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dimensions we need three vectors, along the x-y-z axes or in three other (linearly in-

dependent!) directions. The dimension of the space Rn is n. The column space of U

in Example 9 had dimension 2; it was a two-dimensional subspace of R3 . The zero

matrix is rather exceptional, because its column space contains only the zero vector. By

convention, the empty set is a basis for that space, and its dimension is zero.

Here is our first big theorem in linear algebra:

2K If v1 , . . . , vm and w1 , . . . , wn are both bases for the same vector space, then

m = n. The number of vectors is the same.

Proof. Suppose there are more ws than vs (n > m). We will arrive at a contradiction.

Since the vs form a basis, they must span the space. Every w j can be written as a

combination of the vs: If w1 = a11 v1 + + am1 vm , this is the first column of a matrix

multiplication VA:

h i h i a 11

W = w1 w2 wn = v1 vm ... = VA.

am1

We dont know each ai j , but we know the shape of A (it is m by n). The second vector

w2 is also a combination of the vs. The coefficients in that combination fill the second

column of A. The key is that A has a row for every v and a column for every w. A is a

short, wide matrix, since n > m. There is a nonzero solution to Ax = 0. Then VAx = 0

which is W x = 0. A combination of the ws gives zero! The ws could not be a basisso

we cannot have n > m.

If m > n we exchange the vs and ws and repeat the same steps. The only way to

avoid a contradiction is to have m = n. This completes the proof that m = n. To repeat:

The dimension of a space is the number of vectors in every basis.

This proof was used earlier to show that every set of m + 1 vectors in Rm must be de-

pendent. The vs and ws need not be column vectorsthe proof was all about the matrix

A of coefficients. In fact we can see this general result: In a subspace of dimension k,

no set of more than k vectors can be independent, and no set of more than k vectors can.

span the space.

There are other dual theorems, of which we mention only one. We can start with a

set of vectors that is too small or too big, and end up with a basis:

2L Any linearly independent set in V can be extended to a basis, by adding

more vectors if necessary.

Any spanning set in V can be reduced to a basis, by discarding vectors if

necessary.

The point is that a basis is a maximal independent set. It cannot be made larger without

losing independence. A basis is also a minimal spanning set. It cannot be made smaller

and still span the space.

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