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Much, many, a lot of, lots of: quantifiers [the speaker indicates a small amount with his

from English Grammar Today fingers]


We use the quantifiers much, many, a lot of, lots I only had that much cake.
of to talk about quantities, amounts and degree. A lot of , lots of with a noun
We can use them with a noun (as a determiner) or We use a lot of and lots of in informal styles. Lots
without a noun (as a pronoun). of is more informal thana lot of. A lot of and lots
Much, many with a noun of can both be used with plural countable nouns
We use much with singular uncountable nouns and with singular uncountable nouns for
and many with plural nouns: affirmatives, negatives, and questions:
[talking about money] Weve got lots of things to do.
I havent got much change. Ive only got a ten Thats a lot of money.
euro note. There werent a lot of choices.
Are there many campsites near you? Can you hurry up? I dont have a lot of time.
Questions and negatives Are there a lot of good players at your tennis
We usually use much and many with questions (?) club?
and negatives (): Have you eaten lots of chocolate?
Is there much unemployment in that area? See also:
How many eggs are in this cake? Lots , a lot , plenty
Do you think many people will come? Much , many , a lot of , lots of : negative
It was pouring with rain but there questions
wasnt much wind. When we use much and many in negative
There arent many women priests. questions, we are usually expecting that a large
Affirmatives quantity of something isnt there. When we use a
In affirmative clauses we sometimes lot of and lots of in negative questions, we are
use much and many in more formal styles: usually expecting a large quantity of something.
There is much concern about drug addiction in Compare
the US. (No, they havent.)
He had heard many stories about Yanto and he Havent they The speaker expects that they
knew he was trouble. sold manytickets? have sold a small quantity of
In informal styles, we prefer to use lots of or a lot tickets.
of: (Yes, they have.)
I went shopping and spent a lot of money. Havent they sold a lot The speaker expects that they
Not: I went shopping and spent much money. oftickets? (or lots of ) have sold a large quantity of
See also: tickets.
Lots , a lot , plenty (No, there isnt.)
Much of, many of Isnt there much food left? The speaker expects that there
When we use much or many before articles (a/an, is a small quantity of food left.
the), demonstratives (this, that), possessives (my, (Yes, there is.)
your) or pronouns (him, them), we need to use of: Isnt there a lot of food left?
The speaker expects that there
How much of this book is fact and how much is (or lots of )
is a large quantity of food left.
fiction? Much , many , a lot , lots : without a noun
Claude, the seventeenth-century French painter,
We usually leave out the noun after much,
spent much of his life in Italy.
Unfortunately, not many of the photographers many and a lot, lots when the noun is obvious:
A:
were there.
How many of them can dance, sing and act? Would you like some cheese?
B:
This much, that much
Spoken English:
Yes please but not too much . (not too much
cheese)
When we are talking to someone face-to-face, we
A:
can use this muchand that much with a hand
Can you pass me some envelopes?
gesture to indicate quantity:
B: As much as , as many as
How many? (how many envelopes?) Much , many and a lot of , lots of : typical
A: errors
How many people came? We use much with uncountable nouns
B: and many with countable nouns:
A lot . (or Lots .) It doesnt need much effort.
Much with comparative adjectives and Not: It doesnt need many effort.
adverbs: much older, much faster We usually use a lot of and lots of rather
We can use much before comparative adjectives than much and many in informal affirmative
and adverbs to make a stronger comparison: clauses:
Sometimes the prices in the local shop There are a lot of monuments and a lot
are much better than the supermarkets prices. of historic buildings in Rome.
I feel much calmer now I know shes safe. (much Not: There are many monuments and many
calmer than I felt before) historic buildings in Rome.
Shes walking much more slowly since her She gave me a lot of information.
operation. (much more slowly than before) Not: She gave me much information.
We dont use of after much or many when
they come immediately before a noun without an
article (a/an, the), demonstrative (this, that),
possessive (my, your) or pronoun (him, them):
Too much , too many and so much , so many They havent made many friends here.
Too much , too many with a noun Not: They havent made many of friends here.
We often use too before much and many. It means We dont use a lot of without a noun:
more than necessary. We can use too A:
much before an uncountable noun and too Do many people work in your building?
many before a plural noun, or without a noun when B:
the noun is obvious: Yes. Quite a lot . (quite a lot of people)
I bought too much food. We had to throw some of Not: Quite a lot of.
it away. (Much, many, a lot of, lots of :
They had a lot of work to do. Too much. (too quantifiers from English Grammar Today
much work) Cambridge University Press.)
There are too many cars on the road. More
people should use public transport.
There are 35 children in each class. Its too Quantifiers with uncountable nouns
many. (too many children)
So much , so many with a noun 8. Indefinite quantifiers with uncountable
We use so rather nouns
than very before much and many in affirmative With uncountable nouns we ask the
clauses to emphasise a very large quantity of question how much and always use the singular
something: form of the verb. We can use the
He has so much money! quantifiers much, plenty of (plenty of is not used
Not: He has very much money! with negatives), a lot of/lots of, a great amount of/a
There were so many jobs to do. great deal of, some (of), a little, little, a bit of, a
As much as , as many as drop of (with liquids), (not) enough, hardly any, no.
How much paint did Leonardo need to
When we want to make comparisons connected
make Mona Lisa?
with quantity, we use as much as and as many as:
There is too much darkness in this
Try and find out as much information as you can. painting, dont you think?
You can ask as many questions as you want.
The painting is worth so
See also:
much money that no one could possibly buy it.
As as
There is plenty of/a lot of/lots
of mysticism in the painting.
A great amount of/A great deal
of patience is needed to paint a portrait.
You need some/a little/a bit of time
to look at the painting carefully.
Isnt there a drop of (liquid) paint in
the corner of the painting?
There is not enough/not (too) much/(only
a) (very) little light in the background.
We have hardly any/no time left in
the museum.

9. More
The following quantifiers can be used
before more to emphasise the quantity: some, any,
a lot, lots (informal), plenty, much, a great deal, a
good deal, a bit, a little, hardly any, no.
Id like to get some more
information about this exhibition.
We need a great/good deal more time in
the museum if we want to see everything.
Is there a bit more of the coffee so that I
can wake up? There is hardly any/no more.

10. Definite quantifiers with uncountable


nouns
When we refer to uncountable nouns as
units we can use the following quantifiers + a verb
in singular form: all (of the), most (of the), half (of)
the, part of the, the rest of the (in questions and
affirmative sentences, rarely negative ones), any
(of the) (in questions, affirmative as well as
negative sentences, and none of the (in questions
and negative sentences).
All/Most poetry is about emotions.
Was all/most of your
leisure enjoyable?(az egsz) The first part of it
wasnt, but the rest was very nice.
Was any of your
leisure enjoyable?(valamennyi, nmi)
Unfortunately, none of it
was.