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GMR Institute of Technology

Rajam, Andhra Pradesh


(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to JNTUK, AP)

Department of Chemical Engineering


rd
Class 3 Sem. - B. Tech. (Chemical Engineering)
Course Chemical Process Calculations Course Code CHEM-2403
Prepared by Mr. P. Satya Sagar, Sr. Assistant Professor
Lecture Topic Relative and percentage saturation or dew point
Course Outcome CCHEM203.2 Program Outcome PO1,PO13
Duration 50 min Lecture 10 of 45 Unit I
REMEMBER UNDERSTAND APPLY ANALYSE EVALUATE CREATE
Learning Level
(Tick whichever is applicable)

1. Objectives
Understand the basic concepts of Relative and percentage saturation or dew point
2. Topic Learning Outcomes: After the completion of the class the students will able to:
a. Calculate Relative saturation and percentage saturation or dew point
b. Rephrase the definitions of Relative saturation, Percentage saturation and Dew point
3. Teaching Methodology
a. Chalk & Talk/Presentation mode
4. Applications
Drying, condensation, distillation, air conditioning, air separation, humidification and
dehumidification
5. Evocation

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6. Discussion

Humidity and Saturation: When a gas or a gaseous mixture remains in contact with a liquid
surface, it will acquire vapor from the liquid until the partial pressure of the vapor in the gas
mixture equals the vapor pressure of the liquid at its existing temperature. When the vapor
concentration reaches this equilibrium value the gas is said to be satureated with the vapor. It is
not possible for the gas to contain a greater stable concentration of vapor. The vapor content of a
saturated gas is determined entirely by the vapor pressure of the liquid and may be predicted
directly from vapor pressure data. Thus for ideal gases
pv
Vv = V ----- (1)
P
When Vv = pure component volume of vapor
pv = partial pressure of vapor = vapor pressure of liquid at existing temperature.
V = total volume
P = total pressure
From equation 1 the percentage composition by volume of a vapor saturated gas may be
calculated. When the ideal gas law is applicable, the composition by volume of a vapor saturated
gas is independent of the nature of the gas but is dependent on the nature and temperatures of the
liquid and on the total pressure. The composition by weight varies with the nature of both the
gas and the liquid, the temperature and the total pressure.
Partial Saturation: If a gas contains a vapor in such proportion that its partial pressure is less
than the vapor pressure of the liquid at the existing temperature, the mixture is but partially
saturated.
The relative saturation of such a mixture may be defined as the percentage ratio of
the partial pressure of the vapor to the vapor pressure of the liquid at the existing temperature.
The relative saturation is therefore a function of both the composition of the mixture and its
temperature as well as of the nature of the vapor.
From its definition it follows that the relative saturation also represents the following ratios:
(a)The ratio of the percentage of vapor by volume to the percentage by volume that would be
present were the gas saturated at the existing temperature and total pressure.
(b)The ratio of the weight of vapor per unit volume of mixture to the weight per unit volume

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present at saturation at the existing temperature and total pressure.
Another useful means for expressing the degree of saturation of a vapor-bearing gas
may be termed the percentage saturation. The percentage saturation is defined as the
percentage ratio of the existing moles of vapor per mole of vapor-free gas to the moles of vapor
that would be present per mole of vapor-free gas if the mixture were saturated at the existing
temperature and pressure. The percentage saturation also represents the ratio of the existing
weight of vapor per unit weight of vapor-free gas to the weight of vapor that would exist per unit
weight of vapor-free gas if the mixture were saturated at the existing temperature and pressure.
Care must be exercised that the relative saturation and the percentage saturation are not
confused. They approach equality when the vapor concentrations approach zero but are different
at all other conditions. The quantitative relationship between the two terms is readily derived
from their definition. Thus,
pv
Relative saturation in % = (100) = yr
ps

Where pv = partial pressure of vapor


ps = vapor pressure of pure liquid
nv
% saturation = (100) = ys
ns

Where nv = moles of vapor per mole of vapor free gas actually present
ns = moles of vapor per mole of vapor free gas at saturation
From Daltons law

nv pv ns ps
= and =
1 p pv 1 p ps

nv p p ps
or = v
ns ps p pv

p ps
Hence yp= yr
p pv

Where p = total pressure.


It can be observed that the saturated vapor pressure Ps is always greater than partial pressure of

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the vapor Pv, hence the percentage saturation is always less than the relative saturation.
Humidity: Most commonly occurring case of water vapor in gases of all kinds, special
attention has been given and a special terminology has been developed. The humidity H of the
gas is generally defined as the weight of water per unit weight of moisture free gas. This is also
known as absolute humidity. The molal humidity Hm is the number of moles of water per mole
of moisture free gas. When the vapor under consideration is water, the percentage saturation is
termed the percentage humidity. The relative saturation becomes the relative humidity.
Considerable confusion exists in the literature in the use of these terms, and care must always be
exercised to avoid misuse
Dewpoint
If the air is gradually cooled while maintaining the moisture content constant, the relative
humidity will rise until it reaches 100%. This temperature, at which the moisture content in the
air will saturate the air, is called the dew point . If the air is cooled further, some of the moisture
will condense.

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7. Mind Map:

8. Readings:
1. Hougen, Olaf A., and Kenneth M. Watson. "Chemical Process Principles-Part 1: Material
and Energy Blances." (1948)
2. Himmelblau, David Mautner, and James B. Riggs. Basic principles and calculations in
chemical engineering. FT Press, 2012
3. Bhatt, B. I., and S. M. Vora. Stoichiometry:(si units). Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co., 1996
4. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/relhum.html

9. Questions:
Remember:
1. Dene saturation, partial saturation, relative saturation and percentage saturation.
Apply:
1. The partial pressure of ethyl acetate in a hydrogen-ethyl acetate mixture at 400C and 1 atm
total pressure is 75 mm Hg. Calculate
i. The humidity of the mixture.
ii. The percentage humidity.

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iii. The relative humidity.
10. Key Words:
Dew point,
Humidity,
Molar humidity,
Daltons law,
relative saturation
percentage saturation

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