resists any tendency to twist in the hole.
SCREW THREAD INSERTS

Installation
Since the internal and external threads on a thread insert have the same number of threads
per inch/pitch and the internal thread is designed to be of standard size, then a special size
tap is required to cut the threads into which the insert is fitted. These special taps and
checking gauges are provided by the insert manufacturers. Installation procedures, which
comprise drilling and tapping the hole, thread gauging, insertion of insert and removal of
the tang, are outlined below.

Drilling
The hole for the insert should be drilled to the diameter and depth specified in the tables
supplied by the insert manufacturer. Care should be taken to ensure that the hole is drilled
in the correct location and square to the surface.

Thread Tapping
The thread should be tapped with a special tap provided by the insert manufacturer, a
straight fluted tap being used for hand tapping and a spiral-fluted tap for machine tapping
where this is possible. Normal workshop practices should be used for tapping, with
special emphasis on cutting the thread coaxially with the hole. Lubricant should be used
according to the type of metal being cut, e.g., a light mineral oil is generally
recommended for light alloys.

Thread Gauging

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After the insert thread has been cut it should be cleaned of all swarf and foreign matter.
The thread should then be checked with a special GO/NO GO thread plug gauge to
ensure that the thread is satisfactory.
Fitting the Insert
An insert should be screwed into the tapped hole by the use of either an inserting key or
inserting tool of the prewind type, depending upon which is recommended for the
particular insert. A different size key or tool is required for each size of insert.

(a) The inserting key should be used by sliding the insert onto it so that the tang is
engaged in the driving slot at its forward end. The assembly should then be applied
to the tapped hole, compressing the insert downwards with the thumb and
forefinger of one hand while turning the key with the other hand; no downward
pressure should be applied on the key. The insert will wind into the thread and
should be installed so that the outer end of the insert is at least half a pitch below
the surface of the component.

(b) When a prewind inserting tool is used the insert should be placed in the chamber
with the insert towards the nozzle and the mandrel pushed forward through the
insert to engage the tang in the slot. The mandrel should be rotated clockwise and
pushed gently forward to engage the insert coil in the nozzle threads, rotation being
continued until the insert is about to emerge from the outer end of the nozzle. The
tool should then be placed squarely over the tapped hole and the handle rotated to

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transfer the insert from the tool into the tapped hole; no forward pressure should be
used.

Removal of the Tang


It is not always necessary to remove the tang of a wire thread insert, but removal may be
specified in some cases for screw clearance or product appearance, both in blind holes
and through holes. A tang in a through hole is removed by use of a special punch or a pin
punch of suitable diameter. A sharp blow with a hammer on the punch will fracture the
wire at the notch where the tang joins the coil. To remove the tang from an insert fitted in
a blind hole, long-nosed pliers are required; the tang should be bent backwards and
forwards through the insert bore until it fractures at the notch and can be removed.

Removal of Inserts
Under normal circumstances, particularly when fitting instructions have been carefully
carried out, the removal of inserts should be unnecessary. However, if an insert has to be
removed because of bad fitting, damage or wear, this can be done by bending the top
inwards to form a rough tang and unscrewing the insert with the insertion tool or a pair of
long-nosed pliers. Some manufacturers recommend the use of a tapered left-hand tap of
appropriate size, which grips the top coil internally and unwinds the insert when rotated.
Other manufacturers provide a range of extractor tools which are fitted with hardened and
tempered blades. The blade will bite into the surface of the insert, which can then be
unscrewed. After removal of an insert, the threads in the hole should be carefully
examined for damage before fitting a new insert.

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RIVETS AND RIVETING


INTRODUCTION
In the construction of a metal airframe, permanent joints are made either with
rivets or bolts. With this extensive use of rivets, the design has been standardized to
ensure that for a given type of metal airframe structure, the required type and size of rivet
is readily available for assembly work.

To securely attach structures together, rivets are cheaper to use and lighter and more
rapidly fitted than nuts and bolts, but as in the case of power operated machine riveting,
more extensive equipment is usually required to effect the permanent joints.

Rivets are always supplied to the operator with one head already formed and the shank
plain to permit insertion into the rivet hole, the opposite end being formed into a head by
manual or mechanical means.

SOLID RIVETS
Solid rivets have the greatest strength and are therefore preferable to any other type of
rivet, but they can only be used where there is access to both sides of the structure.

IDENTIFICATION OF SOLID RIVETS

Material Identification
Aluminium Black dye, dimple or letter A on head
Hiduminium Violet dye marked S
5% Magnesium Green dye marked X or 8
Duralumin Natural colour (grey) marked D
Mild Steel Cadmium coated, magnetic
Monel Metal Cadmium coated, non-magnetic
Copper Natural colour

TYPES OF HEAD
The most common forms of solid rivets are as follows:-
Snap head: for general purposes where strength is required but not a streamlined
finish.
Mushroom head: for skin coverings to give maximum strength.
Flat head: for internal work where heads are not easily accessible.
Countersunk: for flush finish (90o, 100 o, 120 o head).
Pan head: for heavy structures

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RIVET CLEARANCE
The clearance is the difference between the size of the hole and the rivet diameter; rivet
holes are normally drilled .003 ins oversize. Clearance is necessary, particularly with
light alloys to prevent puckering of the sheet owing to the metal spreading when the rivet
head is formed.

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ALLOWANCES FOR RIVETING


When fitting a rivet, sufficient shank must be left protruding above the plate to take up
the clearance and form the head. Failure to observe this precaution leads to many riveting
faults. The allowance for rivet heads is expressed in terms of the diameter of the rivet
shank and is descendent on the material specification of the rivet and gauge of sheet
being riveted.

TYPICAL VALUES ARE:-


Type of Rivet Allowance
Snap Head 1.5D
Countersunk .75D
Reaction 1.5D

RIVET GRIP LENGTH


This is the length of rivet shank taken up by the combined thicknesses of the sheets being
joined.

To determine the length of rivet to be used add the rivet allowance to the rivet grip length.
Have a trial on scrap metal of the same thickness and specification.

COUNTERSINKING
Countersunk rivets are internationally standardized at 100 o and these rivets are normally
to be used. Rivets with 90 o and 120 o countersunk heads are however, still provisioned to
meet the repair requirements of existing aircraft using these angled heads.

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Holes for countersunk-headed rivets must be either cut countersunk or dimpled to receive
the rivet head according to the thickness of the metal and the diameter of the rivet. The
method to be used will be specified in the aircraft repair manual, but as a general guide,
sheet metal 20 Swg and under is dimpled, 18Swg and thicker to be cut countersunk. If a
plate of 20Swg or less is to be countersunk riveted to a plate of 18Swg or over a
combination of the two methods can be used.

CUT COUNTERSINKING
May be done by cut-countersinking tools, by accurately ground drills having the correct
angle 90 o, 100 o or 120 o or by a rose-bit of the correct angle. In all cases it is essential to
ensure that the correct depth of countersink is achieved, so that the rivet heads will fit
flush with the surface of the metal when the riveting is formed.

DIMPLED COUNTERSINKING
May be affected by using hand punches (male and female), spinning or by squeeze
dimpling tools. Where applicable, all reference numbers and full operating instructions
for these tools are given in the relevant aircraft repair manual.

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RIVITING PROCEDURE
Solid rivets can be fitted manually using appropriate snaps, sets and dollies or
mechanically, using the special power operated riveting tools. It is essential to have
access to both sides of the joint since the rivet must be supported on one side as the head
is formed.

SOLID RIVETTING TOOLS


Set this is a hollow punch tool used to draw the metal sheets together and bring
the pre-formed rivet head hard against the metal surface.
Snap a punch tool with a shaped hollow at one end, the same shape as the
manufactured head.

The set and snap may be separate tools or combined into one tool.

Dolly this is a metal block with a recess to the same shape as the pre-formed
head. Used to support the pre-formed head whilst forming the rivet. The pre-formed head
should fit squarely into the folly. For reaction rivet the dolly is a smooth flat block.

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The riveting tools are available in different sizes depending on diameter or rivet being
used and the shape of head.

RIVETTING (SNAP HEAD)


Mark out rivet positions using pencil on light alloys and centre pop centre of rivet
position, drill the holes to the correct clearance size.
Clean the joining surfaces removing all burrs from the drilled holes. It may be a
requirement to put a jointing compound between the surfaces to reduce the
possibility of corrosion.
To prevent movement during riveting join the surfaces together temporarily using
skin or sheet grip pins at regular intervals along the joint.

Sheet grip pin

Insert the correct length of rivet, support the head in the dolly and place the set
over he rivet shank. Lightly tap the set to draw the sheets of metal close together
and bring the pre-formed head hard against the metal sheet.
Remove the set and strike the rivet centrally to spread the rivet shank in the hole.
Using the snap, form the second head of the rivet to the correct shape.

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RIVETTING (REACTION)
This is a rapid method of solid riveting used in setting, rivets in light metal structures.

In this process, the pre-formed head of the rivet receives the blows via a snap. The other
end of the rivet being supported by a flat smooth block (dolly).

The impact of the hammer drives the head of the rivet against the metal sheets and at the
same time the rivet shank is spread into a cheese head by the reaction of the metal
block.

HEAT TREATMENT DURALUMIN RIVETS


Owing to their age-hardening properties, duralumin rivets must be heat treated. They
must be used within two hours of this treatment unless they have been kept in cold
storage. Immediate cold storage after solution heat treatment retards duralumins age
hardening property. On removal from cold storage, the rivets must be used within the two
hour period previously specified.

RIVETING FAULTS
Before commencing any type of riveting job, the operator should whenever possible,
make a dummy run by forming rivets in some spare piece of metal of corresponding
thickness. Checking his rivet allowance and ability to produce well-set satisfactory rivets.

The main causes of faulty riveting are as follows:-


a. Excessive or insufficient shank allowance.
b. Rivet holes not drilled straight or drilled to wrong size.
c. Rivet holes out of line on separate places.
d. Surfaces of metal not drawn up together, possibly due to burrs around the drill
holes.
e. Wrong size of dolly or snap used, thus damaging the metal surface or forming a
bad rivet head.
f. Rivets not filling rivet holes correctly because initial hammer blows on the tail of
the rivet have not swollen the shank.

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Finished sizes for solid rivets

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REMOVAL OF RIVETS
PROCEDURE
The correct procedure for removing snap head types of rivets is as follows:-
a. File a flat on the pre-formed (makers) head of the rivet. The pre-formed head is
more symmetrical about the shank than the formed head.
b. Mark the centre with a centre punch.
c. Drill through the head with a drill of the same diameter as the rivet shank and to a
depth slightly less than the thickness of the rivet head, then carefully chip off the
head with a small flat chisel.
d. Support the work locally to prevent buckling of the plate on fitting and drive out
the rivet with a parallel pin punch slightly smaller than the rivet shank.

If any rivet hole is found to be enlarged as indicated by a loose rivet, or shows signs of
cracks around the edges, or a hole is enlarged during the drilling out operations for rivet
removal prior to repairs, the repair information in the relevant aircraft repair manual
usually contains authorisation for the hole to be enlarged up to 1/32 more than the
existing rivet holes, they must be carefully reamed to required size, ensuring that all
cracks are removed from edges of holes.

RIVETED JOINTS
INTRODUCTION
In considering a typical joint it should be understood that the plate resists shear, bearing
and tensile loads while the rivet resists shear and bearing loads only.

At no time should the rivets be in tension as this tends to burst them apart with a load
they are not designed to withstand.

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STRENGTH OF JOINTS
The factors that govern the strength of a joint are:-
Plate specification-This will be of such a material and gauge as to successfully
withstand tensile and bearing loads.
Rivet specification This will be selected to withstand shear loads. In cases
where the specification of the rivet is not given, use a rivet of the same material as
the plate, with a diameter of 2-1/2 T where T is the thickness of the plate.
Rivet pitch This is important as too great a pitch will result in insufficient rivets
to take the shear loads and too small a pitch will result in lowering the resistance
of the plate to tensile loads.

TYPES OF RIVET SPACING


Single Chain used chiefly on attachment and lightly stressed joints.

Multiple Chain used on watertight joints and in places of high stress, where
thick gauge plate is used.

Staggered Riveting used as an alternative to Multiple Chain in watertight


joints, circular patches, etc.

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TYPES OF JOINTS
a. Lap Joint used in places where stress is not particularly high and where flush
surfaces are not required. A disadvantage is that the loads are not directly opposite one
another and therefore not truly axial.

b. The Joggled Lap Joint the under plate is joggled to preserve the continuity of the
upper surface. This provides a flush surface but as in the previous joint, the load is not
truly axial.

c. The Butt Joint single strap, used on flush surfaces where high stress is encountered,
requiring the use of heavy gauge plate.

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The butt joint double strap, used in places of very high stress. Where strength is more
important than streamlining.

The flange joint used on structural members, such as ribs, frames, etc., where loads are
chiefly compression.

FAYING SURFACES
The faying surfaces are those surfaces of the plate that lie in contact with each other. All
joints have faying surfaces and these must be treated as laid down in current instructions.
On normal joints where only structural considerations are involved the surfaces are
insulated with suitable jointing compound, such as pigmented varnish or by zinc shims.
This is absolutely essential if dissimilar metals are in contact, otherwise rapid corrosion
of the parts will result.

On watertight or airtight joints the faying surfaces must be separated by a cotton strip
impregnated with jointing compound, to ensure the joint is water tight.

To make a good joint care must be taken when preparing the plates to ensure that there
are no gaps in the faying surfaces.

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GUIDE TO RIVET PITCH AND POSITION


It should be understood that when working to a repair scheme as laid down in the
particular aircraft repair manual, the rivet pitches and positions given there must be
strictly adhered to even if they conflict with one or more of the following statements:-
The rivet pitch of a joint will depend on the function to be performed by that joint. The
rivet pitch is the distance between each rivet.
If it is merely an attachment joint, then the pitch will be 8-10D.
Joints subjected to high stress, the pith should not be more than 4d and under no
circumstances less than 3D.
Rivets should never be placed nearer than 2D from the edge of a plate. THE
LAND.
The distance between adjacent rows of rivets should be 3 4D.

TUCKER POP RIVETS


Pop rivets are tubular rivets with individual mandrels which permit rivets to be set when
one side of the work only is accessible, using hand or power operated tools. The mandrels
may be of a break-head or break-stem pattern; the former type allows the mandrel head to
be rejected automatically in one direction as the mandrel shank is withdrawn in the
opposite direction; with the break stem type of mandrel, the head and a small portion of
the mandrel shank will remain within the tail of the rivet as the mandrel fractures. The
pre-formed head of a rivet may be either domed or countersunk but all subsequent formed
tail ends are tulip headed.

Although pop rivets were originally intended for blind riveting, they are now used
extensively for general riveting in place of solid rivets. However, it must not be assumed
that pop rivets may replace solid rivets unless specific instructions in the relevant
airframe repair manual indicate that the use of pop rivets is fully approved.

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SECTIONAL VIEW SHOWING SET WITH BREAK SECTIONAL VIEW SHOWING SET
HEAD MANDREL HEAD EJECTED WITH BREAK STEM MANDREL
HEAD RETAINED

MATERIAL The mandrels on which pop rivets are assembled are of high tensile steel
the rivets are manufactured from aluminium alloy or monel metal.

RIVET SIZES
Supplied in lengths suitable for riveting material up to 0.62 in. in thickness. Rivet
diameter range from 3/32 to 3/16.

