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Chaidir Anwar Makarim, Tarumanagara University

Dicky Junaidi, Tarumanagara University
Gopta Pratama, PT Geoforensik

Abstract :

The investigation of extensive sudden damage of construction built on expansive soil in

some part of West Surabaya, Indonesia in year 2003 had strongly indicated that it was
triggered by the global extreme weather changes. The presence of long drought season,
known as El Nino in 2003 bring some consequences on slope stability problem in highly
expansive-alluvial type of soil in West Surabaya. Void creation due to shrinkage is well
known in expansive soil. This paper examine the influence of void creation in slope
stability problem during long drought season in 2D/ 3D using MIDAS-GTS Finite
Element modeling. Vertical and Lateral shrinkage as well as void location influencing
factor of safety of the slope is discussed in as elaborated manner.

Keywords : 2-D and 3-D Analysis of Finite Element Methode, Void Creation, alluvial,
Highly Expansive Soil, Safety Factor, Shrinkage, El Nino, Long Drought Season


This presentation is about was a construction claim that take into place in year 2003 and
satisfactorily settled in 2010. The satisfactorily Novum of the first rejected claim was :
The presence of highly expansive soil that was not revealed in the rejection report and the
presence of El Nino at that year which created extreme dry season during the last 10-
years. (Makarim, C. A., 2009)

The highlight of the case is because geological resolution as well as geotechnical soil
investigation supportively found that 90.23% of upper strata soil in Java Island is
attributed as highly expansive soil. Thesis, Research and Reports from universities,
government as well as company expert were already published their findings separately.

This type of soil, creates heave in wet season and shrinkage or void during dry season. In
America expansive soil caused damages at a stunning amount which bring lost of US
Dollar more than damage caused by hurricane, tornado, flood and earthquake combined
all together. In Indonesia, data is not available but damaged or claims in infrastructure
project caused by expansive soil in Java itself is known as is high as 100-M(IDR)/year. It
is believed that the number is going higher following the ambitious Indonesia
infrastructure project construction plan.

This paper present a study on the influence of void creation in expansive soil with slope
as a model. The study will analyze the influence of vertical as well as lateral deformation
in slope safety factor. A simple mohr-coulomb model in 2-D and 3-D FEM model will be
used and the result will be compared with the traditional slope stability analysis method.

Maps of Potentially Expansive Soils

Table 1 shows places where Clay, Silts, Sand stone Tufva, Conglomerate, Tuf, Breksi,
Aglomerate and Lava were basic components to form the expansive soil.
Table 1 Geology resoulution of expansive soil

The geological map of Java Island where potentially expansive soils existed is
categorized in 3 Group. (Makarim, C. A., 2011)
a. Potentially Highly Expansive. This is where field geotechnical data correlate
to 2 (two) geological unit i.e.: Qa and Qv.
b. Potentially Medium Expansive. This is where field geotechnical data
correlate as only 1 (one) geological unit, i.e. : Qa or Qv
c. Soil is not expansive. Where soil does not correlate to either one of both data
The analysis shows results in Table 2.

Table 2 : Places of Potentially Expansive Soil

The morphology of the Surabaya/ East Java area is divided into plain terrain, wave
shaped hills and hardened hills. In the southern it is part of Sidoardjo Delta that was
formed by Surabaya and Kali Porong activities. Soil components in the geological map is
known as Qa, consisted of Clay, Silt, Sand and Cobbles.

Behavior of the soil is well known in the area as highly expansive. During the
investigation in one of the widespread damaged area revealed typical parameter of
plasticity index, mineral and chemical content as well as swelling and shrinkage potential
of the soil.
Table 3 : Result of soil investigation : Gunung Sari

Figure 1 : Typical Result of X Ray Diffraction Test : Gunung Sari

The Extreme Season Case

The sudden and unpredicted changes of Expansive soils that caused case construction
damages are most possible triggered by El-Nino. Drought and wet season play a very
important role on Expansive soil. Recently, the influence of sea surface temperature change
which in result blocks the east pacific tropic, called El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), had
successfully created much longer drought season causing deeper active zone of Expansive soil
which in return created deeper and bigger void in subsoil. Data on the extreme Climate
change in the form of long drought season had been published by the institute of
Meteorology & Geophysics (2007) as shown on table-4and Figure 2.

Table-4: Drought Period 1998-2005 (Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, 2007).

