You are on page 1of 128

KA Process Group Process Description

Develop Project Charter Create the document that officially starts the
Initiating project

I Develop Project Create the document that guides planning,

n Management Plan execution and control of the project
t Direct and Manage Excecute work packages and creating the
i Execute Project Work deliverables

n Monitoring and Monitor and Control Make sure deliverables and the way they are
a Controlling Project Work been produced are in line with PM Plan
t Monitoring and Perform Integrated Assess the impact of changes on the project
Controlling Change Control

Shutdown the project properly making sure

Closing Close Project or Phase all the work is completed satisfactorily.

its about creating a scope management plan

Plan Scope that documents how the project
Planning Management scope will be defined, validated, and

Understand what is needed to satisfy

Planning Collect Requirements stakeholders and create a document that
reflects that understanding

p Understand and document the scope of the
e Planning Define Scope project in detail
p Understand and document the scope of the
e Planning Define Scope project in detail
n Represent the work and only the work that
a Planning Create WBS will be performed on the project in the form
g of a WBS

Monitoring and Ensure the product, service or result of the

Validate Scope
Controlling project matches the documented scope

Make sure all scope change requests are

Monitoring and
Controlling Control Scope processed, while understanding and
managing their underlying causes

Guides activities in the remaining six

Plan Schedule
Planning processes aimed at creating, monitoring and
Management controlling the project schedule

Decompose the work packages further into

Planning Define Activities activity detail

Arrange the activities and milestones in the

Planning Sequence Activities order they must be performed

It's the process of estimating the type and

Estimate activities quantities of material, human
Planning resources resources, equipment, or supplies required
T to perform each activity

g Estimate activities Analyse each activity to estimate how long it
e Planning durations will take
g Estimate activities Analyse each activity to estimate how long it
e Planning durations will take

Planning Develop Schedule Create the schedule

Monitor the schedule against the actual

Monitor & Controlling Control Schedule work peformed to ensure things stay on
target (plan)

Plan Cost Management Creates the plan to effectively manage and

Planning control the project costs

Each scheduled activity is analyzed to

evaluate the activity time estimates and the
C Planning Estimate Costs resource estimates to determine a cost
o estimate (or the cost required to perform the
s work)

e It takes the estimated project expenditures
n and maps them back to dates on the
t Planning Define Budget calendar. It creates the cost performance
baseline (budget)

Monitoring & It is primarily concerned with cost variance,

Control Costs
Controlling that being positive or negative
Monitoring & It is primarily concerned with cost variance,
Control Costs
Controlling that being positive or negative

Plan Quality The project team identifies what the quality

Q Planning Management specs are for the project and how will be met

M Perform Quality Its concerned about improving the activities

a Assurance and processes undertaken to achieve quality
n It inspects results to determine if they
Monitoirng and
t Control Quality conform to quality standards. It involves
Controlling product and project deliverables

It's the process of identifying and

Plan HR Management documenting project roles, responsibilities,
Planning required skills, reporting relationships, and
creating a staffing management plan

a Staffing the project with team members to
n Executing Acquire Project Team complete project activities
e Building a sense of team building and
Executing Develop Project Team
s improving its performance

actively managing the project team to

Executing Manage Project Team ensure that they perform according to the
actively managing the project team to
Executing Manage Project Team ensure that they perform according to the

m The process of developing an appropriate
m approach and plan for project
Plan Comunications
u Planning communications based on stakeholders
n information needs and requirements, and
i available organizational assets.
o Its the execution of the communication
n Manage management Plan. This process also has to
s Excecuting Communications be flexible to handle unplanned information
e Its the process of monitoring and controlling
m Monitoring & communications throughout the entire
Control Comunications
e Controlling project life cycle to ensure the information
n needs of the project stakeholders are met

Create the Risk Management Plan. It forms

Planning Plan Risk Management the foundations of the remaining risk

It evaluates the project to identify which

Planning Identify Risks risks could impact the project and to
understand the nature of these risks

R To determie which risks are the highest

i priority on the project. It takes each risk
Perform Qualitative Risk from the risk regsiter and works to analyze
k Planning its probability of ocurring.. It has to do with
Analysis ranking and scoring. Urgent Risks from this
M process may go straight to plan risk
a responses
e It assigns a numeric projected value to
n quantify the risks that have been ranked by
t Perform Quantitative Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis. This value
Planning Analysis is most common specified in terms of cost or
time. This processes is subsecuent of
perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
e It assigns a numeric projected value to
n quantify the risks that have been ranked by
t Perform Quantitative Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis. This value
Planning Analysis is most common specified in terms of cost or
time. This processes is subsecuent of
perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

