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Program for Domain Training on

Volvo Eicher Comm Veh Ltd 16, 17, 18th Nov 2011
Pithampur LATEST TRENDS IN DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT OF I.C.ENGINES
Piston Engines
Piston machines are machines in which energy is
transferred from a fluid ( a gas or liquid) to a moving
displacer ( e.g. a piston ) or from piston to the fluid.
Periodically changing working chamber because of motion
of piston is the characteristic of the Piston Engine.

Reciprocating piston engines has a cylindrical piston that


moves between two extreme positions called dead
centers , thus varying the working chamber.

Rotary piston engine has a rotating displacer varying the


working chamber.
Combustion Engines
Combustion Engines are machines in which chemical energy is
converted to mechanical energy as a result of the combustion of
an ignitable mixture of air and fuel.

External Combustion Engines


Piston engines in which combustion (of air and fuel) occurs
outside the cylinder and the products of combustion are entered
into the cylinder to convert heat energy into mechanical energy
inside the cylinder

Internal Combustion Engines


Piston engines in which combustion (of air and fuel) and
conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy occurs inside
the cylinder
I.C. Engines

The working fluid is air which is the source of oxygen


necessary for combustion of fuel fed into the cylinder.
Fuel and air are mixed internal or external to the
working chamber called cylinder.
Combustion of fuel produce heat energy which works
on reciprocating piston.
Mechanical work done on reciprocating piston is
converted to useful rotary motion through a crank-
slider system.
Combustion of fuel produce waste gases, which are
replaced prior to every working cycle, called gas
exchange
Classification of I.C. Engines

Combustion Process
Fuel
Working cycle
Mixture formation
Gas exchange control system
Charging system
Configuration / Design
Ignition system
Cooling system
Load adjustment / control system
Speed range
Application / Purpose
Classification of I.C. Engines

Combustion Process
Otto cycle, diesel cycle, Combined cycle

Fuel
Liquid fuels
gasoline, kerosene, ethanol, LNG, LPG, etc
Diesel, bio-diesel, heavy fuel oils, etc
Gaseous fuels
Methane (CH4), CNG, Hydrogen, etc
Hybrid fuels
Gasoline + Ethanol, Diesel + ethanol, Diesel + bio-diesel,
Diesel + CNG, CNG + Hydrogen, etc

Working cycle
2-stroke, 4-stroke
Classification of I.C. Engines
Mixture formation
External Mixture, Internal Mixture
- Homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous mixture
- Manifold injection, Indirect injection, Direct injection
Gas exchange control system
through slots or ports
through poppet valve
through slide valve

Configuration / Design
Inline, V, W, Boxer (horizontal opposed), X, radial
Single cylinder, multi-cylinder

Charging system
Natural aspiration
Supercharging
- Mechanical supercharging, exhaust turbo-charging
Classification of I.C. Engines

Ignition system
Supplied ignition (spark ignition)
Auto ignition (Compression ignition)
Cooling system
Direct cooling ( air cooling ) with and without fan
Indirect cooling ( liquid cooling )
Load adjustment / control system
Quantity control ( constant air-fuel mixture ratio)
quantity of mixture controlled
Quality control ( variable air-fuel mixture ratio )
quantity of fuel OR quality of mixture ratio controlled
Classification of I.C. Engines

Speed range
Low speed : upto 200 rpm for diesel engines
Medium speed : from 200 to 1000 rpm for large diesel engines
1000 4000 rpm for normal diesel engines
< 4000 rpm for gasoline engines
High speed : > 4000 rpm for gasoline & diesel engines
Sports & Racing : > 10000 rpm

Application / Purpose
Land based vehicles road vehicles, off-road vehicles, rail
Agricultural machines & vehicles harvesting m/c, tractors
Industrial
Stationary
Marine
Aircraft
Internal Combustion Engines

Internal Combustion Diesel Engines with


vertical reciprocating piston configuration
will only be dealt in this programme, and will
be featured as I. C. Engines from this point
on.
Functional Requirements of I. C. Engines

Specific Power
Torque curve
Speed range
Fuel economy efficiency
Power takeoff
Weight / space
Exhaust Emissions
Noise
Functional Requirements of I. C. Engines

Reliability
Durability
Serviceability
Flexibility
Recycling
Cost initial, operating
Design upgradability
Others
On-Road Engines : Application areas

