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The eight principal rasas of the Hindus, with mrtti and vrindaka,

or tableaux and dramatic pieces, illustrating their character, by


Raja Sourindro Mohun Tagore.
Tagore, Sourindro Mohun, 1840-1914.
Calcutta, The author, 1880.

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TABLEAUX
MIJRTTI
AR.D
AND DRAMATIC
OR
.
VRINDAKA,
PIECES,
THEIR FHARACTER,
JLLUSTRATING
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RAJA SOURINDRO MOHUN TAGORE, MUS. DOC.,


Companion Of the Order Of the Indian Empire;
OF ALBERT, sAxONY ;
ENIOHT COMMANDER OF THE ORDER OF LEOFOLD, BELGIUM ; OF THE FIRST cLAss OF THE QBDEB.
FORTUOUEsE MILI
I AND OF THE MOsT EXALTED ORDER OF FRANCIs JOsEFH. AUsTRIA ; CHEvALIER OF THE ROYAL
TARY ORDER OF CHRIST, AND OF THE sECOND CLASS OF THE IMPERIAL ORDER OF
MEDJIDIE; FRANC CHEYALIER
RHODES, AND MALTA ;
OF THE ORDER OF THE KNIGHTS OF THE HOLY sAvIOUR, MONT REAL, JERUSALEM,
EAsARAMALA, SIAM ; sAN
KNIGHT OF THE GURRHA sTAR OF sARAsvATI, NEPAUL ; AND OF THE ORDER OF
eITA-EAYAHA AND EANGITA-sILFA-vIDYA-sAOARA OF NEPAUL; OFFICIER DACADEMIE AND DEL INSTRUC
FUELIQUE, FRANCE; MEMBER OF THE ROYAL AsIATIC SOCIETY, FELLOw OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY
TION LETTERS, AND ART, LONDON ;
OF LITERATURE, AND HONORARY FATRON OF THE SOCIETY OF sCIENOF,
FELLOW OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA ; JUsTICE OF THE PEACE FOR THE TOWN OF CALCUT'IA;
HONORARY MAGISTRATE AND MAGISTRATE OF POLICE IN THE TOWN OF CALCUT'LA ; sOCIo ONORARIO
OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY, PALERMO; OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF ST. CECILIA ; OF THE sOCIETA
DIDAECAIICA ITALIANA, ROME; OF THE FHILHARMONIC ACADEMY OF BOLOGNA; OF THE
BIBLIOTEOA FOPOLARI CIRCOLANTI vINCENsO MONTI DI ALFHONsINE ; OF THE ATENsO
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ALREAINDRO MANzONI IsTITUTO ; OF THE CIRCOLO BDUCATIVQVITTORIO FMMANUELE


IN YINCENzA ; EENE-MERITO CIRCOLO ACCADRMICO LA FLORA ITALICA, ITALY;
HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL MUSlCAL ACADEMY, sTOCRHOLM ; OF THE
ARCHJEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ATHENS ; OF THE FHILH \RMONIC SOCIETY, MEL
BOURNE ; OF THE ROYAL AsIATIC SOCIETY, CEYLON ; OF THE sOCIETA OPERARIA
DI LUCCA; OF THE ACCADEMIA LEITERARIA LAzzARO FAFI DI LUCCA ; -.

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OF THE FIRST CLASE OF ACADEMIR MONT REAL ; OF THE ACADEMIR
CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE OENEvA INSTITUTE ; OF THE ORIENTAL
I) AERObTATlON METEOEOLOCIOI'IfFIRIE
MUSEUM, VIENNA ; OF TE EROYAL
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m' , TIIRIN; OF THE SOCIETY OF AMsTERDAM; OF THE EOCIETY OF ARTs AND sOIRNCEs,
ORRIsFoxDENT-E OF THE ACADEMY OF RAFFAELLO, URBIS); ACCADEMICO CORRISI.ONDENTE OF THE
JAVA; -*
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S)CIO CO-OI'EBATEUB OF THE A'QADEKYuOF FIITAGORIKA, e,
f 'R0211, MUSICAL INSTITUTE, FLORENCE;
EAFLEs; TDTTOREQDI MUsICA E DI LETIERE ACCADEMIA NAPOLI'LFBBREMERITO OF THE ROYAL
0F FARMA; ASSOCIATE MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF sCIENCE, LETTERS AND -

.
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UEIvIIRsn'Y '
FINE ARTS, RRUssELs ; FOEEION MEMBER OF TIIE ROYAL FHILOLOGICAL AND ETHNOCRAFHICA " I
INETITUTION OF NETHERLANDE INDIA AT THE HAGUE; FATEONIFOF THE ATHENNEUM OF
THE ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF sAssARI, sARDINIA ; ORDINARY MEMBER OF THE ORIENTAL
ACADEMY, FLORENCE; PRESIDENT ONORARIO OF THE ACCADEMIA .FITTAOORICA OvvEaO .
scULO ITALICA ; YREsIDENT D'ONORE UFFICIALE DELEOATO LsTITUTO UMDERTO FRIMO,
LECHORN ; sOcIO D ONORE AssOCIAzIONE GIOYANILE sALERINTANA sALERNO ; sOcIO '
FONDATORE ATENEO GIOvAN EATIsTA ALLEOTII IN AROENTA, NAPLES ; HONORARY
FREEIDRRT OF LUNION YALDOTAINE, GENEYE; sOCIO FROTETTORE CIRCOLO;
YITTORIO EMMAEUELE FILANTROFICO LEITERARIO sEDE IN CATANIA ; sOCIO
.
FROTE'ITORE CIRCOLO LETTERARIO ARTIsTICO MCsICALE EELLINI, CATANIA ;
810., 8:0, &C., &C. .,.

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Founded by
OF SOUTH ASIA

Charles Lesley Ames


AMES LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA LIBRARY


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MURTTI ANWITIH VRINDAKA,
TABLEAUX AND DRAMATIC PIECES.
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RAJA SQURINDRO MOHUN 'IAGORE, MUS. DOC.,


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Companion Of the Order Of the Indian Empire;


KNIGHT COMMANDER OF THE ORDER OF LEOPOLD, BELGIUM OF THE FIRST CLASS OF THE ORDER OF ALBERT, SAxONY

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AND OF THE MOST EKALTED ORDER OF FRANCIS JOSEPH, AUSTRIA CHEVALIER OF THE ROYAL PORTUGUESE MILI-

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TARY ORDER OF CHRIST, AND OF THE SECOND CLASS OF THE IMPERIAL ORDER OF MEDJIDIE FRANC CHEVALIER


OF THE ORDER OF THE KNIGHTS OF THE HOLY SAVIOUR, MONT REAL, JERUSALEM, RHODES, AND MALTA _

;
KNIGHT OF THE GURKHA STAR OF SARASVATI, NEPAUL AND OF THE ORDER OF BASABAMALA, SIAM; SAN
;

GITA-NAYAKA AND SANGITA-SILPA-VIDYA-SAGARA OF NEPAUL; OFFICIER DACADEMIE AND DEL INSTRUC


TION PUBLIOUE, FRANCE MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY
;

OF LITERATURE, AND HONORARY PATRON OF THE SOCIETY OF SCIENCE, LETTERS, AND ART, LONDON

; ;
FELLOW OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA JUSTICE OF THE PEACE FOR THE TOWN OF CALCUTTA
;

HONORARY MAGISTRATE AND MAGISTRATE OF POLICE IN THE TOWN OF CALCUTTA SOCIO ONORARIO

;
OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY, PALERMO OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF ST. CECILIA OF THE SOCIETA

;
;

DIDASCALICA ITALIANA, ROME; OF THE PHILHARMONIC ACADEMY OF BOLOGNA; OF THE


BIBLIOTECA POPOLARI CIRCOLANTI VINCENSO MONTI DI ALPHONSINE; OF THE ATENSO
ALESSANDRO MANzONI ISTITUTO; OF THE CIRCOLO EDUCATIVO VITTORIO EMMANUELE
IN vINCENzA BENE-MERITO CIRCOLO ACCADEMICO LA FLORA ITALICA, ITALY
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;
HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL MUSICAL ACADEMY, STOCKHOLM OF THE ;
ARCHzEOLOGICALSOCIETY OF ATHENS OF THE PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY, MEL
;

BOURNE OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, CEYLON OF THE SOCIETA OPERARIA


;

DI LUCCA; OF THE ACCADEMIA LETTERARIA LAzzARO PAPI DI LUCCA


;

OF THE FIRST CLASS OF ACADEMIE MONT REAL OF THE ACADEMIE D AEROSTATION METEOROLOGIQUE, PARIS
;

;
CORRESPONDINGMEMBER OF THE GENEVA INSTITUTE; OF THE ORIENTAL MUSEUM, VIENNA; OF THE ROYAL
ACADEMY, TURIN OF THE SOCIETY OF AMSTERDAM OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, JAVA
-

;
;

;
SOCIOCORRISPONDENTE OF THE ACADEMY OF RAFFAELLO, URBINO; ACCADEMICO CORRISPONDENTE OF THE
ROYAL MUSICAL INSTITUTE, FLORENCE SOCIO CO-OPERATEUR OF THE ACADEMY OF PITTAGORIKA,
;

NAPLES DOTTORE DI MUSICA E DI LETTERE ACCADEMIA NAPOLI BENE-MERITO OF THE ROYAL


;
;

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UNIVERSITY OF PARMA; ASSOCIATE MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, LETTERS AND
FINE ARTS, BRUSSELS FOREIGN MEMBER OF THE ROYAL PHILOLOGICAL AND ETHNOGRAPHICAL
;

INSTITUTION OF NETHERLANDS INDIA AT THE HAGUE PATRON OF THE ATHENNEUM OF


;

THE ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF SASSARI, SARDINIA; ORDINARY MEMBER OF THE ORIENTAL


ACADEMY, FLORENCE; PRESIDENT ONORARIO OF THE ACCADEMIA PITTAGORICA OVVERO
SCULO ITALICA PRESIDENT DONORE UFFICIALE DELEGATO ISTITUTO UMBERTO PRIMO,
;

LEGHORN SOCIO D ONORE ASsOCIAzIONE GIOVANILE SALERINTANA SALERNO SOCIO


;

FONDATORE ATENEO GIOVAN BATISTA ALLEOTTI IN ARGENTA, NAPLES HONORARY


;

PRESIDENT OF LUNION VALDOTAINE, GENEVE; SOCIO PROTETTORE CIRCOLO


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VITTORIO EMMANUELE FILANTROPICO LETTERARIO SEDE IN CATANIA


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SOCIO
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PROTETTORE CIRCOLO LETTERARIO ARTISTICO MUSICALE BELLINI, CATANIA X,


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&C., &C., &C., &C.

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PRINTED BY C. BOSE 00., STANHOPE PRESS, 249, BOw-BAzAR STREET, AND PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR.
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QUIXT'FE> ~
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WKEZWWIZ.

desire now perceptible amongst our countrymen and foreign


W

is

GROWING

mil friends to have clear knowledge of the various elements that com
a

bine to give Hindu Music and Drama such an interesting character. In


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order'bto arrive at a correct estimate of the main principles underlying these


arts, to attain an insight into the nature of the
it

aesthetic necessary
is

Rams or Sentiments, which are their life and soul, and which give them
such variety. have attempted in these pages to furnish the curious
I

reader with short accounts of the dramatic laws of the Hindus, the
denitions of the various dramatic compositions as recognized in the
Stistras, an exposition of the Rasas, of the Bha'vas (through which the

former receive their full development), and of their various ramications, the
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names of the Rdgas adapted to each Rasa, brief notice of the Aryan Stage
a

and of the color of the drop-scene peculiar to each, and such other matters

as have been found to bear on the subject. With the view of illustrating the
eight principal Bases of the Hindus, have selected well-known scenes from
I

our classical writings, given their Tableaux and composed short dramatic

pieces illustrating their character, preceded by descriptive songs set to such


Ra'gas and Toilas as have been declared appropriate to them by the authorities.
No one better aware of the imperfections of this work than myself; the
is

only excuse for bringing before the enlightened public the steady
is

en
it

couragement have hitherto received from them for my humble attempts at


I

bringing within their reach few relics of the untold musical and literary
a

treasures bequeathed to us by our illustrious forefathers.