It is important to use rivets of the correct length. This is particularly important in the case
of break-stem rivets as correct retention of the mandrel head is dependent upon sufficient
project of the rivet through the assembled material. The grip ranges for pop rivets may be
found in the repair manual. Rivet lengths for pop rivets are measured from under the head
both domed and countersunk.

FITTING TOOLS
Pop rivets are normally fitted using Lazy Tongs or riveting pliers.

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LAZY TONGS

22.CHOBERT RIVETS
Chobert riveting is a blind riveting process using a special riveting tool, the mandrel
being completely drawn through the rivet. When set, the tubular rivet may be plugged
with a sealing pin if it is necessary to increase its shear strength or to produce the effects
of a solid rivet for any other purpose, such as sealing.

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Steel or aluminium alloy chobert rivets are available in diameters from 3/32 to 3/8 with
snap or countersunk heads (100 o or 120 o).

Rivetted joint with sealing pin inserted

Chobert rivets are manufactured to close tolerance, so it is important that the correct
clearance drill is used.

Due to the tapered bore of chobert rivets it is not permissible to file the rivets to adjust
allowance.

As the chobert rivet is set with a steel mandrel attached to the riveting tool, it is possible
to thread a number of rivets on to the mandrel to permit a continuous feed. Therefore
there are two types of riveting tools, single action and continuous action.

23.AVDEL RIVETS
The avdel rivet assembly consists of a tubular rivet with pre-formed snap or countersunk
head, attached to a headed mandrel. There are two tapers on the mandrel, one near a
waisted break point, to expand the shank of the rivet and completely fill the rivet hole and
the other to expand and form a tulip head at the tail of the rivet.

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When a rivet has been placed and the materials about to be fastened are gripped firmly
together, the rivet is set by drawing the mandrel part way through the rivet, thus swelling
the rivet shank and forming a rivet head, which in turn traps the mandrel head. The
mandrel then fractures at a pre-determined tension, leaving part of the mandrel, which is
in the rivet, projecting on the near side of the work. This stud is eventually cropped off
and milled or otherwise finished flush with the head of the rivet. The result is virtually a
solid rivet produced by a blind riveting technique.

FITTING OF AVDEL RIVETS

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All Avdel rivets and mandrels are manufactured to close tolerance in aluminium alloy.
Each rivet is secured to its mandrel during manufacture. All rivets are dyed violet and the
mandrels are either plain aluminium alloy for a 120 o countersunk head or snap-head rivet
and red for a 100 o countersunk head rivet.

The correct length of rivet for joint thickness must be used. The length of Avdel rivets is
measured from under the head on the snap head rivet and is an overall measurement on
the countersunk head rivet.

As Avdel rivets are manufactured to close tolerances it is essential that correctly sized
holes are drilled. See aircraft repair manual for hole limitations.

RIVET TESTING
To ensure that mandrels when set, are correctly retained, a special pin tester is
provisioned to enable a load of 15lbf to be applied to the mandrel shank.

RIVET REMOVAL
Mandrels may be tapped out with a parallel pin pinch to leave the bore of the rivet as a
guide for subsequent drilling provided that the force required is not liable to damage the
sheet metal. Where damage is liable to occur. Centre-punch the mandrel and proceed with
drilling as for conventional solid rivets.

IMEX RIVETS
Similar to ordinary pop rivets but with an important difference that the rivet itself has a
permanently sealed end which completely covers the mandrel head.

The joint is pressure tight to 500 lbs/in2.

The design of the rivet is such that the mandrel head is retained when the rivet is made.

The rivet is supplied in long break and short break form, the long break leaves a
protruding portion which has to be ground off.

The rivet can be formed using a standard pop riveting tool.

Imex rivets are supplied with domed and countersunk heads, are manufactured from 5%
magnesium aluminium alloy and are coloured green.

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25. CHERRY RIVETS


These are of American manufacture and are similar to Avdel rivets except that the stem is
positively locked in the bore.

Cherry rivets are installed using a hand or power tool, the correct type of head must be
used for type and size of head being fitted.

After forming the stem and part of a locking collar protrudes, this may be milled off flush
to the skin surface.

Cherry rivet

25.PLAIN HOLLOW OR TUBULAR RIVETS


These are used in structures where a gap exists between the metal surfaces to be joined or
secured or where there is more likelihood of the sheet metal tearing or buckling than the
rivet shearing under stress. Where a gap exists, distance pieces should be fitted between
the inner surfaces of the metal sheets. In line with the rivet holes, to prevent the structure
being crushed or distorted when closing the rivets.

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Tubular rivets are usually fitted by specially shaped snaps and dollies, squeeze riveters or
by spinning. Allowances are:-
.5D - hand closed .75D - spun

As with solid rivets, both sides of the structure must be accessible.

The majority of plain tubular rivets used are hollow throughout their length but other
types used in, for example, leather work, brake shoe fitting etc., may be hollow for only
part of their length.

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SBAC A.S. MATERIAL


SPEC. FINISH IDENTIFICATION EXCEPTIONS REMARKS
U.S. SP. SPEC. SPECIFICATION
A.S. ALUMINIUM BLACK A ON TAIL OBSOLESCENT
L 36 ANODIC
SP ALUMINIUM BLACK I ON HEAD OR
L 36 ANODIC TAIL
AS DURALUMIN NATURAL D OR TAIL CLOSE SOLUTION
TOLERANCE NO HEAT
L 37 TREATMENT
IDENTIFICATION 0
LETTER 495+ 5 C
FOR 15 minutes
SP DURALUMIN NATURAL Z ON HEAD ON
L 37 TAIL
AS ALLOY 5% GREEN X ON TAIL OBSOLESCENT
MAGNESIUM L58 NOT SUITABLE
ANODIC FOR USE IN
MARINE
AIRCRAFT
SP ALUMINIUM GREEN B ON HEAD ON NOT SUITABLE
ALLOY 5% FOR USE IN
MAGNESIUM L 58 ANODIC TAIL MARINE
AIRCRAFT
AS ALUMINIUM VIOLET B ON TAIL CLOSE
TOLERANCE NO
ALLOY L 86 ANODIC IDENTIFICATION
LETTER
SP ALUMINIUM VIOLET O ON HEAD OR
ALLOY I. 86 ANODIC TAIL
AS MILD STEEL US 11 CADMIUM MAGNETIC
BS.1109
AS MONEL METAL NATURAL H ON TAIL NON MAGNETIC
DTD 204
MONEL METAL M ON HEAD OR
SP DTD 204 NATURAL TAIL NON MAGNETIC

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BRITISH AMERICAN RIVET EQUIVALENTS

NEAREST
AMERICAN SOLID AMERICAN
BRITISH REMARKS
RIVET IDENTIFICATION
EQUIVALENT

ALUMINIUM TYPE NO HEAT


PLAIN L.36
A SPEC. 1100 TREATMENT.

AL. ALLOY TYPE B CONTAINS 5% MAGNESIUM


RAISED CROSS L.58
SPEC. 5056 H32 NO HEAT TREATMENT.

AL. ALLOY TYPE


DIMPLE L.86 NO HEAT TREATMENT.
AD SPEC. 2117 T4

SOLUTION HEAT
AL. ALOY TYPE DD
RAISED DOUBLE DASH L.37 TREATMENT 495 + 5%
SPEC. 2024 T4
FOR 15 MINUTES.

SOLUTION HEAT
AL. ALLOY TYPE D
RAISED DOT L.37 TREATMENT 495 + 5%
SPEC. 2017-T4
FOR 15 MINUTES.

STEEL RECESSED TRIANGLE BS 1109

MONEL CSK. HEAD PLAIN DTD 204

MONEL UNIVERSAL DOUBLE


DTD 204
HEAD DIMPLE

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Rivet Codes
To identify rivets correctly and to identify the material from which they are made certain
code systems have been developed. The two methods used in the aircraft industry are (1)
a number system and (2) a symbol system.

The letters and numbers which identify a rivet indicate the type, material and size. For
example, MS20470AD-3-4 is interpreted as follows: MS (Military Standard) denotes that
the rivet meets the specifications set forth by the military services: 20-470 indicates a
universal head; AD shows that the material is 2117T aluminium alloy; the figure 3 gives
the diameter in thirty-seconds of an inch; and the figure 4 gives the length of the shank in
sixteenths of an inch.

The following breakdown explains the meaning of each portion of the MS number:-
MS MS standard part (indicates Military Standard)
20426 Type (countersunk head in type example)
DD Alloy 2024T in this example)
5 Diameter in thirty-seconds of an inch
5 Length in sixteenths of an inch

In the case of the countersunk-head rivets. The length is given to include the head of the
rivet. This is done because the top of the rivet head is flush with the skin when the rivet is
driven.

The symbol code for the material of a rivet is also illustrated. Mechanics who use aircraft
rivets should memorize this code, and they should check the symbol on each rivet that
they use. By so doing, they will avoid the possibility of rivet failure in the aircraft
structure.

The AN rivet designation system is basically the same as the MS designation system. If
the MS20 is removed from the MS designation and AN is substituted, the AN
designation will be given. For example MS20426AD-5-8 designates the same rivet as
AN-426AD-5-8. Both of the designation systems are found in current use.

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V-BAND CLAMPS AND COUPLINGS

INTRODUCTION
These are high temperature, high pressure couplings used in engine bleed pneumatic
systems, pressurization and air conditioning systems. They may be made from stainless
steel, Inconel or Titanium.

DESCRIPTION
Each coupling usually consists of a single metal clamp and two precision formed metal
flanges which are welded to the ends of the duct sections.

Some couplings provide a metal to metal seal without the use of a gasket. The coupling
can be repeatedly disconnected and reconnected without affecting its design leakage rate.
Other couplings incorporate metal sealing gaskets. Low pressure couplings incorporate
O-rings.

FITTING AND REMOVAL


Before a V-clamp is fitted, its bolt must be checked for freedom of movement and its
stiffnut for satisfactory friction, e.g., not less than 3 lb. in. or more than 15 lb. in. It may
be necessary to reject the clamp bolt also, if the nut is defective. Refer to the Aircraft
maintenance Manual.

If a clamp bolt does not pivot freely, it must be soaked in a suitable dismantling fluid. If it
still fails to pivot freely it must be sent for overhaul. Before fitting or removing a clamp,
lubricate the threads of the bolt.

When fitting a clamp, adjust the nut on the bolt so that at least 1.0 in. of the thread is
visible between the nut and the pivot. Locate the clamp firmly around the duct flanges
and rotate the bolt to locate it in its channel. Tighten the nut to the specified torque load
value, e.g., 120 lb. in. for 0.375 in. diameter bolts or 60 lb. in. for O-ring seals.

Ensure that the locking tang passes freely through the strap slot to its locking position.

Change the clamp if the gap between the segments is less than that specified, e.g, 0.02 in.
or if the strap is excessively bowed.

When fitting V-clamps which use two bolts and fail safe links, the links must be correctly
positioned prior to fitting the clamp securing nuts.

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Tighten the clamp bolts initially so that both flanges are just nipped, and check that the
amount of thread protruding from each nut is approximately equal. Continue tightening
the clamp by applying small torque increments to each nut in turn until the required
torque is reached. The clamps periphery should be tapped frequently during the
tightening process to assist settling of the flanges.

When removing clamps which incorporate a locking tang, unscrew the nut until at least
1.0 in. of thread is visible. Slightly contract the clamp and depress the locking tang to
release it. Lift the bolt clear of its channel and remove the clamp.

NOTE:-V-band clamps may also be used to attach generators to gearboxes and blanking
plates to unused blower outlets etc.

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WORM DRIVE HOSE CLAMPS


Large diameter lines carrying low pressure air etc., may be joined with a rubber hose
slipped over the ends of the tube and held in place with screw type hose clamps.

The ends of the tubes being joined must be beaded. After the hose is slipped over the
beads, the hose clamps are centered between the ends of the hose and the beads. The
clamps are tightened finger tight and then one and one half to two complete turns with a
pair of pliers.

Tightening the hose clamps too tight will cause cold flow of the hose. This is a
condition in which the rubber is squeezed so tight that it loses its resilience, and its
sealing qualities are impaired.

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TINNERMAN HOSE CLAMP


Wire supported hoses are sometimes secured to components by using a tinnerman hose
clamp. This lightweight clamp consists of a strip of spring steel, one end of which is
formed into a series of ratchet teeth. The other end of the strip is formed into a hook that
can engage the ratchet.

The clamp is correctly aligned in its proper location and the ends squeezed together until
the hook engages in the ratchet teeth, and the clamp is tensioned. This is done using a pair
of slip joint pliers.

CORBIN HOSE CLAMPS


The Corbin hose clamp consists of a length of spring, steel wire wound into a circle with
the ends overlapping and bent out at an angle. The clamp is positioned over the end of the
hose before it is fitted over the connection. The hose clamp is expanded by squeezing the
turned up ends with special pliers before final positioning. When the ends are released,
the clamp grips the hose.

FUEL SYSTEM COUPLINGS


Fuel pipe ends are flared or beaded to accept the specified type of coupling. Standard
pipe couplings are available in sizes up to 2.5 inches diameter, and these are often used in
aircraft fuel systems. Where flexibility is required in joints, because of flight loads and
temperature variations, specially designed couplings may be used.

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FLEXIBLE COUPLINGS
Two types of flexible couplings are illustrated. Sketch (A) shows a coupling which has
provision for a certain amount of misalignment, as well as both angular and axial
movement of the pipes. The pipe ends are beaded, and the surfaces within the joint are
smooth and polished, so that the seals may slide freely over the pipes. A split retainer
encloses the beads. When the coupling nut is tightened on the body, the O-rings are
squeezed between the gland washers and the split retainer, and expand to form a seal
between the body and the pipes. Sketch (B) shows a coupling which is less flexible, but
which has provision for a limited amount of misalignment and movement. When the
inner and outer sleeves are screwed together pressure is applied to the split collars, and
the rubber seal is squeezed out to form a seal between the inner sleeve and pipe beads.

VEE-CLAMP COUPLINGS
A typical vee-clamp fitting used in a fuel system is illustrated. With this coupling a
special fitting is welded to each pipe end, and the two fittings are held together by a pair
of vee-section, semi-circular clamps. The seal is formed by an O-ring, which is located in
a groove in one fitting, and is pressed against the face of the other fitting when the clamps
are tightened. In some instances, fail-safe links are fitted to the clamps.

SLIDING COUPLINGS
Where only air and vapour passes through a pipe, a sliding coupling may be used. As
with vee-clamps, a special fitting is welded to each pipe end. An O-ring forms the seal,
and the coupling is assembled by sliding the inner sleeve into the outer sleeve, so that the
O-ring is located centrally.

Bonding of fuel system pipes is very important, since many of these are contained within
the fuel tanks, and static electricity must be prevented from causing sparks in this
explosive atmosphere. Bonding strips or cables are used to form a conducting path across
couplings, and between pipes and adjacent structure.

In certain positions in the aircraft, couplings may be enclosed in drip shields, or heat
shields, for safety reasons. Draining facilities are often provided on these shields, and a
typical installation is shown.

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BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS


These bearings are used where it is not practical to use plain bearings, and where a high
degree of reliability and precision is required.

The advantages are:-


1)Low Frictional loses.
2)Wide range of loads may be accepted.
3)Simple lubrication requirements.

MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION


RACES:
High carbon steel with case hardened raceways or special corrosion resistant steel alloys
or tool steel.

BALLS:
Hardened high carbon steel or special corrosion resistant alloys.

CAGES OR SEPARATORS:
Brass or glass fibre reinforced polyamide.

