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Technology is becoming increasingly prevalent in the world Some people think that museums should be enjoyable places to

today. In the not too distant future, technology will completely entertain people, while others believe that the purpose of
replace the teacher in the classroom. Analyze both sides of this museums is to educate. Discuss both views and give you own
argument. opinion.

The use of technology is increasing rapidly in the modern world. People have different views about the role and function of museums.
Growing technological influence can even be seen in the classroom. In my opinion, museums can and should be both entertaining and
The argument that technology will completely replace the teacher in educational.
the classroom is a subject that is both supported and refuted by
many. Both sides of this argument will be analyzed before a reasoned On the one hand, it can be argued that the main role of a museum is
conclusion is drawn. to entertain. Museums are tourist attractions, and their aim is to
exhibit a collection of interesting objects that many people want to
Firstly, it is easy to see the progressive rate at which technology is see. The average visitor may become bored if he or she has to read
able to mimic the teaching abilities of human beings. For example, or listen to too much educational content, so museums often put more
several iPhone applications are able to hold the attention of young of an emphasis on enjoyment rather than learning. This type of
children for hours at a time, while concurrently teaching them things. museums is designed to be visually spectacular, and it may have
Thus, it is clear that on a small scale, machines can act as effective interactive activities or even games as part of its exhibitions.
teachers. The possibility for a robotic teacher in the future can
therefore be seen. On the other hand, some people argue that museums should focus on
education. The aim of any exhibition should be to teach visitors
However, on the other side of this argument, it must be remembered something that they did not previously know. Usually this means that
that a teacher powered by artificial intelligence would have little to no the history behind the museums exhibits needs to be explained, and
control over its students. For example, it is commonly understood that this can be done in various ways. Some museums employ
children require the watchful eye of a teacher to ensure that they are professional guides to talk to their visitors, while other museums offer
indeed completing their class work and not fooling around during headsets so that visitors can listen to detailed commentary about the
class time. Unfortunately, this is something that a robotic teacher exhibition. This way, museums can play an important role in teaching
simply cannot provide. Thus, this makes it clear why the argument people about history, culture, science and many other aspects of life.
that technology will never completely replace the teacher in the
classroom could also be possible. In conclusion, it seems to me that a good museum should be able to
offer an interesting, enjoyable and educational experience so that
In summary, both sides of the argument regarding the possibility of a people can both have fun and learn something at the same time.
technologically driven classroom have strong support. However, after
analyzing the two camps it is clear that the idea of having a class run
entirely by a machine is unlikely to materialize anytime soon. As
such, it is predicted that the plausibility of technology-based
classroom teachers will remain weak.
Compared to previous generations, an increasing number of The advent of the Internet has made it possible for people to
people are traveling overseas for holidays. work from home. Write an essay looking at the advantages and
Why is this? Is this a positive or negative trend? disadvantages of this professional arrangement. Share personal
examples in your essay.
There are a number of factors which explain the rising tendency for
people to take trips overseas for pleasure, and this has both The Internet has revolutionized the world in many different ways.
advantages and disadvantages as will now be discussed. Among these, it has made it possible for people to work from home.
This essay will analyze the advantages and disadvantages that arise
Innovations in technology have made overseas travel not only faster, when a person lives and works in the same place. Following this look,
but also more accessible for those on a limited budget, meaning that a reasoned conclusion will be shared.
in some cases a family can holiday in a different country with less
inconvenience and a better price than staying in their home country. A On the one hand, working from home gives people the flexibility to set
flight from the UK to Spain, for example, can be accomplished in less their own hours, which can allow for the arranging of a schedule that
time than it takes to get from one side of England to the other. makes a person more productive. For example, a friend of mine
freelances as a programmer from home and has discovered he is
One of the clearest advantages here is that it gives people the most productive when he works late at night. As such a schedule
opportunity to experience different cultures and customs, giving a would not be possible at a normal 9 to 5 desk job, the positive effects
broader perspective of the world. By visiting other countries, people his home office arrangement have on his productivity can be seen.
become more understanding and tolerant of other cultures, and can Examples like this clearly show the advantages that can derive from
learn to appreciate the cultural differences that exist. There are also working at home.
benefits for the holiday itself, as many people tend to holiday in
destinations that have better weather. However, working from ones abode can often be the cause of mental
anguish. For instance, I recall once collaborating with an online team
However, there are disadvantages for the country, as citizens are from the comforts of my apartment. Although this arrangement
spending their money overseas rather than in the domestic market. allowed me to make my own schedule, it also meant that I had to
However, this is negated by the fact that although people leave their constantly be on call, as my co-workers contacted me day and night
own country for a holiday, other people visit their country for the same with their work-related problems. Thus, some jobs done from home
reason. In New Zealand, for example, money spent overseas by may make it difficult for a person to detach themselves from their
people leaving the country is replaced by those who visit the country professional commitments.
for their holiday.
The above look illustrates that certain jobs and certain people may be
To conclude, advances in technology have given the consumer more more fitted for the home office arrangement. It is thus recommended
choice in overseas holidays, and this has both positive and negative that prospective home office workers weigh the pros and cons before
ramifications. engaging such a commitment.
The advent of the Internet has made it possible for people to Modern societies need specialists in certain fields, but not
work from home. Do you feel this working arrangement has others. Some people, therefore, think that governments should
more advantages or disadvantages? Share personal examples pay university fees for students who study subjects that are
in your essay. needed by society. Those who choose to study less relevant
