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# Chapter 11

## CFX Expression Language

(CEL)

Introduction to CFX

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CFX Expression Language
CEL

## CEL - CFX Expression Language

Allows the user to create equations (can be functions of
solution/system variables) that can be used in CFX-Pre and CFD-Post

Example:

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CFX Expression Language
CEL Rules
The syntax rules are the same as those for conventional arithmetic.
Operators are written as:
+ (addition) - (subtraction) * (multiplication)
/ (division) ^ (exponentiation)

## Expressions must be dimensionally consistent for addition and subtraction

operations (example: 1.0 [mm] + 0.45 [yds] is OK)
You cannot add values with inconsistent dimensions

## Fractional and decimal powers are allowed (example: a^(1/2) + 1.0^0.5)

Units of expressions are not declared they are the result of units in the
expression (example: a [kg m^-3] * b [m s^-1] has units of [kg m^-2 s^-1]

## Some constants are also available in CEL for use in expressions:

e Constant: 2.7182818
g Acceleration due to gravity: 9.806 [m s^-2]
pi Constant: 3.1415927
R Universal Gas Constant: 8314.5 [m^2 s^-2 K^-1]

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CFX Expression Language
Built In Functions
Numerical functions and operators are also available in CEL
Right-click when creating expressions for a complete list
Custom functions with User Fortran can also be created
Function Operands Dimensions [x] Operands Values Results Dimensions
sin(x) Angle Any Dimensionless
cos(x) Angle Any Dimensionless
tan(x) *** Angle Any Dimensionless
asin(x) Dimensionless -1 x 1 Angle
acos(x) Dimensionless -1 x 1 Angle
atan(x) Dimensionless Any Angle
exp(x) Dimensionless Any Dimensionless
loge(x) Dimensionless 0<x Dimensionless
log10(x) Dimensionless 0<x Dimensionless
abs(x) Any Any [x]
sqrt(x) Any 0 x [x]^0.5
if(test, res1, res2)* Any Any Any (res1 and res2 must have the same dimensions)
min(x,y) **** Any Any [x]
max(x,y) **** Any Any [x]
step(x) * Dimensionless Any Dimensionless

*if functions contain a test, and two result outcomes. The first outcome, res1 will be returned if test evaluates to true. If test evaluates to false, res2 is
returned. Consider the following example, where we wish to set volume fraction to 1 when X is greater than 1 [m], and 0 if X is less than 1 [m]:
if (x>1[m], 1, 0)
In this case, if the result is precisely equal to 1[m], the result is (res1+res2)/2
**step(x) is 0 for negative x, 1 for positive x and 0.5 for x=0.
*** note that tan(x) is undefined for np/2 where n=1, 3, 5 .. .
**** both x and y must have the same dimensions.

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CFX Expression Language
Solver Variables
Solver variables are available for use in any expression
Below is a partial list of the available system variables:
When creating expressions, right-click to access a full list

## x Direction 1 in Reference Coordinate Frame

y Direction 2 in Reference Coordinate Frame
z Direction 3 in Reference Coordinate Frame
r Radial spatial location, r = (x^2+y^2)^0.5
theta Angle, arctan(y/x)
t Time
u Velocity in the x coordinate direction
v Velocity in the y coordinate direction
w Velocity in the z coordinate direction
p (absolute) Pressure
ke Turbulent kinetic energy
ed Turbulent eddy dissipation Depending on your
T Temperature
sstrnr Shear strain rate physics, some
density Density variables will not be
rNoDim Non-dimensional radius (rotating frame only)
viscosity Dynamic Viscosity valid e.g. you need
Cp Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure to solver heat transfer
cond Thermal Conductivity
AV name Additional Variable name to use T
mf Mass Fraction

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CFX Expression Language
How To Create Expressions

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CFX Expression Language
How To Create Expressions

expressions
(similar method in
CFD-Post)

Right-click in the
Definition window
to access
Variables,
Constants,
Functions,
Locators and
existing
Expressions

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CFX Expression Language
CEL in CFX-Pre: Example 1
Creating a variable viscosity
Viscosity of a shear thickening fluid:
K n1
where is the shear strain rate

## Solver Variable and Expression Name are both

accessed via the right mouse button

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CFX Expression Language
CEL in CFX-Pre: Example 1

## Alternatively, an expression can be entered directly into a field

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CFX Expression Language
CEL in CFX-Pre: Example 2

Using an if Function
Set inlet temperature to 300 K for the first 19 iterations then raise it to
320 K after 20 iterations

Solver variable
accessed with the right Note: On the 21st iteration
mouse button inlet temp = 310 K

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CFX Expression Language
User Functions
You can also define your own 1-D linear, or 3-D cloud of points
interpolation functions

Import
data
points or
manually

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CFX Expression Language
User Functions: Example
Example: Having the timestep change
with iteration number as shown here

Iteration Number is
dimensionless

## Timestep size is in seconds

Continued on next
slide...

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CFX Expression Language
User Functions: Example

## Example: Having the timestep change

with iteration number as shown here

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CFX Expression Language
Integrated Quantities
Integrated quantities can be used in expressions to evaluate variables over
some location
Examples:
Calculate the area average of Cp on an isosurface: areaAve(Cp)@iso1
Mass flow of particular fluid through a locator: oil.massFlow()@slice1

## Available in CFX-Pre and CFD-Post

Usage is more strict in CFX-Pre
E.g. the argument supplied to the function must be a variable, not an expression

## @<locator> syntax must always supply a named location used in the

physics definition
A boundary condition name, a domain name, a monitor point name, etc.