BALL BEARINGS
The most common type of bearing used on aircraft. The ball bearing has many variations
in design allowing it to be used in a wide variety of situations.

They carry radial loads and moderate axial loads in both directions and where a high
axial load may be experienced, the balls run in a deep groove in the races.
Two types of ball bearings are in general use. The caged type and the crowded type.

CAGED BALL BEARINGS


In general use, for engine applications and for equipment with rotational speeds in excess
of 100 R.P.M. When used within engine/gearbox casings they are lubricated with engine
oil supplied by jets or by splash. When used outside casings, they are lubricated by the
application of grease which may be applied at specified intervals by grease gun, or may
be of the pre-packed type where lubricating grease is packed and sealed into the bearing
on assembly.
NOTE:- Some caged ball bearings can be dismantled.

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CROWDED BALL BEARINGS


This bearing has filling slots in one or both races and has no cage or separators. The balls
therefore touch each other during operation, hence the term crowded. They are suitable
only where slow rotation or part rotation (oscillations) is found, and are usually of the
sealed or pre-packed type.

Refer to A.W.N. 12 for special inspection procedures.

Crowded ball bearings usually cannot be dismantled.


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ANGULAR CONTACT BALL BEARINGS

Accept radial loads, and axial loads in one direction where a single bearing may be used.
For axial loads in both directions an opposed pair of bearings is often used.

THRUST BEARINGS

Thrust bearings are designed for axial loading only and are normally used in conjunction
with a roller bearing or radial ball bearing. Centrifugal loading affects the balls, and so
they are most suitable for carrying heavy loads at low speeds.

INSTRUMENT PRECISION TYPE

Generally of the radial bearing type, manufactured to a high degree of accuracy, without
filling slots.

B.S. 3469 gives tolerances and test procedures.

ROLLER BEARINGS

These may be divided into cylindrical, spherical or tapered rollers.

CYLINDRICAL

These are capable of carrying a greater radial load than a similar size ball bearing, some
types will carry light, intermittent axial loads. Usually roller diameter and length are
equal. Where the length is several times greater than the diameter it is called a needle
roller bearing, for radial loads only. These bearings are subject to brinelling (indentation
of the raceways).

TAPERED ROLLER

The bearings have the axis of the roller at an angle with the shaft axis. They can accept
simultaneous radial and axial loads in one direction, when axial loads are present in both
directions, two tapered roller bearings are used (wheel bearings).

SPHERICAL ROLLER

A spherical roller bearing can accept a minor degree of misalignment between the races.
The bearing can withstand heavy radial loads and moderate axial loads from either
direction.

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GRADING OF BEARINGS

Ball and cylinder roller bearings are manufactured in four grades of fit: -
Group 2, Normal, Group 3 and Group 4 and are marked by a system of dots, circles or
letters and when replaced, they should replaced by one of the same grade.

.0 Group 2 has the smallest radial clearance, not suited to high speed.
..00 Normal Group general use one ring is an interference fit
000 Group 3 both rings interference fit high sped axial loading.
. Group 4 largest radial internal clearance heat reducing clearances.

PRELOAD BEARINGS

Of the many arguments for preloading bearings, the major one for aircraft application is
that preload ensures roll-race contact for both rows of rollers in the bearings of an
assembly. This is important for the bearing carrying the major load as it shares bending
moment loads between the two bearings and gives the correct roll-race contact areas in
the bearing. This means that the bearing stresses are less than they would be if end play in
the assembly caused by off centre load to stress the rollers at their ends, instead of along
their full length.

It is also important in such cases as gear drives to have a rigid bearing mounting to ensure
correct mesh or gear teeth under load. Deflections within bearings are inevitable under
load, but they can be reduced by the correct use of preload.

In addition to this, nearly all aircraft bearings are subjected to shock loads. If endplay in
an assembly is subjected to such loads, or loads varying in magnitude, indentation of the
bearing raceway will occur which will cause premature bearing failure. Preload prevents
hammering of the tracks and failure from this cause.

It can be seen, therefore, that bearing preload is an important factor in aircraft


applications and the reasons for its use is summarised below: -

a) To ensure that the correct contact exists between the rolling elements and
raceways when the bearing is loaded.
b) To prevent hammering of the tracks.
c) To combat deflection in the case of gear drives.

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EXAMINATION OF BEARINGS IN SITU

It is recommended that bearings should be checked in position where possible since


unnecessary withdrawing may cause damage.

a) The bearing should be oscillated, and if possible, the moving parts should be
turned slowly to determine whether roughness or intermittent resistance is
present.
b) The bearing should then be pushed and pulled lightly to check if axial or
radial
movement is present.
c) Run at operating speed checking for noise and vibration. If undue noise occurs
it
may be due to lack of lubrication, in which case re-lubricate and re-check.

NOTE: If doubt of serviceability exists it should be removed for further examination.

BEARING REMOVAL/INSTALLATION

When it is necessary to remove separate rings or complete bearings a suitable extractor


should be used. When this is not available, light hammer blows may be applied through a
tubular soft steel or brass drift to the ring to be removed. Do not apply force to the free
ring or the rotating elements. Solid copper drifts should not be used for installing
bearings because contamination of the bearing by copper chips could result.

BEARING CLEANING

Soak in white spirit to remove dirt and grease. A pressure jet may be required to clean
heavily contaminated bearings.

While cleaning, the bearing should not be spun, slow rotation only is permitted. When
clean, the bearing should be dried in warm air and lubricated with light lubricating oil, to
prevent corrosion.

BEARING INSPECTION
After removal and cleaning, inspect for corrosion, pitting, fracture, chips and
discoloration and excessive internal clearances.

Running smoothness may be checked by mounting it on a shaft and rotating at 500


1,000 r.p.m. and applying alternate axial and radial loads in either direction.

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BEARING FAULTS

BEARING FAULT WHAT TO LOOK FOR


Worn races Excessive clearance radially/axially, flaking of raceway
groove.
Worn balls/rollers Excessive axial/radial clearances, mis-shapen rolling
elements.
Creep Shinny marks on outside of outer race caused by incorrect
interference fit in housing.
Shinny marks on inside of inner race caused by incorrect
interference fit on shaft.
Worn cage Soft metal dust in and around the bearing. Inspect for loss
rivets.
Overheating Look for blueing of elements and raceways.
Brinelling Indentation of raceways may be seen or felt in a dismantled
bearing. Roughness will be present on a spin test of an
assembled bearing.
Corrosion Pitting of elements and raceways.
Chipping Roughness and clicking on spin test.

NOTE: Refer to maintenance manual for specific instructions.

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Taper Roller Bearing

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RIGID PIPES
GENERAL
Rigid pipes are manufactured from aluminium alloys, carbon steel and stainless steel.
Stainless steel tubing is used extensively on gas turbine engine fuel systems and high
pressure hydraulic systems, particularly undercarriage system which is exposed to debris
thrown up by the wheels.

Pipes are manufactured as complete assemblies and are assembled in checking fixtures,
this ensures that the pipe will fit accurately in accordance with a particular drawing.

Because of the wide range of materials used and the problems of heat treatments that may
be applicable before/after bending and flaring, it is not generally permissible to
manufacture or repair a rigid pipe.

However, some repairs can be carried out when the necessary approvals have been
issued. Always consult the relevant manual.

PIPE COUPLINGS
High pressure types:- Flared coupling
Flareless coupling
Brazed nipple coupling

Low pressure types:- Rubber hose coupling


Low pressure coupling

HIGH PRESSURE COUPLINGS


1.FLARED COUPLING
This is the most common type of coupling. The pipe is flared during manufacture and is
used with a nipple and collar to enable connection with a union adaptor. It is sometimes
used without a nipple when connected to a cone adaptor.

The angle of flare on a rigid pipe will depend on the origin of the pipe, as follows:-
Pipes manufactured to A.G.S. specifications have an included flare angle of 32 o.

Pipes manufactured to A.N. specifications have an included flare angle of 74 o.

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Pipes manufactured to S.A.E. specifications have an included angle of 90 o.

NOTE:-Flaring leaves the pipe in a stressed condition and since the flare carries the load
in a fitting, it is the flare that is most likely to fail.
2.FLARELESS COUPLING
This coupling employs a sleeve which is pressed into the material of the tube, and
therefore does not require a flared end on the pipe. The sleeve is set in position using a
presetting fitting and should be examined carefully for correct assembly before the final
connection is made.

3.BRAZED NIPPLE COUPLING


A conical nipple is brazed or silver soldered to the end of the pipe and is held in position
by a union nut which butts against a shoulder on the nipple. The conical face of the nipple
mates with a cone shaped adaptor which may also be brazed or silver soldered in
position.

LOW PRESSURE COUPLINGS


1.RUBBER HOSE COUPLING
This type of coupling employs a length of rubber hose to connect two rigid pipes. The
pipe ends are beaded (expanded radially to form a raised rings), the hose is secured to the
pipes with hose clips.

2.LOW PRESSURE COUPLING


This is a coupling used on certain low pressure lines and vents. It consists of a rubber ring
which is compressed around the pipe when the union nut is tightened. The end of the
pipe, which is not flared, butts against a shoulder in the body of the union.

INSTALLATION OF RIGID PIPES


Inverted U bends must not be used in engine bays installations because of the risk of
vapour locks causing malfunction in the system (BCARs K 5-1 refers).

It is also a requirement that it must be mechanically impossible to cross connect pipes of


different systems by using different sizes of couplings, or varying the lengths of
individual pipes.

Pipes are supported in groups using multiple pipe clamps. These clamps are made of red
fibre, aluminium alloy, moulded rubber, nylon and other materials. Individual pipes are
usually supported in P clips, both types are adjustable by inserting packing to give the
required clearance with the surrounding structure.

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Before installation, always check that the pipe is correct for the job. Flush pipe with system
fluid to ensure all traces of contamination or inhibitor is removed. If the pipe is not to be
fitted immediately, BLANK OFF.
It is normally advisable to connect the pipe couplings finger tight, then check the routing of
the pipe. If this is correct, the couplings should be tightened to the specified torque loading,
and the supporting clamps fitted.

A functional test should be carried out and the couplings checked for leaks, followed by a
bonding test.

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INSPECTION OF RIGID PIPES


PRE-INSTALLATION CHECK
Before fitting the pipe, ensure that the pipe is correct in all respects. Examine the pipe for
the following:-
Corrosion, internally as far as possible and externally
Scores
dents (carry out bore test)
Flattening
Kinks
Condition
Chafing particularly where the pipe is clipped or passes through bulkheads
Position of olive/nipple

INSPECTION OF INSTALLED PIPES


Pipes which are installed should be checked for the above defects as far as possible.
However, additional checks should include the following:-
a)Check that the pipe is clear of the surrounding structure. The minimum clearances are
as follows:-
From fixed structure 6mm (0.25 in)
From control rods and rigid moving parts 18 mm (0.75 in)
From control cables 25 mm (1.00 in)
Leak test using aircraft power of special test rig, operate system and check for
leaks
Flow test if specified
Carry out bonding test
Check couplings for correct locking

TESTING OF RIGID PIPES


Testing should be carried out if the pipe is suspect, or testing is detailed in the
maintenance schedule.

Test equipment should be clean and serviceable, and all relevant safety precautions
should be observed. This is most important when using high pressure air as the test
medium.

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PRESSURE TEST
For pressure testing use the system fluid or paraffin. Test the pipe at 1-1/2 times
maximum working pressure.

BORE TEST
Pass a ball through the pipe from each end in turn. The ball diameter should be at least
80% of the diameter of the pipe. Flow test may be specified.

BONDING TEST
After installation of the pipe, the bonding should be checked between the end couplings,
the maximum resistance should not be greater than 0.05 ohms.

FLEXIBLE HOSE ASSEMBLIES


DESCRIPTION
Basically there are two kinds of flexible hose, those with detachable end fittings and
those issued by a manufacturer which are complete, otherwise the construction of all
hoses is similar. The hose material is either synthetic rubber or Teflon. Synthetic rubber
hoses are reinforced with cotton or metal braid depending on the pressure that the hose
has to withstand, with a rubber sheath on the outside to protect the braiding. Teflon hoses
are made of Tetrafluoroethylene resin which is strengthened and protected by a stainless
steel braiding. Teflon will generally withstand higher temperatures and pressure than
synthetic rubber.

The end couplings are made of steel or light alloy depending on the installation. The end
fittings grip the hose including the internal braiding to ensure a leak proof joint and
provide an electrical bond between the ends. Hoses which are located in a fire zone are
required to be fireproof (i.e. engine bay). This requirement is usually met by a cover or
sheath made from a silicon asbestos compound.

The following information is usually stamped on the end fittings or on the hose itself by
the use of tags:-
Date of manufacture
Date of last test
Drawing number
Part number
Serial number
Inspectors stamp

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In addition to the above, hoses may have parallel lines running between the end fittings to
show when they are twisted. The number of lines may denote the number of layers of
braiding.

PRE-INSTALLATION CHECK
Before fitting a hose the following should be checked:-
a. Damage
b. Corrosion of end fittings
c. Cleanliness (internally as far as possible)
d. Flush hose with system fluid
e. Verify part number and batch no. if a new hose
f. Pressure test if specified, or if in doubt

INSTALLATION
Observe the following points when fitting flexible hoses:-
Ensure hose does not come into contact with other parts of the aircraft or engine
and allow for hose flexing. Check for correct routing.
Do not exceed manufacturers minimum bend radium limits.
Straight hoses must be 3% longer than between the ends of the component.
If lubricant is used on the threads, ensure that it does not enter the hose.
Use only approved lubricant for oxygen hose. DO NOT USE OIL OR GREASE
WITH OXYGEN.
Ensure the hose is not twisted, support hose while tightening.
Only use the approved hose support guide and clips at the correct intervals. Use
packing between hose and clips.
Carry out system function and leak test. If it is part of the aircraft fuel system,
then a flow test must be carried out.
Carry out bonding test.
Wire lock the hose assembly end fittings.

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INSPECTION OF USED PIPE


Examining:- examine the pipe for obvious leaks from the end fittings and
particularly where the hose joins the end fittings.
Blisters:- puncture the blister, if fluid emerges, reject the hose, if not, pressure
test and if it leaks under test reject the hose.
Ageing crack:- they consist of very small short cracks. If the cracks join in a
continuous line or the braiding is showing, reject the hose.
Security:- ensure the hose end fittings are locked properly.
Corrosion:- examine the end fittings for corrosion, light corrosion can be
removed, otherwise reject the hose.
Twisting:- any twist will be seen by the line running the length of the hose. If a
hose has a permanent twist, pressure test and if no leaks are visible, consider it
serviceable.
Cut covers:- examine closely for cuts. If any cuts penetrate to the braiding, reject
the hose.
Chafing:- if braiding is showing, reject the hose. If slight chafing is present, the
hose should be moved but do not tape it up.
Kinks:-reject the hose.

TESTING
Hoses require testing when detailed in the maintenance schedule or if the hose is suspect.

The tests that may be carried out on a hose are:-


Pressure test
Bore test
Bonding test

PRESSURE TEST
Flexible hoses are pressure tested to 1-1/2 times the maximum working pressure. Test
with the normal system fluid or paraffin. Air and oxygen hoses to be tested under water
for safety and a visual indication will be shown by the appearances of bubbles. They must
also be tested by using water as a test medium and dried out with a warm air blast.

While the hose is under test flex it 15 o. those which flex while in service should be flexed
15 o beyond their normal range of movement.

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BORE TEST
Purpose of a bore test is to ensure that the hose will deliver the amount of fluid that it is
designed to deliver. The bore may be checked by one of the following methods.
Visually
Ball test
Flow test

VISUALLY
View from each end in turn, this method is only suitable for short straight hoses.