subjects should not receive the government funding.
The Internet has revolutionized the world in many different ways.
Among these, it has made it possible for people to work from home. Would the advantages of such an educational policy outweigh
Despite the many advantages that may derive from this arrangement, the disadvantages?
it is felt that working from home is predominantly disadvantageous to
the professional. This will be proven by looking at how the home sets In every country, there are fashions among students about which
professionals up to be both distracted and unable to detach subjects are the best to the study at university. Sometimes the
themselves from work. popularity of a subject is determined by how much money a graduate
could subsequently earn in that field. Or subjects that are perceived
For one, although working from home may be effective for many, most as relatively easy may also become popular, in spite of later
people are likely to get distracted under these conditions. For difficulties of finding appropriate employment. It is up to governments
example, a former manager of mine once delegated a writing task to to give incentives to students to choose subjects that match the needs
me and instructed me to complete it at home. When I went to engage of their society.
the project, I found it difficult to stay focused in an environment I
traditionally relaxed in, and as a result the quality of my work Obviously one way to do this would be for the government to pay the
suffered. My experience clearly shows that for people like myself, fees of those choosing such subjects. The advantage would certainly
working from home is disadvantageous to productivity. be that higher number of students would enroll and would later fill the
employment gaps.
In addition to this, the stay-at-home worker often finds it challenging to
distance themselves from their work, and this can be mentally However, the disadvantages of such a policy would be considerable.
exhausting. For instance, a colleague of mine started his own For example, the students attracted by the funding may not have any
business from home. Within the first few months, he was receiving real interest in or aptitude for that subject. Such students may drop
telephone calls, emails and faxes at all times of the day and night. In out before graduation or after working only a short time in a related
the end, he felt forced to migrate this professional pursuit to a rented job. Furthermore, funding one group of students but not other would
office apartment simply because it was taking over his life. As this penalize those with a genuine interest and ability for another field.
story illustrates, the disadvantages of a home-based job are Such discrimination would certainly affect the whole of higher
numerous. education of the country, and students would develop very negative
attitudes towards going to university altogether. This would be very
To conclude, despite advantages of lower overhead and counter-productive for any country.
independence, working from home has many more drawbacks than
favourable points. It is thus hoped that professionals everywhere In conclusion, I think there are many other incentives for students that
think carefully before settling on this working arrangement. could be considered, such as making courses more interesting to
take, or the job rewards greater after graduation. The education policy
proposed above, however, would certainly have more long-term
disadvantages than benefits for society.
The worlds air pollution levels are rising year on year. Discuss Government investment in the arts, such as music and theatre, is
what you feel are the causes and effects of this disturbing trend. a waste of money. Governments must invest this money in public
services instead.
The growing level of airborne pollutants has proven to be a major To what extent do you agree with this statement?
obstacle for humanity in the 21st century. To address this issue,
encouraging popular understanding is a paramount first step. This These days, the government spends a large part of its budget not only
essay will examine the major causes and effects of atmospheric on public services, but also the arts. Although I agree that it is
pollution. important to spend money on public services, I do not think spending
on the arts is a waste of money.
Firstly, the greatest causes of airborne pollution growth today come as
a result of both progression in the developing world and wastage in There are several reasons for spending a significant amount of the
the developed world. For example, as the affluence of over 2 billion government budget on public services. First and foremost, public
Indian and Chinese people continues to grow, sales of pollution- services are the things such as hospitals, roads and schools, and
causing vehicles will move in tandem. As this phenomenon these things determine the quality of life that most of us will have. For
compounds with the tremendous levels of pollution already coming example, if the government does not spend enough money on
out of the developed world, a recipe for unshrinking levels of air hospitals, the health of our society may decline. Similarly, if not
pollution can be seen. Thus, demand for petrol vehicles in the enough money is spent on schools, our children may not be properly
developing world and resource wastage in the developed world can educated. Also, it will be the poor in our society that will be affected
be concluded todays greatest causes of airborne pollutants. more if we do not spend enough on these things because they are the
ones more dependent on such services.
The effects of these airborne pollutants tend to manifest themselves
as health issues. For instance, it is estimated that a larger percentage However, this does not mean that the arts should be completely
of children have asthma today than ever before in human history. neglected. To begin, it is difficult for many arts institutions to generate
To make matters worse, scientists are now finding air pollution can much profit, so without some help from the government, many
cause abnormal foodstuffs growth among farming populations the theatres and other such places may have to close. Moreover, the arts
world over, and consumption of these foods has been linked to also have an important impact on our quality of life. Many people get
cancer. Thus, growing asthma and cancer rates are the most chilling great pleasure in going to see music and theatre performances so it is
effects of the worlds rising air pollution. important that the government assists such institutions so that they
can continue to provide entertainment to the public.
Following this look, unfortunate trends in the developed and
developing worlds are inciting swelling numbers of asthma and cancer To sum up, there are clear benefits of ensuring a large amount of
sufferers. These are considered to be the most significant causes investment goes into public services as this influences the quality of
and effects of the planets air pollution levels. Thus, controlling life for nearly all of us. That said, I do not believe spending money on
byproducts of human activity has to become central to humanitys the arts is a waste of money as this too provides important benefits.
collective strategy for the 21st century.
Some people believe the aim of university education is to help In order to solve traffic problems, governments should tax
graduates get better jobs. Others believe there are much wider private car owners heavily and use the money to improve public
benefits of university education for both individuals and society. transportation.

