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GMR Institute of Technology

Rajam, Andhra Pradesh

(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to JNTUK, AP)

Department of Chemical Engineering

Class 3 Sem. - B. Tech. (Chemical Engineering)
Course Chemical Process Calculations Course Code CHEM-2403
Prepared by Mr. P. Satya Sagar, Sr. Assistant Professor
Lecture Topic Ideal gas law
Course Outcome CCHEM203.1,CCHEM203.2 Program Outcome PO1,PO13
Duration 50 min Lecture 4 of 45 Unit I
Learning Level
(Tick whichever is applicable)

1. Objectives
a. To outline concept of basic ideal gas law and its applications
2. Topic Learning Outcomes: After the completion of the class the students will able to:
a. Explain basic ideal gas law and its applications
b. Calculate volume, temperature, pressure, number of moles and universal gas constant if any two
values are given
3. Teaching Methodology
a. Chalk & Talk /PPT Mode
4. Applications
When substances exist in the gaseous state two general types of problems arise in determining the
relationships among mass, pressure, temperature and volume. The first type involves only the last
three variables: pressure, temperature and volume. For example, a specified volume of gas is initially
at a specified temperature and pressure. The conditions are changed, two of the variables in the final
state being specified, and it is desired to calculate the third. For such calculations it is not required to
know the weight of the gas. The second, more general type of problem involves the weight of the gas.
5. Evocation

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6. Discussion

A specified weight of substances exists in the gaseous state under conditions two of which are
specified and the third is to be calculated. Or, conversely, it is desired to calculate the weight of a
given quantity of gas existing at specified conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume.
Problems of the first type, in which weights are not involved, may be readily solved by
means of the proportionality indicated by the gas law.
pv = nRT (1)
may be applied to n moles of gas at conditions p1, V1, T1 and also at conditions p2, V2, T2.
p1V1 = nRT1
p2V2 = nRT2
combining gives:
p1V1 T1
p 2V2 T2
This equation may be
applied directly to any quantity of gas. If
the three conditions of state 1 are known,
any one of those of state 2 may be
calculated to correspond to specified
values of the other two. Any units of
pressure, volume or absolute temperature
may be used, the only requirement being

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that the units in both initial and final states be the same. Equation 1 is in a form that permits
direct solution of problems of the second type that involve both weights and volumes of gases.
With weights expressed in molar units the equation may be solved for any one of the four
variables if the other three are known. However, this calculation requires a value of the constant
R expressed in units that correspond to those used in expressing the four variable quantities. So
many units of expression are in common use for each variable quantity that a large table of
values of R would be required or else the variable quantities would have to be converted into
standard units. Either method is inconvenient. It proves much more desirable to separate
such calculations into two steps. As a primary constant, the normal molal volume is used instead
of R. the normal molal volume is the volume occupied by one mole of a gas at arbitrarily
selected standard conditions, assuming that the ideal gas law is obeyed. The normal molal
volume at any one set of standard conditions, the validity of equation 1 is assumed, must be a
universal constant, the same for all gases. The volume, at the standard conditions, of any weight
of gas is the product of the number of moles present and the normal molal volume.
The general type of problem involving weights and volumes at any desired conditions may then
be solved in two steps. In one step the difference between the properties of the gas at standard
conditions and at those conditions specified in the problem are determined by equation 2. In the
other step the relationship between volume at standard conditions and weight is determined by
means of the normal molal volume constant.
Standard conditions:
An arbitrarily specified standard state of temperature and pressure serves two purposes. It
establishes the normal molal volume constant required in the system of calculation described in
the preceding section. It also furnishes convenient specifications under which quantities of gases
may be compared when expressed in terms of volumes. Some such specification is necessary
because of the fact that volume of gas depends not only on the quantity but on the temperature
and pressure as well.
Several specifications of standard conditions are in more or less common use, but the one
most universally adapted is a temperature of 0o C and a pressure of 1atm. It is recommended that
these conditions be adapted as the standard for all calculations. Under these conditions the
normal molal volumes are as follows. (the abbreviation S.C. is used to designate the standard

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Volume of one g-mole (S.C) = 22.4146 liters
Volume of one lb-mole (S.C) = 359.046 cu.ft
Volume of one kg-mole (S.C) = 22.4146 cu.mts
The conditions of the standard states may be expressed in any desired units as in the following
Temperature Pressure
0o C 1 atm
273.16 K 760 mm Hg
32o F 29.92 in.Hg
491.69o R 14.70 psi
There are many substances that cannot actually exist in the gaseous state at these
specified conditions. For example, at a temperature of 0 o C water cannot exist in a stable gaseous
form at a pressure greater than 4.6 mm of mercury. Higher pressures cause condensation. Yet it
is convenient to refer to the hypothetical volume occupied by water vapour at standard
conditions and if it obeyed the ideal-gas law.
Gage pressure : All ordinary pressure gages indicate the magnitude of pressure above or below
that of the atmosphere. In order to obtain the absolute pressure which must be used in the gas
law, the pressure of the atmosphere must be added to the gage pressure. The average atmospheric
pressure at sea level is 14.70 psi or 29.92 in of mercury.
Gas densities and specific gravities : The density of a gas is ordinarily expressed as the weight
in grams of one liter or the weight in pounds of one cubic foot. Unless otherwise specified the
volumes are at the standard conditions of 0o C and a pressure of 1.0 atm. On this bases air has a
normal density of 1.293gms per liter or of 0.0807 lb per cu.ft.
The specific gravity of a gas is usually defined as the ratio of its density to that of air at
the same conditions of temperature and pressure.The gas law expresses the relationship among
four properties of a gas: mass, volume, pressure and temperature. In order to calculate any one of
these properties the others must be known or specified. Four different types of problems arise,
classified according to the property being sought. The following illustrations show the

