REPORTING THE KILLING

OF ANDREW FELIX KAWEESI
CASE STUDY IN MEDIA COVERAGE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
Quantity & Nature of Reporting; Perspectives & Ethical Debates

June 2017
REPORTING THE KILLING OF ANDREW FELIX KAWEESI
CASE STUDY IN MEDIA COVERAGE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
Quantity & Nature of Reporting; Perspectives & Ethical Debates

© African Centre for Media Excellence

June 2017
June 2017 Report

Table of Contents

Synopsis.........................................................................................................................................................1

Background...................................................................................................................................................2

Scope of the Study........................................................................................................................................2

Research Design/Methodology.................................................................................................................3

Findings.........................................................................................................................................................3

Quantity & Prominence of Coverage....................................................................................................3

Newsmaker Focus....................................................................................................................................4

Reporting Formats...................................................................................................................................5

Ethical Debates.........................................................................................................................................7

Use of Photos...........................................................................................................................................7

Did Kaweesi Present a Conflict of Interest for Reporters?.....................................................................9

Framing...................................................................................................................................................10

Background and Context......................................................................................................................11

Sourcing...................................................................................................................................................11

Use of Data..............................................................................................................................................11

Conclusion..............................................................................................................................................12

Annex 1: The 105 Stories Analysed in the Study...................................................................................13

Annex 2: Key Informants Interviewed....................................................................................................17
Reporting the Killing of Andrew Felix Kaweesi

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RESEARCH TEAM
Benjamin Rukwengye, Brian Ssenabulya, Lydia Namubiru, Winnie Nabbosa Mubeezi
June 2017 Report

Synopsis
On Friday, 17 March 2017, Assistant Inspector General of Police Andrew Felix Kaweesi, who was the
force’s spokesperson, was shot dead in the city suburb of Kulambiro, where he lived. He was killed
with his bodyguard Kenneth Erau and driver Geoffrey Mambewa. The event sparked intense media
coverage in print, broadcast and online.

This study analyses that coverage along various measures of quantity and quality such as prominence,
sourcing, and framing. It also explores perspectives on the ethical debates that arose from the
coverage. Its methods include content analysis of slightly more than 100 articles published on the
killing, by the country’s five major English language publications; and key informant interviews
with five media and communications experts.

The study troubleshoots for what went wrong and offers some remedies that can be applied to
expand and improve coverage of this and/or similar news events in the future.

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Reporting the Killing of Andrew Felix Kaweesi

Background
On Friday, 17 March 2017, Andrew Felix Kaweesi, the spokesperson of the Uganda Police Force,
was gunned down together with his driver Geoffrey Mambewa and bodyguard Kenneth Erau. The
fatal shooting happened in Kulambiro, a largely residential neighbourhood on the northern side
of Kampala. It was the latest in a spate of public shootings over the past three years that claimed
the lives of Muslim clerics across the country1, senior state prosecutor Joan Kagezi2, UPDF officer
Muhammad Kiggundu and his bodyguard Steven Mukasa.3

Kaweesi, 43, had risen up the police ranks rapidly and maintained a high public visibility over
the years. Both local and international media prominently reported his death and its aftermath. A
prominent feature of the reporting was the use of crime scene photos and videos. Also prominent
was the role social media played in the coverage. As is the norm now, the news was broken on social
media first. Perhaps less normative was the fact that even the print media released a crime scene
photo showing the dead, pools of blood and a bullet ridden car, when they broke the news.

The combination of intensive reporting on the killing, use of the aforementioned visuals and the viral
spread of the news via social media, gave rise to intense public debate. The ethics debate included
questions on sensationalism, media intrusion on private grief, and sensitivity (or the lack thereof)
to aggrieved family, among others. Also debated was the gate-keeping role of the media, balance and
accuracy, context and solutions journalism, investigative journalism and/or their perceived absence
in the coverage. Like the news itself, this debate raged especially on social media.

Motivated by public interest in, and commentary on, how the media reported the Kaweesi story,
this study set out to examine the quantity and nature of the coverage. Considering the likelihood
of reoccurrence of events of this nature, this spot research aims to provide working journalists in
Uganda with a frame within which to consider and assess their coverage of violent deaths, deaths of
public figures, and violent crime in general.

Scope of the Study
The study examined coverage of the killings in Uganda’s five major print publications in the eight
days following the shooting. The publications are New Vision, Daily Monitor, The Observer, Red Pep-
per and The Independent magazine. Coverage was studied starting with the day after the shooting
Saturday, 18 March 2017 to Saturday, 25 March 2017. The researchers also watched social media
coverage as it happened and the study drew from observations on these platforms as well.