S. M. TAG ORE.
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SOURINDRO MOHUN TAGORE.

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CONTENTS.

Page. Page.
The Character of the Drama 1 MI'Irtti 21

Natalia 3 Prahelik.
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Prakara'ga 5 Dancing... 22

Vina 6 Bhva 24
Prahasana ,, The Sthyi Bhva n
Dima 7 Rati H 25

Vyyoga 8 Hsa n
Samabakra ,, SOka n
Vithi _ , 9 Krodha. n
.Aka . 10 Utsha 26

Ihamriga ,, Bhaya n
Nzitika. 11 JugupS.... n
Prakashika .. . 12 Vismaya. . . n
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Vgika ... .. . ,, Sama ... n


Hafisik. . . ... 13 Anubhva 27
'Viyougini Bibhva .. . n
Dipik. ... ,) AIAmbAnA-Bibh va n
Kalotshatar 14 Uddipana-Bibhva n
Chitr .. A The Byavichri Feelings 28
Jugupsit. .- ... NirvecIa a:
Vicb itrrth " 15 Avega .. )Q
Sattaka Dainya 29
Trotaka , S'rama
Goshthi 16 Mada )9
Vrindaka Jarat A
Silpaka n Ug'rat ... 30
Prekhaga 17 Moha OD.
Salpaka , 18 Vibodha...
Hrillis'a ... ,, Svapna
Rsaka ... ... ,, Apasmra ... 31
S'rigadita ... 19 Garbba
Viluki ,, Maraga
Tumbaki ... ,, Alasya
Sajjita 20 Amarsha. . .
Parivartta ,, Nidr
CONTENTS.

Page.
Abahitth 32 Vilsa ...
Autsukya )) Vichchhitti .. .
Unmda 33 Vibboka ...
S'ak ... )) Kilakichita ...
Smriti )) Mottayita ...
Mati ... )) Kuttamita m
Bydhi ... 34 Bibhrama
Trsa )) Lalita ...
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Brig )) Mada
Harsha ... ))
Vira Rasa
Asy. ))
The Karuga Rasa
Vishda 35 The Raudra. Rosa
Dhriti ))
The Hsya Rasa
Chapalat )) Smita
Glni )) Hasita ...
Chint 36 Vihasita
Vitarka )) Abahasita ...
The Sttvika Bhva )) Apahasita
Stambha... )) Atihasita
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Sveda 87 The Bhaynaka, Rasa


Romcha ... ))
The Bibhatsa Rasa
Svara-bhaga )) The Adbhuta. Rasa. I...
Vepathu ))
The S'nta Rasa (additional)
Vaibargya. )) Conicting Basas O.
As'rn )) Vritti ... ...
Pralaya )) Kais'iki Vritti ... . .
Rasas 88 Sittati Vritti
S'rifigra )) Arabhati Vritti
Vipralambha 39 Bh rati Vritti
Prbba-rga 40 The dierent looks in the dierent Rasas
Nili-rga 41 The subjects of the Rasas determined
Kusumbha-rga )) The Rigas in relation to the Rasas
Majisth-rga )) Dancing in relation to the Sentiments
Mna )) Of the dierent kinds of Song in relation
Pranaya-mna ... COO )) to the dierent Rasas
I'rshyzi-mna 4-2 The Drop-scene in relation to the Rasas
'
Pravsa ... )) The Stage ...
Karuna-Vipralambha 4'3 The Assembly
Samhhoga ))
Lil ))
CONTENTS.

Page.
I.S'RIN_OARA RAsA. Sanskrit Song ... ... 115
Ram-Lilli. Its Translation ... 117
Argument ... ,, Hindu Notation .. 119
Sanskrit Song ,, English ditto ... 121
Its Translation Dramatic Piece ... 123
,, Hindu Notation ...
,, English ditto ... ... VI.BHAYANAKA RAsA.
Dramatic Piece ... Nri-singha ripping open the Bowels of
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II.-ViRA RAsA. Hiranya-kasipu.


Bhima drinking Dus'aanas Blood. Argument ... 127
Argument Sanskrit Song ... 129
Sanskrit Song Its Translation ... 131
Its Translation ,, Hindu Notation 188
,, Hindu Notation ... ,, English ditto 135
,, English ditto Dramatic Piece 137
Dramatic Piece

IIL-KARUEA RAsA. VIL-BIRHATEA RAsA.

The Exile of Sit. Rudhira-priya and his Wife feeding


I
on Corpses.
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Argument
Sanskrit Song Argument 139
Its Translation Sanskrit Song ... 141
,, Hindu Notation ... Its Translation ... 1413
,, English ditto ,, Hindu Notation .. 145
Dramatic Piece 7,, English ditto ... 14,7
IV.RAUDRA RAsA. Dramatic Piece 14,9
Vis'vdmitra cursing Haris'whandrm
Argument ... 101
VIIL-ADEHUTA RAsA.

Sanskrit Song 103 Transformation of Ahalgd from a


Its Translation 105 Stone into her previous Human
,, Hindu Notation 107 Form.
,, English ditto . 109 Argument
Dramatic Piece ... 111 Sanskrit Song
V.-HAsYA RAsA. _ Its Translation
Kcilnemis I/Vife beating her Husband ,, Hindu Notation
with a Broom-stick. ,, English ditto
Argument .. . 113 Dramatic Piece
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_ ___n a '_ _____--__ I. -I

THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE IIINDUS.


BHARATA RISHI.
THE FATHER or HINDU DRAMA,

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THE BHABAETEH BP THE GHANA.


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HAVING created the four Vedas, Brahma evolved the fth out of
them and called the Drama. The sage Bharata rst learnt from
it

it
Brahma, and played before Mahadeva. (1) The Drama consists of

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three parts namely, Nritya (the drama proper), Nritta and Nritya
;

(dancing) (2) The art which holds the mirror up to nature by per

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sonatin different characters, and by representing different costumes


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and gestures, the dramatic. (3) Many things are requisite in a
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Drama but we shall not enter into them on the ground of their
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irrelevancy. The curious reader may, however, refer to the Sanskrit

_w-:-~v-_-.v-w1-
Drama, of which well he may drink his ll. On mature consideration,

it will clearly appear that sentiment the corner-stone of theatri


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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL BASAS OF THE HINDUS.
2

forth. The ten kinds of art which teach Various measured movements
of the limbs and the trunk with m'ldsa, together constitute Nm'tta or
dancing. (1) Nm'tta, without the dramatic element, called Nritya

is
(simple dancing) (2). of two sorts Viz., mdrga and

is
Nm'tya dez'. (3)

;
That kind of entertainment composed of music and dancing which

was performed by Bharata before Mahadeva, and which had previ


Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 13:59 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

ously been sought by Brahma of Mahadeva, goes by the name of

(4) and that which in vogue amongst us, and which per

is
is

mdrga
;

formed before kings by men for their entertainment, by the name

of The word Ndtaka (drama), derived from nata (hero).


is
(5)

The Drama of two kinds, meirga and The Dramas which


is

desz'. (6)

Brahma created by dint of austerities, and which he represented


Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

before Mahddeva and Pdrvatz', are called Mdrga-ndtyas. There are

twenty kinds of these namely, the Drama proper, prakampa, ca'gza,


;

prahasana (farce), dima, vyriyoga, samavakzira, mthi, aka, z'hdmn'ga,

ndtzkd, prdkashz'k, migu'kd, hasai, myogini, dz'pz'kd, kalotsdhatard,

chitrd, jugupsz'td and m'chz'treirtha'. The ten rst species were


founded by MahadeVa the remainder, by Parvati. Mahadeva and
;

Parvati rst instructed Brahma in these twenty Varieties of the

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL msns or THE HINDUS.

3
m.

w
4
'Drama. (1) Dantz'la and other authorities classify sixteen kinds of

Desi-ndtya ;namely, sattaka, trotaka, goshthz'; windaka, sillpaka, pref.

khav-za, sazzleipaka, hr'illz'sla, wisaka, .sirzllgadita, vilukz'i, tumbakz, sajjz'ta,

pam'ca'rta, mzirtt' (or jhdnlu') and prahelz'kai. (2)

utrsas.
-
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 13:59 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

THAT species of composition which based on historical inci

is
.1

- aunt-min; (Rik-I!mm!-.-x--
"um-1"

dents, which consists of ve sandhz's, which contains m'ldsa and


-
various kinds of which permeated with diverse aesthetic
is

bibhzitz',

feelings and sentiments, which in from ve to ten acts,


is

complete

which excites the udcitta gugza, which celebrates the lives of mighty

princes sprung from celebrated dynasties, or of great celestial or


Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

mh:w~nr'~*'_-_SW-'1
earthly characters, which like the tail of the cow
is

(z'.e., whose

acts gently grow shorter and shorter which acted by four or ve


is
),

I
:

principal men, which mainly concerned with the Ma or the deli


is

II
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, .,_., w.
.THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HIND'US.

long, whose language is simple and whose incidents are imbued


with harmonizing bhdvas, goes by the name of Na'taka. (l) The
hero should exist along with four or ve subsidiary charac~

-.,imms-mwa-_l~
ters. The performance excludes these z-hallooing from a distance,

killing, war, insurrection, marriage, eating, cursing, passing urine or


stool, death, sexual commerce, biting, scratching with the nails,
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 13:59 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

and other actions of an unsightly nature ;-also lying down, kissing,

laying siege, bathing, and using any essence on the stage. The acts

hwmkg
should not be over~long. The characters of the queen and her
handmaids, of courtiers and merchants, should be developed aesthe

tically; and on the conclusion of each act, the actors should go


out as a man. There should be no episodes, yet the way should
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

be open. to the conclusion of the subject ;-simplicity of action


also desirable; and the Drama should also unfold the origin
is

i
,

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-...- ... ...


THE RIGHT PRINCIPAL nAsAs OF THE HINDUS.

of the main action and its conclusion. There should not be much

poetry. Sakuntald, Vezu'sahdm


and Anargha Rdghava are examples
of this species of the Drama.

I PRAKARARA.
THAT species of the Drama, the subject of which is ctitious
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 13:59 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

and human, which is based On the Iidi msa, whose hero is a Courtier,
a Brahmin, or a merchant, actuated by earthly motives, whose plot,
i although without the interest incidental to the delineation of royal
I
I
or celestial personages, is nevertheless Charming, which has servants,
I
I
pages, merchants and harlots or vulgar women for its dramatis
personw, whose heroine alternates between a woman of a family and
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

a prostitute, both of whom being sometimes introduced, is called


Pmkarana. (I)

No prostitute should be present at any conversation of the cour


i
_

tier, merchant, Brahmi-n, priest, prime minister, and travelling mer

chants. These characters should be discriminated clearly. The

examples are illritchhakatika, MdZati-meidhava and Pushpavzishz'ta.

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I
"4,
6 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL~ RASAS OF THE HINDUS;

rigs.
THAT kind of the Drama, the subject of which is a cunning person,
which includes a variety of incidents, which consists of one act and

whose hero is cunning, learned and accomplished in music and danc


ing, is called Vdpa. He is to hold discourse with the air, and thus to
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 13:59 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

Its plot is ctitious; and it

\~_"'
unfold the intended circumstances.

I s-_.->--
should largely describe heroism, puissance, and prosperity. In it the
vim and (id?! msas preponderate. Its Vrz'ttz' is Bheiratz' (1), and its

uxm~
example Sdradd-tz'laka and Lz'ldmadhukam.

PBAHASANA.
THE hero of the Prahasana (farce) is an anchoret, a Brahmin, or
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

any other person. Its subject is imaginary ; and partly consists in


It

.. ..M." .s.H...- .M-m._.-.-._


running down bad characters. consists of one or two acts. It
should deal principally with risibility; and the ludicrous talk of

vulgar people enters into it in a. large measure. The dialogues of the


actors should be really comic. There is but one hero in it. The

-u-_-~.~.--'.___
Prahasana is of two kinds ;.uddha (pure ) and sankz'rgza (mixed).
With the above-mentioned characteristics, it is suddha ,- and when a
harlot, an impotent person, a page, a merchant, or maid-servants

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS. 7

form the comic gures, it is called sankz'rgza. There should be female


dancing in its representation. (1) Haisyairtzava, Kautuka-sarvaswa,

Kandarpakeh', Dhdrta-cham'ta and DhzZrta-nartaka are instances of it.