BALL TEST
Pass a steel ball through the hose from each end in turn. The diameter of the ball must be
at least 90% of the internal diameter of the end fitting. If the ball does not pass through
the hose freely, the pipe is unserviceable. On small bore straight hoses a steel rod may be
used instead of a ball.

FLOW TEST
The flow test consists of passing a fluid through a hose from each end in turn and timing
the flow rate. The figure obtained is then compared with the flow rate figure given in the
manufacturers manual.

NOTE:- The bore testing of a hose may include one or more of the above tests.

BONDING TEST ON HOSE ASSEMBLIES


Hoses are tested for bonding before fitting, when the resistance should not exceed 0.05
ohms or 0.025 per foot length which ever is the greater.

NOTE:- Bonding is only possible when hoses have a metal in their structure. However,
all installed hoses should be tested between the end couplings and the components to
which they are connected. The resistance should not exceed 0.050 ohms.

RE-USEABLE END FITTINGS


The purpose of a re-usable end fitting is to save in the cost of replacing the complete
assembly when only the hose itself is unserviceable.

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ASSEMBLY OF FITTINGS
The hose must be exactly the same specification as the original.
Cut hose at right angles to the correct length using a fine tooth hacksaw.
Clean hose to remove small particles of rubber.
Screw socket on to the hose with a left hand thread.
Screw nipple into the socket with a right hand thread.
Finally pressure test, bore test and carry out a bonding test on the hose assembly.

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RE-USABLE END FITTINGS


INSTALLATION PROCEDURE:-
1.Cut hose squarely to correct length
with a fine hacksaw. Remove rubber
debris.
2.Place socket in the vice and take care
not to overtighten. Screw the hose into
the socket until it bottoms (left hand
thread). Then back off turn.
3.Tighten nipple and union nut on to
the assembly tool, if the tool is not
available, use a mating adaptor. Two
spanners are required.
4.Lubricate the inside of the hose and
the nipple threads with oil or petroleum
jelly.
5.Screw nipple into the socket (right
hand thread) until the union nut is less
than 1/16 of an inch away from the
socket, but not touching. Using two
spanners, remove the assembly tool
from the union nut and check that the
nut is free to turn.
6.Clean and flush the hose with system
fluid and carry out a bore test and a
pressure test.

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KEYS AND KEYWAYS


INTRODUCTION
Keys in keyways are used where considerable mechanical power has to be transmitted
from a shaft to a hub, or from a hub to a shaft. The two components are fitted together
and secured by means of one or more keys in keyways. The key is a solid piece of metal
of rectangular or square cross section. It is of uniform width and may be of constant
thickness or tapered along its length. The key fits into a matching recess which is formed
between the shaft and the hub. Keys and keyways may be used where frequent removal
of the shaft from the hub is not required.

TAPER KEYS
These keys have a standard taper of 1 in 100 on the thickness. The tapered face of the
key, matching the taper of the recess or keyway formed in the bore of the hub. Careful
fitting is essential to ensure a snug fit between the key and the keyway. There are several
types of taper key.

Hollow Saddle Key This type of key is hollowed to suit the radius of the shaft. When
the key is driven into position, its taper provides a friction grip between the hub and the
shaft. There is no keyway in the shaft.

Flat Saddle Key This key is rectangular or square in section, and bears on a flat formed
on the shaft. It provides a more positive grip between the shaft and the hub, than is
provided by the hollow saddle key.

Plain Taper and Gib-Headed Keys These forms of taper key fit into keyways which
are formed partly in the shaft and partly in the hub. They are capable of transmitting
much greater power than either of the saddle types. The gib-headed key is used where it
is not practicable to use a key drift for removal.

FEATHER KEY
This type of key is used where it is required to allow axial movement between the shaft
and hub. It would for example, allow a pulley or gear wheel to move along a shaft while
it is being driven.

WOODRUFF KEY
This key is made in the form of a segment of a flat disc. It fits into a slot in the shaft
which conforms closely to the rounded portion of the key, and into a keyway in the hub.
The key provides a push fit on the sides and a clearance fit at the top of the key. Woodruff
keys may be fitted to both parallel and tapered shafts.

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BRITISH STANDARD PIPE MARKING SCHEME


INTRODUCTION
This International Standard specifies the requirements for a scheme to indicate by
appropriate marking, the functions of pipe systems in aircraft. It thus provides the
minimum identification necessary for normal maintenance purposes.

GENERAL
Where the ambient temperatures allow, the scheme consists of adhesive tape markers
fixed to the pipe systems. The markers indicate the pipe functions and give due warning
where the contents are dangerous. When required, the direction of flow of the pipe
contents is also shown.

The contents of pipelines other than those listed in Table 1 e.g. pitot are indicated by
markers bearing the name of the pipe function.

Where necessary, additional words may be added to describe the specific function of the
pipe e.g. Methyl Bromide; Autopilot, etc.

Markers bearing the skull and crossbones are applied adjacent to the basic identification
markers where the contents of the lines are dangerous to maintenance personnel.

All lettering and symbols are printed in black on a white background. The background to
the lettering may be coloured as shown.

The markers are located at both ends of a pipeline and at intervals along the pipe. A
marker should be installed adjacent to each servicing point and inspection door.

Table 2 shows the pipe marker colours represented by letters in the illustrations.

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TABLE 1 - PIPE SYSTEM AND SYMBOLS

PIPE SYSTEM SYMBOL NUMBER


Air conditioning and Pressurisation Dot pattern 11
Battery Activator Ellipse with radiating lines 24
Breathing oxygen Rectangle 10
Compressed gas Broad diagonal stripe 16
Coolant Broad undulations 9
De-icing Triangle 13
Drinking water H20 25
Electrical Conduit Flash of lightning 17
Filtered Air NBC 27
Fire protection Horizontal diamond 12
Fuel Four pointed star 1
Hydraulic Circle 6
Inerting Pipe cross 19
Instrument Air Zig-Zag line 8
Lubrication Square 5
Monopropellant Block T 21
Rain repellant Falling raindrop 22
Pneumatic X 7
Rocket catalyst Three vertical stripes 15
Rocket fuel Four-pointed star inside crescent 3
Rocket oxidizer Crescent 2
Solvent Horizontal stripes 20
Vacuum Wavy line 23
Waste water Chain 26
Water injection Chevron 4

TABLE 2

LETTER COLOUR
A Blue
B Green
C Yellow
D Brown
E Orange
F Red
G Grey

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Identification symbols and colours

NOTES:
The letters above the markers are the serial letters of the colours as given in Table
2. The numbers below the numbers below the markers are the symbol numbers for
identification purposes.
The symbol may be located on either margin of a marker.

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Typical applications of markers

NOTES
The letters above the markers are the serial letters of the colours as given in table
2.
The supplementary identification marker may be located on either side of the
basic identification marker.

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GASES AND COMPOUNDS

INTRODUCTION

An aircrafts gas systems need air and nitrogen. The crew and passengers need breathing
oxygen to survive at high altitudes following a low cabin pressure emergency. These
gases need to be maintained in the correct quantities in their respective containers within
the aircraft. They need to be replenished at each appropriate servicing occasion. The
gases are supplied under pressure in large cylinders which are similar in size and shape.
They are painted in a distinctive colour, with the name of the gas painted on the side of
each cylinder.

GAS CHARGING TROLLEY

For handling and discharging the gas, the cylinders are usually mounted on four wheeled
trolleys. Separate trolleys are used for each type of gas. Each trolley is capable of
carrying four cylinders which are connected by high pressure pipes to a single outlet
point. Also available are lighter two wheeled trolleys, carrying two, or even a single
cylinder.

The cylinders on each trolley are connected by pipelines to a charging regulator


assembly. This is housed in a weather proof compartment at the rear of the trolley. The
outlet from each individual cylinder is opened using a special key. The arrangement of
the pipelines on the trolley is such that any one gas cylinder may be isolated for removal
or replacement. By operating the individual valves on the gas cylinders, an aircraft
system may be charged from any cylinder or combination of cylinders.

In order that the most economical use may be made of the gas in the cylinders, sequence
charging is used whenever possible. In this way, the partially discharged cylinders are
used in turn, starting with the cylinder having the lowest pressure. Final topping up is
done with the cylinder which has the highest pressure.

The trolleys used for the replenishment of the aircrafts air, nitrogen and gaseous oxygen
systems are al very similar. The name of the gas is clearly marked on the cylinders and on
the compartment at the rear of the trolley. The air and nitrogen trolleys are both grey with
the name of the gas painted in black on the charging compartment. The oxygen trolley is
black with the word OXYGEN painted in white in the same position. The flexible
connecting hose, fitted with the appropriate blanking cap is attached to the charging
assembly and stowed in the bottom of the charging compartment.

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The flow of gas released from each of the cylinders is controlled by the valves of the
charging regulator. These are housed in the compartment at the rear of the trolley. The
type of regulator usually found in the air and nitrogen trolleys is illustrated. When the
valves are opened, the high pressure gas from the cylinders enters the inlet side of the
regulator and flows through a stop valve and a combined reducing and relief valve to the
low pressure side. The gas pressure on the inlet and the outlet side is indicated by the
respective pressure gauges. The delivery of gas to the aircraft system is controlled by the
outlet stop valve. When opened, it allows the gas to flow through the flexible connecting
hose to the aircraft system being charged.

USING THE GAS CHARGING TROLLEY

First, determine which of the four cylinders to use. The correct one will contain a
pressure slightly higher than that required by the aircraft system. For example, if a
pressure of 1500 lbs/sq in or (10.3 bars) is needed, then a cylinder containing 2000 lbs/sq
in (138 bars) would be adequate. To check this, open the lid of the charging compartment
and ensure that all valves are closed. Using the gas cylinder key, open the first cylinder
outlet. The pressure in the cylinder will be shown on the high pressure gauge when the
inlet stop valve on the charging regulator is opened. Open the gas cylinder outlet and
allow the gas to escape from the regulator assembly. Do this by removing the charging
hose blanking cap and opening the regulator valves. When the air has escaped, close the
regulator valves. Repeat this procedure until the correct cylinder is found. The charging
hose can now be connected to the aircraft system charging valve.

ADJUSTING THE GAS PRESSURE

The combined pressure reducing the relief valve and its gauge are adjusted by rotating the
T shaped control handle. When fully wound off (that is rotated anti-clockwise as far as
it will go) the handle shuts off the reducing valve and positions the gauge pointer at zero.
Winding the handle clockwise, opens the reducing valve and moves the pointer across the
gauge scale. This also adjusts the relief valve to blow-off at the pressure indicated on the
gauge.

With the pressure required by the aircraft system set on the reducing valve, opening the
inlet stop valve will admit gas to the low pressure side of the regulator. The reduced
pressure is accurately indicated on the delivery pressure gauge. The pressures on the
reducing valve scale and the delivery pressure gauge should be the same. The aircraft gas
system can now be slowly charged by opening the delivery valve by a small amount.

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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

Any component containing compressed gas must be handled and serviced carefully. A
sudden release of gas under pressure can be very dangerous. Oxygen presents a particular
hazard in that oil and grease are prone to spontaneous combustion in the presence of
oxygen under pressure. All parts of oxygen systems must be kept absolutely clean.

The gas pressure required in some systems and components varies according to the
ambient temperature. This relationship between temperature and pressure is presented in
the form of a graph, located adjacent to the system or component charging point. Shock
absorber pressure is determined by comparing pressure and extension shown on a graph.
A specified tyre pressure is normally increased by 4%, to allow for the weight of the
aircraft acting on it.

The rapid compression of a gas generates heat and this will affect the pressure in a
component. This effect can be kept to a minimum by charging a system slowly.

When a pressurised gas is released rapidly there is a decrease in temperature which can
cause ice to form on the charging valve. To minimise this effect, a component should be
discharged slowly.

When charging a system or component, always follow the instructions in the aircraft
maintenance manual. Typical precautions would include: -

a. The pressure required should be checked according to the ambient temperature or


weight and centre of gravity.

b. Charging connections and equipment must be clean, dry and free from oil or
grease.

c. Charge the system slowly.

d. Supply hoses should only be disconnected when the shut off valves and charging
valves are closed.

e. Blanking caps should be fitted on completion of the charging operation.

f. When charging oxygen systems, adequate fire fighting equipment should be


available. Use explosion proof torches and lamp.

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ACETYLENE GAS

Acetylene gas used in welding, is stored in steel cylinders. This gas is unstable when
compressed to high pressures and because of this it is contained in the cylinders dissolved
in acetone. The gas is sometimes known as dissolved acetylene. The acetone is contained
in a porous spongy mass of kapok. Acetone can absorb 25 times its own volume of
acetylene gas at sea level pressure and temperature. For every increase in pressure of 1
bar, it can absorb an equal amount.

Acetylene cylinders have left hand threads, since the gas is highly inflammable. No
naked lights should be held near a leaking cylinder, valve or supply tube. Leaks can be
detected by smell or soapy water. If any part of an acetylene welding apparatus catches
fire, the valve on the cylinder must be closed. Acetylene cylinders should be used and
stored upright.

Refer to CAIP Leaflet BL/1-7 for storage of compressed gas cylinders.

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GAS CYLINDER IDENTIFICATION

GASES USED IN AIRCRAFT

GAS MAXIMUM
CYLINDER CYLINDER COLOUR LETTER COLOUR USE
CONTAINED PRESSURE

Air Light Grey AIR in Black 4000 psi (276 bars) General use (Charging aircraft
systems, tyres and accumulators).

Nitrogen Light Grey NITROGEN in Black 4000 psi (267 bars) Fireproofing aircraft tanks,
inflating tyres, undercarriage
Black Neck Band struts.

Hydrogen Red HYDROGEN in Red

Oxygen Black OXYGEN in Black Workshop (welding)

Oxygen Green OXYGEN in Green American Aircraft

Oxygen Black with white Neck OXYGEN in White 3600 psi (248 bars) British Aircraft (Crew and
passenger emergency breathing).

FREON Purple and Grey CCL2 F2 in White Charging vapour cycle cooling
Refrigerant packs.

Helium Brown Inflating helicopter emergency


flotation bags

CYLINDER GAS CYLINDER COLOUR LETTER COLOUR MAXIMUM USE

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CONTAINED PRESSURE

OTHER COMMON GASES

ACETYLENE Maroon ACETYLENE in White . Psi bars Welding

CARBON Black with Aluminium WHITE psi bars. Fire fighting


DIOXIDE Neck Band

PROPANE Red WHITE - Heating, Brazing and oxy-Propane


(Propagas) metal cutting.

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Charging regulator

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ADHESIVES

INTRODUCTION
Many adhesives are available for use on aircraft. The range of materials may be divided
into groups.
Adhesives for general purposes.
Adhesives for use where high temperature is encountered.
Adhesives for use where resistance to fuel, oil or water is essential.

No one adhesive is available which gives perfect results under all conditions on every
surface. It is most important therefore to ensure that the correct adhesive is used.

GENERAL
The advantage of using an adhesive as a fastening method is the ability of adhesive to fill
the joint area completely. This prevents air or water entering the joint.

Generally an adhesive is only as strong as the surface to which it is applied. If the surface
is painted, dirty, or greasy, the strength of the resulting bond is greatly reduced. The
surface to be joined should be painted stripped and degreased, using the specified paint
stripper and solvent. Alternatively, if degreasing only is required, a cloth moistened with
equal volumes of white spirit and naphtha should be used.