Passenger Transport
2-wheeler
3-wheeler
4W Passenger car
4W Utility vehicles
4W SUV
4W Mini Buses : School bus
4W Heavy duty Buses

Goods Transport
3-wheeler
4W LMV
4W LCV
4W MCV
4W HCV
Multi wheeled, multi-axle Tractor Trailers
Off-Road Engines : Application areas

Construction
Residential complexes
Commercial complexes
Roads and highways
Railways
Tunnel
Runways
Educational institutes
Industrial

Mining
Agriculture
Power generation
Pleasure
Special Purpose Vehicle
Defense
Specific demands of off-road engines

Specific power
PERFORMANCE Specific torque
Torque back-up
Low end torque
Speed range
Load response
OPERATING
Noise
REQUIREMENTS
Vibration
GOVERNING Fuel economy
ACCESSORIES Lub oil consumption
Inclined operation
COOLING
High altitude
PACKAGING operation
Why diesel !!!

Inherent Advantages of diesel Factors other than engine


technology
engine influencing emission & fuel
economy
Highest thermodynamic efficiency Periodic phasing out of
Lowest fuel consumption older vehicles
Infrastructure
Lowest emissions of Green House Gases development
(CO2 emissions) > Improved roads / express
No evaporative emission problems highways / ring roads etc
> Removal / reduction of
Better emissions at low engine traffic congestions inside city
temperature and in cold ambient > Synchronization of traffic
Benzene emissions are far lower signals to have least
stoppages at
Better Stability of emissions over a signals
distance Fuel quality improvement
More robust, hence lesser maintenance
Key Engine Development Strategy Factors

Exhaust gas emissions are reduced dramatically


Fuel economy to be retained / improved in spite of strict
emission legislation
Noise of the engines to be reduced - electronic control of
FIE and fan, other design considerations
Reliability of the engines to be improved during the
limited desired life span
Increased Power density
Alternative fuels will emerge more and more
Different types of hybrid technologies may emerge but
still diesel engines will be needed
Engine Technology Selection Criteria

Engine manufacturers must consider the right technology


for the customer needs
Reliability
Cost
Weight
Fuel consumption
Serviceability
The best solution is common components across all
applications and markets
Requires a highly integrated technical supplier to match
air handling, combustion, and emission control expertise
Globally recognized emission regulations
for Off-Road engines

Tier 4 Tier 4
US EPA Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3
Interim Final

EU Stage I Stage II Stage IIIA Stage IIIB Stage IV

Bharat Bharat Bharat


INDIA
Bharat Trem
Trem
Stage I
Trem
Stage II
Trem
Stage III
Stage IIIA ?
C1 8 mode
steady-state test cycle
+
C1 8 mode
Non-Road Transient
steady-state test cycle
Cycle (NRTC)
+
Not to Exceed (NTE) limit
Globally recognized emission regulations
for Off-Road engines

Tier 4 Final in 2013 reduce NOx emissions by an additional


40% for engines above 26 hp ( 19 kW).
80 90% NOx reduction will also be required in 2015 for
engines above 74 hp (56 kW).
Japanese regulations will closely align with the EPA and EU
emissions standards.
In near future, both NOx and PM emissions will be at near-
zero levels, comparable with the most stringent on-highway
applications.
With only a three-year gap between the introduction of Tier 4
Interim / Stage IIIB and Tier 4 Final / Stage IV, engine and
after-treatment design Architecture will need to be capable of
incremental emission reduction.
Globally recognized emission regulations
for Off-Road engines

By 2014, EPA Tier 4 Final, EU Stage IV and


Japanese off-highway regulations; and perhaps next
INDIA TREM 2015 norms (?) also; would call for PM and
NOx levels to be reduced by more than 80% from
the current levels for most power categories.

The use of advanced engine technology and


exhaust after-treatment will be required to achieve
near-zero emission levels in off-highway
equipment.
Demand On Modern Diesel Engine Development

Low fuel consumption

Low pollutant emissions

Quiet running engines

Improved engine performance


Engine development considerations

Chamber geometry
Charge density + Motion
Engine Design Strategies Advanced Control on Injection strategy
Combustion optimization Advance swirl-assisted combustion systems
Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
Boosting : Variable Geometry Turbocharging (VGT)
High Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) fuel systems
Electronic controls
Crankcase filtration
After-treatment Strategies
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)
Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
NOx adsorbers
Engine development considerations

Route 01 :
The other scenario is to use combustion optimization and
cooled EGR for NOx reduction along with a catalyzed Diesel
Particulate Filter (DPF) for PM control.