Plan Risk Responses is the process of

developing options and actions to enhance
Planning Plan Risk Responses opportunities and to reduce
threats to project objectives

It takes a look at all the planning we've done

Monitoring & in risk, and evaluate how all that is lining up
Control Risks
Controlling the reality It also deals with unplanned

Looking at the project and determining

which components or services will be
Plan Procurement "procured" from an external source. In other
Planning Management words its about deciding make vs buy.. If
things are external, it ensures the right
contract is used

r It carries out the plan, selects one or more
o Executing Conduct Procurements sellers and awards the procurement, usually
c in the form of a contract
M Buyer and seller get together to review the
a work results to ensure that the results match
n Monitoring and the contract. Its a process performed by both
Control Procurements
a Controlling (buyer and seller).. Both PM's work together
g to explore the potential effects of any
e decisions

Its where the contract is completed by the

buyer and seller. Ideally the contract is
terminated amicably with the seller
delivering all of the contracted items and the
buyer making all payments on time, but it
isn't always done that way. EG: the buyer
Closing Closing Procurements may consider a seller to be in default and
cancel the contract, or a buyer and seller
may mutually agree to terminate the
contract for any reason... Every contract
must be closed. Contracts left open are risk
by seller and buyer.

it creates the stakeholder register to list all

of the stakeholders and describe their
involvement on the project A stakeholder
Initiating identify Stakeholders may be anyone with an interest in the
project, and that interest may be positive or

it looks at how the team will relate to the

Plan Stakeholder stakeholders and what stakeholder
Planning Management involvement will be in all aspects of the

k Stakeholders should be managed according
e to their needs and how the project scope
h Manage Stakeholders addresses those needs...It uses
o Executing Engagement communication and the issue log to help
l ensure that stakeholders are involved at the
d right level and in the right way

g It evaluates how the plan of engaging and
Monitoring and Control Stakeholder
e involving stakeholders lines up with the
controlling Engagement
m results.
Input Tools

Project SoW Expert Knowledge

Project Selection Methods
Business Case
Agreements Facilitation Techniques
Project Charter Expert Knowledge

16 Outputs from other processes Facilitation Techniques

PM Plan Expert Knowledge
EEF Meetings

Approved Change Requests PMIS

PM Plan
Schedule & Cost Forecast Expert Knowledge Analytical
Techniques Meetings
Validated Changes PMIS
PM Plan Expert Knowledge
WPR Change control tools

Change Requests Meetings

Expert Knowledge
PM Plan

OPA Meetings
Accepted Deliverables Analytical Techniques
PM Plan Expert Judgement

Project Charter Meetings

Stakeholders register Facilitation Workshops
Stakeholders Management Plan Interviews
Context Diagrams
Document Analysis
Requiements Managemen Plan Group Decision-Making Techniques
Project Charter Group Creativity Techniques
Scope Management Plan Questionaries and Surveys
Requirements Documentation Expert knowdlege
Product Analysis
Project Charter
Alternatives Generation
Scope Management Plan Facilitation Workshops
Project Scope Statement
Requirements Documentation

Scope Management Plan

PM Plan
WPD Inspection
Requirements Documentation

Requirements Traceability Matrix

Group Decision-Making Techniques

Verified deliverables
PM Plan
Requirements Traceability Matrix
Variance Analysis

Requirements Documentation
PM Plan Expert Knowledge
Project Charter
EEF Analytical Thecniques
Schedule Management Plan Decomposition
Scope Baseline Rolling Wave Planning
Expert Knowledge
Precedence Diagramming Method
Schedule Management Plan
Graphical Evaluation & Review Technique
Activity list Dependency Determination
Activity Attributes
Milestone list
OPA Leads and Lags
Project Scope Statement
Schedule Management Plan Expert Knowledge
pM Software
Activity List Pusblished Estimating Data
Resource Calendars Alternative anlaysis
Activity Cost Estimates
Risk Register Bottom-Up estimating
Activity Attributes
Schedule Management Plan Analogous Estimating
Three-Point Estimating
Activity list
One Point Estimating
Activity Attributes Expert Knowledge
Activity Resource Requirements Parametric Estimating
Project Scope Statement Heuristic Estimating
Resource Breakdown Structure Group Decision Making Tachniques
Risk Register
Reserve Analysis
Resource Calendars
Schedule Management Plan Schedule Network Analysis
Activity list Critical Path Method (CPM)
Project Schedule Network Diagrams Critical Chain Method
Resource Calendars Resource Optimization Techniques
Activity duration estimates Modeling techniques
Activity Resource Requirements Leads and Lags
Risk Register
Project Scope Statement
Resource Breakdown Structure Schedule Compresion
Project Staff Assignments
Activity Attributes
PM Plan Performance reviews
Project schedule Resource Optimization Techniques
WPD Modeling techniques
Schedule Data Project Management Software
Leads and Lags
Scheduling tool
Project Calendar Schedule Compresion
PM Plan Expert Knowledge
Project Charter Analytical Techniques
Analogous Estimating
Cost Management Plan
Expert Knowledge
Human Resources Plan Parametric Estimating

