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7/10/2017 Orgone - Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Orgone is a pseudoscientific[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] and spiritual concept described Orgone energy accumulator

as an esoteric energy or hypothetical universal life force, originally proposed
in the 1930s by Wilhelm Reich.[8][9][10] As developed by Reich's student
Charles Kelley after Reich's death in 1957, orgone was conceived as the anti-
entropic principle of the universe, a creative substratum in all of nature
comparable to Mesmer's animal magnetism (1779), to the Odic force (1845)
of Carl Reichenbach and to Henri Bergson's lan vital (1907).[11] Orgone was
seen as a massless, omnipresent substance, similar to luminiferous aether, but
more closely associated with living energy than with inert matter. It could
allegedly coalesce to create organization on all scales, from the smallest
microscopic unitscalled "bions" in orgone theoryto macroscopic
structures like organisms, clouds, or even galaxies.[12]

Reich stated that deficits or constrictions in bodily orgone were at the root of
many diseases, much as deficits or constrictions in the libido could produce
neuroses in Freudian theory. Reich founded the Orgone Institute ca. 1942[13] (with door closed)
to pursue research into orgone energy after he immigrated to the US in 1939,
and used it to publish literature and distribute material relating to the topic for
more than a decade. Reich designed special "orgone accumulators"devices
ostensibly collecting and storing orgone energy from the environmentfor
improvement of general health or even for weather control.[8] Ultimately, the
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) obtained a federal injunction
barring the interstate distribution of orgone-related materials, on the grounds
that Reich and his associates were making false and misleading claims, and
later jailed Reich and destroyed all orgone-related materials at the institute
after Reich violated the injunction.[9] Reich rescinded the claim that
accumulator could provide orgastic potency,[14] but this was not enough to
stop the action.

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health lists orgone as
a type of "putative energy".[15] There is no empirical support for the concept (with door open)
of orgone in medicine or the physical sciences,[4] and research into the Alternating layers of organic and
concept ceased with the end of the Institute. non-organic materials inside the
walls supposedly increase the
orgone concentration inside the
enclosure relative to the
Contents surrounding environment.

1 History
2 Evaluation
3 In popular culture
3.1 William S. Burroughs
3.2 Jack Kerouac
3.3 J.D. Salinger
3.4 Orson Bean
3.5 Duan Makavejev 1/10
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3.6 Hawkwind
3.7 Woody Allen
3.8 Kate Bush
3.9 Peter Brock
3.10 Devo
3.11 Evelyn Waugh
3.12 Warren Leight
3.13 Hal Duncan
3.14 Peep Show
3.15 Lupin the Third
3.16 Redline
3.17 Captain Earth
4 See also
5 References
6 External links

The concept of orgone belongs to Reich's later work, after he immigrated to the US. Reich's early work was based
on the Freudian concept of the libido, though influenced by sociological understandings with which Freud
disagreed but which were to some degree followed by other prominent theorists such as Herbert Marcuse and Carl
Jung. While Freud had focused on a solipsistic conception of mind in which unconscious and inherently selfish
primal drives (primarily the sexual drive, or libido) were suppressed or sublimated by internal representations
(cathexes) of parental figures (the superego), for Reich libido was a life-affirming force repressed by society
directly. For example, in one of his better known analyses Reich observes a workers' political rally, noting that
participants were careful not to violate signs that prohibited walking on the grass; Reich saw this as the state co-
opting unconscious responses to parental authority as a means of controlling behavior.[16] He was expelled from
the Institute of Psycho-analysis because of these disagreements over the nature of the libido and his increasingly
political stance. He was forced to leave Germany very soon after Hitler came to power.[17]

Reich took an increasingly bioenergetic view of libido, perhaps influenced by his

tutor Paul Kammerer and another biologist, Otto Heinrich Warburg.[18] In the early
20th century, when molecular biology was in its infancy, developmental biology in
particular still presented mysteries that made the idea of a specific life energy
respectable, as was articulated by theorists such as Hans Driesch. As a psycho-
analyst Reich aligned such theories with the Freudian libido, while as a materialist
he believed such a life-force must be susceptible to physical experiment.