HIMh.

c- ... ;
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 13:59 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

THE subject of the Dz'ma is famous, and its hero celebrated and
It

uni-ak..
generous. is complete in four acts. It only excludes rich and
Mega msas ,' but whatever may be the sentiment, its movements
should be powerful and taking. It is mainly concerned with eclipses
of the sun and moon, with falling stars and wars. It should touch

upon magic, jugglery,\&c., and particularly describe gods, serpents,

rdkshasas, yakshasf ghosts and goblins. It should have sdttatz' and


Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

drabhatz' wittz's. No less than ten and six heroes enter into it. (2)
Tn'puraddha is an example of it.
Mythical characters.

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HIND'US.
8
______.________________________----~
;YYAYBSA.
THE hero of the Vyriyoga some god or personage of the blood

is
"I._._-M,

royal; but he should be proud, haughty, arrogant and boastful.

Few women should enter into its It in

is
dramatz's Personae. complete
'x'....c__..'',.-M-MA,

one act, and should treat of wars, &c., but they should not owe
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 13:59 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

their origin to a female interest. Its with Kaiiki. Other msas,

is
than his-ya, deli and sdnta, should preside in it. (1) Saugandhz'kd
. I

hamzba, Jaimadagnya-jaya and Dhanmijaya-mjaya are its instances.


..na.
PK~- ___.A._A.

SAMAEAEREA.
with gods and asums. Its
is

THE Samavaka'ra concerned hero

should be endowed with large measure of greatness. It coni

is
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plete in three acts. Every act should severally take up three kinds
of hypocrisy, of escape and of dalliance.

be
There should twelve

heroes and. eighteen heroines in it. The rst act should be nished

in twenty-four, the second in eight, and the third in four, alazulas.F Its
plot should include wars, water, re and elephants. The ight in it
wyw-us-mwAi

rst owing to'panic in ght orvto water elephants or


is

secondly,/to
;

re thirdly, to seige. Dissimulation of three kinds, according to


is
;

the sources of happiness or misery and every poet should ascertain


;

* dagzda equal to twenty-four minutes.


A

is

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS or THE unions. 9

the character of each, to meet the exigencies of his case. Dissimu


lat-ion, arises rst from the exigencies of case; secondly, from

a
.
w._ -

accident; thirdly, from persuation. also of three kind

is
Vz'heim

s,
.

...._..>..~.-_._..U_..:~
.
according to virtue, wealth and lust. The m'ha'ra undertaken for the
---.

welfare of ones self, agreeably to the vrata'i-rulings, called

is
m
.

Dharmavihdra that oihtira which observed for the acquisition of


is
-~--.'

,-
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 13:59 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

wealth, called Artham'ha'ra and that which e'ected by pleasing

is
is

,-
ccc,m,

w
girl and lying with her in secret, called Kdmavihdra. This
is
a,

--'''~
species of the drama contains complex metres replete with passion
alum-ur- ..

Samudra-lllanthana an example.
is

and sentiment. (1)

I.
I
I

_... .
'1'
H
Y

----.--.Q--,.--.._
I
,__r_r..m
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

~m-qw-ww~w:
IN the there one act and one or two actors. Like the
is

Vz'thz'
_..-_n-I.u

with the air. It bad or indif


is

Vina, consists of dialogues good,


it
~i,H

* voluntary not of penance.


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10 THE EIGHT rnmcnmn BASAS or THE HINDUS.

ferent. It includes every sentiment. As the ddz' msa preponderates

in it, some say that the latter its soul. an

is

is
(1) Mdlamkdgmmz'tm

example.

axs.
...4.... -... _ ... wk;Ex

THE Anita called It of one act; its


is
utm'shtz'kcihka. consists

subject ctitious; and sometimes celebrated, at others, insigni


is
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

cant. The characters are terrene only. It should deal principally


.,
.
. with the sentiment of tenderness; but should never include

excessive beating calculated to result in death. The dialogues


..= _<

should turn upon self-accusation. It should consist mainly of


by

lamentation women; and should treat adequately of resorting to

playing, dalliance and cohabitation. (2) Its

is
groves, example
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

Sarmz'shthd Yaydtz'.
isiwsiss.
THE Ihdmm'ga consists of four acts. Its hero a god; its
is

heroine, The former arrogant the latter irascible. It


is

goddess.
a

';

should deal largely of sakshova, ight, angry words &c. No sexual


......--wvmKWNM-H_~WW_M'-

intercourse should take place between the hero and the heroine, in
consequence of quarreling, ravishment, intoxication, &c. In its action,

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|

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.
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS. 11

A... a;
__._.__
'.-.-
-~.-

the number of males, with) and sentiment, resembles the Vyayoga,

it
_
.

-.._.__f -
with the exception that in arms may be used. Fighting between

it
:a--nnc

A
the combatants should be avoided on some plea or other. (1) Km

_._z-=___,.__E<A_A~___._..=:.A.E
an instance of it.
is

ma-Sekhara Wj'aya

EA.
T
E
A
I It
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

THE subject of the Ndtz'kd is imaginary. has a good many

heroines. It in four acts. wittz' ought to be


is

complete Kai-9,1705

present in it. The hero should be prince, celebrated, meek and


a

good-natured the heroine should be born in the purple and should


;

;
_.. M.

live in the inner apartment ;She should also be skilled in dancing

;
she should be a virgin, with a bosom newly inamed with love.
wk... .... r____- .' .~'.. '

The hero, although attached to the fair one, should be con


Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

stantly fearful of awakening the jealousy of his prince-descended,


talkative and sensitive queen. The power too of effecting the
___.....A....___.

union of the couple should rest with her. (2) Ratndvalz' and

Biddhasdla- Va'hjik are its examples.

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12 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS

sssxsssim.
m

THIs species of the drama treats principally of licentiousness.


- m

Both its hero and its quasi-hero should come of vulgar parentage;
-____."..

as also its heroine, who should also be of low propensities. Baccha


-
nalian orgies, dance and song should form part and parcel of the

a
_

representation. It consists of two acts only. (1) Sm'gdmtilaka is


Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

all-

an instance of it.

ill
mMMW-l_

AI
is I
.

K
I

THAT kind of play in which the actors are richly dressed,

which has kaisz'kz' and bheiratz vritt'is, which has only one act, whose
M

is excellently generous, but whose hero extremely ill

is
heroine
M

natured, which is complete in seven divisions respectively treating of


Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

_____-c__u-____._-___n_mumun__-'-n-u_m_.-,x_
_.___A.c_A.A., - "m"

upanycisaae self-accusation, the disabusing of false notions, lying,

utterance of hard words through anger or disease, the description

of some sign, and the conclusion. Kmadattd its example.


is

(2)
' The introduction of the subject incidentally.

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swim
|

(a) mlrsr zgwsfaasmfsm WWII?! fweF-afifs mi?


!

armmamgsmsrasam rim {fa s malisnruisz WWW-1


n

n
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS. 13

assist.
THIS is complete in one act. It consists mainly of music, but

the latter should be defective in measure. Its hero is destitute of


the aesthetic feeling ;but its heroine is brimming over with the
amorous hum'our. It is comic. (1) Yddabodaya is an example of it.

virsszsx.
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THE Vz'yogz'ni should largely deal in separation and the conse

quent pangs of lovers. It is complete in one act. Its heroine is


generous ;- but its hero is very cruel. At intervals there should be
~
dance and song. (2) Bindumati is an instance.

11 1 s1K i.
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

THE hero of the Dz'pz'kci should be foolish ; and the play should

mainly concern itself with the comical exhibition of his folly. It con

sists of one act and has one actor. The speeches should be addressed to
the air. (3) We have not seen any example of this species in the Sans
I

krit works. It somewhat resembles the performance of the Bhafs,


who sometimes entertain the audience in the intervals of matches.
The performers generally come from Lucknow and other places in

the North-Western Provinces of India.

(o ner-n was 1W . itwfn mfua'r 55W: u


.._

WW1? susn s'm Hm I .

m7 WlFhS'QIl wrfm tawfzsr u 1mm fsm n'r faaismqnfam


.. . . ._
(5.)

,-.1,_
I

(a) swam ssnilsr


W WWI? waif 51H .
5
I
|

:Wl..~
r __ x, A._-~,x_-,,-.-

remit? aifagotm ssnlfsnsgsit gwizramnmfa-l:


n
I

r311?
,lAv l he->-

-- A, V . .. x... .- a... :,_*~w>i --.. ., .


1

. . .
.

l'_
I
lI
14; THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUs.

EALUTSARATARA.
' '
BOTH the hero and the heroine in the Kalotsdhatard should
T

be of equal descent. The. heroine should be well up in music and


dancing, and full of love. It consists only of two acts: its
subject ctitious. We do not nd any specimens of this
is

(1)

kind, either in the Sanskrit literature, or in recent works.


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EHITEA.
No acting takes place in the In person comes out

it
O'hz'trd.

a
and exhibits pictures embodying various feelings and sentiments (2).

Some of the Patua's of Western Bengal exhibit in pantomime


series of historical or mythological characters and incidents, with

a
running commentary with or without music.
in

verse, and
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'
' "A ~
PISSSPSITA.
y

I
I '
sentiment of this kind of the drama
THE. disgust. It
is

is
complete in one act. The dramatz's 10mm should be rdkshasas,
i

ghosts, goblins, &c. (3) An instance of this species occurs in


II. aiWfu-lfl-I mmmw'w'q

the Begz'sdhiira-Ndiaka. We have reproduced in the present


it

treatise,eunder the heading,


Vz'bhatsa Rasa.

mawiswmwmqifaifiql areiuftwwrinqgiwiwrsfmt'l
WRIFIEIU RETIRE a RIIRII fsm RI Rfzm augiiqamiit
II

.~
I

ERII'IIRREIIRIRI mirttuuzur

ll

fanammwifrs
(q)

W
Is) Egan" 3W7 qrifmfw (15am RIEIRI'I FREE?! :{RERIIIEIIREIII
I

mmfamfsrm rgm (Emmi: ITEIIEIFRWEI afwar MI


II
l

.I

a A; _. I .x_.___.. ..._. _..'..... Ema-VA u iAd....n._x . .._.

_____. _...., __.______.___..-._Q_____.___...__-_..__~_.,__.__.,..__ _.,_... .W was


C_I____-_E-.-~~-'---.
I
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL itAsAs oETT'HE HINnUs. "I5

ricsi'rsis'rsi.
SIX or seven persons are introduced in this species of the drama.
It contains no plot. The men should display feats of jugglery, with

or
itinerant Indian conjurors
(I)
comments on them. The Bedt'ytis
' '
exhibit these tricks.
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

.
T
T
K
II

A
S

THAT which mostly composed in prdkrita, which has only


is

one- character, and which professes toexcite the emotion of thewon

entitled Sattaka. ~For the rest, resembles the Ntitz'kti.


it
is

derful, (2)

Karpiiramarzjarz' isan instance of this variety._

sausage.~
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

'~. ~-\
-

1
_

THAT which contains ve, seven, eight or nine acts, whose hero

mortal but whose heroine called Trotaka.


is
is

heaven-born,
is
a

Every act of should contain the of the ez'dtzsheket


it

speeches
' i i i ' '
an example of it.
is

(3) Wkmmoreast
" patois derived from Sanskrit and put in the mouths of women and insignicant characters.
A

This comic character gures in almost every Sanskrit. drama. His wretched jokes generally
1'

irh upon eating. Falstaff-that


is,

He hears resemblance to the sack-loving and capon-greedy


a

only as to character the inimitable witticisms of the latter being all his own.
,,
;

(t) with: For tggfqtttttfsr: (R) was mum mail


I

WWW-sin a fwwisw'lr agtqrzth (a:


a

fastest
I
n

an asfaswsm sq: maddest-red


u

vial? sew atgmfm'l


HIT
(a) summary szmipm'sm
|

trial as aw fssrwi Etna: sins are aims: new iiissi


u

II
16 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

scssraf
THAT which introduces nine or ten men and ve or six

women, which destitute of decent talk, which contains

is
the with, which consists of one act and which mainly con

is
kazlslz'lci

cerned with Mmadvihdra, goes by the name of Goshthz'. (1) Raz'bata

madam'kd an instance of it.