Discuss both views and give your opinion. What are the advantages and disadvantages of such a solution?

These days, more and more people are making the choice to go to Traffic congestion in many cities around the world is severe. One
university. While some people are of the opinion that the only purpose possible solution to this problem is to impose heavy taxes on car
of a university education is to improve job prospects, others think that drivers and use this money to make public transport better. This essay
society and the individual benefit in much broader ways. will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of such a measure.

It is certainly true that one of the main aims of university is to secure a One of the first benefits of such a measure is that the heavy taxes
better job. The majority of people want to improve their future career would discourage car owners from using their cars because it would
prospects and attending university is one of the best ways to do this become very expensive to drive. This would mean that they would
as it increases a person's marketable skills and attractiveness to begin to make use of public transport instead, thus reducing traffic
potential employers. In addition, further education is very expensive problems and pollution as well. Another benefit would be that much
for many people, so most would not consider it if it would not provide more use would be made of public transport if it was improved. It is
them with a more secure future and a higher standard of living. Thus often the case that public transport in cities is very poor. For example,
job prospects are very important. we often see old buses and trains that people would rather not use.
High taxes would generate enough money to make the necessary
However, there are other benefits for individuals and society. Firstly, changes.
the independence of living away from home is a benefit because it
helps the students develop better social skills and improve as a Nevertheless, there are drawbacks to such a solution. First and
person. A case in point is that many students will have to leave their foremost, this would be a heavy burden on the car drivers. At present,
families, live in halls of residence and meet new friends. As a result, taxes are already high for a lot of people, and so further taxes would
their maturity and confidence will grow enabling them to live more only mean less money at the end of the month for most people who
fulfilling lives. Secondly, society will gain from the contribution that the may have no choice but to drive every day. In addition, this type of tax
graduates can make to the economy. We are living in a very would likely be set at a fixed amount. This would mean that it would
competitive world, so countries need educated people in order to hit those with less money harder, whilst the rich could likely afford it. It
compete and prosper. is therefore not a fair tax.

Therefore, I believe that although a main aim of university education is To conclude, this solution is worth considering to improve the current
to get the best job, there are clearly further benefits. If we continue to situation, but there are advantages and disadvantages of introducing
promote and encourage university attendance, it will lead to a better such a policy.
future for individuals and society.
Global warming is one of the most serious issues that the world Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms
is facing today. of medicine. However, at best these methods are ineffective,
and at worst they may be dangerous.
What are the causes of global warming and what measures can
governments and individuals take to tackle the issue? To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Probably the most worrying threat to our planet at the present time is Alternative medicine is not new. It is accepted that it pre-dates
global warming. This essay will examine the reasons why global conventional medicine and it is still used by many people all over the
warming is occurring and discuss some possible solutions. world. I am unconvinced that it is dangerous, and feel that both
alternative and conventional medicine can be useful.
The predominant factors resulting in the warming of the earth are the
emissions of CO2 and deforestation. CO2, which damages the ozone There are several reasons why the conventional medical community
layer, comes from several sources, but the most problematic are is often dismissive of alternatives. Firstly, there has been little
those coming from the burning of fossil fuels from power plants. This scientific research into such medicine, so there is a scarcity of
releases thousands of tonnes of CO2 into the atmosphere every year. evidence to support the claims of their supporters. Furthermore,
Another cause of these emissions is the burning of gasoline for people often try such treatment because of recommendations from
transportation, which continues to grow because of our demand for friends, and therefore come to the therapist with a very positive
cars and also our increasing worldwide consumption, resulting in an attitude, which may be part of the reason for the cure. Moreover,
escalating need to transport goods. Also, forests store large amounts these therapies are usually only useful for long-term, chronic
of carbon, so deforestation is causing larger amounts of CO2 to conditions. Acute medical problems, such as accidental injury, often
remain in the atmosphere. require more conventional methods.