He wrote in his best known book, The Function of the Orgasm: "Between 1919 and
1921, I became familiar with Driesch's 'Philosophie des Organischen' and his
'Ordnungslehre'... Driesch's contention seemed incontestable to me. He argued that,
in the sphere of the life function, the whole could be developed from a part, whereas
a machine could not be made from a screw..... However, I couldn't quite accept the
Reich with one of his
transcendentalism of the life principle. Seventeen years later I was able to resolve the
cloudbusters, a device
contradiction on the basis of a formula pertaining to the function of energy. Driesch's
which supposedly could
theory was always present in my mind when I thought about vitalism. The vague
influence weather by
feeling I had about the irrational nature of his assumption turned out to be justified in
altering levels of
the end. He landed among the spiritualists."[19] atmospheric orgone. 2/10
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The concept of orgone was the result of this work in the psycho-physiology of libido. After his migration to the
US, Reich began to speculate about biological development and evolution, and then branched out into much
broader speculations about the nature of the universe.[11] This led him to the conception of "bions": self-
luminescent sub-cellular vesicles that he believed were observable in decaying materials, and presumably present
universally. Initially he thought of bions as electrodynamic or radioactive entities, as had the Ukrainian biologist
Alexander Gurwitsch, but later came to the conclusion that he had discovered an entirely unknown but measurable
force, which he then named "orgone",[11] a pseudo-Greek formation probably from org- "impulse, excitement" as
in org-asm, plus -one as in ozone (the Greek neutral participle, virtually *, gen.: *).[20]

For Reich, neurosis became a physical manifestation he called "body armor"deeply seated tensions and
inhibitions in the physical body that were not separated from any mental effects that might be observed.[21] He
developed a therapeutic approach he called vegetotherapy that was aimed at opening and releasing this body armor
so that free instinctive reflexeswhich he considered a token of psychic well-beingcould take over.

Orgone was closely associated with sexuality: Reich, following Freud, saw nascent sexuality as the primary
energetic force of life. The term itself was chosen to share a root with the word orgasm, which both Reich and
Freud took to be a fundamental expression of psychological health. This focus on sexuality, while acceptable in the
clinical perspective of Viennese psychoanalytic circles, scandalized the conservative American public even as it
appealed to countercultural figures like William S. Burroughs and Jack Kerouac.

In at least some cases, Reich's experimental techniques do not appear to have been very careful, or to have taken
precautions to remove experimental bias.[22] Reich was concerned with experimental verification from other
scientists. Albert Einstein agreed to participate, but thought Reich's research lacked scientific detachment and
experimental rigor; and concluded that the effect was simply due to the temperature gradient inside the room.
"Through these experiments I regard the matter as completely solved," he wrote to Reich on 7 February 1941.
Upon further correspondence from Reich, Einstein replied that he could not devote any further time to the matter
and asked that his name not be misused for advertising purposes.

Orgone and its related concepts were quickly denounced in the post-World War II American press.[23] Reich and
his students were seen as a "cult of sex and anarchy," at least in part because orgone was linked with the title of his
book The Function of the Orgasm, and this led to numerous investigations as a communist[24] and denunciation
under a wide variety of other pretexts.[25] He was, as the New York Times later put it, "much maligned".[26] The
psychoanalytical community of the time saw his approach to healing diseases as quackery of the worst sort, partly
because of his comments about UFOs.[27] In 1954, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration successfully sought an
injunction to prevent Reich from making medical claims relating to orgone, which (among other stipulations)
prevented him from shipping "orgone devices" across state lines.[28] Reich defied the order and was jailed, and the
FDA took that opportunity to destroy any of Reich's books which mentioned orgone, along with research materials
and devices.[10][28][29][30]

Some of Reich's observations have been replicated by other researchers. Stefan Mschenich, in his Master's thesis,
demonstrated effects of orgone accumulators on test subjects in keeping with Reich's original descriptions, while
subjects exposed to a known "dummy box" showed no such effects.[31] As of 2007, the National Institutes of
Health database PubMed, and the Web of Science database, contained only 4 or 5 peer-reviewed scientific papers
published (since 1968) dealing with orgone therapy. 3/10
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Some psychotherapists and psychologists practicing various kinds of Body Psychotherapy and Somatic
Psychology have continued to use Reich's proposed emotional-release methods and character-analysis

In popular culture
Orgone was used in the writings of several prominent beat generation authors, who were fascinated by both its
purported curative and sexual aspects. To that extent, it is heavily associated with the 1950s counterculture
movement, though it did not carry over into the more extensive movements of the 1960s.