Scope Baseline
Bottom-Up Estimating

Project Schedule Three-Point Estimates

Reserve Analysis
Cost of Quality
Risk Register Resource Cost Rate
Group Decision Making Techniques
Vendor Bid Analysis
Cost Management Plan Cost Aggregation
Scope Baseline Reserve Analysis
Activity Cost Estimates Funding Limit Reconciliation
Project Schedule Expert Knowledge
Resource Calendars
Risk Register
PM Plan Earn Value Management
Project Funding Requirements Forecasting
OPA Reserve Analysis
Project Management Software
Peformance Review
PM Plan Cost-Benefit Analysis
Stakeholder register Cost of Quality
Risk Register Seven Basic Quality Tools
Requirements Documentation Benchmarking
OPA Statistical Sampling
Design of Experiments
Force Field Analysis
Quality Management Plan Quality Management and Control Tools
Process Improvement Plan Quality Audits
Quality Metrics Process Analysis
Quality Control Measurements Nota
Deliberables Statistical Sampling
Quality Metrics Inspection
Quality Checklists Approved change request review
WPD Seven Basic Quality Tools
PM Plan
Project Documents

Approved Change Requests

Activity Resource Requirements Organization Charts and Position Descriptions

PMP Plan Networking

Organizational Theory
Expert Knowledge
Human Resources Management Plan Pre-Assignment
OPA Negotiation
Virtual Teams
Halo Effect
Types of Teams (esta es nota)
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
Human Resources Management Plan Interpersonal skills
Project Staff Assignments Training
Resources Calendars Team-Building Activities
Ground Rules
Recognition and Rewards (Thories of Motivation)
Personnel Assessment Tools

Human Resources Management Plan Observation and Conversation

Project Staff Assignments Project Performance Appraisals
Team performance assessments Conflict Management
Issue Log Interpersonal skills
Work Performance Reports
Project Management Plan Communication Requirements Analysis
Stakeholders register Communication Channels
EEF Communication Technology
OPA Communication Models

Communication Methods

Comunication Management Plan Communication Technology

Work Performance Reports Communication models
communication methods
information management systems
Performance Reporting
Project Communications information management systems
Issue Log Expert Knowledge
Project Management Plan Meetings

Project Management Plan Anaylitical Techniques

Project Charter Expert judgment
Stakeholders register Meetings
Scope Baseline Checklist Analysis
Activity cost estimates Diagramming techniques
Activity duration estimates SWOT Analysis
Cost Management Plan Assumption Analysis
Schedule Management Plan Documentation Reviews
Quality Management Plan Expert judgment
HR management Plan Information Gathering Techniqes
Stakeholders register
PM Documents
Procurement Documents
Risk Management Plan

Risk Management Plan Risk Probability and Impact Assessment

Probability and Impact Matrix
Scope Baseline Risk Data Quality Assessment
Risk Register Risk Categorization
Risk Urgency Assessment
Cost and Schedule Plans Expert judgment
Risk Management Plan Data Gathering and Representation Techniques
Cost Management Plan Quantitative Risk analysis and modeling techniques
Schedule Management Plan Expected Monetary Value Analysis
Risk Register Tornado Diagrams
Modeling and simulation

Expert judgment

Risk Management Plan Strategies for Negative Risk or Threats

Risk Register Strategies for Positive Risks or Opportunities
Contingent Resonse Srategies
Expert judgment


Project Management Plan Risk re-assessment

Risk Register Risk Audits
WPD Variance and Trend Analysis
WPR Reserve Analysis
Technical performance measurements