Nevertheless, there are potential ways to solve these problems, or at On the other hand, there remain strong arguments for the use of
least reduce the effects. Firstly, governments need to reduce our alternatives. Despite the lack of scientific proof, there is a lot of
dependence on fossil fuels and promote alternatives. Plant-derived anecdotal evidence to suggest that these therapies work. In addition,
plastics, biodiesel, wind power and solar power are all things that are far from being dangerous, they often have few or no side effects, so
a step in the right direction, but governments need to enforce the the worst outcome would be no change. One of the strongest
limits on CO2 emissions for the polluting industries in their countries arguments for the effectiveness of alternative therapies in the West is
for these to be effective. Also, individuals can play a part by making that, whilst conventional medicine is available without charge, many
lifestyle changes. People should try to buy cars with the best fuel people are prepared to pay considerable sums for alternatives. If they
economy, and only use their car when really necessary. They can also were totally unhelpful, it would be surprising if this continued.
switch to energy companies that use renewable energy rather than
fossil fuels. Finally, small things like buying energy efficient light bulbs, I strongly believe that conventional medicine and alternative therapies
turning off electricity in the house, and planting trees in the garden can and should coexist. They have different strengths, and can both
can help. be used effectively to target particular medical problems. The best
situation would be for alternative therapies to be used to support and
To conclude, although global warming is a serious issue, there are complement conventional medicine.
steps that governments and individuals can take to reduce its effects.
If we are to save our planet, it is important that this is treated as a
priority for all concerned.
Some people think that the best way to reduce crime is to give Overpopulation of urban areas has led to numerous problems.
longer prison sentences. Others, however, believe there are
better alternative ways of reducing crime. Identify one or two serious ones and suggest ways that
governments and individuals can tackle these problems?
Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Many countries of the world are currently experiencing problems
Crime is a serious and growing problem in most societies. Although caused by rapidly growing populations in urban areas, and both
many people believe that the best way to tackle this is to place people governments and individuals have a duty to find ways to overcome
in prison for longer periods, others are of the opinion that other these problems.
measures will be more effective.
Overpopulation can lead to overcrowding and poor quality housing in
There are benefits of giving offenders longer prison sentences. Firstly, many large cities. Poorly heated or damp housing could cause
spending a long time in prison provides an opportunity for the prison significant health problems, resulting in illness, such as bronchitis or
services to rehabilitate a prisoner. For example, someone who has pneumonia. Another serious consequence of overcrowding is a rising
committed a serious offence such as assault will need a long time in crime rate as poor living conditions may lead young people in
prison in order to be sure they can be re-educated not to re-offend. In particular to take desperate measures and turn to crime or drugs.
addition to this, longer prison sentences will act as a deterrent for
someone who is thinking of committing a crime. In terms of solutions, I believe the government should be largely
responsible. Firstly, it is vital that the state provides essential housing
However, some people argue that leaving people in prison for a long and healthcare for all its citizens. Secondly, setting up community
time means that they will mix with other criminals and so their projects to help foster more community spirit and help keep young
character will not improve. One alternative is community service. This people off the street is a good idea. For example, youth clubs or
gives an offender the opportunity to give something positive back to evening classes for teenagers would keep them occupied. Finally,
society, and so it may improve their character. Also, the government more effective policing of inner city areas would also be beneficial.
could focus its resources on the causes of crime, which would lead to
less crime in the future. Naturally, individuals should also act responsibly to address these
problems, and the motivation to do this would hopefully arise if the
In my opinion, it is important to look at alternative methods. Many measures described above are put into place by the government. This
countries have lengthy prison sentences, but crime has continued to is because it will encourage people to have more pride in their own
increase throughout the world, so it is clear that this is not completely community and improve the situation.
effective. That said, long prison sentences should remain for those
who commit serious crimes such as assault or murder, as justice for Therefore, it is clear that the problems caused by overpopulation in
the victim and their family should take priority. urban areas are very serious. Yet if governments and individuals
share a collective responsibility, then it may well become possible to
To conclude, there are good arguments for and against long offer some solutions.
sentences, so governments must continue to research the various
methods of crime reduction to ensure effective policies are in place.
In the last 20 years there have been significant developments in A few major languages are increasingly spoken in different
the field of information technology (IT), for example the World countries, while the usage of others is rapidly declining. Is this a
Wide Web and communication by email. However, these positive or a negative development?
developments in IT are likely to have more negative effects than
positive in the future. Advances in technology, transport, and communication have given
To what extent do you agree with this view? rise to the phenomenon of globalization. A lot of barriers have been
pulled down; the exchange of ideas between countries and cultures
The last two decades have seen enormous changes in the way has never been freer in any time in history. This has in turn led to an
people's lives are affected by IT, with many advances in this field. expanding use of a few major languages such as Arabic, Chinese,
However, while these technological advances have brought many Spanish, and especially English. There are obvious benefits to this,
benefits to the world, it can be argued that these developments in IT but the possible cultural ramifications must not be ignored.
will result in more negative impacts than positive.
Obviously, the use of one major language as a lingua franca or bridge
To begin, email has made communication, especially abroad, much language is desirable because it enhances cross-cultural
simpler and faster, resulting in numerous benefits for commerce and communication. It embodies a clear, accessible standard for
business. Furthermore, the World Wide Web means that information everybody to follow be it in books, movies, academic or popular
on every conceivable subject is now available to us. For example, publications, or the Internet.
people can access news, medical advice, online education courses
and much more via the internet. It is evident that these improvements Additionally, if a country is to become globally competitive either in
have made life far easier and more convenient for large numbers of business or the labour market, then it is imperative for it to understand
people and will continue to do so for decades to come. and utilize the dominant international language. In my part of the
world, you will not make progress in a career or business without
Nevertheless, the effects of this new technology have not all been English because corporate communications and commerce is mostly
beneficial. For example, many people feel that the widespread use of conducted in this language. A business might succeed locally without
email is destroying traditional forms of communication such as letter it, but growth in the bigger national or international market will be
writing, telephone and face-to-face conversation. This could result in a curtailed.
decline in people's basic ability to socialize and interact with each
other on a day-to-day basis. Then again, the dwindling usage or even extinction of many minor
languages is an unfortunate result of this phenomenon. This happens
In addition, the large size of the Web has meant that it is nearly when less and less people speak their mother tongue because of a
impossible to regulate and control. This has led to many concerns shifting of allegiance to the second language. This is unfortunate
regarding children accessing unsuitable websites and viruses. because language death also means a loss of cultural identity.
Unfortunately, this kind of problem might even get worse in the future Original meanings and nuances are lost in translation. Culture forms
at least until more regulated systems are set up. language, and language revolves around culture, the demise of one
means the same for the other.
In conclusion, developments in IT have brought many benefits, yet I
believe developments relating to new technology are likely to produce Maybe the best course of action is a form of compromise.
many negative effects in the future that must be addressed if we are Governments must take steps to preserve their languages and
to avoid damaging impacts on individuals and society. dialects by supporting appropriate legislation and by funding the
efforts of learning institutions. Individuals should continue using their
mother tongue and take pride in their distinct cultural heritage.
It is often said that people over the age of 60 should not work Modern means of communication have introduced relevant
anymore because of the problems they create, that employers changes in our lives; some believe benefits outweigh
should make them retire. Do you agree or disagree? Give disadvantages, others the opposite. Discuss your view and state
reasons for your opinion. your opinion.