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is

IBIHHAKA.
THE play in which various stories are represented, whose

dramatic Personae are men of different castes, and which not tied

is

down to xed number of acts, called Vn'ndaka. The stories should
is
a
~

We have not found out any specimens of this


Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

be fascinating. (2)
~ -.

variety.
.,.-

-
~

BILPAKA.
THAT which in four acts, which has four which
is

complete crittz's,

handles every rasa with the exception of the sentiments of quiescence


and mirth, whose hero Brahmin, which contains descriptions of
is
a

cremation-grounds, whose quasi-hero vulgar fellow, and which


is
a
ccc_.m.-.~

I (U Hism ri'nfmiwdm (R) fsmgnrqtmqsi


I
l

imam 1151 Qfm'ismfsi


mum was
||

ufatfda
|

amimi mslfwfam
Wgm mn'rrfsfaiinr
srm
l

fsssrftfm sxrrfa mfg: fang nsi


n
n
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL BASAS OF THE HINDUS. 17

has AS21584, Taoa, sandeha, Ta'pa, Udbegaf Prasaktz', Prajatna,

Gmthana, Utlranthli,9 Abahz'tthd, Apratzpattz', Vz'laisa," Alasya,"

Va'myot,14 Pmhaw'sha,15 Aslz'lct,16 Mzifatci," stidhaminugamafs Uchchvdsa,"

Vt'smaya,2o Pra'ptz', Ldva,22 Vismritifs Sampheta," Vcu'aimdyaf5 Pmbo

dhana, and Ohamutlm'ti. (1)

_
.
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i. p. ____-A.
Paaaaana

m)...
A PLAY in which the hero a low character, which has no Szitra
is

l-_'~,.w;..__._r~_~..~
dhdrms Vz'shkambhaka or Prabesaka, which has but one act, which

includes war and angry words, which contains every kind of

with, and in which benedictory songs are sung within, called i

is

nu---1-_--A___.~_-.~
lawn,
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

Bdlz'badha an instance of it.


is

Preizkhazga. (2) .
-

The arguing of doubtful point. The doubt of the existence or otherwise of thing.
3
1

Desire.
a
!

The mental heat incident to separation from The fear of a


lover. king.
8

Attachment.
i

a
4-.-

1 Contraction of the
9

Impatience at delay. body through


7

Quick endeavour. Episode.


11 Inattention, or disrespect. 1 E'orts for cohabitation. 13 Lassitude
fear, shame or self-respect.
"

__.~__-.__..___._.._...... .... /_.,.Maya. n-......,m~.A.v.


incident to toil or pregnancy. 1* Hostility. 1 Ecstacy. 1 Obscene
language. Foolishness.
1 Endeavours after minor means. 9 Chapter. 9 Wonder. "1 Attainment of
happiness.
9' Mercantile gain. 93 Forgetfulness. 9 Angry words. N Skill. '6 Awakening from sleep.
7 Astonishment.
' An actor who explains to the audience gaps in the plot.
--_-s__-.--m

Em
J12)
. ._v-i

mm
(Q arm: fawsirn irmfawfa'mfzr guru: wife?

WW
1

12Hr
l

W:
main! min?! as:
mama hag
n

Wife: fer
"

asiar-r
l

my -
g

m'rw
u

uamatrf
.

ftlllfw an? (R) \ If


a

Wamarzmaaia:
l

a ,
.!_~_,_
. .__. _--

a Gama
l

_
a
"

uaauuirsnmfsmrnfswa:
5'?

"Eaaaimm
u

smrsmrfa wrsisisqgai: WW5. WQFWW


l
I
-~_.,______._

mm? liiz writ am air naar


x

mHZlEWT
n
n

_
M)"
18 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

ssstisasa- i
l
A PLAY which consists of three or four acts, whose hero is
a reprobate,_ which contains other rasas than the ride' and karuga,
which treats of mock ghts, blockade, and ight, and which includes

other crittis than Kaisi'ki and Bha'rati, is entitled SaZdpaka. (1)



Mtiydkdptilt'ka is its example.
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/ I
HBI L L I S It - i

THE play which is complete in one act, which has seven,

eight or ten women, which has one hero, which contains words
pregnant with worth, which contains the with, and which

includes various kinds of music, is known by the name of


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Hm'llz'a. (2)

Kelt'raz'bataka is an instance of it.


}

assess.
THIs has only one act and ve dramatic Personae. It should largely
display various languages. Its vrz'ttz's are kaist'ki and bhdrati- There
should be no Sdtradhdra. Like the Vithi, the entire act should abound
in music and dancing. Its benedictory verses should be sarcastical.

emsrwmtslii it must: we;


m: ms War:
(t) gm |
(a) as am: new?! {a in fat: I
n s a
WW *3. a" fifilifiawuq. I
"a? atdmqdumlmt i

a as zf'r'nisi will a a iir n sif'iil swr mi} ssmswfmiz n


THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL BASAS or THE HINDUS. 19

The heroine should be famous, and the hero, a numskull. It should

be replete with greatness, developed gradually. (1) Menakdhz'ta an

is
~m-~m~b4rt

example.

ssisasira. .

' ,.-''~tw._ _-~


THAT which has well-known story, which has one act, which
a

and generous hero, which has the bhdrati with


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has a celebrated

in large measure, and which contains the word goes by the


a

51%,

mew-..,',. ..."''.-
'
name of grigadita. (2) Krirrasa'tala an example of it.
is

wa. ~_,
I
I

.
H
L
K
Y
I

,, ~_1~cc-~n
THAT which has mainly to do with the passion of terror, which

~A.i~.~_~__._~A.
in one act, and which exhibits poltroon of a hero,
is

is
complete
a
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

named Viluki. (3) _ We have not seen any specimens of this variety.

rsmsast
A PLAY in which the passion of the wonderful predominates,
which introduces two or three characters, and in the performance
of which the instrument tumbak played, goes by the name of
is

* wind instrument resembling the Gaelic is?!


A

bag-pipe.
I
(

(2) m uvawv'rwrqvsffiwfaih (a) mam wsnnnm'


|

ummnfas' mm?! nfnsmfaa nmsiwi rst???


n

wqwsltm' rst? msrfsqn' mtirFr-masi sfana sign:


I

mar-slugs rsnnmfan' Iim He 2W1? FUR fasfxmusi'


a

mmwwfmf shirts. (s) new: tsl Em namfaar


|

(i wfaguf HF-tml fiw'ii 'twwwfax: ftiiil,


n
n
m.
. n. .

20 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS or THE HINDUS.

Tumbakz. (1) It somewhat resembles the performances of the Indian

jugglers, who generally come from Madras and other parts of

W
Southern India.

8A J JITA.
THAT which is presided over by the passion of love, which
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abounds in dance and song, which is full of the v-z'dzishaka, whose hero

is of low caste, which is complete in one act, which has a small


story, and which displays rich dresses and ornaments, is known as

Sajta (ornamented), (2) Something like this kind of entertain


ment is sometimes exhibited by khytimtzi-dancz'ng girls, in the inter
vals of the dance.
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PAHIYABTTA.
THAT which has only one character, which is destitute of lan

guage or pantomime, and in which the actor entertains the audience


by assuming the diverse guises of women, men, and eunuchs, is called
Pam'vartta (changed). (3) These Protean changes are frequently
exhibited by Bahurlipz's and droll characters in some of the Hindu
operatic performances.

( 2) ms (sir fsiamm'isr a afirar l siftraia we iuraiwsiwfiw' |

gwmmw 115m was my n 1 .\ e


33543181131:
-.\'\K\
afar; m g,

EWgl TR I" Elan Htsmrgfag: " (i) illfifan'lirfz Haifa-WW5? I

(i) WW
(- 0 use we?
twi-f HHTFEW slw: n
iwiim'maw ' . 0 \
wilt: 0\
@gwgnama massif-trivial.
filiafal'lgll Wag-q II as wzsfiqsrj uzarlqzuzs'r u

W.
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

msrra
THAT species of the drama which has no acting, but in which

celebrated historical characters are represented, without any


expressive pantomimic gestures, and in which a Saitradhdra is intro
duced, who explains the mute gures, is called Mu'rtt't'. (1) The
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Jhlinkz' or Tableauz Vz'oants of mythological and other gures is


exhibited by a certain class of players coming chiey from Bombay,
Mathura, and other parts of India. The Mtirttz' of the six principal

Ragas was, on several occasions, exhibited at the writers house,

under his own supervision.

ssasshzsi.
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THAT which at rst consists of brief representations of two

or three subjects, and in which the names of the emotions under

lying them being added, performance subsequently takes place by the


individuals whose names have emerged, is entitled Pmhelt'kd. (2) This
kind of performance is now known in Europe as the Ohamdes. No

specimens of it have yet been met with in the Sanskrit works. A


performance of this nature, called ViraJvadm, was recently held in

Bengali at the residence of the writer.

(r) swi was: siaam at (a) If it r13 aifq fawn: semis: \


|

Q5515: mr rjimisihfsair wwamams: n


a

whim sagas qjmizm afzisi shims shew a'qssiaw 613a


l
l

airfiaai gs fssfs: igalxfitv as nzia: mm afwsr


I:

Ries-I
u
ll

119%:
,_-~_._._-__~._
w---._~. Mk m~>~Mm~ m

22 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL nxsns or THE HINDUS.

sesame

._._
of two kinds and ldsya. Ta'daca accompanies
is
Nm'tya ta'daca

;
III

c,x--_.
Sam'ta having Dhruvas and other kinds of songs. It has various

movements of the eyes, eye-brows and hands chiming in with

the sentiment of love. Having been rst performed by Tandu,


an attendant spirit of Mahddeva, the dance called It

is
tdrlzldaca.
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of two kinds and vahumipa.


is

pebalz'
;

That which consists of movements alone, exclusive of the dra

matic element, That in which a person changes his dress


is

pebah'.

"WW
frequently, According to some, the vahurzipa tdndaca
is

cahurzipa.

consists in the dancer singing a Menu song to measure, and in


_ _''_,_. _ mm.-

his speaking and expressing various languages and sentiments,


Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google


with changes of dress.
The Maya dancing excites amour in the bosom of youth. It

is
divided into two parts; chhum'ta and yauvata. The dance of the
hero and heroine in representation exciting love, including senti
a

ment, passion, &c., bears the appellation of sfum'ta or chhum'ta. The

- WWWlQ-nq-nmu-
ag-Mm

extremely graceful dance of dancing girls, accompanied with various


gamesome movements-the magic to charm and bewitch-is entitled
yaumta.
..- ____,_cA._~mmm-w
..._.-.~___i__.._~_..-_-~_--

of three kinds and


is

Nm'tta m'shama, vz'kata


is

Zaghu. Vz'shama
;

rope-dancing with acrobatic feats the movements of a person in a,


;

frightful dress are m'kata dancing graceful upward tripping and that
;

sort of thing. constitute the Zaghud ance.


l
.,.__ccc

* which of certain conventional letters or words; such as


A

is

song composed unmenning

at IT, I?! 4w
2
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS. - 23

_'
According to Ndrada Sahz'td, puii-nm'tya (male-dancing),* or tab.

WW...._,_
dava and strt-nm'tya (female-dancing ), are generally known as llisya.

The dance which was performed by eight milkmaids, around

eight gures of Krishna, with auspicious words, is called Kdrshm'.


The dance which ushed Turkish men and women bearing boquets,
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performed in amorous mood, accompanied with native songs, is called

jakkarz'. The dance which the SabarasiL perform with songs, is entitl

ed Sdbara. The dance which men and women in Savari dresses,

ornamented with gmgjd berries, perform, carolling native airs, is

..
called kuragz'. Mattdvali is the dance performed by the drinking
folks of Turkey. (1) Ndtya, nm'tya and nm'tta alike depend upon bhd'va.

...-..-. ...
" It
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

is certain that notwithstanding its present absence, male-dancing was in vogue in classic India.
+ A race of mountaineers formerly seen in the mountainous regions of Western India. The kind of
dance mentioned here is still in vogue among the Sthals and other peoples.