## Phases/components can be referenced using:

[<phase name>.][<component name>.]<function>@<locator>
E.g. Air.Nitrogen.massFlow()@outlet

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CFX Expression Language
Integrated Quantities
Some functions allow an x, y or z operator:
area_x()@boundary gives the area projected in the x-direction
force_z()@wall gives the z component of the force on the wall
See documentation for a full list

## These functions also allow an optional coordinate frame:

force_z_MyCoord()@wall gives the z component of the force on the wall using the
coordinate frame MyCoord

## Each function requires either 0 or 1 arguments

areaAve requires 1 argument: areaAve(Temperature)@Wall
massFlow requires 0 arguments: massFlow()@Inlet

## Return value units depend on the argument units

areaAve(Temperature)@Wall will return a value with units of Temperature

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CFX Expression Language
Integrated Quantities
Below is a partial list of functions
See documentation for a complete list
Right-clicking when creating an expression will show most functions
Function Name and Syntax
Operation Valid <Location>
<required> [<optional>]
Area of a boundary or Any 2D region (e.g., boundary
area( )@<Location> interface. or interface)
The (signed) component of the
area_x( )@<Location> normal area vector in the local
area_y( )@<Location> x, y or z direction. Any 2D region (e.g., a
area_z( )@<Location> boundary or interface)
Area-weighted average of <var> Any 2D region (e.g., a
areaAve(<var>)@<Location> on a boundary. boundary or interface)
Area-weighted integral of <var> Any 2D region (e.g., a
areaInt(<var>)@<Location> on a boundary. boundary or interface)

## Arithmetic average of <var> Any 3D region (e.g., domain or

ave(<var>)@<Location> within a domain or subdomain. subdomain)
The magnitude of the force
[<Fluid>.]force( )@<Location> vector on a boundary. Any 2D region (e.g., a wall)

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CFX Expression Language
Integrated Quantities
Function Name and Syntax
Operation Valid <Location>
<required> [<optional>]

## [<Fluid>.]force_x( )@<Location> The (signed) component of the

[<Fluid>.]force_y( )@<Location> force vector in the local x, y
[<Fluid>.]force_z( )@<Location> or z direction. Any 2D region (e.g., a wall)
Any 2D or 3D named sub-
Similar to the subdomain region of the physical location
variable, but allows a specific on which the expression is
inside()@<Location> 2D or 3D location to be given. evaluated.
The total mass within a domain
or subdomain. This is fluid Any 3D region (e.g., domain or
mass()@<Location> dependent. subdomain)
Mass-weighted average of
<var> on a domain or Any 3D region (e.g., domain or
massAve(<var>)@<Location> subdomain. subdomain)
The mass-weighted integration
of <var> within a domain or Any 3D region (e.g., domain or
massInt(<var>)@<Location> subdomain subdomain)
Any fluid surfaces (e.g., Inlets,
Outlets, Openings and fluid-
[<Fluid>.]massFlow()@<Location> Mass flow through a boundary. fluid interfaces)
Any fluid surfaces (e.g., Inlets,
[<Fluid>.]massFlowAve(<var>) Mass flow weighted average of Outlets, Openings and fluid-
@<Location> <var> on a boundary. fluid interfaces)

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CFX Expression Language
Integrated Quantities
Function Name and Syntax
Operation Valid <Location>
<required> [<optional>]
Absolute mass flow weighted Any fluid surfaces (e.g., Inlets,
[<Fluid>.]massFlowAveAbs(<var>) average of <var> on a Outlets, Openings and fluid-
@<Location> boundary. fluid interfaces)
Any fluid surfaces (e.g., Inlets,
[<Fluid>.]massFlowInt(<var>) Mass flow weighted integration Outlets, Openings and fluid-
@<Location> of <var> on a boundary. fluid interfaces)

## Maximum Value of <var> Any 3D region (e.g., domain or

maxVal(<var>)@<Location> within a domain or subdomain. subdomain)

## Minimum Value of <var> within Any 3D region (e.g., domain or

minVal(<var>)@<Location> a domain or subdomain. subdomain)
Returns the value of the Any point object (e.g., a
specified variable on the Source Point or Cartesian
probe(<var>)@<Location> specified Point locator. Monitor Point)
RMS average of <var> within a Any 3D region (e.g., domain or
rmsAve(<var>)@<Location> domain. subdomain)
Sum of <var> over all domain Any 3D region (e.g., domain or
sum(<var>)@<Location> or subdomain vertices. subdomain)

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CFX Expression Language
Useful Functions
The inside() function returns 1 when inside the specified location and
0 when outside
Useful to limit the scope of a function to a subdomain or boundary

## The step() function return 1 when the argument is positive and 0

when the argument is negative
Useful as an on-off switch
if() function can also be used as a switch

## areaAve() and massFlowAve() are used to evaluate the average of a

quantity on a location
areaAve() is an area-weighted average. It is usually used on wall
boundaries and when the quantity is not carried with the flow, e.g.
Pressure at an outlet, Temperature on a wall
massFlowAve() is an average weighted by the local mass flow. It is
usually used to evaluate quantities that are carried with the flow, e.g.
Temperature at an outlet

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