Adhesives and cleaning solvents should only be used in well-ventilated areas at a


temperature of not less than 18oC. Most of these compounds are highly inflammable and
must not be used near naked flames. The manufacturers instructions should always be
followed and any adhesive which has exceeded its shelf life should not be used.

Carefully remove all traces of dirt, oil, grease, paint, French chalk or old adhesive
compound from the surfaces to be joined.
After using a cleaning or degreasing solvent, allow the surfaces to dry and wipe
them with a clean soft cloth.
Do not touch or handle a cleaned surface.
If a brush or spatula is to be used, it must be clean and dry before use to avoid
contamination of the joint.
Ensure that a joint is not moved or subjected to any strain until the adhesive used
has fully cured. During this setting period, fumes are given off and may cause
corrosion if the work is not adequately ventilated.

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LUBRICATING OILS
INTRODUCTION
Mineral lubricating oils, like all other petroleum grades, are mixtures of hydrocarbons of
the various types. They are obtained from crude oil during the refining process.
Lubricating oils are classed as either paraffins or naphthenic. When viewed through
artificial light, paraffin base oils have an olive green tint, while the naphthenic oils have a
bluish tint. The two types differ in many essential characteristics which determine the
uses to which each is applied.

LUBRICATION
Moving parts are lubricated to reduce friction and wear. Friction is the resistance to
motion which occurs when one surface slides on another surface. Wear is any loss or
destruction resulting from such sliding. Solid surfaces are never perfectly smooth, and
contact is limited to the high spots. The high spots tend to be rubbed off until a larger area
of contact occurs. During this process small fragments of metal are torn away, resulting in
smoother surfaces. Sometimes larger fragments are turn away and the surfaces become
rougher.

The purpose of a lubricant is to prevent the surfaces from touching each other and so
reduce friction and wear. This may be done in two ways:-

By fluid film lubrication.


By boundary lubrication.

FLUID FILM LUBRICATION


Fluid film lubrication means that there is a very thin continuous film separating the
moving surfaces, preventing metal to metal contact.

The film of oil takes the load applied to the bearing and can be considered to have three
layers. The two outer layers cling to their respective surfaces e.g. a bearing and a shaft.
The central layer consists of particles of oil which are continually being sheared as the
shaft revolves.

The thinner the oil the more easily this shearing action takes place. Oil, which at a certain
temperature is thick, will restrict free movement between surfaces to a greater extent than
an oil which at the same temperature is thin. This is an important factor concerning the
starting of a cold piston engine.

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The ideal lubricating oil is one which is as fluid as possible at low temperatures, but
which resists to the greatest extent the tendency found in all oils to thin out at high
temperature. When an oil thins out, the cushion of oil losses its ability to resist pressure.
It is squeezed out from between the bearing surfaces and fluid film lubrication ceases.
Before the oil disappears entirely there is an intermediate state which is known as
boundary lubrication.

BOUNDARY LUBRICATION
This is a condition where lubrication is almost breaking down, the oil film between the
surfaces under load being reduced to almost nothing. The surfaces are not actually in
contact and will continue to slide until the very thin smear of oil disappears. When
conditions of boundary lubrication exist, it is the oiliness of the oil which is important,
which means the resistance to breakage or vapourisation of the oil film.

LUBRICATING OIL PROPERTIES


The properties required in a lubricant are decided by the purposes for which it is to be
used. Every lubricant must:-
Wet the surfaces needing lubrication.
Be of suitable viscosity.
Not evaporate excessively in service.
Not harm any material with which it comes into contact.
Have no tendency to deposit gum, varnish, sludge or other materials which may
interfere with its correct performance.
Be chemically stable under service conditions.

In addition, the lubricating oil is often required to carry away heat from engine parts and
to protect surfaces from corrosive substances. The oil will also carry away carbon and
metal particles to the filters where they will be trapped.

VISCOSITY
The viscosity of a liquid is a measure of its internal friction or its resistance to flow. A
liquid which flows freely is said to have a low viscosity and one which is slow to flow, a
high viscosity. Viscosity is one of the most important properties of a lubricating oil. The
viscosity of an oil varies with temperature. The viscosity at the operating temperature
should be such that a fluid film is continuously maintained. It should not however be so
high that fluid friction becomes excessive. This raises the temperature of the oil which in
turn will raise the temperature of the bearing.

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ADDITIVES
Additives are substances added in small quantities to an oil. These give the oil some
desirable property or properties, which it would not otherwise process.

EXTREME PRESSURE ADDITIVES


These are necessary in lubricating oils used with hypoid gears. The teeth motions of both
the spur gear and the worm gear are combined in the hypoid with the result that a
scraping action is developed which wipes away normal lubricants. Lubricants for hypoid
gears must possess, in addition to high oiliness, the ability to coat the gear surface with
chemical films which act as an anti-weld coating. This prevents scoring and scuffing,
even when the oil is momentarily scraped away from the gear teeth.

ANTI-CORROSION ADDITIVES
The purpose of anti-corrosion additives is to protect some particular part of an engine
from corrosion, such as bearing metals.

TYPES OF PISTON ENGINE LUBRICATING OIL


STRAIGHT MINERAL OIL
This oil is often used during the initial running of new and overhauled piston engines.
This oil tends to oxidize when heated to high temperatures or when aerated. There is a
tendency for the oil to form carbon deposits in turbo-charger bearings due to the high
temperatures there when the engine is stopped. Sludge also forms from such combustion
products as partly burned fuel, water vapour, and lead compounds. These particles clog
oil screens and score engine bearings.

DETERGENT OIL
Detergent oil is mineral oil with additives to increase its resistance to oxidation. It has a
cleaning effect on the engine, loosening sludge and carbon deposits which have a
tendency to block filters. This oil is not usually recommended for aircraft engines.

ASHLESS DISPERSANT OIL


This oil does not have the carbon forming restrictions of straight mineral oil, neither does
it form ash deposits. Additives are added to ashless dispersant oil which disperse the
sludge forming materials, making them stay in suspension until they can be trapped in the
filters.

Engine manufacturers normally recommend that new piston engines are operated using
mineral oil for the first fifty flying hours, or until oil consumption has stabilized. After
this the oil is changed to Ashless Dispersant Oil (A.D. oil). The reason for this is that

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A.D. oil has much better lubricating characteristics and does not allow enough wear to
bed in the piston rings.

SYNTHETIC OIL
Synthetic lubricating oil has a synthetic rather than a petroleum base. At present it has
limited approval for piston engines. It has good low temperature operating characteristics.
Its viscosity at -29oC is about the same as ashless dispersant mineral oil at -18oC.
Synthetic oil has less tendency toward oxidation and sludge formation. The wear
characteristics of synthetic oil are about the same as those of ashless dispersant oil, but
better than straight mineral oil. A disadvantage of synthetic oil is its tendency to soften
rubber components and resins. Synthetic oil is also more expensive than mineral base
oils.

GAS TURBINE ENGINE LUBRICATING OIL


The lubricating oil used in a turbo-jet engine is not subject to the same high loading, high
temperature conditions common to most piston engines. Owing to the high speeds of the
rotating assemblies, an oil of much lower viscosity must be used. For starting, a turbo-jet
engine has to be accelerated to a high speed in a short time. The lower viscosity oil
enables this to be done, with the minimum amount of power.

Synthetic oil is used in most modern engines.

ENGINE OIL RATINGS


VISCOSITY
The viscosity of a liquid is a measure of its internal friction or its resistance to flow. The
grading of engine oils is shown below:-

SAE 30 SAE 40 SAE 50 SAE 60


Aviation Aviation Aviation Aviation
65 80 100 120
S.S.U @ 100 F 443 616 1124 1530

S.S.U. @ 120 F 215 310 480 630

S.S.U. @ 210 F 65.4 79.2 103 123.2

POUR POINT F -20 -15 -10 -10

FLASH POINT F 450 465 515 520

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The instrument used for measuring the viscosity of an oil is the Saybolt Universal
Viscosimeter. The commercial aviation numbers relate to the time taken for 60 cubic
centimeters of oil at 210 F (98.8C) to pass through an accurately calibrated orifice. The
time taken becomes the S.S.U. (Saybolt Second Universal Viscosity). The S.A.E.
(American Society of Automotive Engineers) numbers are purely arbitrary and bear no
relationship to the S.S.U.

The letter W after the SAE number indicates that the oil is suitable for winter use in
cold climates, in addition to meeting the viscosity requirements.

POUR POINT
The pour point of an oil is the lowest temperature at which it will flow, or can be poured.

FLASH POINT
The temperature at which a heated liquid gives off sufficient vapour to flash momentarily
on the application of a small flame.

IDENTIFICATION OF LUBRICATING OILS


Lubricating oils can be identified only by the authorized markings on the container. Refer
to the manufacturers manual and Aviation Specifications Guide published by the Fuel
and Oil suppliers.

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GREASES
INTRODUCTION
Grease is used as a lubricant in preference to oil for a number of reasons. Where
conditions are dirty, dusty or wet, the grease will act as a seal which will tend to prevent
the entry of foreign matter into moving parts. The use of grease for vertical bearings will
simplify design. Grease will remain in place while oil would tend to drain away. A single
application of grease packed into a bearing may provide all the lubrication needed for a
long time, or even for the life of the bearing. Grease lubrication can often be arranged
with much cheaper fittings and less complicated design, than would be required for oil
lubrication. Grease cannot be used where heat is required to be carried away by the
lubricant, or where contamination or deterioration is likely to occur. Grease is not suitable
for use where metal particles need to be carried away. Oil is more economical wherever
grease does not possess special advantages.

COMPOSITION
Grease is a semi-solid form of lubricant composed of emulsified mineral lubricating oil
and a metallic soap. The soaps are compounds of metal base and animal or vegetable oils,
fats or fatty acids. They are called gelling agents. The most commonly used are sodium
(soda), calcium (lime) and aluminium, but other bases are also used.

Greases contain oil and many of the common oil additives are added to the grease.

TYPES OF GREASES
CALCIUM BASE GREASES
These greases contain calcium soaps. They are smooth in texture and their consistency
varies with the amount of soap that the grease contains. Calcium base greases are not
used at operating temperatures above about 80oC. These greases are very water resistant.

SODIUM BASE GREASES


These greases are easily washed away by water and not suitable for use under wet
conditions. They are generally used to lubricate ball, roller, and needle-type bearings that
are subjected to shock loads or high temperatures. They are also used where there is a
need to retain the lubricant under conditions of high speed rotation and centrifugal action.
Sodium base greases are smooth or fibrous in texture.

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ALUMINIUM BASE GREASES


These are suitable for plain bearings where the speed of rotation is slow and the part is
subjected to shock loads. They are water resistant, resist thinning at high temperature and
resist shock loading. Aluminium base greases are used to lubricate landing gear joints,
etc.

LITHIUM BASE GREASES


This grease is used for extremely low temperature applications. It is a smooth, brown
buttery grease consisting of a synthetic oil base and a lithium soap thickener. Additional
materials are added to provide resistance to oxidation and corrosion. Lithium base
greases are used in anti-friction bearings, gears, rolling and sliding surfaces, electrical
equipment, small actuators etc., where low temperatures are likely to be encountered.

ADDITIVES
Graphite is sometimes added to calcium or sodium base greases. Graphite has a higher
heat conductivity than oil and graphite greases are used to lubricate sparking plug
threads. It is also used as an anti-seize grease.

Molybdenum disulphide grease is a very effective anti-seize lubricant. It is also used as


an anti-fretting agent. Molybdenum disulphide lubricant is also available as a dry powder.

At temperatures of 300oC and above, it decomposes, yielding sulphur dioxide and


molybic oxide, the combination of which is both acidic and abrasive. This can result in
stress corrosion in high strength steels. Nickel base alloys used in gas turbine engines are
particularly susceptible to sulphur corrosion attack from the degradation products of
molybdenum disulphide.

Molybdenum disulphide greases and lubricants must only be used when specified by the
airframe or engine manufacturer.

IDENTIFICATION OF GREASES
A grease can be identified only by the authorized markings on the container. The
appearance of a grease should not be used as a method of identification. Refer to the
manufacturers maintenance manuals and Aviation Specifications guide published by the
Fuel and Oil suppliers.

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SEALING COMPOUNDS
INTRODUCTION
Pressurised aircraft structures and integral fuel tanks are carefully sealed during
manufacture. During maintenance and repair operations, it is necessary to maintain good
sealing. During the repair of damaged sealing, old sealant must be completely removed or
the edges feathered in the affected area to produce a solid residual material.

The aircraft manufacturers instructions must always be followed when sealing integral
fuel tanks and pressure cabins. The following notes serve only as a study guide.

SEALANT MATERIALS
Various manufacturers supply sealant materials for use in integral fuel tanks and
pressurized cabins. These include:-
Faying surface sealants.
Brushing and filleting sealant.
Low adhesion sealants for access doors.

When cured, the materials form a resilient seal which adheres to metals such as
aluminium, magnesium, titanium, steel and numerous other materials.

EQUIPMENT
The equipment used during sealing operations includes cleaning cloths, stiff bristle
brushes (not nylon), sealant gun, polyethylene cartridges and nozzles for the sealant gun.
Cutting tools should be made from hard wood.

CLEANING PROCEDURE
Immediately prior to the application of the sealing compound, the surface must be
cleaned. This will ensure that the surface is free from dirt, grease and metal chips.
Metal cleaning should be done with a clean soft lintless cloth moistened with
Methyl Ethyl Ketone (M.E.K.). This should be poured on to the cloth to avoid
contaminating the solvent. The solvent must never be poured on to the structure.
This avoids the possibility of the fluid running between the layers of structure and
creeping out again after cleaning.
The area must be dried with a dry, clean lintless cloth before the solvent has
evaporated from the surface.
If the primer is removed during cleaning, it should be touched up after all sealing
operations are complete.
Always clean an area wider than that required for the sealant.
The cleaned areas must not be touched, to prevent surface contamination.

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APPLICATION SEQUENCE
To achieve an adequate seal in an efficient manner, sealing operations should be carried
out in the following order:-
Faying surface sealing on assembly.
Filling of holes and slots as required.
Joggles and confined holes by injection as required.
Fillet seal seams and joints as required.
Faying surface sealing of detachable panels as required.

NOTE:-The sealant manufacturer may specify a minimum application temperature for


the sealant.

MIXING TWO-PART SEALANTS


The sealants are supplied in two part kits, obtainable in various sizes. The kits consist of
the proper proportion of a base compound and an accelerator in separate containers. The
entire contents of a kit must be mixed together. The base compound and the accelerator
are different colours. Before use it must be ensured that the shelf life of the kit has not
expired.

When mixing, the accelerator is stirred in its container until an even consistency is
obtained. The accelerator is then stirred into the base compound and thoroughly mixed
until an even colour is obtained. Caution must be used to avoid stirring air into the
mixture. Once mixed, the compound has a limited application life.

Mixed sealing compounds may, if permitted, be stored in a refrigerator for a limited


period. Reference must be made to the manufacturers instructions.

APPLICATION OF SEALANTS
Once mixed, the sealing compound must be used within its application life.

Sealing compounds must be completely cured before any pressure testing is carried out.

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FAYING SURFACE SEALANTS


The sealant may be applied by brushing or by extrusion gun, depending on the
type. The sealant should be spread evenly to approximately one thirty second of
an inch (0.88mm). It should be flowed on with a minimum of stroking to prevent
the formation of bubbles. Excessive amounts of sealing compounds should not be
used.
Before the expiry of the assembly life, all work on the faying surface should be
finished and all rivets formed. Sealant extruded through rivet holes must be wiped
from the end of the rivets before forming.
A small continuous bead of sealant should be squeezed out on both sides of the
overlap when the fasteners are drawn tight. The sealant should be faired out to
leave a smooth fillet along the joint.