William S. Burroughs

William S. Burroughs was a major proponent of orgone research, who often included it as part of the surreal
imagery in his novels. Orgone interested Burroughs particularly because he believed that it could be used to ease or
alleviate "junk sickness"a popular term for heroin withdrawal. This fitted well in the context of his novels,
which were usually narrative recreations of his own experiences with narcotics and the Beat life.

Burroughs explicitly compares "kicking the habit" to cancer in the novel Junky, and ties it to the use of orgone
accumulators. He writes:

Cancer is rot of tissue in a living organism. In junk sickness the junk dependent cells die and are
replaced. Cancer is a premature death process. The cancer patient shrinks. A junkie shrinksI have
lost up to fifteen pounds in three days. So I figure if the accumulator is a therapy for cancer, it should
be therapy for the after-effects of junk sickness.

At the time that Burroughs was writing, orgone accumulators were only available from Reich's Orgone Institute in
New York, offered for a ten dollar per month donation. Burroughs built his own instead, substituting rock wool for
the sheet iron, but believed it still achieved the desired effect. Burroughs writes about what occurred once he
started using the accumulator:

Constant use of junk of the years has given me the habit of directing attention inward. When I went
into the accumulator and sat down I noticed a special silence that you sometimes feel in deep woods,
sometimes on a city street, a hum that is more rhythmic vibration than a sound. My skin prickled and I
experienced an aphrodisiac effect similar to good strong weed. No doubt about it, orgones are as
definite a force as electricity. After using the accumulator for several days my energy came back to
normal. I began to eat and could not sleep more than eight hours. I was out of the post cure drag.

Jack Kerouac

In Jack Kerouac's popular novel On the Road, the orgone accumulator was treated more as another type of drug
than as a medical device: primarily a stimulant, with strong sexual overtones. When Sal Paradise visits Old Bull
Lee in the novel (characters representing Kerouac and Burroughs, respectively), Lee's orgone accumulator is
described as follows:

Say, why dont you fellows try my orgone accumulator? Put some juice in your bones. I always rush
up and take off ninety miles an hour for the nearest whorehouse, hor-hor-hor!' said Bull Lee The
orgone accumulator is an ordinary box big enough for a man to sit inside on a chair: a layer of wood, a 4/10
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layer of metal, and another layer of wood gather in orgones from the atmosphere and hold them
captive long enough for a human to absorb more than a usual share. According to Reich, orgones are
vibratory atmospheric atoms of the life-principle. People get cancer because they run out of orgones.
Old Bull thought his orgone accumulator would be improved if the wood he used was as organic as
possible, so he tied bushy bayou leaves and twigs to his mystical outhouse. It stood there in the hot,
flat yard, an exfoliate machine clustered and bedecked with maniacal contrivances. Old Bull slipped
off his clothes and went to sit and moon over his navel.

The 2012 film of Kerouac's novel includes the scene described above, but adds a small window in the accumulator
and a funnel to breathe through.[34]

J.D. Salinger

According to his daughter, J.D. Salinger would sometimes use an orgone accumulator, among an assortment of
other alternative health regimens.[35]

Orson Bean

Noted American actor and raconteur Orson Bean was once a proponent of orgone therapy and published a well-
received book about it entitled Me and the Orgone.

Duan Makavejev

Duan Makavejev opened his 1971 satirical film W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism with documentary coverage of
Reich and his development of orgone accumulators, combining this with other imagery and a fictional sub-plot in a
collage mocking sexual and political authorities.[36] Scenes include one of only "ten or fifteen orgone boxes left in
the country" at that time.[37]


British space rockers Hawkwind released the track "Orgone Accumulator" as the first track on side three of the
1972 live album, Space Ritual.

I've got an Orgone Accumulator

And it makes me feel greater

I'll see you sometime later
When I'm through with my Accumulator

It's no social integrator

It's a one man isolator
It's a back brain stimulator
It's a cerebral vibrator

...But an Orgone Accumulator

Is a superman creator 5/10
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Woody Allen

Woody Allen's 1973 comedy science fiction movie Sleeper features an orgasmatrona cylinder big enough to
hold one or two people, containing some future technology that rapidly induces orgasms. This is required as almost
all people in the movie's universe are impotent or frigid, although males of Italian descent are considered the least
impotent of all groups. It has been suggested that the orgasmatron was a parody of Reich's orgone