(r) aimi qwnrzi its nal avitqrtmfanr carer liiasi arr


u

amrn mfraiia'frraa gauge n auurz rst ri Faun Few mg


I

tiitwiriiq msriw satire l ans aw Fess wrzszmnmfiw'n


arias an n fas'qfsna'saemii fsan'a' an
mist aqvrrauzirri
I

Emit miris' ms muss st |


IIEPI11TEEFHTIT iir'll
writer-31mm awrmwam l gas. amsai ma: rew' and
u

as HT Trash we can Es'fa 51am || wsiiiiwztefn: eumvgfnq:


I

5% r'f liq EEG! {1W1 wife-deaf nzafs wririwsi


||

was Hm u
WW3 mimrii rst smear
1

anaemia-miss!
riagzemiw ezja' aswsqa | ml @6151 as
said sja'i
1|
u

aszfw: am as maf Hammer


33:

mammnia' ms vitae
1
u

mi} egrmtmi mania? 6&3. iq't' aarfawrgw$fazn


1|
u

gfm' ass-rs an ass as es.srhigmwiumirmr


n

minigr eat WET fapirarq mm


M
]

minimum? 111
martin f! my Hum gmrmafw was.
u

myf asslmitq aazir fagnrasitaai as iif=m=


n
|

~-- G,....._._.___.__-.. ...____-..._..._~vwv~_ ,a'y


241 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

Basra.
A Bhtiva is a mental modication. There are three kinds of
Bhdvas ,- sthtiyz', bydvz'chdrz' and svtitttka. (1) The full development of a
Bhava is entitled Rosa.

srsirissira.
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was
.ANY according or disagreeing Bha'va, which cannot be bid, and
which culminates in a Rasa: (passion) through bibha'va, anubha'va,

svdttz'ka and sachdri bhtivas, is called a S'thtiyi (permanent) Bhdva.

Every Rasa (passion) is imbued with a Sthdyi-bhdva, which never


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disappears from it. Even where one Sthdyi-bha'va comes into


conict with another, it never loses its individuality, but main

tains its separateness intact. Hence the appropriateness of the

epithet. Witness, in .Maha'vtirata, heroism and other sentiments have

been introduced on account of wars and other events; still the


prevailing sentiment, which is quiescence, has not suffered the
slightest diminution. So also in Rtimdyaua, various other passions
come into play incidentally, but never to interfere with the presiding
sentiment, grief. Quiescence and grief are respectively the prevail

ing sentiments of the two epics. From this, it is manifest that


although many Sthdyi-bhdvas may enter into any Rasa, yet, on ac
count of the predominance of the latter, its permanancy alone is

(r) ew?! emit mitsigms'i miss: I


*5...

THE EIGHT rnmcrrn. RASAS or THE HINDUS. 25


-~'--__-n.|--I

paramount; the rest will be reckoned as watcher-sham The


Stkdyi-bha'cas are divided into eight classes viz.,-mtz', kdsa, soka,

;
krodha, utsa'ha, vaya, jugupsd and m'smaya. Some include same in
I
the list. (1)

BhTL _,
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

Rati the passion which


is

links together the hero and the


heroine ;namely, love. (2)

stat.~\
THE expansion of the facial muscles at something ludicrous
W_~II*W-

to or hear, the counterpart of the mental expansion, which


is

see

goes by the name of Hcisa (laugh). (3)


Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

SURE.
THE mental agitation
is

which occasioned by the loss of friends


and relatives, or by the wreck of some interest, goes by the name of
A
Solar (grief). (4)

KHBHHA.
THE nervous and mental irritation -in extreme cases merging
w

in frenzy-which produced by the experience of wrong, and which


is

(K) qmsr rm at rsrqsnm: rst wsimil 5m: in


a

wsr
1

mmdmssrh ma: urilfn mm


tfsrsqnarg
a

(R) Rim:
marquee mfqsemrm lmnfaas
l
l

(8,)

w'mw WEE suit me? In: wmn smlfwrs urn m3


||

(rm 13 W? W1 um (8) zwmfzri 53m WW!


I

V =.,--_--.=..-_.,
....

__-__-_____________________
26 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

shows itself in sundry: expressionsv of mouth, is called Krodha


s h
(anger)'.(1) .
' -
pp-(HI _

"-nrsanar
.

______..
THE pains which one is at on entering upon a course, constitute

-~___.._..._
e .
Utsdha (encouragement). (2)
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

f
. \

lemma,w _

. _ _.-_-.____._____-__~
THE apprehension of danger, accompanied with a painful emo~

tionunhinging in extreme cases-is called Bhaya (fear). (3)

*ansnPst.
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THE mental attitude which is induced~ by the discovery of a

person or a things worthlessness, is called Jugupsd (aversion). (4)

YIS MAY .

THE shock of excitement which one feels on seeing or hearing

something never seen or heard before, is called Vismaya (wonder). (5)

515263
THE renunciationof the pleasures of the world, and the absorp

tion of the spirit in the Deity, is entitled Sama. (6) -


WIN?"
. '__ '. ..

, (t) "Fang?! i'iimrsw (Ll fqfqiig 113F155 sqiimfmrfg u

i (a) awmig Hm: aim-3mm we I maa m a raw ma; ,


1
{damn area fun-3am? min
(a)

(e) iimrviti 55m fill (Q) wit ffttrsmmmwmnsi an?"


I
AM.

,_ ,_ -~_____-_-_____-_-~-__M . \A.V_W\_-
m
.THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OETHE HINDU. 27

w\aasssirh.lf
of

of;
s..'- :aaebbveeonsilps: the "actions which eretheexpressiqns
arwemotion, ;and or represented

in
which are described *a poem
'
Marley-1(1). -

'
'
_.

1.
.

'1


I
x'

stsaira.
.

@::*'
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

THE. causes of any Sthdytbhdva which enter into the composition

_..'
,

any poem or drama, are called Bibhtiva- Bz'bhtiva oftwo kinds

is
of

mum-,.
viz., rilamvana and uddt'pana. (2)

itamsasaunsairs.

,.~_.c~I.H
.

'
te'

THAT-which ises'sential the ewekenisg of the Stdyi-bhdva,


Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

called the such; as the hero and the heroine,


is

zlrlambaha-ibt'thdva}
A I

~~M___M..AJ

'
of.


who are the mutual stay each other. (3)'

BHHIPAHArBIBHAY. -
g

THAT which ram called the Uddtpanatbibhdva. Uddi


is

excites
a

pana-bt'bhva constitutes the endeavours of the character concerned,


time and place. (4)
of

to

and his experience of feeling similarity as


a
i

The character of the sesame and Sachdri-bhvcts will be des;


I

cribed later on.


(5

wins mmfmmm (EWJ


(8,)

ifrmi WTIRF'II
Q:

(r) age Emir:


j

@351 w swims issgm: swimsuit


n
1

its:
(a)

rm-s1: stvafsmmi
ii

(a) mre~irsim summit: mHtvnf-ir


We: 3cm Emma's
I
I

wm'imreii w nished
n

u
-e~w-~'rl
28 THE EIGHT rnmcrrxr. nxsxs or THE HINDUS.

THE amnesia: resumes.


A bha'va which is adequately developed, yet which sometimes

merges in the Sthdyi-bheiva, at others, emerges from it, is called a

..M
Bydm'chdrz' or Sachdn' bhgiva. There are thirty-three species of it ;

namely,m'rveda, tivega, daz'nya, srama, mada, jaratd, ugratci, moha,


Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

bz'bodha, sapna, apasmdra, garba, mamm, alas-ya, amarsa, m'drei, aba

hitthyd, autsukya, unmdda, sakri, smm'ti, matz', byaidhz', santrlisa, Zajjd,

karsa, asuyli, bz'sha'da, dhn'tz', chapalatd, gldm', chz'nta and m'tarka. (1)

HIBYEEII.
~
THEfeeling of self-humiliation which arises from danger, envy,

the hearing of Paw-rims, and the knowledge of the supernatural,


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goes by the name of Nirveda. Nz'rceda gives birth to poverty,


mental cogitation, sighs, tears, discoloration, &c. (2)

Evans.
FLURRY is called A'vega. If physical, it brings disease ; if it
arises from an external cause, it brings on xture; if from re, it
brings tears, &c. (3)

(I) WHH sh st
swrw I
ui3uum= agrmsmrerrwwemq
mm
mr'gwfawismfis'm sjsuarvwrge
(R) |

faaznzzmnzs'sm rm}? a'ls: QEFEWHEFHWTHQWIFQHEJ


W'ill mmsarmifmW: l swim
mam fwfm
(a)

airs?
l

gswmw wfanfaafsmmfss'mw was? Emmi gsrergismfns'i


n
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS. 29

HAINYQ.
THE weakness incident to poverty goes by the name of Daz'nya.
l

l Discoloration, etc., are the effects of this condition. (1)

saawa. I
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

I
THE perspiration which comes out after co-habitation or through i

fatigue, is called Srama. Hard breathing and dead sleep are its
effects. (2) l

aasa.
THE insensibility or the ecstacy which accompanies intoxication i
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is called Mada. The good in this state lie down, the indi'erent

laugh and sing, while the bad use hard words and weep. (3) .
i
I

aaaara. l
I

THE xture which follows the sight or the mention of a dear,


a hateful, or a strange person or thing, is called Jafatci. During this
state a person sees steadfastly, or is struck dumb. (4) i

q
@liti wamfasiz ar frFqfa
W= rarefaztfzwm
i ( l) -"ii HFsaa'rFai's'J rim-i n
I
I (R) "
c
sci mtfacmsfa'q:
Q
swrraaeai nil Warmer: smfaufn'ii
(i)

(e)
|

,i
|

i
Win shim 11% Fruit nets mfa afafmauamustmms
||
|
I

l~
1

.__-________.._____'
<.._~.____:.;.;___._._-;..
__.__ _ _, ..:_e ____._..I_m-_e- III

THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS,

assert.
THE heat which is generated by feats of heroism, or on the

experience of wrong, goes by the name of Ugmtti. Its expressions


are perspiration, the shaking of the head, and fury. (1)
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

MBHA.
THE restlessness caused by civega, fear or by brooding over

misfortune, is called Moha. Dizziness, trance, roaring and inatten

tion to surrounding things are the effects of this condition. (2)

YiBBHI-IA.
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THE returning of consciousness after sleep is called Vz'bodha.

It manifests itself in yawning, the stretching of the limbs, the shut

ting of the eyes, and the examining of the body. (3)

SVAPNA.
MENTAL activity during sleep is known as Svapna. Anger, excite

ment, fear, disquiet, pleasure and pain accompany dreams. (4)

(9,) lawlmii'difwf Ems-august l (i) FHWFWT fsinicamm i

as i<= fwtwa'iisrrsm II resuswsesmhsmswrasmx u

(a) Hr f'ifiusr zitfsgasr'mqfssr3: | (s) as?! fasting;


fastgia'sz a: \

qdmms'qsaaamissimfws n qmmtfm=mitw ||
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

assesses.
THE agitation of mind under astral inuence is called

Apasmdra. It brings on falls, tremblings, perspiration, foaming at


the mouth, etc. (1)

EIIBBBA.
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

THE pride generated by power, wealth, learning, or family dig


nity, is entitled Garbba. It leads to hautem', a display of the person,

and rudeness. (2)

masans.
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DEATH from an arrow-wound, etc., is called Maraga. Its expres


sion is the falling down of the body. (3)

Aaasva.
THE lassitude brought on by fatigue or pregnancy, is called
I
Alasya. It results in yawning and the discoloration of the skin. (4)

AMABSHA.
THE pain which is felt at calumny or disgrace, is what

is known by Amarsha. Its expressions are the reddening of the

(l) sairmuen mrnarfxw wwmfasrm'wvimfaamfzerq u


|

gmwvammfzmw: strains smlssfa'irfzeiq


(a) (:3
u

(a) 1:55: Ex: nmfsamsgwmfza: ennui annaireraisz' vemrfcmfw


n
, I 32 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.
._ .

eyes, the shaking of the head, frowning and general fury of de-
meanour. (1)
i'wK1M-~~

-
inset.
.

THE disappearance of consciousness through fatigue, mental

\
I ...-..

exhaustion or intoxication Nt'drd. It heralded by yawning,

is
is
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the closing of the eyes, heavy breathing, and the stretching of the

1
limbs. (2)

aeaairraa.
.. . ._,.v. MWWwM-v

THE contraction of the body occasioned by fear, glory, shame,


delight, etc., called Abahz'tthd. This condition leads to the sudden
is
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stoppage of an action,the abrupt introduction of another subject

than that of the conversation, and looking away. (3)

anrsnsra.
--~<---W.__~A..