Route 02 :
Use of SCR after-treatment for NOx reduction and in-
cylinder combustion for PM control together with some
particulate after-treatment.

Key engine systems


such as VGT, HPCR and electronics
are critical components in both the approaches.
Engine development considerations

The turbocharger greatly assists in increasing fuel


economy and power output, mitigating the fuel-air
intake speed limit for a given engine displacement.

Higher Boost pressures together with higher


compression ratio allows a diesel engine to be more
efficient.

The increased fuel economy of the diesel engine


means the less produced carbon dioxide (CO2).
Engine development considerations

Future power train design


Fuel flexibility
Convenient handling
Proven and robust technology
Affordable

Refined combustion without after treatment


Cooled EGR
High-pressure fuel injection
Engine development considerations

The key technology for reducing nitrogen oxides is cooled


EGR (exhaust gas Recirculation), a technology used widely
on diesel engines all over the world today.

Cooled EGR enables the combustion temperature to be kept


down and thus the controlled formation of nitrogen oxides.

Emissions of particles are reduced by means of high-


pressure fuel injection, a concept that can be developed
much further in the future.

ARAI recommends this combination of technologies


because of convenience and consistency.
Engine development considerations

3-Factor consideration during development projects :

Overall efficiency meaning everything from advanced


transport planning to servicing, reliability, fuel efficiency
and cost of operation.

Convenience meaning everything from packaging and


layout to ease of maintenance and operation.

Availability including fuel and technology that can be


purchased off the shelf.
Areas of Greatest Potential
( Future Diesel Engine Development )

AIR + Gas Management


High Density Essential
4V configuration useful, not mandatory as such increased air flow area
High EGR Levels Essential
High Boost Pressure required
Uniform EGR Distribution Essential
Intake Cooling is Desirable
High Efficiency Turbocharger Systems Essential
In-Cylinder Flow Management Essential

Fuel Management Combustion Package


High Pressure Injection Matched to Nozzle Spray
Essential Capabilities
Injection Rate Control Essential Design for Maximum Mixing Rates
Highest Air Utilization Essential Premixed Combustion Controls
Liquid Fuel Wall Interactions Surface-to-Volume Ratio Minimized
must be Avoided Quench Volume Minimized
Architecture of Future Engines
Off Road / industrial application

The new engine platform generally retains traditional


characteristics like individual cylinder heads, camshaft located
high in the block and lately rear-mounted timing gears
Important features for the industrial engine segment are high
uptime, generous torque at low revs, good fuel economy and
prompt engine response.
The cylinder block and other structural components have to be
redesigned for additional strength.
Engine systems should incorporate NVH aspects.
Design considerations for fuel economy
Regeneration strategy
Most favored Power range Tractor Engines

Global scenario :
> 56 upto 250 kW

Indian Scenario :
Class A : upto 30 kW
Class B : > 30 upto 60 kW
Class C : Emerging market >60 upto 130 kW
Engine Design Process

Initial Decisive Parameters


Load Factor Load factor is the ratio of average power
Displacement output to maximum power output.
Load Factor for Gasoline engines ~ 0.3
Bore/Stroke Ratio Load Factor for diesel engines ~ 1.0.
After rated speed and power is specified, the next
step is to select the displacement, keeping
packaging dimensions into consideration..

Typical bore/stroke ratios for gasoline engines - 0.84 to 0.96.


Typical bore/stroke ratio for diesel engines 0.9 to 1.30.
Lower bore/stroke ( b/s) ratios facilitate higher compression ratios
Higher b/s ratio provides more air flow, supports higher power output.
Engine Design Process

Engines in tractors, heavy-duty trucks, and other working vehicles


have a much higher load factor than automotive engines.
An automotive engine typically uses only a small fraction of its
maximum available power while cruising at typical speeds on a
highway, but may need to accelerate the engine to very high speed
and use maximum power for brief periods.