Kate Bush

The song "Cloudbusting" by British singer Kate Bush describes Reich's arrest and incarceration through the eyes
of his son, Peter.[40] The 1985 video, in which Donald Sutherland plays Wilhelm Reich during his research and
subsequent arrest, features a Foucault pendulum as an alternative method of demonstrating the rotational motion of
the earth to prove the heretical view that the Earth was not the centre of the Universe. The Foucault pendulum in
this video simultaneously connects and contrasts the disgraced Wilhelm Reich to both of the respected Foucaults,
the scientist, Jean Bernard Lon Foucault and the philosopher, Michel Foucault, who had died one year prior to the
video in 1984.

Peter Brock

Peter Brock was one of Australia's best-known and most successful motor racing drivers. He publicly supported
and fit all Holden Dealer Team specials with a device called the "Energy Polariser" which it was claimed improved
the performance and handling of vehicles through "aligning the molecules" using orgone energy. [41] [42]


The new wave '80s band Devo claimed that their iconic energy dome design was used to recycle the wasted orgone
energy that flows from a person's head. Devo cofounder Mark Mothersbaugh has said:

We did the red energy dome, which was usefulbesides being an icon -- it was a useful icon. You
probably know this very well, but your orgone energy goes out the top of your head and it dissipates
out the top, but if you wear an energy dome it recycles that energy. It comes back down and showers
back down on you and, among other things, you remain manly, shall we say, for maybe another 150
years of your life, probably. I think that's a safe prediction to say that energy domes -- if you wore
them constantly, night and day -- which I don't do, but there are people out there who do, not too many
of them but there are some. We get e-mails from them, so we know they're out there, those people will
probably live about an extra 150 years because of all that orgone energy that they're saving and not
wasting away.[43]

Evelyn Waugh

An orgone accumulator plays an important role in the semi-autobiographical Evelyn Waugh novel The Ordeal of
Gilbert Pinfold. A neighbour to Mr. Pinfold owns a box, and with it he experiments on Mr Pinfold's wife. Later, in
a hallucinatory state, Mr Pinfold imagines that his problems have originated from that box.

Warren Leight 6/10
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Warren Leight's play, Side Man, contains a scene where Gene and Terry receive an orgone box that Gene's friend's
wife made him get rid of.

Hal Duncan

In Hal Duncan's book Ink (The Book of All Hours 2), one of alternative realities is orgone-based, i.e. orgone
("sexual energy") is used as primary energy source.

Peep Show

In the Channel 4 comedy series Peep Show episode "Mark's Women", Jeremy and Super Hans join a cult, Spiritual
Wellness, which defines Orgones as "the invisible molecules of universal life energy which govern our moods and
our actions", with negative Orgones being the sources of all the problems in the world. Mark is concerned that
Jeremy has joined a cult, and tries to explain that this is an over simplistic view of the world.[44]

Lupin the Third

In episode 11 of the Lupin III television specials, the enemy wants the secrets of the Columbus Files and the
Columbus Egg, which involve the mysterious Orgone energy.


Orgone energy features prominently in the science-fiction world of video game Redline, released in 1999.

Captain Earth

In the anime series Captain Earth, Orgone energy is the source of power and sustenance for the invading aliens,
the Kill-T-Gang, who plan to harvest it from the libidos of all humanity. It is also the power behind the Livlaster
guns used by the protagonists.

See also
Alexander Gurwitsch
Ark of the Covenant
Animal magnetism of Franz Anton Mesmer
Energy (spiritual)
Energy medicine
Fringe science
List of ineffective cancer treatments
Odic force of Carl Reichenbach
Rupert Sheldrake