IMPATIENcE at the delay in the attainment of the longed-for

1
entitled Autsulvya. Agitation of mind, hurry, perspiration,
is

object,

and sighs are known to accompany this condition. (4)

fazrurmmirmifsfnsarl HmiGswI-Ei'siamgtamr
(a)

(a)
I
i

simtl-mwmrammfasqmfza
WW
awrmfanawiuinsimfzns
ll

n
i

(a) mwiiswi f~f (a) zcmaiiiiirsju' arswefvpm


I

I
g

a: nufazssgiemsnwfmiui
funmatrswfuwfeurksin
ll

ll
m___

THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL HAsAs or THE HINDUs. 33

Hamish.
THE complete up-setting of the mind induced by lust, grief, fear,

or any other over-mastering emotion, known as Unmdda (insanity).

is
It
Wmw

leads to unseasonable laughter, crying and singing, as also to un

meaning talk. (1)


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A
AI
l
y'guvuiwzftnmnnm

K
.
A
N
S

THE apprehension of evil from anothers malice or from the con

sciousness of guilt Paleness, trembling, the falling of the


is

isl'ailk.

voice, looking around, the withering of the countenance, etc., are

its accompaniments.
uw;*mm

(2)
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I.
T

P6
5
3

I
m

THE feeling of similarity at the sight of a thing called


is

, Smm'tz'.

It seen in the contraction of eye-brows, etc.


is

(3)
~QQW

MATI.
THE ascertaining of a question by process of didactic ratiocina
a

tion called Smile, patience, contentment and respect


is

Matz.

accompany this condition. (4)

(r) ns-swim were irslwsifsa (s) mWFiWl'imJ


l

mmmfzssmwrfssqn en's: giotimmqa


n

vtwiwwa Wits: a-siw' fsmiqe'wr'stifasiui rii:


(a)

(s)
l
l

gauiiswiiwimwiisieuissw sitar sfsevii miss WW


n

II
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.
l

BYAEHL
THE agitation of the bodily humours through imperfect oxida~

tion or through biliousness, is known as By/cidhi (disease). Inclina


tion to lie down on the ground, trembling, &c., are its symptoms. (1)


I
T B A S is . 1
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

THE trepidation generated by frightful sounds, lightning and


falling stars, is entitled Tlrlisa. Its manifestation is through

trembling. (2)

8515A.
THE witnessing of the decline of ones good name through indis

creet acts is Bm'rli. Looking down, etc., are its expressions. (3 ) . x


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HABSHA.
THE delight at attaining our ends is Harsha. It vents itself in
tears and a choked utterance. (4)
I I
A S HYA .

THE impatience which a vain man feels at witnessing anothers

praise or prosperity, is Asziy. Fault-nding, contraction of eye

brows, slighting, malicious winking and expressions of anger, are

its concomitants. (5)

arfsnfzaiwillmml stfms'mmssmzrfem
mm
(I) (Q) n

I
(a) rsinqmw= n (a) srqmwg'mslsnitssumfwgm

st azswmfras gum irsqfsmsmrdfsmuq


u
(a)

maimed
|

i
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS. 35

vissiea.
THE fruitless pining which results in exhaustion, called

is
1 raw.i

Vzlshdda. It causes hard breathing, mental perturbation, and a

search for remedy. (l)


i_

HHBITI.
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THE desire which generated through knowledge and cherished


is

It manifests itself in protable talk, delight,


is

objects Dlm'tz'.

laugh, &c. (2)

neasaaara.
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THE vascillation which bred of pride, spite, or anger, is called


is

Ohapalatd. Scolding and wantonness are its accompaniments. (3)

staaa
THE languor which felt after sexual intercourse and labor,
is

and in grief, hunger and thirst, called Gldm'. It shows itself in


is

trembling, leanness, and depression of spirits. (4)

(r) smamrsarm fame mrravi'mniwwlelfsu


r3

ilH'iW-l! (a)

WWWRET
l

a1 Wf eammutmw
mmilfqm
u
ll

mamas;
(a) mqjisg'sm sn (I!)
'
I

fwsssmumamfqsuru wsriffir gmmfgqmmurg


II
36 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS 0]? THE HINDUS.

.
. , .

carers.
PINING disappointment goes by the name of Ohz'ntri. Vacant
look and sighs are its adjuncts.

1)
(
A... IxMxW'_x__

YITABKA.
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

To argue an obscure point called Vt'tarka. Contraction of the

eye-brows is
and movements of the head and ngers are the signs. (2)

rsssirrrrsassirs.
.

THE mental condition arising from the Svatta-gugta called

is
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Still sometimes assumes different on


it

Srittm'ka-bhdva. shapes

account of Anubha'va. Stambha, sveda, 'ro'mricha, svara-bhaiiga,

bepathu, 'vaz'bamya, asl'ru, and pralaya constitute the Sttm'ka

bha'va. (3)
4~_4_Wm w

STAMBHII.
_
_ THE mental stupor which generated by fear, excessive joy and
is

disease, called Stambha.


is

(4)

(r) Emi Fair fsswih srsismmawctgl w: sw flew WSW 3mg:


|

(a) as? few: mjfaswfsw :isrimwq mil msssr: em:


l

Elm: jump: mfjsn liftilsa


(3,)

fest migrates: (s) wiemsnima isisaifa:


n

srizmssmii
|
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS 37

HYEGA.
THE perspiration which comes out, after co-habitation, from toil
or heat, called Sceda. (1)
is

Business.
THE standing on end of the hairs of the body, for delight,
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

wonder or fear, Romdcha. (2)


is

avast-Basses.
'
THE hoarse voice which occasioned by intoxication, joy or
is

disease, named Svam-bhaga. (3)


is

THE trembling
vssarss.
of the body through anger,
I
envy, or fatigue,v
_
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

is

Vepathu. (4) .

it.
A

Y
Y
A

B
B

3
I

'
by

THE discoloration which caused intoxication, sorrow, or


is

known as
is

anger, Vaz'barzgya. (5)


Jimmy-Am

Assn.
THE tears which fall through anger, grief or excessive joy, are
'
called Aim. (6)
-
A
A
B
A
L
P

Y
'

The inactivity, physical and mental, which induced by happi


is

ness or misery, Pralaya.


is

(7)

(U ?) tfaswissrn firmmlmamiil Enlist


II

(1.)
II

(R) ixmwrfwi scal! imfafam as irsiss ar: ssspnusa'


|

(I)
|

mama-era; H15 was


u

(Q)
{mailman}: m) me: was}: (s) Esra: srsgxmqi EEK wmnr:
(8)

n
|
RASAS.
0204"

WHEN rate or any other Sthaiyi-bha'ua, being expressed through


bibha'va, anubha'va and safzcha'rz' bhdvas, delightfully vibrates over the
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

heart-strings of the audience, it is called a Rasa. There are nine

Rasas in all ;-namely, Srdgdra, Vim, Karuga, Raudra, Haisya, Bhayd

nalca, BI'bhats-a, Adeuta, and S'dnta. But dramatists recognise eight

only, merging the Sdnta in the Karuna Rasa. (1)

These eight species give rise to mental expansion, elation,

of mind;
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perturbation, and withdrawal z'.e., Sl'rigdra and Htisya,

to the rst; Vim and Advuta, to the second; Bz'bhatsa and

Bhaytinaka, to the third; and lastly, Raudm and Karmic, to the


fourth.

I ,_ I
I.~SBINE1&BA.
THE feeling which springs up in the minds of the hero and
the heroine at the sight and embrace of each other in elegant
raiments, under the warm inuence of music and a beautiful scenery

fsmirmgna aw: Hqrfun am mt'la ii Tg:


It)

l
I

(rife ramfq: Mfume: eiiaei srmig Ham mu


II

rrsrtaitmmsmwmaim wrgswiI-crwmrai a as fs l
I

iuqisgs we? (in: mm as: assassin 'nmnwsnrtai


ll

II
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL HAsAs 0E THE HINDUS. 39

clad in all the verdure and freshness of spring, goes by the name

of Sm'grira or Adz Rasa. The heroine should be other than anothers


wife, or a cold prostitute ; and the hero should act so as bets a
lover. Its color (when it is looked on as a person) is dark-brown ; and

its presiding deity, Vishnu. In this Rasa, rate is the sthtiyi-bhdva ; the

hero and the heroine are the tilambana-bt'bhziva of each other ; the
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

moon, sandal, the black bee and other objects apt to excite love are

its uddz'pana-bz'bhdva; contraction of eye-brows and side-glances are

its amtbhdva ; other bhtivas than ugratti, marazta, tilasya and jugupsa',

enter into it as byabhichtiri-bhtivas. (l) The Risa-Z6161: of Krishna is

an instance in point.

The Ade Rasa is divided into two kinds =- Vipralambha and


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Sambhoga. (2)

A.
VIPRALAMBHA.

WHEN a lover pines for the sight of his or her beloved, it is


'called Vt'pralambha. It is divided into four classes :.P'li1bba-9'iga,

jllrina, Pracrisa and Kamma. (3)

* A religious festival celebrating the loves of Krishna, Rdh. and the milk-maids of Vrindgban,

at
mam
(r) miusmrmimfzsii: ifsvww$<qm= n
l

wilzwm (fa: as 151W}: siisizlm l


|

ussmrm swift mgtrsfa'sife: and: are; (fit: messa agged: u


u

vfrsi s'ifdais Emersqnfamf (i) ssmwsw Hahn FEE! fsfst HE: l


l

Wit mfw= sgfimsis 1H (Fa: sister vmiisgfifs rs-reams?!


(s)

mesa:
'
5
u

WWW-gens as e HHIOZTUTHTHUWWWI ears .


[I
I
'-
410 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RAS'AS 0]? THE HINDU'_&

_______-_-___..xx.__
I I
(a)PuRssA-RAcA.
THE mental condition of the hero and the heroine, who have

W
seen each other personally by magic or in dreams, who have seen
each others likeness only, or who have heard of each others
beauty and charms through messengers, maids or heralds, and
who burn for a sight of each other, is called PzZrbba-rdga (rst
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

emotion).

The PcZ-rbba-niga shows itself in abhz'la'sa (desire), chz'ntti

(searching of means), smrz'tz' (brooding), gIILIa-kathana (enlarging


on the loved ones perfections),

' '-__-____ .____wm_~______.m_____u_m~__h_w_


udbega (excitement), prala'pa
(absent talking), unmdala (insanity), byzidhz' (sighing, pallor
and leanness), jag-aid (dullness of mind and body), and nally,
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

mamna (death). Death should never enter into a play, on the


ground of its disturbing the ow of sentiment; except when the

a
person is restored to life. But the drama may explicitly land him
on the verge of the grave, without actually letting it over his
close
bones. First the Pzirbba-niga of the heroine and then that of the hero
ought to be displayed through signs. There are three kinds of it ;
Nili, Kusumbha and
,h
iljlajz'shthd. (1)

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL'RASAS or THE HINDUS. (t1

(1)-manage.

THE ame which endures although. it nds' few occasions to yent

(l)
itself, is called Nz'Zi-rga.

)--Kusumbha-Riga.
(2
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

THE ,feeling- which, though manifesting its energy through appro

a
priate expressions, suddenly
is
vanishes,v called Kuswnbha-rdga. (2) _

)-Ma'1'ij1.l9hthi-Riga.
(3

THAT which manifests its presence by appropriate actions, dis

is
tinguished as Majzlehthti-rtiga. (3)
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(U-IVH A.
N

THE anger-child of love and jealousy-which the , 'hero and


heroine feel, called Ma'na. (4)
is

~(1)Pra@a'ya-Ma'aa (Love-anger).
THE baseless anger which the hero or the heroine feels, because

he or she
Loves not
wisely but too well,"

termed Praaaya-mdna. (5)


is

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(8) EITII: R um'ziwieqga:


5;

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

)I'rshyi-Mtina.