1. Uganda: Living In Fear: http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/africainvestigates/2015/11/uganda-liv-
ing-fear-151125151246129.html (22/03/2017)
2. Senior Principal State Attorney Joan Kagezi shot dead: http://www.monitor.co.ug/News/National/Senior-Principal-State-
Attorney-Joan-Kagezi-shot-/688334-2670954-1pllr8z/index.html (22/03/2017)
3. http://www.monitor.co.ug/News/National/Gunmen--kill--Sheik--Maj-Kiggundu/688334-3465564-p75oe4/index.html

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June 2017 Report

Research Design/Methodology
The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The content of 105 stories was coded and
analysed along various measures of quantity and quality such as prominence, sourcing, and framing.
Qualitative interviews with key informants documented the context within which the coverage was
done and probed for perspectives on the debates that arose. The research team interviewed five
media and communications experts as key informants.

Findings
Quantity & Prominence of Coverage

In the period studied, the five major publications published 105 stories on the shooting and
subsequent developments. New Vision had the highest number of stories on the killing, 42 (40.0%),
followed by Daily Monitor with 35 stories (33.3%) and Red Pepper 16 (15.2%). The tri-weekly, The
Observer, had 11 stories (10.5%) while The Independent, a weekly magazine, had one story.

This level of focus on the story ranges from 6%– 22% of the public affairs reporting these publica-
tions would do in a typical eight-day period, as shown by the table below.

Newspaper Public affairs stories Number of stories on Kaweesi coverage as %
in typical 8-day period Kaweesi shooting in the of typical public affairs
8 days studied reporting
New Vision 193 42 22%
Daily Monitor 220 35 16%
The Observer 81 11 14%
The Independent 17 1 6%
Red Pepper N/A2 16 N/A

The study also looked at how prominently these stories were placed on the newspaper pages. About
29% of all these stories were on the front page. The New Vision offered the story more prominence
than the other publications did. Of its Kaweesi stories, 38% were on the front page.

Overall, 59 (56.7%) of the stories were first leads on the pages on which they appeared, while 34
(32.7%) were second leads.

Expert opinion held that this level of coverage and prominence was right and fitting. “The media
did take lead in informing the public and the story became the country’s agenda for those days, as
a result,” said Haruna Kanaabi, executive secretary of the Independent Media Council of Uganda, a
self-regulatory body for the industry.

Cynthia Nyamai, a communications consultant, who was also a colleague of all three deceased
persons, agreed with the view that the media “gave the story the prominence it deserved”.

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Reporting the Killing of Andrew Felix Kaweesi

Newsmaker Focus
Story subject Number of front page stories Percent
Andrew Felix Kaweesi 26 86.6
Godfrey Mambewa 1 3.3
Kenneth Erau 1 3.3
IGP Kale Kayihura 1 3.3
Guns 1 3.3
Total 30 100

Kaweesi was killed together with his driver and bodyguard. However, whereas Kaweesi, an Assistant
Inspector General of Police (AIGP) at the time of his death, received prominent coverage, his junior
colleagues were covered in passing. More than 80% of the stories on the shooting focused on Kaweesi.
An even higher proportion (85%) of front-page coverage was also about him. The imbalance in
focus was further compounded by the fact that New Vision consistently got Mambewa’s name wrong,
referring to him as Geoffrey Wambewo, across the week.

While all the experts recognised that Kaweesi’s seniority had an important news-making effect, they
didn’t agree with the level of privilege the press accorded Kaweesi vis-à-vis the other fatally shot
officers.

“Having worked with them everyday, I would have loved to see equal coverage of all three,” Nyamai
said.

Simon Kaheru, a media analyst who is also the board chairman of Uganda Broadcasting Corporation,
argued that equal coverage would in fact be a matter of social justice, and the imbalance in turn,
skewed public sympathy towards the senior officer. “For instance, members of the public are col-
lecting money to support Kaweesi’s orphans, but he had a lot going for him. What about these junior
officers? In a fair and just society, it is the role of the media to highlight that [social imbalance].”

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June 2017 Report

Reporting Formats

Of the 105 stories published, 63 (61%) employed the hard news/conventional reporting approach.
Interpretive and explanatory reporting was done for six stories. Three stories could be considered
investigative. While an eight-day period may be too early for investigative stories, it’s telling that
only six stories across five publications were explanatory. The others (19.2%) were commentaries,
personal profiles, eulogies, pictorials and one Q&A.

“There was live coverage of the church, home, funeral, etc., but there was less analysis than should
have been. Less questioning. If the agenda had included critical analysis, maybe the country would
have gained more. The New Vision gave us 40 unanswered questions regarding the incident.
But I would have expected their reporters to pose those questions to the news sources and the
communities around. Then the discussion would have been more engaging,” Kanaabi said.