INJECTION SEALING
Injection sealing may be applied to provide continuity of sealing where fillet seals
are interrupted by holes, joggles or structure. The sealant is forced into one end of
the cavity or injection hole, if provided, with a sealing gun. The process is
continued until the sealant emerges from a specified opening which ensures
continuity of sealing.
When sealing a slot, the sealant should be applied so as to fill and have a
continuous contact with the bottom and sides of the slot.

FILLET SEALING
Fillet seals are applied using a sealing gun. The nozzle tip should be pointed into the
seam and held perpendicular. A bead of sealant should be forced ahead of the nozzle tip.
Fillets should be shaped as in the illustration.

WINDOW SEALING
Windows should be sealed in accordance with the aircraft manufacturers instructions.
Only the specified types of cleaner and sealing compound should be used. Unauthorised
materials may cause crazing of acrylic plastics. When the window is assembled, the
sealant should be allowed to extrude from around the window before being faired off.
The fasteners should also be sealed.

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ELECTRICAL SEALING
When wire bundles or looms are continuous and pass through pressure bulkheads, they
should be sealed as specified by the aircraft manufacturer. The illustration shows a two-
part seal assembly which is fitted around the cable bundle and attached to the pressure
side of the bulkhead. Masking tape is wrapped around the wire bundle to retain the
sealant. The specified sealant is then injected into the injection hole in the fitting. The
sealant is forced in until it emerges from the notches in the outer periphery of the seal
assembly mounting flanges. Excess sealant is wiped off at this stage. The masking tape is
removed when the sealing compound has cured.

CLEANING OF EQUIPMENT
On completion of the work, all the equipment used should be cleaned before the sealant
cures, using M.E.K. or a specified solvent.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
When using cleaning solvents and sealing compounds, always observe the following
safety precautions.
Always work in a well ventilated area.
Avoid breathing solvent fumes.
No smoking or naked lights must be allowed in the area.
Always wash the hands before eating or smoking.
Avoid prolonged contact with the skin, contact with open breaks in the skin and
ingestion.
Wear protective clothing as required.
Always follow the manufacturers instructions when mixing compounds.

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APPROXIMATELY
1.32 INCH THICK

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FAIRING TOOL
TOOL

Insert whole page diagrams

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AIRCRAFT HANDLING

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RAMP MAINTENANCE - GENERAL

Aircraft Arrival (Figs 2 & 3)


1. Ensure the area is clear of all equipment and debris.
2. Ensure that the required maintenance equipment is standing by e.g., equipment for:
baggage handling; refueling; toilet servicing; system maintenance electrical
hydraulic.
3. Ensure servicing personnel available.
4. When aircraft arrives, chock wheels, shut down engines and put brakes off. Fit
ground locks and airframe/engines/systems covers.
5. Unload and/or load aircraft.
6. Carry out after flight/between flight inspection and replenish consumable stores.
Rectify defects. Clean cabin.
7. Secure aircraft if it is not leaving.
8. Complete details in tech log.

Aircraft Departure (Figs. 2 & 3)


1. Carry out before flight inspection.
2. Check weight and balance schedule.
3. Check loading (passengers/cargo) and fuel state.
4. Remove all covers and locks.
5. Ensure aircraft is free of ice and snow.
6. Clear tech log.
7. Check all doors are closed.
8. Ensure ground crew in place and check with pilot.
9. Ensure equipment available for push back.
10. Isolate nose wheel steering.
11. Clear area start engines.
12. Remove chocks.
13. After push back reinstate nose wheel steering.

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Fig. 1 - Towing the A310

Typical Terminal Service Arrangement

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Fig. 3 - A320 External connections

TOWING

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In general when towing on firm ground a towing arm may be used, attached to the nose
wheel or tail wheel. When towing on soft ground a bridle is used attached to the main
landing gear with a steering arm attached to the tail wheel or nose wheel.

Fig. 4 - Towing the 747

Towing Bridle and Steering Arm


On soft or uneven ground, tail wheeled aircraft are towed forward by a towing bridle or
frame. The cable of the bridle is threaded through a towing attachment containing a
pulley on which the cable rides. The free ends of the cable are attached to towing lugs on
the main landing gear. A steering arm is attached to the tail wheel.

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With aircraft fitted with nose wheels, the towing bridle may be used for forward or
backward movement, and is fitted to the front or back of the main landing gear. To tow
the aircraft forward a towing bridle is used fitted with a special towing arm attached to
the nose wheel. The tug end of the towing arm contains a pulley through which the
towing bridle cable passes. This allows the aircraft to be steered by the towing arm while
even tension on the towing bridle cable is maintained.

Towing Arm
When towing an aircraft in the hangar or on hard standing a towing arm may be used. It
is fitted to the nose or tail wheel and may incorporate a spring shock absorber, and is
fitted with shear pin to prevent excessive loads being placed through the nose or tail unit.

Towing Frame
A towing frame may be used on light aircraft. It provides positive control of the aircraft
by the tug and a steering arm is not required.

Precautions
1. Always ensure the aircraft is serviceable to tow e.g.:-
(a) Landing gear ground locks fitted.
(b) Three greens showing on the flight deck.
(c) The brake system is serviceable.
(d) The aircraft is structurally intact.
(e) The tyres are correctly inflated.
2. Ensure that the correct number of personnel is used and the person on the aircraft
brakes is competent to use them.
3. Ensure power steering is off or disconnected.
4. The tug driver should be qualified and take his/her orders from the person in
charge.

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5. The person in charge should be able to communicate with all the others involved in
the towing operations.
6. Look-outs should be positioned at the extremities of the aircraft.
7. Turn corners with as large a radius as possible and do not exceed the minimum
turning radius as laid down in the manual.
8. When finishing the tow ensure that the wheels have revolved at least one revolution
in a straight line to relieve tyre and landing gear stresses.

PARKING
When parking an aircraft the following precautions must be observed:-
1. The aircraft should be parked in such a way so as not to obstruct the movement of
other aircraft or equipment.
2. Park nose into wind where possible.
3. Intake and pitot static blanks should be fitted, also undercarriage and control
locks.
4. Chock wheels fore and aft.
5. Secure aircraft doors and hatches.

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PICKETING (Fig. 8)
It is advisable to picket an aircraft if it is to stand outside for long periods. This applies
particularly to small aircraft which would otherwise be damaged in a high wind. The
following precautions should be observed.
1. Proceed as for parking.
2. Consult the maintenance manual.
3. Fit weather covers to wheels, cockpits, etc.
4. Isolate fuel tanks and battery.
5. Secure the aircraft to the ground using the main and secondary picketing points.
6. Drain drinking water, remove perishable goods and valuable and attractive items.
7. Move aircraft regularly to avoid tyre flat spots.
8. Carry out regular check of aircraft in accordance with the manual.
9. For helicopters remove or secure blades.

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COLD WEATHER PRECAUTIONS


General
1. Clear the working areas of snow and ice.
2. Keep sand and salt away from working areas and aircraft as much as possible.
3. Ideally keep aircraft in heated hangars as much as possible. (to prevent
condensation)

After Flight
1. Fit all covers, pitot/static plugs, and U/C locks.
2. If aircraft is wet apply anti-freeze liquid to the underside of covers before fitting.
3. Allow any ice in intakes, water drains etc., to melt, drain water then fit covers.
4. Drain fuel, oil, and water traps in pitot/static systems. Drain oil and water traps in
pneumatic systems.
5. Park or picket aircraft.

Before Flight
1. Remove covers blanks and locks.
2. Remove ice and snow from airframe and engines.
3. Pre-heat aircraft/engines.
4. Fill systems and check for leaks.
5. If aircraft does not fly within a certain time (depending on ambient temperature)
redo item 2 above.

JACKING AND TRESTLING


Aircraft are supported clear of the ground for manufacture and for maintenance purposes.
The equipment to do this includes jacks, trestles, and slings.

The equipment to carry out a particular task is listed in the maintenance manual as is the
procedure to be carried out. Some aircraft are serviced in servicing docks and, while the

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aircraft is supported, the area under the landing gear is lowered to leave the aircraft
supported clear of the ground, e.g., B747.
Trestles (Fig. 9)
Usually used to support the aircraft after it has been jacked, but in some cases may be
used as a jack.

They may be specially made or made up from various lengths of angle iron joined
together with nuts and bolts. They incorporate one or two jacking heads which are
adjustable by screw threads. A metal or wooden beam is secured to the jacking head(s)
which is curved to fit the underside of the aircraft; it is also padded to prevent local
damage. Universal trestles can be supplied, so that using various lengths of angle iron
trestles of different sizes, height and breadth can be constructed. The jacking heads will
be supplied to fit various aircraft types.

Precautions
1. Check that the trestle and beam is of the correct type.
2. Check security of nuts and bolts.
3. Check screw jack threads for serviceability and lubricate.
4. Check padding and security of beam.

Lifting Jacks (Fig. 10)


These are usually hydraulically operated to raise and lower the aircraft but for long
periods of support trestles are used in conjunction with the jacks once the aircraft has
been raised to the correct height.
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Types
(a) Pillar
(b) Tripod
(c) Bipod
(d) Quadropod

Hydraulic jacks comprise a basic central hydraulic unit around which are the support
legs. The moving pillar has either a screw thread and locking collar or a collar and
locking pin which enables the jack to be mechanically locked when the aircraft is at the
correct height. This prevents the collapse of the jack due to fluid leakage. To release the
locking device the jack must be raised slightly to off-load the collar.

Raising the jack is by means of a pump after the fluid control valve has been closed.
Some jacks may be powered pneumatically and controlled from a central point. The air
release valve must be opened whenever the jack is raised or lowered.

To lower the jack, release the locking collar and slowly open the oil control valve to
control the speed of fall. The air release valve must be closed when the jack is stationary
and the oil control valve must remain closed when the locking device is engaged.

An adaptor is fitted into the top of the pillar and this locates into a jack plate or pad which
is fitted, usually by pip pins, onto the underside of the airframe. The adaptor and plate
form a ball joint which gives a degree of flexibility when raising and lowering the
aircraft. The bottom of the legs fit into plates with a ball socket joint to allow for uneven
ground. It is essential that the plates sit firmly on the ground and that the legs are aligned
with a small recess in the plate socket to prevent binding.

When jacking, ensure all legs are adjusted so that they carry equal weight, pins are fully
in, and that the jack is vertical.

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Fig. 10 - Jacks

The types of jack differ in their lifting capacity, size, number and disposition of legs.
(a) Tripod three legs, equally disposed. Used for vertical lifts.
(b) Quadrapod four legs, equally disposed. Two fixed and two adjustable to allow
for uneven ground.
(c) Bipod one of the legs of a quadrapod jack is removed to leave two load bearing
legs and one adjustable. This is used for arc lifts. This is a difficult operation and is
not often carried out.
(d) Bottle jack used for wheel changes.

Larger jacks have transportation wheels fitted either permanently or temporarily for
movement to and from the aircraft. The correct jack must be used (the maximum load is
marked on the side of the jack) and the aircraft should be raised and lowered slowing.

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Servicing usually involves the following:-


(a) Cleaning, lubrication, and inspection for damage and corrosion.
(b) Checking oil level.
(c) All pins are in position and leg adjusting mechanisms work.
(d) Correct function of air and oil control valves.
(e) Correct operation of the jack, and correct operation of locking devices.

Jacking and Trestling a Nose Wheel Aircraft (Fig. 12)


1. Consult the manual for details of procedure, equipment used, position of
equipment, weight and c of g limits, fuel state etc.
2. Check aircrafts C of G and fuel state.
3. Check aircraft is structurally sound to jack.
4. Isolate appropriate electrical circuits (pull C.B.s).
5. Bond aircraft to ground.
6. Jack on firm level ground in the hangar or outside in a position so as not to obstruct
other aircraft movements. If jacking outside check wind speed and direction with
air traffic control and cross refer to manual.
7. Position ground equipment.
8. A person who knows what to do should be positioned at each of the following:-
(a) each jack and trestle
(b) look-out for overhead obstructions
(c) leveling station
(d) a person in charge to be in contact with all others.
9. Chock the wheels and put brakes off.
10. Raise the aircraft slowly and keep in a level position, follow up with a tail trestle.
11. At the required height lock all jacks and position steady trestles.

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Jacking and Trestling a Tail Wheel Aircraft


Many of the points mentioned for a nose wheel aircraft apply here but the general
procedure is different and is usually as follows:-
1. Chock the main wheels and ensure the brakes are off.
2. Weigh the tail either by attaching weights to the tail wheel or placing weights inside
the rear of the aircraft (large aircraft).
3. Raise the tail of the aircraft manually (small aircraft), or by use of a crane and
special adaptor in the main spare of the tailplane.
4. Place a trestle under the tail, lower the aircraft onto it, and tie it down.
5. Place main jacks in position and raise the main wheels clear of the ground.

Lowering the Aircraft


This will vary with each type of aircraft but in general it is the reverse of raising.
1. Consult the manual.
2. Ensure the landing gear is complete, serviceable, and locked down with three
greens showing.
3. Check wheels and tyres for serviceability and ensure tyres are correctly inflated.
4. Hydraulic system pressurized with landing gear locked down.
5. Wheel brakes are off and all unnecessary equipment and items clear from under the
aircraft.
6. All systems that require the aircraft to be jacked for testing have been tested and
cleared.

Jacking and Trestling a Helicopter


This is similar in many ways to jacking and trestling a nose wheel aircraft.

Pillar or Bottle Jacks (Fig. 11)


Used to raise just one side of the aircraft only to facilitate a wheel change, and brake
servicing.

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Fig. 11 - Bottle Jacks for the Blackburn Beverly

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WELDING
INTRODUCTION
The aircraft maintenance technician in the light aircraft repair field, will in some cases be
called upon to repair important aircraft parts by welding, but if one is ignorant and
careless, the weld could vary easily fail.

In the airline field, it is unlikely that the normal technician will be required to make weld
repairs, as a specially approved welder is required to do this job. It is however essential
that the aircraft technician knows how to inspect weld repairs. He must also know how to
identify an inferior and weak weld as well as know which materials can and cannot be
welded.

The purpose of this section therefore is for you to appreciate the skills, difficulties and
limitations involved with welding.

There are many different types of welding, the ones most commonly used in the aircraft
industry are:-
1. Oxy-acetylene welding
2. Electric Arc Welding
3. Inert gas welding
4. Resistance welding
5. Electron Beam welding

OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING
A flame a produced by a torch by mixing both oxygen and acetylene. When the oxy-
acetylene flame is applied to the edges of metal parts. They soon become molten, and
flow together to form one solid piece after cooling and solidifying.

Equipment
a) Oxygen cylinder (black)
b) Acetylene cylinder (maroon)
c) Regulators
d) Filler rod
e) Spark igniter

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With the gas cylinders, special precautions are taken to ensure that confusion on identity
does not occur. Oxygen cylinders are painted black and have a right handed valve thread,
whilst acetylene cylinders are maroon in colour and have a left handed valve thread. In
addition, the cylinders are produced in a distinctive shape as shown.

Each regulator incorporates two gauges, one reading to 4000 lbs per sq. in. and shows the
pressure in the cylinder, whilst the other reads to 30 lbs per sq. in. and records the
pressure in the welding torch. The pressure in a full oxygen cylinder is 2,000 lbs per sq.
in.