(2
THE wrathful emotion which excited in the mind of the hero

is
ine on seeing her lover in the company of another mistress or on

simply hearing of or inferring such a circumstance, called

is
llrshyd-mzina. (1) It may be pacied in these six ways :-by sdma

(entreaties of female friends), ddna (bestowal


Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

(bland speech), bheda

of ornaments, etc., on pretext), natzz' (falling at the feet), upekshd


(slight), and msdntam (ejection of anger by fright).

(c)-PRAvAsA
l

WHEN on urgent business, on account of curse or through hur


. ry, the hero unavoidably leaves behind him the heroine, she undergoes a
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certain changes, which are called Pravdsa Vt'pralambha. Untidiness


of limbs and dress, single braid, sighs, weeping, falling on the
a
_-.--_-.~WM~_M-QW~

ground, feverish excitement, sallowness, leanness, indifference to

everything, apathy, vacancy of thought, visions of the lover, raving,


trance and nally death, are gradually brought about by Pravcisa

Vzp'ralambha. (2)

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l

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i
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL EASAS OF THE HINDUS. 4:3

(d)-KARUNA VIPRALAIVIBHA.
THE unavailing lamentation of the hero or the heroine at her or
his death, in the fond hope of recalling the loved image back, is

termed Karum Vzpralambha. (1)

B.

SAMBHOGA.
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

WHEN the hero and the heroine see and fold each other in loves
ecstatic embraces, it is called Sambhoga.

In dalliance, the actions of the heroine towards the hero arising

out of generosity, modesty and love, are classied under these ten
heads: Lil, Vz'ldsa, Vichchhz'ttz', Vz'bboka, Kz'lakz'chz'ta, Mottdyzla,

Kuttamz'ta, Bz'bhrama, Lalz'ta and Mada. (2)


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(a)|. i LA .

THE heroines imitation of the hero by gestures, attitudes, dress,


ornaments and loving expressions, constitutes Lilli. (3)

(b)Vl LAn.
AT sight of the hero, when the fair one puts things-such as
carriages and furniturein elegant order, and displays her talk and
look to the best advantage, it goes by the name of Vz'lrisa. (4)

Quaint gasil
WW:
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29m
IT: ;mie'rasw
(a)

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II
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II
I
4.4. THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL EAsAs or THE Hnmus:
i

.'. (c)-vIcI-IcI-IHI1'TI.
THE heroines putting on of a spare dress, such as is calculated
to heighten her personal attractions, is called Wchchhz'tti. (l)

(d)-VIBBOKA.

WHEN the heroine slights a thing through haughtiness, it is Vib


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(107661.(2)

(e)I<ILAI<IITcI-II1'A.

THE blending of smile, pretended crying, laughter, fear, anger


and fatigueall arising out of the heroines vivid joy at meeting
the loved one, is known as Kilakz'chz'ta. (3)
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(f)-IvIo'r'rAv|"rA.
WHEN the heroine absorbed in the contemplation of her lover,
scratches her ear and does that sort of thing, her action is called ]

Motteiyz'ta. (4)

(g)I<u'r'rA|vI|rA.

1
THE shaking of the heroines hand or her head, which follows the

heros sudden holding of her by the hair, the bust or the nether

W
lip, is entitled Kuttamita. (5)

(\I fqn HIP-mums l (a) amm'a r? seam armfzg I

(a) swfaagm a'stswmzt: II rrisfnfa ms: wigwfzan


(i) feimmfrnfeasmwmsi l (a) Emarmvr'r 12% siisi wm A
I

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL EAsAs or THE HINDUS. 4.5

(k)s|sHRA|v|A.
Bz'bhrama the heroines putting on (through urry at the intel
is

ligence of the hero's approach) of an ornament on a wrong member. (1)

ft'j-hAu'rA.
WHEN beautiful woman makes an elegant toilette, her action
a
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

called Lalz'ta.
is

(2,)
(j

)-m A.
A
n

THE pride begot of good fortune and youth known as Mdaa. (3)
The lover should prepare for the is
master and main action,

through seemly amorous arts; but he should never allow himself to


exhibit vulgar or gross actions. (4)
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rr-r'isa sass,
THE Rasa, the sthriyi-bhdva of which utsdha (high spirits), the
is

color of which whose presiding god the great Indra,


is
is

golden,
....

and in which the antagonists are the zilambana-bibha'va, their en


._.._-__

deavours to beat each other, the uddz'pana-bt'bhdva, their search for

help, etc., the anubhdva, and dhaz'ryya (patience), matz', garbba, (pride)
m'tarka and horripilation, the
is

smrt'tzz', byabhz'chdri-bhrivas, recog

nised as Vim Rasa. A great person should be the hero of this Rasa.
it,

There are four classes of according to dtina (gift), dharmma (merit),

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(a)
i

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a
n
I

I;
;
46 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

(kindness) and yuddha (ghting). The hero of the rst

_
dayd

class is Parasurdma; that of the second, Yudhz'shthz'ra ,- that


of the third, Jimzita'vdkana,- and that of the fourth, the hero

proper, Rdmachandra. (1) The drinking of Duhs'asanas life-blood

by Bhima is an instance in point, and one which we shall insert as

__-_
an example of this Rasa.
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III.THE KABHHE BASE.

7- ~_
THIs sentiment is excited at the loss of what we love or like and

A.__A.
at the befalling of what we do not like. Its color is like that of the
Indian rock-dove ;* its presiding deity is Yama its

;1-
sthaiyi-bhtivq.

is grief its dlambana are objects of grief; the cremation of them


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constitutes its uddipana-bz'bha'va declamation against the gods,


,-

falling down on the ground, lamentation, discoloration, sighs, raving


and xture are its anubim'va self-accusation, swoon, apasmdra,
,-

disease, langour, remembrance, labor, grief, immobility, insanity and

anxiety are its The karuga Rasa distinguished


is

byabhz'cheiri-bheivas.
"' In distributed as the Rock Dove (Columba
birds as extensively livia), slight local or geo
graphical variations constantly occur. Thus, in India, all the wild Blue Rocks have ash-coloured
feathers over the rump, whereas the European birds, as well-known, White rumps; and, as
is

is
well'known to most fanciers, this white rump one of the most difficult points to breed out in
is

any of our Blue varieties whereas the Blue breeds derived from the Indian birds have, as might be
;

expected, Blue rumps.


W. B. TEeETnEIEn, s. z. s, on Pigeons.
The Hindu Pluto.
I

(I) enm'eirilft szsrwrfem: W as H5; Hem-Henna


ll
I

HEEEHHI Haaiiirs names: aerzmg rlmfsnwfaeetimran


I
I

snmmmq fasissnzst Her: H EI m'dwgzsliesr s nsfaseg'ei Emu


I

fEQIHEIIEHEIHIEIQIEIIIIHEFEm
l
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUSI'
m:
I _...?- m-n-aw-ww-wm ~v>s.

4:7

from Karmic. Vz'praldmbha by the existence of salsa. (grief) as its

stheiyi-bhdva ; rate (love) being the sthcZyi-bhdva of the latter, owing to


the presence in it of sambhoga (sexual commerce). (1) The exile of
Sita is its brightest example.

IV.-'I'HE HAHHBA BASE.


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THE sthdyi-bhdva of this sentiment is anger; its color is red;

its presiding Raudm ,-* belligerents are its zilambana


deity is
bz'bhdva ,- their endeavours and ghting constitute its uddipana

bibhdva ,-its anubhdva are frowning, the biting of the nether lip, the

striking of the arms, general fury of demeanour, the shooting of

arrows and a rhodomontade display of ones perfections; and its

byabhichdri-bhdvas are irascibility, excitement, the bristling of the hairs,


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sweat, vepathu, mada and frenzy. (2) The wrath of Visvamitra with
I I I
Harischandra is its example.

v.'ras Basra sass.


THE ludicrous actions and dialogues of actors possessing

ludicrous persons and tricked out in ludicrous dresses, excite the


* A form of Siva.

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gs:
II
A
.
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l
at: (WI'FGITHQIT 3T3IWI He: II aifaussfaiaarsizasan
mmar =afaugmwmzs= I wrqmwmqn'iqeiimifa H II

giin'iiiwfarammwsumfa a II siqnwmruaiteanmxm I

fFIQIl%WWfH7IIfEF$FU I suma'nitmm HI: |

mzasmfw-rrm siisrfzm I swam mar: waiwrfm: II

sieaiam st?! fqasreura' In: I wusaaar saw fzi'iljsiltaz l

-:ulW-._;__ ._....,...
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.__.W_._M,_T..__ xx x~~
48 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS or THE HINnUs.

sentiment of His-ya or laughter. Its sthciyi-bha'va is the laugh ; its


color is white ; its presiding god is Pramatha, a courtier of Maha
deva ; ludicrous gures, talk and dresses, which tickle the lungs of
the audience 0 the sere,# go to make up its dlambana-bz'bhava ;

the actions of the players are its uddipana-bz'bhtiva ,- the drooping


of the eye-lids, contraction of the mouth, smile, etc., are its anu
sleeping, laziness and abahz'tthd, are its byabhz'chairi-bhdvas.
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bhriva ,- (1)
The regal days of Kalnemi are an example of it.

HdejI/a is of six kinds ; Smz'ta, Hasz'ta, Vz'hasz'ta, Abahasz'ta, Apa


hasita and Atz'hwsz'ta. The good only resort to Smita and Hasz'ta, the
indifferent, to Vz'hasita and Abahasz'ta; and the vulgar, to A pahast'ta
and Att'hast'ta.
A
s M A. ~
IT
IN Smita, the eyes look slightly expanded and the nether lip
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quivers. (2)
B
I T A ._ H A s
THAT laugh which discovers the teeth a little is called Hasz'ta. (3)

cl
VIHASITA.
THE graceful smile is called Vz'hasz'ta. (4)

D.
ABAHASITA.
IN Abahasz'ta, the head and shoulders shake. (5)
Vide Hamlet, Act II, Scene 1.

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mil
wmfgglzggqgi
alum

sitsismwfss swrflwwe in: n

laaaqi was,
I'm (s) issfssir sas'sisi
(it) TEETH?" 6 PM. W. E "
NEW!
swam-Imam: I

fmmsfwwr I! qsifnwfm: n (a | 1.) mjtkf ffes' aisfmwsufad a

ll
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS or THE HINDUS. 4,9

R
.APAHASITA
Apahaslta is

Laughter holding both his sides. Its expressions

are drops of sorrow. (1)

R
ATIHASITA.
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THAT which convulses the whole frame is Atz'hasita. (2)

Sometimes, even in the absence of ludicrous accompaniments,


bz'bhdva and anubha'va excite laughter. (3)

vr.rss,ssartsaxa sass.
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THE Rasa the sthdyi-lhdva of a which is fear, whose com

plexion is black, whose god is Kala (Death), whose dla'mbana


bibha'va is whatever excites terror, in which hard endeavours are

a
the uddipana-bz'bha'va, whose anubhdva are discoloration, an indistinct

utterance, pralaya, the bristling of the hairs perspiration, trembling ,_,_....__..____-W

and circumspection, and whose byabhichdri-blzdvas are hate, dvega,

swoon, apprehension, impatience, depression, alarm, apasmdra, bewil


derment and death, is called the Bhaydnaka Rasa. (4)
,T_____

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w Hrs: H 51 sIII Her arm gw'r
(a)

mar-is swrlr an:


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II
II
50 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

VII.-THE sissa'rsa Essa.


THE Rasa whose stha'yi-bhdea is disgust, whose color is blue,
whose god is Mahakala whose dlambana-bz'bha'va are putrid esh,
etc., whose uddipana-bibhdva are the coming out of worms generated

in them, etc., whose anubha'va are spitting, grotesque gesticulations,

andthe drawing in of the eye-lids, and whose byabhichdrtbheivas are


Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

trance, apasmdra, a'vega, disease and death, is known as the Bz'bhatsa

Rasa. The gorging by mi/eshas'as and I'Iikshaszs of corpses is an ex

ample of it. (1)


.___

VIIL-THE AHBHHTA BASH.