Veteran editor Joachim Buwembo agreed. “I didn’t feel particularly informed about the situation
based on what the mainstream media reported.” As a result, Buwembo says he turned to social
media, despite its own flaws.

All the media experts we spoke to had unanswered questions of their own regarding the story and
its context. These are questions whose answers would have required investigative or explanatory
reporting. They included:
• Who is in charge of security for officials like Kaweesi?
• Firearms regulation in Uganda: How many privately licensed guns are out there? What should we
know about our firearms registry? Who is responsible for the kind of guns that killed Kaweesi?
Since when have they been used in the country? How many guns of the same kind have been
imported into the country? Who is in charge of their importation?
• Do we really have killer squads/assassins in town?

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Reporting the Killing of Andrew Felix Kaweesi

• The family angle can be bigger than Kaweesi: What about other people who have lost their
relatives in this manner? Has the state ever gone back to them, informing them on progress of
investigations? Is there any relationship between the grieving families and the state? Tell us in
specific terms what, if anything, is hampering investigations into these kinds of killings.
• How many and which Ugandans have quasi-military training from places like Kyankwanzi, Iraq
and others?
• Interrogate the changes in the police force since 2001 when Katumba Wamala, a military general,
was put in charge. Assess the effect of the military commanders who have been in charge of the
police since then.
• Assess the impact of the current IGP’s decision to disband the special investigative branch of the
police in 2007. It dealt with threats to the state and was supposed to be a very highly specialised
team of investigators. What replaced it and what’s the replacement’s capacity to investigate
crimes like this killing?
• Examine Kaweesi’s career: How did he rise up the ranks so fast?
• Neighbourhood and community security: Inform people about how to secure themselves while
you have their attention. How can people improve security in their neighbourhoods? What are
some of the solutions that bodabodas can adopt for themselves and the neighbourhoods they
operate in (registering and serialising operators in the area, getting identification cards, etc)?
Explore community policing.
• Uganda’s investigation machinery: How much funding does it have? How is it spent? Have we
trained manpower to counter such criminals? Do we have enough expertise in handling crime
scenes like these? Maybe out of that, we would as a country get a better understanding and find
solutions because these crimes seem to be getting more sophisticated. Forget blanket statements
like: we don’t get enough money for investigation, the law is weak, etc. How much do they actually
get? Which aspect of the law is weak?
• Holding duty bearers accountable on an on-going basis: What did the minister of internal affairs
mean when he said at Kaweesi’s funeral, “I have come to celebrate the life of Kaweesi.” Is it time
to celebrate or provide answers? When Kayihura holds a press conference, do we see journalists
following up with questions on how far he has gone in establishing how infiltrated the police
force is? Asking the hard questions should not be the work of the callers into radio talk shows. It
is the journalists’ work.

Kaheru argued that, the structure of newsroom teams needs to change for more investigative
reporting to happen around stories like this. Had he been a news manager at the time, he would have
assigned the story to a dedicated team divided into two groups. One group would have explored the
security angle, addressing itself to the questions raised above. The other would have expanded the
family and social angle. The coverage would be a long term project for this team. Over time, this
team’s stories would help audiences make sense of what happened on the April day. “It could turn
into a book,” Kaheru offered.

While Maurice Mugisha, the news manager at NTV Uganda agreed there was need “to invest in
investigative journalism that connects the dots in the past 13 murders of this kind”, he also pointed
out that it is “expensive and hard to do”. When he pitched the prospect of a deeper investigative
project to his own team, “everyone was quick to say they don’t feel safe,” Mugisha said.

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June 2017 Report

Ethical Debates

Use of Photos
The most fervent debate on social media was about the use of a particular crime scene photo. Many
social media users first learnt of the killings through a photo of Kaweesi’s bullet-riddled car. Its
doors hang open. Its dead occupants were spilling out of it, heads pointing towards pools of blood
on the ground. This photo was shared widely on Twitter, WhatsApp and Facebook – by individuals
and media houses. Initially, it was in full colour (e.g. on NTV’s and NBS TV’s social media feeds) but
later The New Vision and The Independent posted black and white versions.

Over the course of the story, other visuals of death made the rounds. A picture of the prostrate body
in police uniform was circulated and purported to be of Kaweesi’s. It turned out not to be. A video
purported to be of Kaweesi’s post mortem was circulated too. It turned out to have been recorded
weeks earlier. A picture of Kaweesi’s body in an open casket ran on the front page of Red Pepper.