In a lot of countries, 60 is the mandatory retirement age. It is as if We live in an age of wonder. Today we have things that would have
people this age are outmoded, ready for replacement. Personally, I been thought fantastic or implausible a generation ago. This is
think that our senior citizens should not be written off; they can still be especially true in the field of communication; these modern means of
very productive members of society. communication have brought significant changes to our lives at all
levels.
The biggest issue raised against older people is their declining
physical abilities. That they are not as quick on their toes as they used Modern technology like mobile phones and the Internet are now
to be; their endurance is noticeably less. But while bodily functions at ubiquitous parts of our daily routine. More than ever we could connect
this age are not at their optimum, the mind is not. While they may not with ease, even talk with people who are geographically removed.
as physically competitive, their acquired wisdom goes a long way Those with family members overseas can appreciate this; they can
towards solving problems or managing situations that would rattle talk with their loved ones or even see them through internet chats. We
younger people. Many of the greatest minds in our planet, scientists can now shop online; it has opened new avenues for commerce.
like Einstein and world leaders such as Churchill, worked beyond their
sexagenarian age.
These contemporary means of communication has made a great
impact not only on individuals but also on the whole of society. It has
Secondly, some say that the information and knowledge of senior made possible underground, bloodless revolutions. In places under
workers is obsolete. In this day and age where the computer reigns dictatorial or martial rule, like China for example, the phenomenon
supreme, they cannot compete with the quick developments in called tweeting has enabled ordinary citizens to step-up and be
technology, something at which the majority of fresh graduates are heard. The voices of the small people which have been hushed in the
proficient in. The answer to this is training. Nobody is born knowing past now find an outlet.
anything. Employers should give them the benefit of the doubt; train
them properly and our elders might just surprise you.
On the other hand, others declare that this phenomenon has lessened
the value of face to face communication. Communication has become
To end, ability and know-how does not automatically deteriorate with impersonal, they say, and it has actually isolated people instead of
age. As long as a person is competent and has the will to contribute, bringing them together. But while this has some truth to it, it cannot be
then age should not be a barrier. Youth may have its energy, but age denied that mobile phones and the Internet have enabled our voices
brings wisdom. and words to reach a wider audience than ever before.

To end, if properly used, these technologies will better our current


state of life. We need to embrace this fact but not blindly. As in
anything else, we must proceed with prudence to make the most out
of it.
Some people say that self-employment is better than working for Many people think that the government should pay the tuition
a company or institution. Discuss both points of view. What is fees for all adults who interested in university studies. Do you
your opinion? agree or disagree?

The means of making a living diverges into two avenues. The most The more educated its constituents, the better it is for the government.
common road that people take is to get employed either by a private A highly-skilled workforce is desirable for any country, but not
or public institution. Some others choose to be a bit more daring and everybody can afford to go back to school. I believe a compromise
put up their own enterprise. should be reached; the government should subsidize the fees for
qualified individuals.
Being an entrepreneur does have its risks, especially for the neophyte
businessman. There is a lot more to learn than just simple office work.
Channeling funds into adult education is a more worthy cause than
You will have to be involved at all levels. If the business ever
what some governments are doing right now. This is infinitely better
founders, then it would be much more painful, even to the personal
than funding weapons development, clandestine ventures, or any of
level. Nevertheless, the potential monetary and psychological rewards
the various government projects that are of no direct benefit to
are beyond what a mere regular employee can expect. Being your
citizens. A countrys real wealth lies in its people, so it makes good
own boss and steering the direction that the company takes is a
sense to prioritize them.
challenge that has its own appeal.

On the other side, being an employee is a more traditional and secure There are adults who would definitely want to further their education
choice. The paycheck just rolls in every month, and ones duties and but are hampered by obligations or financial constraints. Being an
responsibilities are usually clearly defined. There are even some adult means working, bills, errands, possibly children. All these
positions in giant companies which pay astronomically. Even so, discourage or even prevent some from considering a return. A
company salaries follow a standard and there are caps as to what a financial support from the government will definitely be a big help, a
worker can earn. A lot dream and work towards being promoted and factor that might swing the decision for a lot of people.
eventually moving in the top circle, but few will reach this level.
Employees more often than not do not have much say in the direction
of a business. On the other hand, we must not ignore some difficulties that a subsidy
scheme entails. This costs money just like any other venture. There
Having experienced both being an employee and putting up my own will be some who will not finish their studies or take a long time,
business, I would say entrepreneurship sits better with me. It is not thereby increasing the overhead. A few people even say that some
advisable for everybody; it is by far more challenging and demanding. adults will take advantage of this in some way. Nonetheless, there are
Nevertheless I like knowing that I am building something which will safeguards that can be applied. Of course there should be a
have my personal stamp, something that I built from the ground up screening for qualified applicants; mainly these should be people who
into a resounding success. Without the men and women who took the have the intellectual capacity or skills suited to the course. Moreover,
risks and the conviction to follow their hearts, a lot of frontiers would the financial situation of the applicant is a significant factor. The poor
have remained unconquered. but deserving should have preference.