The torch is available in various designs, always with detachable nozzles of varying sizes
according to the thickness of metal to be welded.

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Injector-type welding torch

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Never use oil or grease on oxygen connectors

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The weld torch is concentrated into one area until the parent metal melts into a pool
and merges together. The filler rod is then dipped into the pool, which then melts and
adds to the pool. The weld torch is then rotated in small circles and slowly moved along
the work piece to form a join.

Two of the most common methods are the leftward weld and the rightward weld as
shown. The leftward weld is used for thinner gauge metal whilst the rightward weld is
used for heavier gauge material.

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The welding rod is necessary because the molten parent metals themselves cannot
provide enough material to make a strong enough weld. It is necessary to make the weld
bead much thicker than the parent metal because a weld is effectively a cast which is
never as strong as the parent metal, which may be work hardened.

The welding rod is usually copper coated and is the same material as the material to be
welded.

Welding Techniques
Different ratios of oxygen to acetylene are used for different weld materials, for
example:-

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Some of the more common types of welded joints.

omenclature of a weld

The face is the exposed surface of the weld. The root is the exposed surface at the bottom
or base of the weld. The throat is the distance through the centre of the weld from the root
to the face; that is, it is the minimum thickness of the weld along a straight line drawn
through the root. The toe is the edge formed where the face of the weld meets the base
metal; that is, the edge of the fusion zone in the base metal on each side of the weld. The
reinforcement is the quantity of weld metal added above the surface of the base metal to
give the weld a greater thickness in cross section. The leg is the dimension of the weld
metal extending on each side of the root of the joint and the fusion zone is the width of
the weld metal, including the depth of fusion in the base metal on each side of the joint.
The bead is the metal deposited as the weld is made. In order to have good penetration,
the base metal at the joint must be melted throughout its thickness; hence a bead of weld
metal should be visible on the underside of a butt joint.

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Expansion and Contraction


All metals expand when they are heated. If there is any restriction to this expansion, then
when the work piece is welded, the expansion could cause buckling and/or cracking.
Also, since the filler metal is molten when it is added, then when it cools, the work piece
will distort and/or crack also, as shown below.

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Oxy-acetylene Welding of Aluminium, Magnesium and Titanium.


When magnesium reaches a sufficiently high temperature, it burns with a very high bright
flame. Care must be taken to avoid a situation where magnesium shavings, particles, or
scraps can be ignited.

Titanium, in the molten state, reacts rapidly with oxygen. When being welded, it must be
completely protected from oxygen.

Pure aluminium and some of its alloys can be welded. Designations for weldable
aluminium alloys are 1100, 3003, 4043 and 5052. Alloys 6053, 6061 and 6151 can be
welded if they are heat treated after welding.

Aluminium should be welded with a soft neutral flame. This ensures that there will be no
unburned oxygen in the flame to combine with the aluminium.

Before starting to weld aluminium, the edges to be welded must be thoroughly cleaned.
Oxides can be removed from the area to be welded with fine emery paper.

The preparation of the edges of aluminium sheet or plate which is to be welded depends
upon the thickness of the material. For thin materials, a 90 o flange can be formed on the
edges. The height of the flange should be the same as the thickness of the metal. Medium
thickness metals can be notched as shown. This improves the penetration of the weld and
helps to prevent distortion due to expansion.

To further prevent oxidation of the aluminium at the high temperatures a flux should be
applied to the surfaces. Care must be taken to avoid overheating the metal or the structure
of the metal will be damaged and its strength reduced.

The welding of magnesium alloys is very similar to that of aluminium alloys except that
the thermal expansion is greater, and every precaution must be taken to avoid distortion.
Also, all traces of the flux must be removed by placing in a bath of hot water, then a
suitable corrosion treatment used as soon as possible.

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ELECTRIC ARC WELDING


Principle
An electric Arc welder works on the process of striking a high current arc between an
electrode and the work piece.

The action which takes place in the arc during the welding process is illustrated below.
The arc stream is seen in the middle of the picture. This is the electric arc created by
the current flowing through the air between the electrode and the work. The temperature
of this arc is between 6000F and 11000F which is more than enough to melt the metal.
The arc is very bright as well as very hot, and cannot be looked at with the naked eye
without risking painful, though temporary injury. It is therefore essential that the operator
wears suitable protective goggles.

The arc melts the plate, or parent metal an actually digs into it. The molten metal forms a
pool or crater and tends to flow away from the arc. As it moves away from the arc it
cools and solidifies. A slag forms on top of the welding during cooling. The slag comes
from the flux coating on the electrode.

To achieve a balance between the advantages and disadvantages of each, AC Current is


used, which will heat well on one half cycle, and clean on the other half cycle.

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Techniques in Electric Arc Welding

Speed of Travel
A fast rate of travel results in a thin
deposit of the filler metal and can
result in insufficient fusion of the
filler metal with the base metal. The
surface of the weld has elongated
ripples and a porous crater.

Too slow a rate of travel gives a wide


deposit of the filler and it can allow
the slag to flood the weld pool
making it difficult to deposit the filler
metal. The surface of the weld
appears as coarse ripples and has a
flat crater.

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DCSP, DCRP and AC


DCSP stands for Direct Current Straight Polarity. Here the generator output is Direct
Current (DC), THE WORKPIECE IS POSITIVE AND THE ELECTRODE IS
NEGATIVELY CHARGED. Hence the electrons flow through the air in the direction
shown in the diagram below. The constant bombardment of these electrons have a good
heating effect on the metal, therefore a small electrode can be used.

DCRP stands for Direct Current Reverse Polarity. Here the work piece is negatively
charged, and the electrons flow from the work piece to the electrode. This has the
advantage of breaking up any oxides which are forming on the surface of the metal
(which has a much higher melting point than the metal and interferes with the fusion
process) and is therefore a cleaning effect. However, it does not have as high a heating
effect as DCSP therefore needs a larger electrode.

These opposite heating effect influence not only the welding action but also the shape of
the weld obtained. DCSP will produce a narrow deep weld; DCRP gives a wide,
relatively shallow weld as shown.

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INERT GAS WELDING


This process of welding works on the same principle as the Electric Arc, but to reduce
metal oxidation, the welding machine shrouds the weld pool in an inert gas. Originally
this gas was helium, hence the trade name Heliarc. There are now however two main
types of Inert Gas welding.

Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG)


This is accomplished by means of a torch with an inconsumable tungsten electrode. The
electrode is used to sustain the arc and the molten pool of metal. Filler rod is added to the
pool to develop the required thickness of bead. Inert gas, usually argon is fed to the weld
area through the gas cup on the torch. The gas cup surrounds the electrode and directs the
gas in a pattern to prevent the intrusion of oxygen.

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Metal Inert Gas (MIG)


This is similar to TIG except that the electrode and the filler rod are combined. The
electrode is therefore made of the same material as the part to be welded, and is slowly
fed through the gun and is consumed as the electrode tip melts. On larger welding
machines, the gun is water cooled as shown:-

Advantages of Inert Gas Welding


Inert gas welds, because of 100% protection from the atmosphere, are stronger, more
ductile, more corrosion resistant than welds made with other weld processes. In addition,
the fact that no flux is required makes welding applicable to a wider variety of joint
types. Corrosion due to flux entrapment cannot occur, and expensive post welding
cleaning is eliminated. The entire welding operation takes place without spatter, sparks or
fumes. Fusion welds can be made in almost all metals used industrially. These include
aluminium alloys, stainless steels, magnesium alloys, titanium and numerous other metals
and alloys. The inert gas process is also widely used for welding various combinations of
dissimilar metals.

Safety Precautions with ALL types of electric welding


The equipment used in electric arc welding can be very dangerous. It must be in good
condition, with no damaged leads and it should be inspected regularly. It must not be
used on a wet floor.

A helmet or face shield, in which a renewable protective glass of the appropriate tint can
be inserted, is essential. So are asbestos gauntlets and flame proof clothing?

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The rays, both ultra-violet and infra-red, from the arc can cause serious damage to the
eyes (known as arc eye) and the skin. Therefore it is essential that appropriate
protective equipment is used.

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RESISTANCE WELDING
Principle of operation
In this type of welding, an electrode is pressed onto either side of the two plates to be
welded. The electrode then passes a high level current through the plates. The gas
between the plates is an area of high resistance compared to the metal sheets; hence the
mating surfaces of the metal sheets melt and fuse together.

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Strength of Spot Welds


Usually a minimum strength requirement per spot is assumed for design purposes, and
whilst it is not possible to test the strength of production parts, there are indirect tests
which can be carried out. The tensile strength of a spot weld is considerably lower than
its shear strength; therefore, spot welding is not normally used for applications where
tensile loads are dominant. The stiffness of a spot welded joint is much greater than that
of a comparative riveted joint. Factors which have a significant effect on the strength of
the weld include the distance of the weld from the edge of the sheet, the pitch (distance
between spots) of the weld and the thickness of the parts being welded.

Edge Distance A minimum edge distance of 1.5D and a minimum overlap or flange
width of 3D (D being the weld diameter) is generally recommended. Smaller values than
this may lead to some loss in strength of the joint, an increase in the likelihood of
splashing of the metal from the interface, and an increase in the possibility of
deformation during welding due to inadequate supporting material around the molten
weld slug.

Pitch of Welds - Weld spacing is associated with a definite minimum strength for the
joint, since welds spaced closer than the predetermined optimum are reduced in strength
due to current shunting (i.e. the passage of part of the welding current through the
previously made weld). On the other hand, excessive spacing of the spot welds would
result in the joint as whole being weak.

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Seam Welding
This type of welding works on the same principle as spot welding, except that the
electrodes are in the form of two wheels, which create a continuous line of weld between
the metal plates.

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Insert diagrams on page 154

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FRICTION WELDING
Unlike the resistance welding processes so far discussed, this process uses the heat
produced by friction and not that due to the heating effect of an electric current. The
process involves the rotation at high speed of one of the two parts against the other which
is firmly fixed. During this operation frictional heat generated by the pressure applied
will cause the joint faces to become plastic. At this point the rotating member is quickly
brought to rest as the pressure is increased so that the weld is produced by the two parts
being forced together. The resultant joint is always characterized by an upset annulus
around the weld which may be subsequently removed. The principle of friction welding
is illustrated in Figure 1.19(a).

Fig. 1.19 - Friction welding

For the majority of ferrous materials no joint preparation is required since the rotating
action is self-cleansing and any surface irregularities of the joint faces will be corrected
during the welding cycle. For certain non-ferrous metals preparatory cleaning of the joint
faces is important and these should be of machined quality. The application of friction
welding is confined to parts where at least one part is of circular cross-section, i.e., tube
or bar.

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SOLDERING AND BRAZING


Types of Soldering
In general, soldering may be described as either soft or hard, depending upon the type of
material used for the soldering bond, which determines the temperature required in the
process. In soft soldering, the sealing and securing of a joint between two metal pieces is
accomplished with solder that consists of an alloy of tin and lead. The percentages of the
two metals vary according to the particular type of solder and the strength required.
Common solders are referred to as 40-60, 50-50 and 60-40, the first number being the
percentage of tin and the second number being the percentage of lead. The percentages of
the two metals have substantial effect on the melting point of the solder. Pure lead melts
at 621.5F (327.5C) and pure tin melts at 449.38F (231.88C), but an alloy of 63 per
cent tin and 37 per cent melts at 361F (182.78C). Solder designated 50-50 has a melting
point of approximately 420F (215 to 256C).

It must be pointed out that special solders may contain metals other than tin, for example,
silver, antimony, bismuth, or others. Special solders are required for best results in certain
soldering processes.

The difference between soft soldering and brazing or hard soldering is in the temperature.
By definition, if the filler metal has a melting point of more than 800F (426.67C) the
process is called brazing or hard soldering.

In soft soldering, the melted solder is spread over the adjoining surfaces with a soldering
iron (copper) or a jet of flame. The solder does not actually fuse with the metals being
joined but bonds to them on the surface; that is, the base metal does not melt. Soldering
produces a relatively weak joint but is satisfactory for many purposes. It is especially
useful in making airtight joints of sheet metal that do not have to withstand much pull or
vibration, and it is also used to seal electrical connections. Where soldering is attempted,
it is necessary to employ flux such as rosin, zinc chloride, or sal ammoniac to clean the
surfaces to be soldered and prevent the formation of oxides so the solder can adhere to
the metal.

The metals commonly soldered are iron, tin, copper, brass, galvanized iron and
terneplate. Aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and other metals can be soldered under the
proper conditions and with the right materials. Ordinary lead-tin solder cannot be used for
all soldering. Special fluxes are available, however, which make possible a broad
application of such solder.

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Sweat Soldering
Sweat soldering, also called sweating, is a method of soldering in which the parts to be
soldered are first tinned, (coated with solder), and then the melted solder is drawn
between the surfaces to be soldered by capillary attraction with the application of heat.
Sometimes a soldering iron is used and sometimes a neutral gas flame (torch) is used to
melt and flow the solder in the joint. The torch is required in hard soldering or brazing.

Soldering Copper
The soldering copper is the solid, pointed block of copper alloy forming the head (tip) of
a soldering tool (soldering iron or soldering copper). It is attached to the handle by means
of an iron shank with a tang. The copper is heated, usually in flame and then used to melt
and spread the solder on the surfaces to be joined. It must be emphasized that the
soldering copper must be clean and well-tinned and the correct flux must be applied.

Fig. 7-46 - Common soldering coppers for commercial work.

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Insert diagrams on page 158

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TORQUE LOADING
INTRODUCTION The purpose of torque loading threaded fasteners is to ensure
efficient clamping of mating parts and prevent overstressing. The majority of nuts, bolts
and set screws on an aircraft are subject to a standard torque value, depending on their
material, finish, lubrication, thread type and size, but particular applications may
necessitate a different torque loading and this will be specified in the appropriate
Maintenance Manual. The normal method of applying a torque loading to a fastener is by
means of a torque wrench, but in some critical bolted joints the use of pre-load indicating
(PLI) washers may be specified.

GENERAL Standard torque loading values are those generally applied to steel
fasteners used in tension applications on aircraft, and lower values are generally quoted
for shear nuts or nuts used in shear applications. Lower torque values are also necessary
for union nuts (bearing in mind the actual thread size and not the pipe diameter). special
torque loadings may be used for a variety of reasons, examples of which are the loadings
applied to the bolts fitted to flexible engine mountings and those applied to non-standard
fasteners such as cylinder holding-down nuts.

RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUES Torque loading instructions in aircraft Maintenance


Manuals will be found to vary slightly between different aircraft and engines. Most
manufacturers specify lubricated torque values, i.e. the threads and all mating surfaces
lightly lubricated with oil, sealant or anti-seize compound as appropriate, but some
manufacturers specify dry torque values, i.e., parts clean and dry or as pre-lubricated
during manufacture. Due to the varying effects of friction under different conditions of
assembly, it is important that the torque applied to any particular fastener should be in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions; the pre-load applied to a fastener at a
specified lubricated torque would be considerably higher than if the same torque were
applied dry.

Initial Assembly. In order to remove the roughness from threads and mating surfaces
when assembling new components which require high torque loadings, the following
procedure should be followed:-
(i) Clean and where specified, lubricate threads and mating surfaces of nut, bolt and
washer.
(ii) Tighten nut to approximately half the specified torque value.
(iii) Slacken nut then finally re-tighten to specified torque value.

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NOTE:- When sealant is used in a joint the torque loading of fasteners should be carried
out within the application time of the sealant. After ten minutes, but within twice the
application life of the sealant, the loading should be checked and re-applied as necessary.