Project Management Plan Make or Buy Analysis

Requirements Documentation Market Research
Risk Register Expert Judgement
Stakeholder register
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Project Schedule
Activity Resource Requirements
Activity Cost Estimates
Procurement Management Plan Bidder Conference
Seller Proposals Proposal Evalaution Techniques
Project Documents Independend Estimates
Procurement Statement of Work Advertising
Source Selection Criteria Expert Judgement
OPA Analytical Techniques
Make or Buy Decisions Screening System
Procurement Documents Procurement Negotiations

Project Management Plan Contract Change Control System

Approved Change Requests Inspection and Audits
WPR Procurement Performance Review
WPD Performance Reporting
Procurement Documents Payment Systems
Agreements Claims Administration
Records Management Systems
Procurement Audits
PM Plan

Audit Seller's Cost Submittals

Procurement Negotiations
Procurement Documents
Records Management Systems

Project Charter
Stakeholders analysis

Procurement Documents

Stakeholders register
Expert Judgment
PM Plan Meetings
Analytical techniques
Management Skills

Stakeholders Management Plan

Interpersonal Skills and Communication Methods

Communications Management Plan Stakeholders Engagement Matrix


Change Log

Information Management Systems

Project Management Plan
Issue Log Meetings
Project Documents Expert Judgment


Project Charter

Project Management Plan

Change Requests
Implemented approved changes
PM Plan updates
Project Documents
Change Requests
PM Plan updates
Project Document Updates
Approved Change Requests
PM Plan updates

Change Log

Final Product, Service or Result Transition

OPA updates
Scope Managment Plan

Requirements Management Plan

Requirements Documentation
Requirements Traceability Matrix

Project Scope Statement

PM Documents updates

Scope Baseline baselines are the original plan plus all additional changes
WBS Control Account
WBS Dictionary

Accepted Deliverables
WPI Validate scope .. Buscas aceptacion formal de los entregables con

Ojo, validate scope no es un proceso que solamente lo haces un

visitas constantemente para validar que el proyecto va estando
Projec Documents Updates cliente. Otro punto, validate scope vs close project = en Close Pr
final del cliente pero de TODO el proyecto como tal. Aqui en vali
de c/u de los entregables
Change Requests Control quality Revisas que el entregable cumpla con las espec
Change Requests
PM Plan Updates
Project Document Updates

OPA updates

Schedule Management Plan

Activity list Work packages are deliverables-based, while activites are focuse
Activity Attributes
Milestone list

Project Schedule Network Diagrams

PM Docs

Activity Resource Requirements activities are estimated for resource requirements, not WP

Resource Breakdown Structure

Project Documents Updates

Activity Duration Estimates

Project Documents Updates

Project Documents Updates

Schedule Baseline
Project Schedule
Schedule Data
Project Calendars
PM Plan updates
Project Documents Updates

Schedule Forecasts
Change Requests

OPA Updates
Project Documents Updates
PM Plan updates

Cost Management Plan

Activity Cost Estimates

Basis of Estimates
PM Documents

Cost Baseline
Project Funding Requirements

Work Performance Information

Cost Forecasts
Change Requests
PM Plan updates
Project Document Updats
Quality Management Plan
Process Improvement Plan
Quality Metrics
Quality Checklists
PM Documents

Change Requests
PM Plan Udpates
Quality Improvement
Quality Control Measurements
Validated changes
Verified deliverables
Change Requests
PM Plan Udpates
Project Documents Udtaes

Human Resources Management Plan

Project Staff Assignments

Resource Calendars
Human Resources Management Plan udpates

Team performance assessments

EEF updates

Change Requests
PM Plan
Project Documents

Communications Management Plan

Project Communications

PM Plan Updates
Project Documents Updates

Change Requests
PM Plan Updates

Project Documents Updates

Risk Management Plan

Risk Register

Project Document Updates


Project Document Updates

Project Document Updates

Project Document Updates

Change Requests
PM Plan Updates

Change Requests
Project Document Updates
PM Plan Updates

Procurement Management Plan

Procurement Statement of work
Procurement Documents
Source Selection Criteria
Make or Buy Decisions
Project Documents Updates

Change Request
Selected Sellers
Resource Calendars
Change Requests
Project Management Plan Updates
Project Documents Updates

OPA updates
Change Requests
PM plan updates
Project Doc. Updates
Closed Procurements