In the end, it all goes down to the choices and work-style of the
individual. Some do better alone, while others need the security or To end, the government, and we ourselves, must recognize this
creative hubbub that a big workplace brings. Whatever the worthy cause; a noble goal that must be supported. It has some risks,
preference, what is important is the responsibility, willingness, and but nothing is totally risk-free. The long-term benefits outweigh the
ability to exert the effort demanded by the occupation. short-term difficulties it may entail.
It is sometimes argued that too many students go to university, The free movement of goods across national borders has long
while others claim that a university education should be a been a controversial issue. Some people argue that it is
universal right. necessary for economic growth, while others claim that it
damages local industries.
Discuss both sides of the argument and give your own opinion.
One of the most debatable issues of the last century has been the
extent to which international trade benefits or harms national
In some advanced countries, it is not unusual for more than 50% of economies. Many arguments have been made for and against free
young adults to attend college or university. Critics, however, claim trade between nations. In this essay, I will discuss both views and
that many university courses are worthless and young people would state my own position.
be better off gaining skills in the workplace. In this essay, I will
examine both sides of this argument and try to reach a conclusion. Those who support the expansion of global free trade claim that
economies grow faster when they can specialise in just a few
There are several reasons why young people today believe they have industries in which they have a strong advantage. As a result, each
the right to a university education. First, growing prosperity in many region or country produces something of value to the world economy.
parts of the world has increased the number of families with money to For example, East Asia manufactures electronic goods, the Middle
invest in their childrens future. At the same time, falling birthrates East exports energy, and the EU produces luxury items. Free trade
mean that one- or two-child families have become common, proponents claim that dependence on global trade helps to strengthen
increasing the level of investment in each child. It is hardly surprising, international cooperation and prevent wars.
therefore, that young people are willing to let their families support
them until the age of 21 or 22. Furthermore, millions of new jobs have Meanwhile, opponents of free tradesometimes called
been created in knowledge industries, and these jobs are typically protectionistsclaim that the unrestricted movement of goods and
open only to university graduates. services causes damage to local communities. This is because jobs
are lost when it becomes cheaper to import a product than to produce
However, it often appears that graduates end up in occupations it domestically. They also argue that the vast distances travelled by
unrelated to their university studies. It is not uncommon for an English food, oil, and consumer goods is harming the environment and
literature major to end up working in sales, or an engineering graduate making our lives unsustainable. Protectionists are in favour of tighter
to retrain as a teacher, for example. Some critics have suggested that controls on the movement of goods and services in order to protect
young people are just delaying their entry into the workplace, rather jobs and livelihoods.
than developing professional skills. A more serious problem is that the
high cost of a university education will mean that many families are In conclusion, while there are convincing arguments on both sides of
reluctant to have more than one child, exacerbating the falling the debate, a return to protectionist policies would surely be a
birthrates in certain countries. mistake. I believe that global trade is inevitable and should not be
restricted. It is no longer realistic for nations to source all of their
In conclusion, while it can be argued that too much emphasis is energy, food, and manufactured goods within their own borders.
placed on a university education, my own opinion is that the university
years are a crucial time for personal development. If people enter the
workplace aged 18, their future options may be severely restricted.
Attending university allows them time to learn more about themselves
and make a more appropriate choice of career.
The internet has transformed the way information is shared and In many developed countries, life expectancy is rising while
consumed, but it has also created problems that did not exist birthrates are falling. As a result, the elderly will make up a much
before. larger proportion of the population in future.

What are the most serious problems associated with the internet Is this a positive or negative development?
and what solutions can you suggest? How long do you expect to live? Until the age of 80? 100? If you had
asked your parents the same question, they would surely have felt
There is no doubt that the internet has revolutionized communication that a life expectancy of 70 was around average. Your grandparents,
and information-sharing in the same way that the telegraph and the meanwhile, might have felt fortunate to live for 60 years. It is clear that
television did before it. However, societies have had to cope with people are living longer than ever before, but is this a positive or
unanticipated new problems, including crimes which traditional laws negative development?
are powerless to prevent. This essay will address some of the illegal
acts enabled by the internet and propose solutions. On the one hand, increased life expectancy brings many opportunities
later in life to try things that you could not do in your youth. Going on a
To begin with, the global scale of the internet means that national laws world cruise, taking up a new hobby, even going back to university to
are no longer adequate to control what happens online. Take get a degree: all of these opportunities are available to retired people
restrictions on legal reporting, for example. In some countries, the nowadays. What is more, while many parents find raising children to
media is prohibited from revealing details of a defendants past in be a stressful experience, spending time with grandchildren brings far
case this prejudices a fair trial. However, such restrictions are no more pleasure. Therefore, a more elderly population generally means
longer enforceable now that information may be freely published in a happier population with more time to enjoy life.
other countries and accessed by all. The only solution here, it seems,
is to adopt global standards. Since the internet traverses national On the other hand, since elderly people often rely on the government
borders, the flow of information can only be controlled if all nations or their children to support them, there are real concerns about the
agree on what can and cannot be shared. financial consequences of an aging society. Countries such as Japan
are already being forced to raise both taxes and the age of retirement
Another problem concerns anonymity, as internet users can easily in order to offset the problem. Without a doubt, many other countries
conceal their identity and even impersonate others. Many crimes such will need to take similar actions in the coming decades.
as identity theft and child abuse result from the ease with which
criminals can operate anonymously online. Some have proposed a Overall, I would say that the benefits to individuals of living longer far
system of online identification, similar to a passport, which would outweigh the cost to society of supporting an elderly population. Of
allow all internet users to be verified and traced. I believe this idea course, various countries need to take steps to ensure that the
should be explored further, though there are clearly concerns about process is carefully managed.
the security of those who use the internet to protest against
oppressive regimes.