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application of the recommended method of calculation to each of these types of problems.
For establishment of correct ratios to account for the affects of pressure and temperature a
simple rule may be followed which offers less opportunity for error that attempting to recall
equation 2. The ratio of pressures or temperatures should be greater that unity when the changes
in pressure or temperature are such as to cause increase in volume. The ratios should be less than
unity when the changes are such as to cause decrease in volume.
Laws of Dalton and Amagat :
From the simple kinetic theory of the constitution of gases it would be expected
that many properties of gases mixtures would be additive. The additive nature of partial pressure
is expressed by Daltons law which states that the total pressure exerted by a gases mixture is
equal to the sum of the partial pressures; that is:
p = pA + pB + pC + .. (3)
where p is the total pressure of the mixture and pA , pB , pC , etc are the partial pressures of the
component gases as defined above.
Similarly the additive nature of pure component volumes is given by the law of Amagat
or Leducs law which states that the total volume occupied by a gaseous mixture is equal to sum
of the pure component volumes; that is:
V = VA + VB + VC + .. (4)
Where V is the total volume of the mixture and VA , VB , VC , etc are the pure component volumes
of the component gases as defined above. It will be shown later that each of these laws is correct
where conditions are such that the mixture and each of the components obey the ideal-gas law.
Where small molal volumes are encountered, such that the ideal-gas law does not apply ,
either Daltons or Amagats law may apply, but both laws apply simultaneously only for ideal
gases. Under such conditions pressures may not be additive, because the introduction of
additional molecules into a gas filled container may appreciably affect the pressure exerted by
those already there. The presence of new molecules will reduce the space available for the free
motion of those originally present and will exert attractive forces on them. Similarly, if quantities
of two gases at the same pressure are allowed to mix at that same pressure, the like molecules of
each gas will be separated by greater distances and will be in the presence of unlike molecules,
which condition may alter the order of attractive forces existing among them. As a result, the

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volume of the mixture may be quite different from the sum of the original volumes. These effects
are negligible under conditions of large molal volumes.
Where conditions are such that the ideal-gas law is applicable,
pA (5)
Where V = total volume of mixture
nA = number of moles of component A in mixture
p (n A nB nC ......) (6)
This equation relates the pressure, temperature, volume, and molal quantity of any gaseous
mixture under such conditions that the mixture and each of the components follow the ideal-gas
law and Daltons Law. By combining equations 5 and 6 a useful relationship between total and
partial pressure is obtained:
pA p NA p (7)
nA nB nC ......
The quantity NA=nA/ (nA + nB + nC + ) is the mole fraction of component A. equation 7 then
signifies that, where the ideal-gas law may be applied, the partial pressure of a component of a
mixture is equal to the product of the total pressure and the mole fraction of the component.
When conditions are such that the ideal-gas law is applicable,
pVA = nART (8)
pVB = nBRT (9)
where VA, VB, etc., are the pure-component volumes as defined above.
Adding these equations gives
P(VA + VB + VC + ) = (nA + nB + nC + )RT (10)
Combining equations 8 and 9 with Amagats law equation 4 yields
V nA n B .....

VA = NAV (12)
Equation 12 signifies that, where the ideal-gas law may be applied, the pure component
volume of a component of a gaseous mixtures equal to the product of the total volume and the

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mole fraction of that component.
From equation 6 to 10 it is evident that, when the ideal-gas law is valid, Amagats and
Daltons laws apply; that is, both pure component volumes and partial pressures are additives.
7. Mind Map:

8. Readings:
1. Hougen, Olaf A., and Kenneth M. Watson. "Chemical Process Principles-Part 1: Material
and Energy Blances." (1948).
2. Himmelblau, David Mautner, and James B. Riggs. Basic principles and calculations in
chemical engineering. FT Press, 2012.

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3. Bhatt, B. I., and S. M. Vora. Stoichiometry:(si units). Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co., 1996.
9. Questions:
1. Write short notes on standard conditions
1. Explain any equation of state
1. The value of ideal gas constant is 8.3144 J/g.mole ( 0K). How many grammoles of
nitrogen will occupy 1000 m3at a pressure of 112000 N/m2and a temperature of 4000K.
2. A gas mixture contains 0.274 gm-mole of HCl, 0.337 gm-mole of N2and 0.089 gm-
mole of O2. Calculate the volume occupied by the mixture, density and partial pressure
of each component at a pressure of 2.7 atm and a temperature of 30oC
3. Calculate the volume, in cubic meters, occupied by 40 kg of CO2at standard conditions
4. It is desired to compress 4.536 kg of carbon dioxide to a volume of 0.5664 cu m.
Calculate the pressure in atmospheres that is required at a temperature of 300C,
assuming the applicability of the ideal-gas law.
5. Assuming the applicability of the ideal gas law, calculate the maximum temperature to
which 4.536 kg of nitrogen, enclosed in a 0.849 cu m chamber, may be heated without
the pressure exceeding 10.2 atmosphere.
10. Key Words:
Equivalent weight,
Atomic percent,
11. Scope for Mini Project
a. Try to solve the above problems in Aspen one
b. Prepare an excel sheet to easy converting obtaining of remaining parameters when two
parameters are given u sing gas law

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