For example, an automobile engine might produce its maximum


power for a brief period while accelerating to 5000 rev/min when the
car is passing another vehicle on a two-lane road, but might have a
normal load factor of 0.3 while cruising at 2000 rev/min. Conversely,
a tractor engine might run at 2000 rev/min with a load factor close to
one for long periods of time while pulling an implement in a field.
Engine Characteristics

Piston displacement engine swept volume


Bore & Stroke, ratio
Number of cylinders
Compression ratio
Piston speed, rated speed
Power
Torque
Fuel consumption
Mean effective pressure gas work
Efficiency indicated, mechanical, effective (brake)
Charge quantity volumetric efficiency
Air-fuel ratio
Engine Characteristics
Compression ratio () Major Influence of
Thermodynamic efficiency
Vmn TDC Part load performance
Mean effective pressure
Vmx NOx , HC and smoke emission
BDC
Cold startability
Governing
Engine Type Range of
factors
2-stroke SI engines 7.5 10
Auto
4-stroke SI engines 8 11 ignition,
Direct injection 11 14 knock
4-stroke SI engines
Indirect Injection 18 24 Full load
(IDI) diesel engines efficiency,
gas load
= Vmx / Vmn Direct injection
(DI) diesel engines
15 - 20
Engine Characteristics
Calculation of Compression Ratio

Vc = Clearance Volume
Vd = Displacement or Swept Volume
Vt = Total Volume
TC or TDC =
Top or Top Dead Center Position
BC or BDC =
Bottom or Bottom Dead Center
Position
Compression Ratio (CR)
Vd Vc
CR
Vc
Engine Characteristics
Volumes, cc
Different Volumes considered for Compression Ratio calculation
Stroke Volume (Vs)

Bumping clearance volume, V1

Crevices Volume (V2), cc

Valve Pockets Volume (V3 & V4), cc

Volume Gasket ID and liner outer dia (V5+V8), cc

Vol. Due to Nozzle protrusion (V6 ), cc (approx)

Dead volume around Nozzle (V7), cc

Volume between valve head and cylinder head bottom faces (V9)

Dead volume, Vd

Compression Ratio = (Vc+Vs)/Vc

Total clearance volume, cc

Bowl Volume + Pocket volume, cc

K-Factor (for bowl + pockets volume), cc

Desired K factor ---- 0.8


Engine Characteristics
Mean Piston Speed TDC

Stroke (L)
m/sec Mean piston speed
= 2 L N / 60
2-st diesel 200 rpm 8
BDC
4-st large
diesel
1200 rpm 10
4-st Truck
diesel
2200 rpm 13
Influencing
4-st Light
Truck diesel
4000 rpm 14 parameters

4-st Car Inertia mass


4500 rpm 15
diesel
N forces
Intake Flow
4-st Car SI 7500 rpm 20 resistance
Friction
Racing 20000 rpm 25
Wear
noise
Engine Characteristics
Power & Torque Power = T = 2 N T
Power = p L A N k / 4500
Engine power T pLA
describes
acceleration Power of an engine can be increased by -
capability
Increasing the air charge
Engine torque Increasing the torque
describes
pulling
Increasing the speed
capability, Increasing the mean effective pressure
gradability, Increasing the stroke
accelerating Increasing the piston diameter
capability Increasing the engine swept volume
with load
Increasing the number of cylinders
Large 2-st

25
diesel

Power
Specific

kW / Litre
Medium speed

12

20
diesel NA

High speed

12
18
diesel NA

5
Truck diesel TCIC

30
> 36

high speed car

5
45
diesel TCIC

Advanced high

3
speed car
65
> 80

diesel TCIC

high speed car


2
75

2 gasoline NA

high speed car gasoline GDI TC


100

Racing
0.5
> 120 200

kg/ kW
Weight
Specific
Engine Characteristics
Engine Characteristics
Mean Effective Pressure Gas work
Gas work is the work done by the cylinder pressure at the piston.
Indicated mean pressure (imep) is the specific
work acting on the piston area
imep = p. dV
p
Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bmep) is the average +
gas pressure usefully acting on the piston area
over one cycle -
bmep = 2 T / Ve . K
+ - pdV -

imep
Friction Mean Effective Pressure (FMEP) is difference pdV
between imp and bmep. FMEP is the power loss due to
mechanical friction in the engine and the pump Ve
losses in the crankcase.
fmep = imep - bmep
Engine Characteristics
BMEP (bar) T = bmep. A. L / 2 N
20 Medium duty / off-road TCI diesel Power of an engine is dependent on its
size and speed. Therefore, it is not
16 Racing engines possible to compare engines on the basis
of power or torque
13 Gasoline NA car engines A larger size engine will produce more
torque for same bmep.