1. Kenneth S. Isaacs (psychoanalyst), 1999: "Orgonea useless fiction with faulty basic premises, thin partial theory, and
unsubstantiated application results. It was quickly discredited and cast away."Isaacs 1999 (
content/h8878142675lw375/), p. 240. 7/10
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2. Bauer 2000, p. 159. Henry H. Bauer, 2000: "Reich's personal charisma seems to have misled some number of people
into taking his 'science' seriously. His outward behavior was not inconsistent with that of a mainstream scientific
investigator. In the light of everyday common sense rather than of deep technical knowledge, his ideas could seem highly
defensible. For those who lack familiarity with the real science of matters Reich dealt with, why would orgone be less
believable than black holes, a bounded yet infinite universe, or "dark matter" ...?"
3. Roeckelein 2006, pp. 517518. Jon E. Roeckelein (psychologist), 2006: "The current consensus of scientific opinion is
that Reich's orgone theory is basically a psychoanalytic system gone awry, and is an approach that represents something
most ludicrous and totally dismissible."
4. Isaacs, K. (1999). "Searching for Science in Psychoanalysis". Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy. 29 (3): 235252.
doi:10.1023/A:1021973219022 ( "[orgone is] a useless fiction with
faulty basic premises, thin partial theory, and unsubstantiated application results. It was quickly discredited and cast
5. Jon E. Roeckelein (2006). Elsevier's dictionary of psychological theories (
xvssC). Elsevier. pp. 493, 517518. ISBN 978-0-444-51750-0.
6. Robert E. Butts (1993). "Sciences and Pseudosciences. An attempt at a new form of demarcation". In John Earman.
Philosophical problems of the internal and external worlds: essays on the philosophy of Adolf Grnbaum (https://books. Pittsburgh-Konstanz series in the philosophy and history of science. 1.
University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-8229-3738-8.
7. Arthur Wrobel (1987). Pseudo-science and society in nineteenth-century America (
48zTI3FN-aJOJmW-IYC) (illustrated ed.). University Press of Kentucky. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-8131-1632-7.
8. Robert Blumenfeld (2006), "Chapter 6. Willian Reich and Character Analysis", Tools and techniques for character
interpretation: a handbook of psychology for actors, writers, and directors (
c3lskC), Limelight Series, Hal Leonard Corporation, pp. 135137, ISBN 9780879103262
9. "Orgone Energy - Wilhelm Reich and the Orgone Accumulator" (
e.htm). Retrieved 2008-09-13.
10. Martin Gardner (1957), "Chapter 21: Orgonomy" (, Fads and
Fallacies in the Name of Science. Popular Science (2, revised, abbreviated ed.), Courier Dover Publications, p. 253,
ISBN 9780486203942
11. Charles R. Kelley Ph.D., "What is Orgone Energy?" 1962
12. "orgone energy" (, The Skeptic's Dictionary
13. DeMarco, Donald; Wiker, Benjamin (2004). Architects of the Culture of Death (
C5enFeH8C). Ignatius Press. p. 229. ISBN 9781586170165. Retrieved 2015-01-18. "[...] Reich claimed as his great
discovery, made in 1939, that at the heart of all matter is a hitherto unknown energy that he called 'orgone'.[...] Three
years later he founded the Orgone Institute, where the 'science' of orgonomy would be studied."
14. "The orgone accumulator, as has been clearly stated in the relevant publications (The Cancer Biopathy, etc.), cannot
provide orgastic potency" from Reich, W. (1950, April) Orgone Energy Bulletin 2(2).
15. "putative energy fields (also called biofields) have defied
measurement to date by reproducible methods. Therapies involving putative energy fields are based on the concept that
human beings are infused with a subtle form of energy. This proposed vital energy or life force is known under different
names in different cultures, such as qi ... prana, etheric energy, fohat, orgone, odic force, mana, and homeopathic
16. See The Mass Psychology of Fascism and Listen Little Man
17. Paul A. Robinson, The Sexual Radicals: Reich, Roheim, Marcuse, Paladin, 1972. Previously published as The Sexual
Radicals, London: Maurice Temple Smith, 1970. Originally published as The Freudian Left, New York; London: Harper
and Row.
18. Dr. James Strick, The Historic Context of Reichs Laboratory Work, talk summarized at, Archived ( December 23, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
19. Quoted in Malgosia Askanas, Ph.D. Expose of the Secret and Not-so-secret misery of (An)Orgonomy and Reichianism