Whereas all pictures of death were widely circulated on social media, their use in offline newspapers
was in fact quite limited. Most (66%) of the stories of the murder were indeed accompanied by
photos, but the vast majority (93%) were not graphic. The research team coded two photos as
‘somewhat graphic’ (for showing blood) and another three as ‘graphic’ (for showing both blood and
the dead). All the seven photos that were judged as either ‘graphic’ or ‘somewhat graphic’ were in
Red Pepper.

Nonetheless, in breaking the news, even more traditional media houses had shared the picture that
sparked the debates: bodies of the three dead police officers slumped out of a bullet ridden car,
blood pooled on the ground. Mugisha recalled how the NTV social media team came to use the
picture. “When we first got the photo, internally, we decided: let’s go with it.” He said they received
the initial crime scene picture via WhatsApp and “when you saw it on the phone, it didn’t seem as
graphic. But when we put them out, then we saw how graphic it was.” In subsequent bulletins, on

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Reporting the Killing of Andrew Felix Kaweesi

TV, the picture was black and white and it wasn’t used in the prime time news slot at all. “Children
would be watching,” Mugisha said. But was the use of these photos (at all) ethical or not? Was it
disrespectful of the dead and in bad taste or did they carry real information that the public had a
right to see? What should the media have done? Is editing colour out of a picture ethical?

In one of the first official reactions to the use of the photo, broadcast regulator Uganda Communications
Commission released a statement saying that “whereas it’s the duty of media to inform the public
through news and programming, broadcasters must ensure that the images are neither sensational
or do not cause unnecessary alarm”.4

Nyamai felt that the picture of bodies and the bullet-ridden car, did in fact cause harm. “The trauma
of those photos has been even stronger than I felt at the crime scene. To this day, I just see the photos,
not the scene,” she says. She rushed to the crime scene because all three dead were her colleagues.
She said, seeing the same scene in a picture online was more painful because users sometimes
responded with insensitive commentary. “People should be sensitive to the families of the dead,” she
said.

However, other experts (not as close to the dead), thought different. Buwembo argued that complaints
about the picture stretched the ethical debate. “They were not used offensively. The photographs of
bodies in the car were okay given that they didn’t show faces,” he said.

Kaheru agreed and elaborated: “The picture of the vehicle and bodies was a very legitimate
photograph to use. First of all, it was already out there. You don’t see their faces. There is blood on
the ground, yeah. A crime has occurred.” While he admitted that publishing the picture might not
have been admissible in different country, “like in the British stabbing at Parliament5, we didn’t see
any bloody victims and even ambulance pictures are taken from a distance,” Kaheru was of the view
the standards elsewhere need not be made universal. “The editor who knows that society wants to
see this, is justified to publish it.”

Justified or not, editors like Mugisha who ran the picture, regretted doing so. “We got caught up in
the moment. We didn’t critically look at some of the footage we were using. The first pictures shared
on social media were quite graphic and because most of us didn’t have other content, we went with
them,” Mugisha said. Like Mugisha, Kanaabi, felt that the picture of the bodies and car, was indeed
too graphic for mass media.

If there was any agreement on the ethics regarding the use of the pictures, it was about those that
turned out to be misleading or of no news value: a photo of the body which turned out not to be that
of Kaweesi, the video of the post-mortem that was said to be Kaweesi’s but was in fact of an earlier
unrelated procedure, and photos of the dead in open caskets. These were judged as unethical to use
by all the media experts interviewed in this study.

Indeed, even beyond this case study, the debate on whether or not to publish ‘gory’ pictures comes up
nearly every time they are published, as media scholar and ACME Executive Director Peter Mwesige,
notes in a media critique he published following the Al-Shabab bombings of 11 July 2010 in Kampala6.
Pictures of the dead were published widely in the papers, even then. The arguments on either side
are familiar and similar to those advanced by our experts above. One the one hand, proponents for
publishing such pictures argue that they might hold information that the public needs to know (a
4 http://www.newvision.co.ug/new_vision/news/1448866/kaweesi-murder-ucc-warns-gruesome-images
5 http://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-security-photographer-idUSKBN16T1Y5
6 https://acme-ug.org/2010/07/27/images-of-death-after-kampala-bomb-attacks/
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June 2017 Report

picture says 1000 words after all) and caution journalists against appointing themselves sanitisers
of ugly realities. On the opposite side are debaters who argue for sensitivity to grieving relatives and
preserving the dignity of the dead. It is also common to accuse those that publish such pictures of
sensationalism and exploitation of trauma.

Did Kaweesi Present a Conflict of Interest for Reporters?
Away from the photos, Kanaabi introduced another angle to the ethical issue debate; conflict of interest
on the part of the media. “The manner in which Kaweesi has been dealing with them (journalists)
was more personal than institutional. He had this [strong] interpersonal relationship with them.
They were deeply involved, like someone who has lost a parent, because of their relationship with
him. So, there was conflict of interest and they didn’t declare their interest in the person. I even saw
some journalists crying [on air]. In that case, you should step away from the story and be covered as
a mourner.”