In conclusion, the only long-term solution to the problem of internet


crime is greater international cooperation. Since the problem is global
is scale, the solution must also be global. A new agency of the United
Nations should be created to tackle the problems described here.
Some people think that cities are the best places to live. Others Nowadays, more and more foreign students are going to English-
prefer to live in a rural area. Compare the advantages and Speaking countries to learn the international language
disadvantages of living in the city to living in the countryside. English". It is undoubtedly true that studying English in an
English-speaking country is the best way, but it is not the only
Whether cities are better than rural area or vice-versa is a contentious way to learn it.
question, it depends on one's choice, as to, what they prefer. Both cities
and rural areas have their pros and cons. Rural areas have quaint Model Answer 1: Persuasive
environments whereas there is always something fascinating about big
cities. There is no debate that being in a real English language environment
will help anyone to master the language in the fastest and most
Cities generally have better infrastructure, education system and effective way and many international students prefer to go to English-
advance health care facilities. You get to meet people from all walks of speaking countries to study and learn the international language. I
life, learn to coexist with people from different ethnicity, race, caste and agree that this is a good way, yet students can learn English in other
culture; hence you become more tolerant, open minded and start
useful ways and those can be even better than the first approach.
respecting each other differences. Whereas countryside people are less
tolerant, caste system still prevails and the powers lie with a certain
Being in an English speaking country helps students learn English in
group of people. If you see, today in India, Love marriages /inter-caste
marriages are very common in cities, whereas people are being many ways. Firstly, the surroundings and environment influence our
murdered in the name of honour in rural areas. Gender inequality is very learning. We are forced to speak, read write, and slowly we start even
evident in a rural area, where women are being restricted only to thinking in English since we have to. Secondly, quick learning of the
household chores and do not have much say in decision making, but in language can become a strong motivation because, in turn, we will
cities, both are treated equally. It is not uncommon to see people get quick feedback that lets us find what we learn really benefits us in
migrating to cities for better jobs, better education. life and education. This inspires us to continue to learn more. Its a
positive reinforcement Learning builds on progressively. The initial
People in the cities are always under tremendous pressure and stress, learning serves as the basis for further learning. Thirdly, in an English-
they always have to be up to date with technologies and hence there is speaking country, you will be learning from the life and culture which
no time to relax. Recently studies have shown a surge in the number of is not present off that land.
cases of heart attacks, which is due to increase in stress level. People in
cities are constantly exposed to high level of pollution, adulterated food However, in this age of cross-culture communication and Internet,
and chemically grown vegetables, which adversely affects their health, learning English in an English-speaking country is not the only way.
owing to which the average life of people living is cities is less than The English language learning opportunities are available in many
people living in rural area. Increased cases of obesity, suicides, diabetes countries. Nowadays people are able to find various ways of learning
are also resulting in stress and unhealthy living. Rural areas on other the English language in their home country that are highly effective
hand have no or very less pollution, pure food item and less stress, and productive. Watching English movies, television, listening to
people have more time for themselves and their families. English music and browsing Internet can open up a vast plethora of
English materials. For instance, one can make use of the vast storage
To sum up, I think both cities and rural areas have their own charm. Cities
of materials (video, sound, graphics, etc.) on the Internet to facilitate
have more busy and hectic life but have better facilities, rural areas, on
language study. Sometimes non-English speaking students may need
the contrary, have more relaxed, laid back lifestyle but lacks in up to date
a different approach for learning English. The principle of different
technologies like computers and international standard of healthcare and
education system. students, different teaching, by the famous saying by Chinese guru
Confucius, maintains that different teaching approaches are useful for
different segments of students. The way a foreign student learns a
language is quite different from those of an English native speaker.
For example, a foreign student higher level; however, it is
unnecessary for a native speaker. Last but not the least, on some Learning from experience is better than learning from text and that
occasions, students may find teachers in their own countries do a makes an English speaking country living person more competent
better job in figuring out their exact weak points and the remedies for than a non-English speaking country living person in terms of the
them. A teacher of a non-English country understand the basic of a command of the language. When the first person communicates
student and can combine both the native language and English to naturally and without any brainstorming, the later one would do that as
make the study plan and this might be more helpful than a native less accurately. Pronunciation and language style is very important in
English teacher's approach of studying. terms of communicating English and that can be best learned from the
native speakers of this language and thats why being in an English
In conclusion, I believe studying English in English-speaking country speaking country to learn the language is the best way. Because of
is a good way but in many cases, the other ways can be proven to be this realisation, thousands of people from different parts of the world
more efficient than being in an English speaking country. are coming to English Speaking countries to learn the language.