Drought Total
Average Rainfall
Years Periods Rain fall
(Months) (mm)
1998 0 3451.8 287.65
1999 1 2064.3 172.03
2000 2 2180.3 181.69
2001 2 2570 214.17
2002 4 1478.6 123.22
2003 4 2071.2 172.6
2004 3 2139.2 178.27
2005 0 2197.8 183.15
Ave ra ge Ra infa ll

300 A verage

Rainfall (m m )
250 Rainfall
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Ye a rs

Figure 2. Average rainfall 1998-2005

The Damages

In geotechnical this unusual long drought season bring impact as it creates much deeper
active zone, on expansive soils. As figure 10 shows how active zones experiencing
extreme drought season, this meansshrinkage or void formation in the subsoil will
occurr and trigger sudden deformation of the upper structure.
Figure 2 & 3 shows an example where void occurred behind the slope face triggered
excessive lateral movement or failure.

Figure 3 Void creation in slope face

Figure 4 Void creation phenomenon on highly expansive soil

Slope Stability Analysis

The followings result of analysis and model simulation used conventional method of
Slope/W program for slope factor of safety and MIDAS GTS (MIDAS, 2010) for sudden
and excessive cracks/settlement triggered by shrinkage of expansive soils, in 2-D and 3-D
FEM of analysis.

Consistent with its finding of soft soil in the area and after interpretation based on
reduction of soil parameters reported concludes that slopes are in marginal slope of
stability. The 1st party analysis are presented in Table 5 compared with The 2nd party
results using modest variation of reduction of cohesion/soil strength but still below the
original value of soil cohesion. (legal report document).

Table 5. Results of Slope/W Analysis

Safety factor (SF)
Ordinary Bishop Janbu

Public Road 1.079 1.112 1.215

Figure 5 shows analysis and model simulation using Slope/W with SF = 1.112

The FEM of analysis choose the Mohr-coulomb model which is often used to model
granular materials such as soil and concrete. Midas GTS assumes that the stress-strain
relationship of this model is elasto-perfectly-plastic, as shown in Figure 3.5.1(a). This
assumption for soil behavior leads to reliable solutions in nonlinear analysis.

Figure 8 Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion

Failure criteria
According to the Mohrs theory of failure, the failure is expressed as
= 1 ()
The simplest geometric form of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope is a straight line,
which can be defined as below
= c + tan

c : cohesion, vertical axis () intercept of the failure envelope
: internal friction angle, slope of the failure envelope

The Mohr-Coulomb failure surface forms an irregular hexagonal pyramid in the 3D

principal stress space, where its meridian curve is a straight line.

Figure 9 Mohr-Coulomb yield surface on plane and meridian plane

2-D Model (No Void) :

The following is results of a 2-D FEM Model without void run on MIDAS GTS
2-D Model (With Void) :
3-D Model (Without Void) :
3-D Model (With Void) :
Comparation of Safety Factor :
Table 6 Slope displacement and safety factor in 2-D and 3-D with/ without void.

Result and Conclusions

Results from the analysis shows the following conclusion :
a. Total potential area of expansive soils in Java Island is 116030,8778 km 2 or
90,682 % of the island total area. This is excluding the area of small islands
surrounding Java island. Some of this area or 75,72 % is occupied by
Potentially Highly Expansive soils.
b. The Safety Factor of Slope Stability FEM mohr-coulomb Model 2-D Without
Void is 1.1375 and With Void is 0.9875 or decreases about 13%.
c. The Safety Factor of Slope Stability FEM mohr-coulomb Model 3-D Without
Void is 1.2875 and With Void is 1.1125 or decreases about 14%.
d. The Safety Factor of Slope Stability FEM mohr-coulomb Model 2-D to 3-D
With or Without Void is ascending about 13%.
e. The FEM analysis show that void creates instability in slope, however 3-D
analysis give results of higher safety factor than the 2-D.

References :

1. Makarim, C.A., Report on : Construction Damage due to Sudden and Unpredicted

Changes of Expansive Soil During Extreme Global Weather Change Surabaya
Case, Jakarta, 2009.
2. Makarim, C.A., Maps of Highly Expansive Soils in Java Island, Indonesian
Hydraulic Engineering Society (HATHI), Jakarta, 2011.
3. MIDAS GTS Manual, Analysis, Constitutive Model, 2010.