NTV’s Mugisha agreed that “principles of journalism were thrown by the wayside and we got involved
in the story. We became part of the story. This was a person who had made friends in the media.”

Why this personal involvement in the story matters is perhaps best illustrated by Buwembo’s
observations on the editorial slant the story then enjoyed across the board. He says, “Media houses
have decided that instead of informing the public, they will just romantically mourn the passing
of the dashing cowboy. His personality
was lionised. It is almost romantic. But
why? What has he done – did he really
clean up the image of the police? It’s as if
he was a beacon in this police force that
the media constantly puts on the spot for
human rights abuses, dysfunction, etc.
For someone from an institution that you
are continually bashing, now it seems as
if he was separate from it.”

Framing
Analysis of the 105 stories reinforced
Buwembo’s observation on editorial
slant. The study found that 45% of the
stories were framed around the shock,
loss and trauma of the deaths or spoke to
the heroism of the deceased officers. By
comparison, contextual frames such as
insecurity, police failure and dysfunction,
accounted for 36.5% of the stories.
Discussion that explored possible causes

AIGP Andrew Felix Kaweesi was killed
in March 2017, drawing intense media
coverage. Courtesy Photo.

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Reporting the Killing of Andrew Felix Kaweesi

of the killings (mafia, thuggery, power struggles) were the frame for just 7% of the stories.

While Buwembo7 was critical of apparent editorial failure to explore the possible immediate causes
of the fatal shooting, his peers, like Kaheru, applauded newsrooms for restraining themselves in this
regard. Buwembo argued, “no one is in court yet, the principle of sub-judice doesn’t apply yet.” He,
therefore, felt that media houses should have dug more at the theories on who killed Kaweesi and why.
On the other hand, Kaheru noted: “Speculation around the responsibilities is the worst possible thing to
do. I wouldn’t want a journalist doing the job of the police.  Instead they should cover police guys doing
the investigation.”

Mugisha leaned more towards Kaheru’s line of thinking. He regretted speculation around the coverage.
He pointed instances were journalists were part of talk show panels and revealed how “they have it on
good record that Kaweesi “may have been killed by his colleagues” and that he looked stressed and
could have been killed as a result of “business deals gone bad”, etc.

Offering what might have been middle ground, Mugisha says the media could have done “more analysis
of the crime scene” especially by interviewing security sources outside of officialdom. These sources
could include private investigators, retired detectives, and regional security experts. Some newsrooms
did this. However he says his team struggled to pull it off because they didn’t have such sources.
“Instead we had our journalists in the field, repeating what was already known,” Mugisha says. So from
the experience, he took this lesson: “Cultivate sources with security expertise outside of the official
authorities.”

7 All key informant interviews were conducted between 27th& 31st of March 2017. Views therefore don’t account for coverage that
happened later than this.

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June 2017 Report

Background and Context

On the plus side, 73 (70.2%) stories published on the killing of the policemen offered readers
background and context. This was usually in reference to the shooting of Muslim clerics and former
State Prosecutor Joan Kagezi. Only 31 stories, (29.8) did not have any sort of background and context.

Sourcing
Good effort was also put into sourcing the stories, despite their breaking news nature. Of the 105
stories done on the shooting, 77% quoted more than one source, with some 21% having five or more
sources. Only 35 stories (33%) were single sourced.

Perhaps predictably, the police, government ministers and officials from defence and security circles
were the three most frequently quoted sources at 21%, 10% and 9% respectively. The families of the
victims came in 4th place, at 8%.

Reporters largely relied on people to source these stories. Of the 269 sources quoted, 91% were
people while 9% were material sources. The latter included reports, press statements, case files,
affidavits and other documents. Of the 245 people quoted, 219 were male while 23 were female.
Women were therefore about 10% of the people quoted.

Use of Data
The use of data often provides valuable context to an incident such as the killing of AIGP Kaweesi.
The story was a good opportunity to do some data journalism, for example, by examining trends in
violent deaths, gun ownership, quasi-military training, registration of bodabodas, and typical career
path of police officers (and whether or not Kaweesi was an outlier).
However, only 7 stories (7%), out of the 105 stories analysed, employed data to speak to the issues.
The stories that used data also tended to quote statistics from reports as opposed to analysis of
primary data. Nonetheless, this use of statistical evidence exceeded what ACME typically sees in its
regular monitoring of media reporting on public affairs, where less than 1% of stories use data and
statistical evidence.
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Reporting the Killing of Andrew Felix Kaweesi

Conclusion
Whatever one might think of the reporting itself, Ugandan media sure threw itself into the news of
the killing of police spokesperson Kaweesi along with his bodyguard and driver. In the first eight
days following the deaths, The Observer, Daily Monitor, New Vision, Red Pepper and The Independent
collectively published 105 articles on this one event. More than a quarter of these were on the front
pages. For the New Vision, for example, this coverage was as high as 22% of the coverage it gives all
public affairs in a typical 8-day cycle.