Union Nuts. The component parts of a flared pipe coupling require bedding-in to ensure
freedom from leaks and the following procedure should be adopted when tightening
union nuts:-
(i) Assemble the component parts of the joint and run-up the nut by hand.
(ii) Tighten to specified torque value.
(iii) Slacken the nut half a turn, then re-tighten to specified torque value.

NOTES:- (1)Torque loading is not usually specified for flareless couplings. The
procedure normally recommended is to tighten the nut using finger pressure
until positive resistance is felt, and then tighten a further half to one turn.
(2)Lubrication of components is usually by the type of fluid used in the
system but connections in oxygen systems must be dry unless a special
preparation is recommended.

Stiffnuts. In order to check the effectiveness of the friction element of a stiffnut it is


general practice to turn the nut onto its mating thread by head. If it is possible to pass the
thread through the friction element by hand, then the locking is unsatisfactory.

However, certain manufacturers specify acceptable limits of in-built or frictional torque


for various thread types and sizes and in these instances each stiffnut should be checked
with a torque wrench before re-use.

Torque Tables. Tables of standard torque values for different thread types and sizes, and
for special applications, are normally found in the appropriate Maintenance Manual,
separate tables often being included for ordinary nuts, stiffnuts, union nuts and studs.
Manuals for older types of aircraft may be found to contain only special torque loading
requirements and a single table applicable to non self-locking nuts; in these cases the
frictional torque of a stiffnut must be added to the torque quoted for the type and size of
thread.

Tables usually specify the upper and lower limits of torque for different types and sizes of
fasteners, but if a single figure is quoted, it is generally accepted that this may be
exceeded for the purpose of lining up a split pin hole, tab washer or locking plate.

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However, an upper torque limit should not be exceeded and nuts should never be
slackened to line up these locking devices.

Table 1 shows typical torque loading figures for steel non self-locking fasteners with
lubricated Unified threads. It is applicable to general purpose bolts and nuts used in
tension and shear applications (e.g. British Standards A102 to A217 or American AN3 to
AN20 bolts and appropriate nuts), and should not be used with higher strength fasteners
or when different values are specified by the aircraft or engine manufacturers. It may be
used when no other standard torque values are specified and, if applied to self-locking
fasteners, the frictional torque of the particular nut should be added to the figures shown.

TABLE 1
TYPICAL TORQUE VALUES (Lubricated)

Torque (lb in)


Thread (UNF)
Tension Shear
10-32 20 to 25 12 to 15
- 28 60 to 70 30 to 40
9/16 24 115 to 125 60 to 85
7/8 24 200 to 215 95 to 110
9/16 20 335 to 355 270 to 300
- 20 500 to 530 290 to 410
9/16 18 720 to 760 480 to 600
7/8 18 980 to 1020 660 to 780
- 16 1650 to 1790 1300 to 1500
7/8 14 2500 to 2700 1500 to 1800
7/8 - 12 3500 to 3700 2200 to 3300

TORQUE WRENCHES. There are basically two types of torque wrenches. One type
contains a flexible beam which bends under load, the amount of bend being recorded on a
dial which is graduated in units of torque. The second type contains a spring loaded
ratchet device which may be preset before use and when this preset torque is reached the
wrench breaks to prevent further tightening.

The torque applied to a nut is a function of the force applied to the wrench handle
multiplied by the distance between the point of application of the force and the centre of
the nut. This may be measured in appropriate units such as pounds inches (lb in),

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kilogramme centrimetres (kg cm) or Newton metres (Nm). The scale on the wrench is
marked to show the torque applied to its driving tang, i.e., force applied to the handle
multiplied by the distance between its driving tang and the centre of the hand grip.

If a torque wrench is used in conjunction with a socket type of spanner, the nut and tang
centres will coincide and the torque applied to the nut may be read directly from the
wrench scale. However, in some cases an extension spanner is used in conjunction with a
torque wrench and the torque applied to the nut will be different from the torque shown
on the wrench scale.

Figure 1 shows a typical beam type torque wrench which has an extension spanner
attached. If this combination is used to torque load a fastener then the following formula
should be used to calculate the wrench scale reading which corresponds to the specified
torque value:-

Scale reading = specified torque x L


L+X

Where L = distance between the driving tang and the centre of the
handle
X = length of extension spanner between centres.

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A simple way of calculating the scale reading required without using the formula is set
out in the following example, for which the specified torque loading is 300 lb in and the
lengths of the wrench and spanner are 10 and 5 inches respectively.

(i) Force required on wrench handle to produce a torque of 300 lb in is 300 lb in


divided by the Distance between nut and wrench handle,
300 lb in
Which is, = 20 lb
10 in + 5 in

(ii) Scale reading when force on handle is 20 lb is, 20 lb x 10 in = 200 lb in

Force must therefore be applied to the wrench handle until a reading of 200 lb in is
shown on the wrench scale and this will represent a 300 lb in torque load applied to the
nut. With the break type wrench, the adjustment must be present at 200 lb in.

General Considerations
When using an extension spanner with a torque wrench, the spanner and wrench should
be as nearly as possible in line. If it is necessary to diverge by more than 15 from a
straight line (due, for example, to intervening structure), then the direct distance (D)
between the nut and wrench handle must be substituted for L + X in the formula for
calculating wrench scale reading. This is shown in Figure 2 and the scale reading in this
instance will be equal to specified torque x L
D

Whenever a torque wrench is used, it must be confirmed that the specified torque and the
wrench scale are in the same units; if not, then the specified torque should be converted
by calculation to the units shown on the wrench scale and any measurements taken in
appropriate units.

When applying torque the wrench handle should be lightly gripped and force applied
smoothly at 90 to the axis of the wrench.

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Values of torque within the first quarter of the wrench scale may be difficult to read
accurately and some manufacturers specify that the torque wrench selected for a
particular use should have a range such that the specified torque falls within the upper
range of the scale.

When using a ratchet type wrench with a floating drive (i.e. a driving tang which is
located in a socket in the wrench and is moved axially through the socket to reverse the
direction of operation of the wrench), it is important to ensure that the wrench is used the
right way round. If incorrectly used, severe overstressing of the fasteners could occur
before the error is noticed.

Beam-type torque wrench should be checked before use to ensure that the scale reading is
zero.

All torque wrenches should be checked for accuracy at frequent intervals. If a spring
balance is attached to the centre of the wrench handle and force applied tangentially to
the arc of movement, the wrench scale reading should correspond to the spring balance
reading multiplied by the wrench length. Checks should be made at several values within
the wrench scale range.

TORQUE STRIPE
After a connector is torqued, a stripe or line is painted on the connector and onto the
surface next to it.

The reason for torque stripes is to detect any movement in the connector after torquing.

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4.13.1.2 When nuts are to be secured to the fastener with cotter pins, the nut shall be
tightened to the low side of the torque range and then tightened until the slot
aligns with the hole.

EXCEPTION In those cases where the nut cannot be torqued, the bolt shall be torqued
from the head end to the high side of the torque range. If the slot in the nut does not align

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with the hole, back the bolt off one turn and retorque until there is the closest hole(s) slot
alignment to the high side of the torque range.
PAINTING AND SURFACE FINISHING
Primarily, aircraft are painted to protect the metal structure against corrosion. Paint also
provides the aircraft with an attractive appearance. Paint is a general term and includes
primers, enamels and lacquers. Paint basically consists of a pigment or colour and air
drying oils which solidify and harden the pigment, this of course leaves a hard coloured
surface on the metal and so protects it.

There are several methods of applying paint. They are:-


Spraying
Rolling
Brushing
Dipping

Spraying
Spraying would probably be used to cover a complete aircraft or large panels. Special
equipment is required to blow the paint onto the surface. Spray guns are used and they
have adjustable nozzles to vary the spray pattern for large or small jobs. The gun must be
held parallel to the surface and the trigger released at the end of each stroke. The dust that
spraying produces requires that a specially prepared bay or hangar is used. Protective
clothing, masks and goggles must be worn.

Rolling
Paint rolling is also used on large areas, it is less messy than spraying but as the paint is
applied more thickly a weight penalty is incurred. The paint is applied to the surface
using a lambs wool roller in much the same way as you would apply paint to a wall or
ceiling.
Brushing and Dipping
Brushing and dipping methods are normally used to cover small or inaccessible areas,
dipping will require the component to be removed from the aircraft.

Preparation

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Regardless of the method used to apply the paint, the surface must be prepared correctly.
Paint will not adhere to oily or dirty surfaces, prior to painting the surface must be
cleaned and de-greased. If the entire aircraft or large areas are to be painted the surface
finish is normally stripped down to the bare metal and a new finish applied. The act of
stripping also keeps the weight of the aircraft down. Small areas of surface damage like
chips and scratches are flattened down with wet sandpaper and the edges are feathered to
form a saucer shape for the paint to be brushed in.

Areas that do not require paint or areas that are to be different colour should be masked
off using tape and paper.
Points to Note
If possible use the primer, undercoat and finishing coat from the same paint
manufacturer this will ensure paint compatibility.
Mask off or cover windscreens, windows, tyres and any other items listed on the
paint scheme drawing such as static vent plates.
Cover or blank any orifices that must be kept clear and check that they are clear
after painting.
Check the date on the paint container to ensure paint life has not been exceeded.
Do not forget interiors of fuel tanks and other structures, they also need protection
from corrosion, and require special techniques of application.

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PAINT REMOVAL
Paint removal is carried out by chemical means, the chemical used will cause the paint to
bubble and enable you to scrape it off the metal using a non-metallic scraper.

Method of Application
Mask off all non-affected areas; any ducts or openings should be blanked to
prevent the ingress of the chemical stripper.
Ensure no stripper can contact windscreens or Perspex windows.
Cover tyres and other rubber items such as brake hoses.
Apply the stripper using an old paintbrush to a depth of about 1/16th of an inch.
Leave the stripper until the surface of the paint bubbles and wrinkles.
Remove the stripper and paint using a plastic or wood scraper.
Re-apply stripper over any stubborn areas and scrape off when the paint has
bubbled.
When all the paint has been removed, wash the area with clean water to neutralize
the chemicals.
Wipe over the area with a rag soaked in solvent to restore the bright metal finish.

Points to Note
After stripping is complete, ensure that no stripper remains in crevices such as piano
hinges, clean out and lubricate any bearings that stripper has entered.

Safety Precautions
Paint stripper is toxic so work in a well-ventilated area.
Stripper will burn, so protect your skin and eyes with protective overalls, rubber
gloves and goggles.
Do not smoke in areas where stripping is taking place.
Wash your hands after stripping, particularly before eating or drinking.
If stripper does get onto your skin, wash it off with water; see a doctor
immediately if stripper enters your eyes.

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FIRE PRECAUTIONS
You will already be aware of the potential fire hazards of working in an environment
containing vast amounts of highly flammable fuel such as that contained in aircraft.
Because fire is a most dangerous threat which will always be with us the following
precautions must be observed:-
Smoke only in designated areas set aside for that purpose.
Observe and obey No smoking signs on flight lines.
Do not carry non-safety matches and do not wear steel tips on shoes as they can
create sparks.
When operating petrol engine ground equipment have a foam fire extinguisher
handy.
Flammable liquids like paints and dope should be kept in an approved store
outside the hangar or workshop.
If using heat torches in a workshop such as blow lamps, the flame should be
directed towards fire bricks when not in immediate use.
You should find out where fire extinguishers and fire buckets are located in your
place of work.
When refueling or defuelling an aircraft no electrical system should be switched
on or off. Ensure the aircraft is bonded before starting work.
When fuel tanks have been completely emptied, the fire risk is still present due to
the fumes, always use flameproof torches when entering tanks.

The above is a list of some of the general precautions that you must observe. Fire
instruction notices should be found in your place of work, it is in your interest to read and
understand them, they are there for your protection.

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Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008 265
Certified QMS

SAFETY IN THE WORKSHOP AND HANGAR


Safety in and around your place of work is vital to ensure that accidents to people and
equipment are prevented. It is essential that all notices and warnings placed near
machines are strictly obeyed.

Precautions should be taken to protect your skin by the application of barrier cream prior
to practical work, especially if handling oils and greases which can cause irritation. After
completion of work ensure all traces are removed by washing.

All accidents no matter how small should be reported to supervisor, the nature of the
accident and the treatment received should be entered in a book to record the accident
should any other action be required.

Electrical Equipment
When using electrical equipment you must ensure the following conditions are met:-
A three-pin plug must be fitted incorporating an earth wire.
Switch the current OFF before disconnecting or plugging in to the mains supply.
Stand on a dry floor, if not stand on a wooden platform or move to a dry position.

Electric Shock First Aid


If personnel are subject to an electric shock you should proceed as follows:-
a) Switch off current or remove the victim from the supply by the use of insulated
material, e.g., rubber gloves or a broom.
b) Treat for shock, keep the victim warm.
c) Get medical assistance immediately.

Machine Tools
In all cases, machine tools should be operated only by trained personnel. The following
safety precautions must be taken when using grinding and drilling machines:-

Issue: 1, Revision: 1 A.E.T. January 3, 2011


Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008 266
Certified QMS

Grinding Machines:-
(a) Always wear goggles.
(b) Ensure tool rest is as near to the wheel as possible.
(c) Do not use the side of the wheel.
(d) Do not exert excessive pressure on the wheel.

Drilling Machines:-
(a) Ensure all guards and covers are secure and correctly fitted.
(b) Make sure the work is clamped.
(c) Do not allow loose clothing to become entangled with moving parts.
(d) Do not use excessive pressure on the drill.

Precautions to be observed when working in and around Aircraft


Below are listed some general precautions you must obey when working in and around
aircraft:-
(a) Before operating any system, be aware of the implications, the operation of one
system could influence another.
(b) Before moving flight controls ensure the area around the control surface is clear of
ground equipment and personnel.
(c) When items are being hoisted by crane, do not walk under suspended loads and do
not leave loads unattended.
(d) Take care with oxygen equipment, ensure no oil or grease comes in contact with
pipeline threads. You should wear clean overalls and have grease free hands when
replenishing oxygen systems.
(e) Any bonding wire disturbed during maintenance must be replaced to avoid the
build up of static electricity. A bonding test must then be carried out.
(f) Grommets and seals particularly in fire zones must be in a serviceable condition.

Issue: 1, Revision: 1 A.E.T. January 3, 2011


Art Williams and Harry Wendt Aeronautical Engineering School ISO 9001:2008 267
Certified QMS

INHIBITING
Protection of components and aircraft in storage is vital to ensure that the items return
from storage in a serviceable condition. Aircraft and their components can deteriorate
rapidly if stored incorrectly and under adverse conditions. Each type of material requires
different procedures and reference should be made to relevant manuals and other
publications for storage procedures.

Most materials and components arrive into stores in the manufacturers containers and
have a shelf life; this shelf life assumes the environment in which the containers are
stored is correct. Components should not be removed from their containers until required
for use. Hydraulic and engine components are normally filled with fluid to preserve their
internal working parts and many items are coated with grease or lanolin to prevent
corrosion.

Plastic film protection is used to preserve metal sheets and there are humidity indicators
inside the plastic to indicate the presence of moisture. Silica gel bags may be specified to
remove moisture built up due to condensation. Blanks and bungs should be left in place
until just prior to the fitting of the component, if inhibiting oil has been used this must be
drained prior to fitment. The removed component must also be inhibited and blanked
prior to being placed in its container.

Issue: 1, Revision: 1 A.E.T. January 3, 2011