Model Answer 2: Refute In conclusion, though a language can be learned through reading,
practice and other good ways, being in a country where this language
Language is a skill and like any other skill, it can be best achieved is the native language is the best way to learn it.
through practising. Being in an English speaking country gives a
competitive advantage of learning it faster and in a more efficient way
than other ways and that why I consider learning English can be best
achieved by being in an English speaking country.

Many people would argue that, if learning English in only possible by


living in an English country ho come people with really good English
can exist when they have never been to an English-speaking country.
Yes, it is true that proper study and determination to grasp the
language can bring success to a person without living in a non-
English-speaking country but there are some gaps yet. The amount of
effort someone needs to put in learning the language would be much
more compared to someone living in an English speaking country.

Firstly, being in an English speaking country would make the learner


to communicate in this language all the time and being in such a
situation helps learn faster and more competently. They would learn
the language through practical experiences and that is more important
than reading tomes of grammatical rules from textbooks.

Second, the language is not merely how it is defined in the grammar


books and how the words are spelt. Rather it is a natural ability to
express the feelings and thought to someone else in an effective way
and it is quite impossible to become a natural thinker of a language
without actually being in an environment where this is the only
language.
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of three of the programs, news etc. with apt attention. It is a strong medium for
following as media for communicating information. State which Government and other organisations to send their messages to the
three you consider the most effective. mass population. Program representatives also broadcast the
people's view and opinions about different controversial issues in TV
Comic programs. However, this medium has lots of demerits and bad
Books impacts. Government and politically biased organisations often send
Radio negative and misleading news. Again young people watch different
Television satellite channels and try to adopt the alien culture which is really
Film harmful for the culture and tradition of a country.
Theater
Films are an audio-visual representation and can catch the attention
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples of people from different geographical locations, races and cultures. A
from your own knowledge or experience. good film can shape someone's morality and doctrine and the film-
makers with their huge amount of money, are so careful to make their
Model Answer 1: films realistic and eye-absorbing. Every film has a direct or potential
message or moral. On the contrary, some films also bring a wrong
In our daily life, we communicate information through lots of different message to us. For example, protagonists are always smoking in the
media like the internet, televisions, radios, books, cell phones, films films and it seems that smoking is a good and smart habit. It causes
etc. We are living in such a time when information is one of the most many younger people imitate them smoking.
important issues and the information technologies as well as the
communication media greatly influence our lives. The rapid-growing In conclusion, I would like to some up that books, televisions and films
websites and TV channels are many of few little examples how media are the most powerful and effective medias for communicating
are spreading to make information easily accessible. All the media for information.
information interchange have advantages and disadvantages and not
all can attract all types of audiences. Comics, books, radios,
televisions, film and theatre are all very powerful media for Model Answer 2:
communicating information. In my opinion books, televisions and film
among those aforementioned six media are most effective. Communication media plays a vital role in todays world. It enables us
Books are the witness of history and the main source from which we to stay informed of the happenings in the entire world, provides
gain knowledge. From a very ancient period till now, books have been access to real-time information, and entertains us. There are different
working as the light-house for our society. In our childhood, we gather kinds of media in use today, namely comics, books, radio, television,
most of our knowledge and skills from books. It opens new horizons in film, theatre etc. out of these, the most effective are the television,
front of us. The writer writes down their experiences, imaginations, radio and books.
knowledge, explanation etc. about each and every issue of our lives. Television, or TV for short, is an electronic device that enables us to
Books are the long lasting protocol to make a bridge among writers see and listen at the same time to an act that has been recorded.
and readers. These can be replayed any number of times. News on a TV enables
us to view the current events occurring in different parts of the world.
Video of an event can be telecasted live as it happens through remote
However, all are not happy to read books. They expect something satellite links. A TV can also be a source of education and
easier and more vivid. Music, radios, films etc. are more appealing to entertainment. Educational channels, such as Discovery channel,
them. Television is another powerful media. Watching television is a telecast several interesting programs on topics such as wildlife or
part of our daily lives. Most of the people who have a TV set, watch
solar system. Other channels, such as Star movies, telecast movies
throughout the day.

A radio is an electronic device that uses microwave communication to


send and receive information. Unlike a TV, a radio cannot display an
image or a video, and the communication is limited to voice only.
Typically, a radio is used for access information such as news and live
traffic updates. The information is conveyed on fixed bands of
microwave frequency called channels. A user can set the frequency of
the radio to access a particular channel.

Books are the one of the oldest kind of communication medium. A


book typically consists of several pages, made from wood pulp bound
together. A book is typically identified by a title and an author, and
optionally an ISBN number which identifies a book uniquely. A book
usually contains a material on a given topic, divided by sub-topics in
form of chapters. Books are often classified by genre, which is a
theme in which the topic can be classified. Examples of genres
include fiction, non-fiction, science fiction, mystery etc.

Of all the communication media available today, television, radio and


books are the most important and effective ones. These are also the
most commonly used media in the world today and they are
responsible for binding the world together.