While some might argue that the story deserved the attention it got, more diversity in the content of
these 105 articles would have made the matter less debatable. As it turned out, 82% of these stories,
were about the person of Kaweesi. In contrast, exactly 10 of those 105 stories (8.6%) were about
contextual topics like the police, boda bodas and gun control.

On the picture that broke the news, the debate remains as open as it often is when pictures of vi-
olence or other ugly realities of life are published in the media. Clearly, some members of the au-
dience found the picture that broke the news, gory and inappropriate. In this report, you will find
persuading arguments for the news value of that same picture. They go along the line that a photo
depicting the execution of a top police officer, in broad daylight on a public road, does in fact pass
on crucial information to the public. For editors trying to balance these arguments, here are some
ethical considerations Mwesige advises you to keep in mind:
• Establish newsroom principles or guidelines on the use of disturbing images
• Ask yourself what purpose the graphic images serves. Is there an inherent informational or jour-
nalistic value beyond satisfying the morbid curiosity of audiences?
• Are the bodies identifiable? It is more acceptable when they are not.
• Don’t show the same footage over and over (in the case of TV) or use the same pictures in news-
papers
• Consider having an editor’s note explaining the reasoning behind the decision to publish graphic
images
• Consider publishing a clear warning on the front page of the newspaper, or reading out the warn-
ing in the case of television
• Consider uploading most pictures to your website, where there is a clear warning that some of
the material could be offensive
• Look for and publish happy faces of the victims, if the relatives are okay with that

Ugandan journalism also needs to address the shortcomings that have perennially been levelled at
it: failure to verify, absence of depth or context. The vast majority of the reporting was a narration of
what was happening where and when, rather than questioning, analyzing, explaining or investigating
the context and implications of this violent event.

Newsroom managers do point out many obstacles for which there are no easy answers, such as; staff
turnover that robs them of experienced reporters, and an operating environment in which journal-
ists don’t feel safe to investigate. These known obstacles notwithstanding, the experts spoken to in
this study offered a rich array of angles that can be explored to expand the story beyond Kaweesi,
the person. Let’s look into: community and neighbourhood policing, gun regulation, critical analyses
of the on-going investigations, others families similarly affected.
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June 2017 Report

Annex 1: The 105 Stories Analysed in the Study
Publication Date Headline Byline
New Vision 18-Mar-17 How Kaweesi was killed NA
New Vision 18-Mar-17 Who was Felix Kaweesi Chris Kiwawulo
New Vision 18-Mar-17 Kaweesi should not die in vain NA
New Vision 18-Mar-17 Kaweesi’s last interview Umaru Kashaka
New Vision 19-Mar-17 Kaweesi’s last hours Charles Etukuri and
Simon Masaba
New Vision 19-Mar-17 Burial on Tuesday NA
New Vision 19-Mar-17 Kaweesi praised NA
New Vision 19-Mar-17 Driver leaves a wife and two children John Semakula
New Vision 19-Mar-17 Body guard showed bravery during Charles Etukuri and
attack on his boss Emmanuel Alomu
New Vision 19-Mar-17 Kaweesi’s life in pictures NA
New Vision 20-Mar-17 Criminals have infiltrated Police - Henry Sekanjako and
Museveni Edward Anyoli
New Vision 20-Mar-17 High profile murders spread fear - John Agaba and Andrew
Mayiga Ssenyonga
New Vision 20-Mar-17 Mourners flock to Kaweesi’s residence NA
New Vision 20-Mar-17 Was AIGP Kaweesi’s murder an inside Simon Masaba
job?
New Vision 20-Mar-17 Ugandans decry crime, pay tribute John B. Thawite, Juliet
Lukwago, Jackson Kitara
and Farooq Kasule
New Vision 20-Mar-17 The shooting of Kaweesi is annoying Dr John Bahana
as it is baffling
New Vision 21-Mar-17 Insider exposes shocking crime in NA
police force
New Vision 21-Mar-17 Erau took 33 bullets shielding his boss Godfrey Ojore
New Vision 21-Mar-17 Wambewo survived by 3 children Paul Watala
New Vision 21-Mar-17 Thousands turn up to big fallen AIGP John Agaba and Andrew
farewell Ssenyonga
New Vision 21-Mar-17 Buganda Lukiiko mourns Kaweesi Jeff Andrew Lule
New Vision 21-Mar-17 FDC wants independent investigation Vivian Agaba
into high-profile murders
New Vision 21-Mar-17 Kaweesi’s seven lessons for youth Joachim Buwembo
New Vision 21-Mar-17 Let’s go back to being our brother’s NA
keeper
New Vision 21-Mar-17 Death of Andrew Felix Kaweesi, a Mary Karooro Okurut
rallying point against crime
New Vision 22-Mar-17 Kaweesi murder: Seven arrested Charles Etukuri
New Vision 22-Mar-17 Kaweesi told priest about threats NA