OPA Updates

Stakeholders register

Stakeholders Management Plan

Project Document Updates

Issue Log

Change Request
Pm Plan updates

Project Management Documents

Change Request
Project Documents updates
Pm Plan updates
us all additional changes

ion formal de los entregables con cliente

ceso que solamente lo haces una vez al final del proyecto, lo

idar que el proyecto va estando en linea con el punto de vista del
pe vs close project = en Close Project buscas tambin aceptacin
l proyecto como tal. Aqui en validate scope buscamos aceptacin

entregable cumpla con las especificaicones de calidad

based, while activites are focused on the work needed to execute the WP

urce requirements, not WP

m 2571 motor 595
KA PG Process Input
Project SOW

Project selection method

Intiation Devlop project charter
Business case
Project charter
Planning Devlop project management plan EEF

Output fom other planning process

Project management plan



Execution Direct and manage the work

Approved change request

PM plan

Monitor & Control of project work Schedule & cost variance

Validated changes
Monitor & WPI
Change request
Project management plan
Perform Integrated change control
PM plan updates
Closing Close project phase Accepted deliverables

PM plan
Planning Plan scope management
Project charter

Scope management plan

Stake holder register
Stake holder requirement plan
Project charter
Requrement management pan
Planning Collet requrement
Scope Management

Requrement docmetation
Project charter
Planning Define scope
Scope Manage
Planning Define scope
Scope management plan

Creat WBS Project statememt

Requirement documentation
Scope management plan
Tool Output
Expert Judgement

Facilation techniques Dev's project selection, SOW, Business case based O

Project chrater Aggregement using the tool of exper judgement &
Facilation technique to devlop a project charter

Expert Judgement

Projet management plan

Facilation techniques

Expert Judgement Deliverble

Meeting Change request

PMIS Implementaed approved change

Project managemnet plan updates

Project documents

Expert Judgement Change request

Analyticl technique WPIS

Meeting Project plan updates
PMIS Project document updates
Expert Judgement Approved change request
Change log
Chnge control tool PM updates
Expert Judgement Final poduct service
Meeting OPA updates
Analyticl technique

Expert Judgement Scope management plan

Meeting Requirement management plan

Facilated workshop Requrement document

Interview Requrement tracibility
Context diagram
Brain stroming
group decision technique
Group creativity technique
Facilation workshop Project scope statement
Alternative generation PM document updtes
Product analysis
Expert Judgement
Dev's project selection, SOW, Business case based On
Aggregement using the tool of exper judgement &
Facilation technique to devlop a project charter
Sl no Flash Card
Business Value
Organization, constraints & projects
Project Expediter

Functional Organisation

Matrix Organisation
Projectized Organisation
Composite Organisation


Project Constraint
Enterprise Environmental Factor
Business case document
Facilation Technique
Organizationational process assets
Project Charter

Project Management Plan

Work Performance date

Direct and manage work

Perform integrated change control

Corrective ction
Preventive Action

Change control board

Perform baseline

Performance measurement baseline

Intigration Management
Product Scope
Project Scope
Scope creep

Plan scope management

Focus group
Facilated workshop

Grop decission making

Grop decission making

Delphi Technique
Afinity diagram
Nominal group technique
Context diagram
Functional requirement
Non functional requirements
Variance analysis
Rollig wave planning

Precedence diagramming method

Bottom up estimating
Parametric Estimates
Reserve analysis
Contigency reserve
Management Reserve
Analogous estimating
Three point estimates
Crashing the schedule
Fast trcking
Monte Carlo analysis
Performance review

Plan Cost management

Estimate Cots

Analogous estimating

Parametric Estimates
Bottom up estimating
Basis of estimate
Benfit cost ratio
Net present value
Opportunity Cost
Internal rate of return
Lifecycle costing
Rough order magnitude (ROM)
Cost aggregaion
Funding Limit
Cost benfit ratio

Cost of quality

Quality management plan

Quality checklist
Quality matrics
Control quality
Conrol chart or rule of seven
Fishbone & Ishikawa Diagram

Pereto Chart



Scatter digram
Run chart
Just in time
Orgaanization charts and position description

RACI Matrix

Halo Effect


Virtual team

Recognition & Rule of reward
Interpersonal Skill
Ground rule


Coin flip
Legitimate power
Reward Power
Expert Power
Referent power
Punshment power
Communication Managmnet

Communication requirement analysis

Communication model
Communication technology

Communication Method

Communication methcod

Paralingual Communication
Root cause identification
Swot analysis
Diagraming techniques
Perform qualitative risk
Risk data quality assessment
Decision ttress

Positive risk


Fixed price contract (FP)

Fixed price plus incentive Fee(FPIF)

