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Basic electric circuits & components

1. Introduction
2. SI units & common prefixes
3. Electrical circuits
4. Direct current & alternating Current
5. Resistors, Capacitors & Inductors
6. Ohms Law & Kirchoffs Law
7. Power dissipation in Resistors
8. Resistors circuit in Series & Parallel
9. Resistive potential dividers
10. Sinusoidal wave
11. Circuits symbols

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SI units

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Common Prefixes

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Electric Circuits
Electric Charge
An amount of electrical energy
Can be positive or negative
Electric Current
A flow of electrical charge often a flow of electrons
Conventional current is in the direction to a flow of electrons
Current flow in a circuit
A sustained current needs a to complete a circuit
Also require to charge flow

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Electromotive force & Potential difference
The similar that causes a current to flow as an e.m.f
The represents the energy introduced into the circuit by a battery or
generator
This results in on electric potential at each point in the circuit
Between any two point in the circuit there may exit

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Potential Difference

Both e.m.f and potential difference are


measured n volts

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AC & DC
AC
When current vary with time they may be unidirectional or
alternating
When the direction of the current periodically changes this in a
alternating current (AC)
DC
Current in electrical circuits may be constant it may be vary with
time
When the current flowing in a conductor always flows in the same
direction this is a direct current (DC)

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Resistor, Capacitor & Inductor
Resistors
The oppose flow of electricity
Measured in ohms ()
Capacitor
Provide capacitance
They store energy in a electric field
Measured in Farads (F)
Inductor
Provide inductance
They store energy in a magnetic field
Measured in Henry(H)
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Ohms Law
The current flowing in a conductor is directly proportional to
applied voltage V & inversely proportional to the resistance R

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Kirchhoff's Current Law

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Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

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Power Dissipation in Resistor
The instantaneous power dissipation P of a resistor is given be the product
of the voltage across it and the current passing through it combining the
revalue with Ohms Law

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Resistor in Series Circuit

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Resistor in Parallel Circuit

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Resistive Potential Difference

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Sinusoidal Quantities
Length of time between corresponding points in successive cycle in a
period T
Number of cycle passes per second is the frequency f unit Hz
Formula
f=1/T

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Electrical Circuit Symbols

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AC & DC Supply

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Motor
It converts a Electrical Energy into a Mechanical Energy

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Speed Ns

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Core

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Stator

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Rotor

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Types of MoTors

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AC Motor

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DC Motor

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Motor Construction

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Commutator

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Star-Delta Circuit

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