13
Reporting the Killing of Andrew Felix Kaweesi

New Vision 22-Mar-17 Kaweesi accorded 21-gun salute Davis Buyondo and
Dismas Buregyeya
New Vision 22-Mar-17 Criminal elements in Police arrested, Pascal Kwesiga
says PSU boss
New Vision 22-Mar-17 EU condemns AIGP Kaweesi murder NA
New Vision 22-Mar-17 Law society wants speedy NA
investigations
New Vision 22-Mar-17 DP calls for speedy inquiry Faith Amongin
New Vision 22-Mar-17 Why boda bodas are the biggest Josepha Jabo
security risk
New Vision 22-Mar-17 My issue with ‘Chief Mourner’ title Jim Mugunga
New Vision 23-Mar-17 Kaweesi: Top spies camp at borders NA
New Vision 23-Mar-17 Confidence of assassins worries NA
Muslim leaders
New Vision 23-Mar-17 Fare thee well comrades Kaweesi, Emilian Kayima
Erau and Wambewo
New Vision 24-Mar-17 Kaweesi’s wife delivers baby safely Carol Kasujja
New Vision 24-Mar-17 Army joins police to probe Kaweesi NA
murder
New Vision 24-Mar-17 Clerics call for review of laws on Jeff Andrew Lule
firearms
New Vision 25-Mar-17 Kaweesi killers target Kayihura Charles Etukuri
New Vision 25-Mar-17 Army officer arrested over Kaweesi Charles Etukuri and
murder Carol Natukunda
Daily Monitor 18-Mar-17 Kaweesi shot dead Stephen Kafeero and
Andrew Bagala
Daily Monitor 18-Mar-17 Why killers use boda boda in murders Risdel Kasasira and
Frederic Musisi
Daily Monitor 18-Mar-17 What they say about Kaweesi killing NA
Daily Monitor 18-Mar-17 Prominent people killed by shooting Ephraim Kasozi and Paul
Tajuba
Daily Monitor 18-Mar-17 Kaweesi: End of an unlikely career Isaac Mufumba, Andrew
Bagala and David Mafabi
Daily Monitor 19-Mar-17 What Kaweesi said hours before his Gillian Nantume
death
Daily Monitor 19-Mar-17 Kaweesi murder: Lwengo declares Martin Ssekweyama
week of mourning
Daily Monitor 19-Mar-17 Kaweesi killing: Police round up Stephen Kafeero
people without national IDs
Daily Monitor 19-Mar-17 Bodyguard had just buried his father Simon Peter Emwamu
and Jospeh Onyango
Daily Monitor 19-Mar-17 Driver’s family seeks justice Yahudu Kitunzi

14
June 2017 Report

Daily Monitor 19-Mar-17 Muslims urge crackdown on illegal Siraje Lubwama
guns
Daily Monitor 19-Mar-17 Mystery shrouds Kaweesi’s last Stephen Kafeero
minutes
Daily Monitor 19-Mar-17 Who killed Kaweesi and why? Risdel Kasasira
Daily Monitor 19-Mar-17 The Andrew Felix Kaweesi I knew Andrew Bagala
Daily Monitor 19-Mar-17 Kaweesi killing casts high-profile city Joseph Kato
murders in the spotlight again
Daily Monitor 20-Mar-17 FBI joins hunt for Kaweesi killers Tabu Butagira and
Andrew Bagala
Daily Monitor 20-Mar-17 Police infiltrated by criminals - Albert Tumwine and
Museveni Andrew Bagala
Daily Monitor 20-Mar-17 Guard was restless on eve of Kaweesi Gillian Nantume
shooting
Daily Monitor 20-Mar-17 Kaweesi was a down to earth officer Denis Katungi
Daily Monitor 21-Mar-17 Witness tells police: I know Kaweesi Andrew Bagala
killers
Daily Monitor 21-Mar-17 Museveni boda boda remark draws Anthony Wasake
public rage
Daily Monitor 21-Mar-17 Mambewa was inspired to join police Yahudu Kitunzi
as a teenager
Daily Monitor 21-Mar-17 Killers shattered Erau’s dream of Simon Peter Emwamu
making a family and Joseph Onyango
Daily Monitor 21-Mar-17 Museveni missed th point on crime Editorial
Daily Monitor 21-Mar-17 Kaweesi assassination; exposing warm Nicholas Sengoba
Uganda’s cold ugly face
Daily Monitor 22-Mar-17 Police arrests suspects over Kaweesi NA
murder
Daily Monitor 22-Mar-17 Thousands send off Kaweesi NA
Daily Monitor 22-Mar-17 Police spokesman laid to rest NA
Daily Monitor 22-Mar-17 End insecurity, don’t just lament Editorial
Daily Monitor 22-Mar-17 From Okoya to Kaweesi: The politics Charles Onyango Obbo
of killing uniformed men in Uganda
Daily Monitor 23-Mar-17 Kaweesi murder: 12 more suspects Joseph Kato
rounded up
Daily Monitor 23-Mar-17 From police running criminals to Daniel Kalinaki
criminals running police?
Daily Monitor 24-Mar-17 Kaweesi murder: Interpol joins Joseph Kato
investigation
Daily Monitor 25-Mar-17 500 Ugandans shot dead in 3 years Paul Adude
Daily Monitor 25-Mar-17 Police to get bulletproof vests, escort Joseph Kato
motorcycles

