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THE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES THAT

FOLLOW ARE OF GERMANIC ORIGIN AND NO


LONGER PRODUCTIVE, THAT IS TO SAY, NO
NEW WORDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
FOLLOW THESE PROCESSES.

Suggested bibliography:
Oxford Learners Grammar-Grammar Finder
Oxford University Press (2005)
Page 388 onwards.
REALIZATIONS OF THE IRREGULAR
PLURALS
1. Vowel alternation: It involves a change of
the medial vowel in the following seven
nouns:
foot feet mouse mice
tooth teeth man men
goose geese woman women
louse lice
2. Vowel alternation and addition of
consonants:
(the en plural)
child children
brother brethren
3. CONSONANT ALTERNATION
VOICELESS TO VOICED ALTERNATION

/f/ /vz/ /f/ /fs/


calf calves BUT belief beliefs
elf elves chief chiefs
half halves chef chefs
-------------- --------------

Double forms in:


dwarf dwarfs dwarves
handkerchief handkerchiefs
handkerchieves
scarf scarfs scarves
------------------ -----------------------
/ /z/ // /s/
bath baths BUT birth births
mouth mouths earth earths
path paths hearth hearths
----------------- --------------------
. Double forms in:
oath oaths /s/ oaths /z /
sheath sheaths /s/ / sheaths /z/
truth truths s/ truths /z/
-------------- -----------------

/s/ /zIz/
house houses
REALIZATIONS OF THE IRREGULAR PRETERITE
FORMS. Check pages 391 onwards and analyse
the processes they have undergone taking into
account the description that follows:
1.VOWEL ALTERNATION (past and past
participle morphemes are identical)
find found found
meet met met
------ ----- ------
2.VOWEL ALTERNATION (past and past
participle forms are different)
begin began begun
drink drank drunk
ring rang rung
3. VOWEL ALTERNATION (with addition of
consonants- past and past participle morphemes
are identical)
deal dealt dealt
feel felt felt
keep kept kept
sleep slept slept
-------- -------- ---------
4. VOWEL ALTERNATION (with nasal
suffixation)in the past participle form:
break broke broken
choose chose chosen
speak spoke spoken
-------- ------ ---------
5. NO VOWEL ALTERNATION (with consonant
alternation)
bend bent bent
lend lent lent
send sent sent
have had had
make made made
6. NO VOWEL ALTERNATION (with addition of
consonants or suffixation- past and past participle
forms are identical:
burn burnt burnt
learn learnt learnt
smell smelt smelt
spill spilt spilt
7. NO VOWEL ALTERNATION (no addition of
consonants- three forms are identical)
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
hit hit hit
hurt hurt hurt
------ ------ -----