17 Optimum utilisation of engine size


Gasoline TC car engines
(displacement) can not be determined by
Medium duty / off-road torque performance.
10
Diesel NA engines bmep is true indication of optimum
utilisation of engine displacement throgh
12 Motor cycle engines designs for improved air utilisation .

26 Diesel TCI car engines higher the bmep,


higher the thermal eff
30 higher the fuel economy
Truck TCI diesel
Engine Development Goals

General Development Goals in Engine development


Lightweight
Reducing fuel consumption
Reducing emissions(noise, pollutants)
Cost optimisation
Power and torque increase
Increasing durability Economy
Raw Materials
Customer Expectations Mobility
Ecology Mobility Costs
Environment Driving Enjoyment
Emissions Safety
Legislation
Trends diesel Fuel economy improvement

Downsizing with Charging


Downsizing
Direct Injection
Increased peak cylinder pressures
Higher boosts with variability

Combustion Process Variable Valve train


Homogeneous combustion Variable valve-control
EGR / increased EGR-rates
Advance fuel injection

Friction / Weight Optimisation Hybridisation


Friction reduction
Lightweight design
BOOSTING : specific power increase
To increase performance, increase the inlet density.
It is done by manifold tuning or forced induction
Mechanical supercharging, exhaust turbocharging (TC).
Pack more air into cylinders.
Typical boost 0.5 - 1 bar. Exceeds > 2 thru advance boosting
Significantly raise horsepower without significant weight gain
WHY TC IS EFFECTIVE
Use of exhaust energy is made to achieve forced induction.
Turbochargers compress the air entering the engine causing
it to be extremely dense; with more air mass in a small area,
more diesel can be burnt, resulting in more smoke-controlled
power output from the same size of engine.
BENEFITS OF TC ON ENGINE PERFORMANCE

More specific power over naturally aspirated engine.


A turbocharged engine can achieve more power from same engine volume.
Better thermal efficiency
Better thermal efficiency is achieved over both naturally aspirated and
supercharged engine when under full load (i.e. on boost). This is because
the excess exhaust heat and pressure, which would normally be wasted,
contributes some of the work required to compress the air.
Weight/Packaging
Smaller and lighter than alternative forced induction systems and may be
more easily fitted in an engine bay.
Fuel Economy
Although adding a turbocharger itself does not save fuel, it will allow a
vehicle to use a smaller engine while achieving power levels of a much
larger engine, while attaining near normal fuel economy.
Friction improvement potential

6-17%

24-31%

9-17%

10-13%
Friction improvement potential

Improvement due to roller bearings Improvement due to light weight valves


Diesel Engine Downsizing
The use of a smaller capacity engine with
increased specific power output to improve
fuel economy and maintain full load
performance
Reducing the engine capacity, shifts the part
load operating point to a region of improved
efficiency
Typically turbocharging is required to
maintain / increase peak torque / power
Lower engine weight and friction further
improvement in fuel economy
Reduce engine size further possible
advantages for vehicle design
Engine Downsizing vs Fuel economy

upto 18 % improvement in FC is observed


Downsizing range : 10 35 %
20
FUEL CONSUMPTION
IMPROVEMENT (%)

FC improvement
10 envelop

0 10 20 30 40
DOWNSIZING (%)
Development Trend of diesel engine Specific power

100
90
Max Gas Pressure
Specific Power (kW/L)

150 240 bar kW/L


80

ARAI Target
60 PASS CAR / HIGH SPEED Diesel 75 kW/L
40
40
IDI kW/L

TRUCK / HD Diesel
20
Max Gas Pressure
DI 70 100 bar
1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

2020
Year
Trend of Specific weight for diesel engines

6
rated speeds
5 ( < 3000 rpm)
Weight / power ( kg/ kW )

rated speeds
1 ( > 3000 rpm)

Naturally Turbocharged Turbocharged


Aspirated Intercooled
100% Fuel Input

INDICATED POWER EXHAUST COOLANT

%
%
%

50
30
20

%
43
BRAKE POWER
GAS EXCHANGE

2.5%

Current Status
1.5% FRICTION

43%
Thermal
Efficiency
ACCESSORIES
3%

100% Fuel Input

INDICATED POWER EXHAUST COOLANT


%
%
%

58
20
22

%
53

BRAKE POWER
GAS EXCHANGE
2%

Future Targets

FRICTION
1%

53%
Thermal
Efficiency
2%

ACCESSORIES
Thermal Efficiency Trends