15
Reporting the Killing of Andrew Felix Kaweesi

The Observer 20-Mar-17 Kaweesi reported death threat Nicholas Bamulanzeki
The Observer 20-Mar-17 Nabakooba recalls Kaweesi inspiration Olive Eyoturu
The Observer 20-Mar-17 Neighbour’s accounts of the fateful Sadab Kitaata Kaaya
moment
The Observer 20-Mar-17 Kaweesi, an avid defender of police Jonathan Kamoga
The Observer 20-Mar-17 High profile murders: General Kayihura Jonathan Kamoga
barks but fails to bite
The Observer 22-Mar-17 Kaweesi wanted to join politics Sadab Kitaata Kaya
The Observer 22-Mar-17 Was Kaweesi murder linked to that of Edris Kiggundu
businessman Wamala?
The Observer 22-Mar-17 How Kaweesi joined police Sadab Kitaata Kaaya
The Observer 22-Mar-17 Kayihura tightens his security ring Sadab Kitatta Kaaya
The Observer 24-Mar-17 Kaweesi killer gun identified Edris Kiggundu, Johnson
Taremwa
The Observer 24-Mar-17 How Kaweesi death united foes, Sadab Kitatta Kaaya
turned village into frenzy
Red pepper 18-Mar-17 EXECUTED Francis Otucu & Richard
Kintu
Red pepper 19-Mar-17 Eyewitnesses: blow by blow account Francis Otucu & Stuart
of Kaweesi execution Yiga
Red pepper 20-Mar-17 Police officer arrested over Kaweesi Stuart Yiga
murder
Red pepper 20-Mar-17 Museveni blames own government at John V Sserwaniko
Kaweesi funeral
Red pepper 20-Mar-17 I’m afraid I might be next: Katikkiro NA
tells Kaweesi mourners
Red pepper 20-Mar-17 The Felix Kaweesi I knew John V Sserwaniko
Red pepper 20-Mar-17 Kaweesi had political ambitions-resi- NA
dents
Red pepper 24-Mar-17 ‘We assassinated Kaweesi’ NA
Red pepper 24-Mar-17 RIP Afande Kaweesi: But the harder Taban Nduru
questions remain unanswered
Red pepper 22-Mar-17 Betrayal! Was Kaweesi killed by work- NA
mates?
Red pepper 22-Mar-17 Reconciliation better than murder- Stuart Yiga
archbishop Lwanga
Red pepper 22-Mar-17 Fallen AIGP Secret dealings! NA
Red pepper 22-Mar-17 Kaweesi leaves behind mega houses NA
Red pepper 23-Mar-17 Mafia murder NA
Red pepper 23-Mar-17 Heavy deployment at Kaweesi’s burial Norman Kabugu
Red pepper 24-Mar-17 U PDF officer netted over Kaweesi Stuart Yiga
murder
The Independent 24-Mar-17 Killing Kaweesi Haggai Matsiko
16
June 2017 Report

Annex 2: Key Informants Interviewed

Name Position/Capacity
Joachim Buwembo Consultant Editor at New Vision
Simon Kaheru Lead Analyst at Media Analyst, Board Chair of
Uganda Broadcasting Corporation
Maurice Mugisha News Manager at NTV
Cynthia Nyamai Communication Consultant at Uganda Police
Haruna Kanaabi Executive Secretary, Independent Media Council of
Uganda

17