20. Webster's Dictionary[1] (
21. Edward W. L. Smith, The Body in Psychotherapy, Macfarland, 2000.
22. A critique of Reich's experimental procedure subsequent to the discovery of SAPA bions (retrieved 10/27/09) (http://ww
23. Mildred Brady, The New Cult of Sex & Anarchy, article in The New Republic printed 1947
24. "Wilhelm Reich" ( NNDB. Retrieved June 2008. Check date values in:
|access-date= (help)
25. Norman D. Livergood, America, Awake!, Dandelion Books (2002), p.263 8/10
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26. Saxon, Wolfgang (May 23, 1997). "Dr. Myron Ruscoll Sharaf, 70, Educator and Psychotherapist" (https://query.nytimes.
com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9405EFDD133BF930A15756C0A961958260). New York Times.
27. Richard Grossinger (1982). Planet Medicine: From Stone Age Shamanism to Post-industrial Healing (
(revised ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 293. ISBN 0-394-71238-2.
28. "Decree of injunction order (March 19, 1954) by Judge Clifford" (
29. Gardner, Martin. On the Wild Side. Prometheus Books.
30. Lugg, A. (1987). Bunkum, Flim-Flam and Quackery: Pseudoscience as a Philosophical Problem. Dialectica, 41(3), 221-
31. Mschenich, S. & Gebauer, R.: "Die (Psycho-)Physiologischen Wirkungen des Reich'schen Orgonakkumulators auf den
Menschlichen Organismus" ("The [Psycho-]Physiological Effects of the Reich Orgone Accumulator on the Human
Organism,") University of Marburg (Germany), Department of Psychology, Master's Degree Dissertation, 1986.
Published as: "Der Reichsche Orgonakkumulator. Naturwissenschaftliche Diskussion - Praktische Anwendung -
Experimentelle Untersuchung" ("The Reichian Orgone-Accumulator. Scientific Discussion - Practical Use -
Experimental Testing"), 1987, published by Nexus Verlag, Frankfurt (Also see the published work: Mschenich, Stefan:
Der Gesundheitsbegriff im Werk des Arztes Wilhelm Reich (The Concept of Health in the Works of the physician Wilhelm
Reich), Doktorarbeit am Fachbereich Humanmedizin der Philipps-Universitt Marburg (M.D. thesis, 1995, University of
Marburg (published by Verlag Gorich & Weiershauser, Marburg) 1995.
32. Kavouras, J.: "HEILEN MIT ORGONENERGIE: Die Medizinische Orgonomie (HEALING BY ORGONE ENERGY:
Medical Orgonomy)," Turm Verlag (publisher), Beitigheim, Germany, 2005; Lassek, Heiko: "Orgon-Therapie: Heilen
mit der Reinen Lebensenergie (Orgone Therapy: Healing by [the] pure Life/Vital energy)," Scherz Verlag (publisher),
1997, Munchen, Germany; Medeiros, Geraldo: "Bioenergologia: A ciencia das energias de vida" (portuguese:
Bioenergology: The science of life's energies), Editora Universalista, Brazil
33. DeMeo, J.: "The Orgone Accumulator Handbook," Natural Energy, 1989
35. Most of my fathers health regimens, such as drinking urine or sitting in an orgone box, he practised alone. Homeopathy
and acupuncture he practised on us."My father J D Salinger" (
-l27w6t02bjw). The Times. London. February 6, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
36. Ebert, Roger (July 15, 2007). "WR -- Mysteries of the Organism :: :: Great Movies" ( Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved
37. Morris, Gary (July 2011). "Bright Lights Film Journal :: Sweet Movies: Four by Dusan Makavejev" (http://www.brightli Retrieved 2011-11-13.
38. Kramer, Peter D. (June 27, 2011). "The Great Proselytizer of Orgasm" ( Slate.
Retrieved July 9, 2011. "Orgasmatron is Woody Allen's name, in Sleeper, for a parody of Reich's orgone accumulator, a
telephone booth-sized plywood and metal box said to store a healing and enlivening force."
39. Turner, Christopher (July 8, 2011). "Wilhelm Reich: the man who invented free love" (
ks/2011/jul/08/wilhelm-reich-free-love-orgasmatron). The Guardian. Retrieved July 9, 2011. "Woody Allen parodied it
in Sleeper (1973), giving it the immortal nickname the "Orgasmatron"."
40. Moy, Ron (September 30, 2007). Kate Bush and Hounds of Love. Ashgate. p. 99. ISBN 0-7546-5798-1.
41. Robertson, David. "Holden's Brock fall out over energy box" (
J&sjid=oeQDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6720%2C1622271). Retrieved 21 November 2016.
42. "Brock shaping up for a fightback" (
J&pg=5753%2C223113). Retrieved 21 November 2016.
43. "Mark Mothersbaugh Interview" (
emid=92). FECAL FACE DOT COM. Fecal Face. 3 January 2008.
44. "Jez Joins A Cult - Peep Show" (

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