THE Rasa whose sthdyi-bhdvd is wonder, whose color is yellow,
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whose presiding deity is a Gandharbba, i whose zilambanw


bz'bha'va is some extraordinary object, whose uddz'pana-bz'bhdva is the
glorication of that object, whose anubhdva are xture, perspiration,
horripilation, a choked utterance, hurry and staring, and whose

byabkz'chdri-bhdgas are m'tarka, livega, joy, etc, goes by the name of


Adbhuta. The leavingby Ahalya of her stone-body is an instance
of this Rasa. (2)
* A form of Siva. musician.
+ Celestial

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS, _ 51

rss stars sass (sessions,

THE Rdsa the sthdyi-bhdva of which is quietude, whose hero


is a pious character, which is white like the kunda owerj" whose
presiding god is N arayana, whose dlambana-bz'bhdva is the conviction
of the vanity of all earthly things and the recognition of the Deity
as the only reality, whose uddipana-bibha'va are visits to holy men
and spots, whose anubhdva are horripilation, etc., and, nally,
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

whose

byabht'chdr'i-bhdvas are nz'i'ceda, joy, recollection (1), etc., is entitled

Sdnta, etc.

This Rasa excludes happiness, misery, anxiety, malice, anger ;-


in short, all passion and all desire ;it
is,

according to the rhetorical


writers, the Rasa par excellence.
-___
EBNFLIETIHH BASES.
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Kamna, Wbhatsa, Raudm, Vim and Bhayanaka are hostile to


I

Adi,- Bhayanaka and Sdnta, to Vim Hdsya and Add, to Ka'mnd


,-

Bhaydnaka and Karuna, to Hdsya Vim, Raudm, Hdsya ,



Srz'ngdm,
,-
/

and Sa'nta, to Bhaydnaka Adi, to Hasya, Add and Bhayd


,-
,-

Blz'bhatsa
naka, to Raudm and lastly, Vim, Adz, Raudm, Hdsya and Bhayd
,-
I

naka, to Sa'nta. (2)


kind of jasmine.
'
A

m: usmrim mimics? a:
Wm: Wait
mmimeastmagt
(I)

(s) sire:
I

a
l

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a

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I

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II

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||

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u

szssr'rm
n
_l_________m_________
52 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS 01: THE HINDUS.

YHITT I.
IN Sringara, Hdsya and Kamnei, the Kazlsz'ki Waltz; in Vi'ra,
Raudm and Adbhuta, the Sdttatz' and Bhdmtz' Vn'ttz's ; and in Bhayzi

naka, Bibhatsa and Raudra, the Alrabhatz' Vm'ttz', are respectively

employed. (1)
A.
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I I
KAISIKI VRITTI.
WHEN the actors and actresses-m ostly the latter-discourse

excellent music and perform dancing, with amorous accompani

ments, it is called Kaz'sz'ki Vm'ttl. (2)

B.

SATTATI VRITTI.
Vm'ttz' which is replete with sattaguna heroism, bounty,
THE
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kindness and simplicity, which has just a sprinkling of A/di Rasa,


which is devoid of grief and which excites joy, is named Sdttatz'
Vm'ttz'. (3)
0'
I
ARABHATI VRITTI.
THE powerful Vm'tti which contains maiyd, jugglery, war, anger,
I O O O l
Imprisonment, kilhng, etc., goes by the name .of Ambhati. (4)
* The
quality of righteousness.

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THE EIGHT mmIcIrAL EAsAs or THE HINEUs. 53
.-....-I

D.
_

BHAEATI VRITTI.

THAT which full of grave speeches, conducted by great men


is

only, and which moreover is mostly carried on in Sanskrit, entitled

is
the Bharati V'rz'ttzz'. (1)
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THE HIFFEBEHT LBBKS IN THE HIFFEBEHT REHAB.

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THE look in the Add Rasa should be ardent, cheerful, chaste,

graceful and languishing and should be ardently directed at the


it
;

beloved object. (2)


Wm

I
In the Vim Rasa, the look should be open, grave, xed, dazzling
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and contracted. (3)

In the KaI-uaa Raga, the eyes should be half-shut the pupils


;

should betoken grief and the look should be directed at the tip of
WW

.....a...___,.,,___....., .... .... .


,
the nose. (4)

The Raudra Rasa requires restless lids, and the xed, red,

hard, frowning look. (5)

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54 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS oP THE HINnUs.

In the Ha'sya Ram, the pupils should be partly hid and be rol

ling at times the lids should be partially closed. The pupils should
;

now be xed, and now active. (1)


_..<....._._.w... ._.,-e-_

The lids in the Bhaydnaka Rasa should sometimes be stretched

fully, at others, closed the look should at times be restless and be


;
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cast around fearfully, as if seeking the way to y. (2)


.__,..,a

In the Bibhatsa Rasa, the eyes should be partially shut, and the
lids and pupils, restless the side-glance and very contracted look
5

go in as adjuncts. (3)
In

the Adbhutd Rasa, the look should be cheerful and contract


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ed, with starling orbs and full pupils; the eyes should be half
'

shut. (4)

THE SHBJEETS BF THE BABAS HETEBMIREH.


I

IN the Adz Rasa, amorous passages of the hero and heroine;


in the Vim Rasa, wars, etc.; in the Kamna, death of husband or
son; in the Adlhuta, some extraordinary event; in the Hdsya,

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS. 55

v . ,_._
ludicrous and comic displays ; in the Bhaydnaka, actions and things
,

calculated to excite terror; in the Bibhatsa, disgusting images; in

_,
the Raudra, cursing, etc., and lastly in the Sa'nta, endeavours after

_ __.__..__.._______

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contentment, are respectively treated of. (1)

THE Elissa IN BELAFIBN rs res eases.


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IN Lovn.1l[alabasri, maclhyamclz', pachama, des'apa'li, megha,

kukubhd, mrilaba, siri, hindola, saindhabz', gujjari, gauzldakz', 601-6,

jag/atasri, pmthamamaycri, nattd, malla'ra, chha'ya', lalz'tal, dracz'ra

gauz'a, sz'ndhufd, bela'balz', gaufi, gauz'a, kamdtagauta, dhanndszjlcli,

ballan', sustha'vat'i and hujz'ka'.

.s/ri,
IN Hmorsn-Natta, dimmer,
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saindhabz'kd, bela'bali, gauri,

gacgra, megha, soma, megharagi, loft, devakm'tz', sa'kard


cllhanndszka,
bharaga, hindola, desdkha chhayd, Zalz'ta, bedhagupta, dm'vz'ragam'a,
I

srikaathz'kd, tu'wi, mdlacagauZ'a, desapdlz, mcilaba, ndgaddhvani, tw-ushka

gaum and gaurasdraga.


I

IN TENnEaNEss.Sivm, kamodi, ramakelz', asa'vari, beldbali, saz'ndhaei,

bagdla, des'z', kausiki, bhzipa'li, geindha'ra and jayatas/ri.

IN THE InAscIBLE.-Turushkagaum.

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I
i
l 56 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS or THE Hmnus.

, I
In Mmrm-Kauu'kz', kdmodi, sakard, bagdla and natt.
urn-".- "1W1"

IN THE TEEE1ELE.-1l[alZ(ira.

IN Drscusn-Pulindz'kd,

IN THE WoNnEEruI..Natta. (1)

a?
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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS. 57

HENEIPIG {Pi BELATiUPi TB THE SEII'I'IMENTS.

IN the Sringdm Ram, the chhum'ta ,- in the Vim, the laghu

nm'tya ,- in the Kamna, the pebalz' ,- in the Raudm, the laghu dance ,

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58 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS or THE Empire.

in the Adbhuta, the bahurupa ,- in the Hcisya, the vikata-dancing ;

in the Bhayanaka, the mattdbali ; and in the Bibhatsa, the jakkam'

dance, should be employed. (1)

BF THE HiFFEBENT KINGS B? 58915 I?! BELAI'IBH TH


THE HIFFEBEHT BABES.
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

IN the Sringdra Rasa, the amrz'tabandhaka ,- in the Vim, the

leihafi ,- in the Karuga, the kambuka ,- in the Raudra, the m'nodaka ,


in the Ha'sya, the chhutz'la; in the Bhaydnaka, the dhmbapada ,- in the
Bibhatsa, the sudhasz'la ,- and in the Adbhuta, the tn'puta, songs are

employed. (2)

THE BEEP-SCENE IR BELATIQH T8 THE BABES.


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THE scene which hangs before the audience before the com

mencement of the play, or which drops in the intervals between the


scenes, is called Yabam'kd. It should be painted on a piece of nely

thin yet holeless cloth. As in every act and its sub-divisions, scenes

are changed, so the drop-scence should also change. In classic


times two comely girls appeared and removed the two wings of
every scene. In the Add Rasa, the white; in the Vim, the yellow ;

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS or THE HINDUS. 59

in the Karunzi, the smoke-colored ; in the Hdsya, the party-colored ;

in the Bhaya'naka, the blue ; in the Bibhatm, the smoke-colored ; in


the Adbhuta, the black ; in the Raudra, the red, drop-scene should be
used. According to some, the red color is of universal use. (1)


[In order to show the very form and pressure of the Rasas, and
to impress them strongly on the readers imagination, I have given
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the tableaux Mounts and specimens of the Rasas. A short account of


the Aryan Stage has been introduced, as a matter of necessity, by
reason of the tableaux vivanta]

THE STAGE.
Acconnme to Kohala and other authorities, the foundations of
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the stage should be laid with an invocation of the gods, and


other auspicious rites. After fasting three days, the Director
should plant the pillar of the stage at an auspicious moment of

an auspicious day, under happy astral inuence. The pillar should


be composed of gold, or catechu, kdntdla, or red sandal wood; its top

should be hollow, but its bottom comparatively thick and smooth.


Oh 1 Pillar, as the mountains, Himalaya, Sumeru and Mahendra are
fast and immovably xed on the ground, be thou even like them.

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siwiuwiiiwimwn'win 51am? {REIT WIFE tIIII IQ-a II

smmiuszs-r'itmml Inga sImIami mismi'asmrf I

gamismiisrawre'au qmfwass
Wtifit1 II
60 THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

This the invocation with which the well-selected Pillar should be

is
A

it;
, H

established. The pit should take in one-half of and the open

spaces should then be carefully lled up with sand. The dimen

sions of the Stage should vary with the character of the repre

sentations intended to be performed on it. Damodara says, that


m

should measure thirty feet, be handsomely constructed and


it
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

_s wmm

tted up. The pillar should not be planted in the centre. The

platform of the Stage should be made of wood; and windows


. .s_>____.______-___~_m__m'mmmw__.

should be placed all round it. The top should be adorned with

wooden gures, cupolas, ags of various colors, gates and gar

__
lands of owers; and the bottom should be white-washed. The
A

platform should not be slippery, lest the feet of the actors slip. On

west of the Stage and occupying one-third of the whole space,


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the

there should be the Green-room. (l)


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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL HAsAs oE THE Empire. 61 I

THE ASSEMBLY. W
,

THE eastern division of the theatre should be reserved for

the prince and the insignia of royalty. He should be a good


judge of music and dancing, and be open-handed. He is also
expected to be a sound critic and to be well versed in the distinc~
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

tions between the Marga and the Desi. He should be of a cheer


ful temperament, should receive an aesthetic culture and be well
versed in Kald and Ndtya. The Brahmins should sit in the front, __

the courtiersx and little children on the south, on the north the

heralds and connoisseurs, while the royal the body-guards should

remain outside. The theatre should be closed against the untidy,

heretics, strange armed people, the immoral, the sick, the inappre
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ciating and the reprobate. The presiding men should be capable of

being umpires, and be remarkable for carefulness, gravity, justice,

modesty, taste, cheerfulness and a sound knowledge of music and


dancing. (1)

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Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUQS.

I.

sRINGARA RASA.
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

._.,.<..__
~
- I I
s A s A-L I L A.
THE Gopz'm's (milk-maids) of Brindabana, charmed by the beauty

and grace of Krishna and fascinated by the soft strains of his magic

pipe, ardently desired to be his wives. With that view they celebrated
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the Kdtydyaniwata and prayed to the goddess to full their desire.

The goddess granted their request ; in consequence of which

Krishna took kindly to the fair ones, and promising to make love

with them at one and the same time, assumed countless shapes for

the purpose, and commenced upon the affair in right earnest. This

is called the Rdsa-lzl.


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Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google
Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h
Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google

'

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THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS.

II
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Public Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-us-google
THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL RASAS OF THE HINDUS

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Generated for Dasgupta, Sreemoyee (University of Pittsburgh) on 2015-09-28 14:00 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001053392h

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