Cost plus fixed price
Cost plus award
Cost plus incentive
Sum of all the things that the company is made of from desk to chairs
Organization, constraints & projects
Doesnt have any authority to take aany decission
The team dont report directly to the project manager
The teams are in departments and the project manager needs to barrow as per requirement
Project manager is to assistating to the functional manager
Share the responsibility
Project manager have all the authority
Sometimes compay will use multiple organisation types, is called composite organisation
Anyone who will be affected by the outcome of your project.
Sponsor-Who is paying for it, Team- Who is building it, The people in the management, Consumer or user, Business prtenr,
Funtional mnger
Time, Scope, Quality, Cost, Risk, Resources

Company culture, i.e how the compaany does the business

Business case document says why it is worth to spend money on the project
Bring everyone in to the same page
Have information about your project, how people of your company suppose to perform
Authorise to do the work. Sponser of the project is responsible for creating the project charter
Project management plan is a single document and broken it in to subsidiary plans. There is one subsidary plan for each
knowledge area (Subsidary plans and baselines)
Project management plan is a group efforts. All members should agree to the plan
Change should be carried out conulting to the project management plan
How the process from eeach knowledge area being performed

Use plan to creat deliverables

Repair defects
Changes needs to reflect in deliverables (It includes everything that you and your team produce for the project)

It is a process where you decide whether or nt to make them

When you make a course change that is corrective action
Steps to take to avoid problem.
Approve changes. After approval of changes same needs to be updated in project management plan. Every change needs
Its a snapsoht of project baseline, scope, schedule and cost

The documented scope, schedule and cost baseline in the project is know as performance measurement schedule

It means all the process work together seamlessly to make your project successful

It means the features and function of the product or service that you and your team are building
It means all of the work that needs to be done to make the product
Uncontrolled changes that causes the team to do extra work

It helps to think the right thing i.e. everything you need to keep the project focused on right work i.e. from beginning to en

Group of people to discuss their needs.

Working to gether to define requirement
It is divided in to four types i. Unanimity ii. Majority iii. Plurality iv. Dictatorship
a. Unamity - Everyon agrees on the decision
b. Majority - More than half of the people agrees on the decision
c. Plurality - Idea that gets most vote to win
d. Dictatorship - When one person makes the decision
It comes from Oracle at Delphi, It allows everyone to give their view and thougts about the products
Putting requirements in categories will help you to find new ones.
Write down all the ideas and votes to rank all ideas
Scope of the product, how people will interact with it
Group of peopl down to think new ideas
Comparing the process and practices used in other organisation
Behaviour of the product
Expections about the product
Comparasion between the gathered information and the way project is going

Breaking the in to small pices

It lets you plan and schedule only the stuffs that you know enough
Showing the activities in a rectangular and their relationship as arrows is called a precedence diagramming method. This
kind of diagram is also know as activity on node
Delay between the predecessor and successor
Successor takes some time to get started before predecessor finish
Breaking the activities in to pieces. This is the most accurate type of estimating
Plugigging data about the project in to fourmulas, spreadsheet, database or computer
Adding extra time to the schedule (called contigeny reserve or buffer)
This is reserved for identified risk
This is for unknow risk
Refereing the past projet activities, past information or historical information
Most likely, Optimistic, Pessimistic
Rule of thumb
Adding more resources to the critical path. It always costs more
Fast tracking means reorder the activities that the most of the activities performs in parallel. It adds risk
Calculte the risk
It is used to measure how project is progressing
Plan Cost management, Estimate cost, Determine Budget, Control cost
Plan cost mangement is the process where you plan all the work you'll do to make sure your projects doesn't cost more tha
you have budgeted
Each scheduled activity is analyzed to evaluate the activity time estimates and the resource estimates to determine a cost
estimate (or the cost required to perform the work)
Actual cost for the past project, Uses Historical information, It is less costly and less time consuming. Its also known as top
down estimate
It based on mathmetical calculation & formula
Breking the activiies in to pices
Additiona details pprovided to arrive the cost
Income v/s expenditure. Total amount of money the project is going to make vs how much it cost to build it. Benfint needs
Actual value at a given time minus all the cost associated with
Taking one projet between two
This is the amount of money that the project will return to the company that is funding.
This is the rate at which your project loses its value over time
Cost associated from devlopment to support the product once it is in place and being used by customer
Early stage of estimate without knowing much about the project. The estimate variance will be -25% to +75%
Breaking the activities in to pieces and then assigned cost for each activities
Executing the work with in the budget

How much the quality activities will cost versus how much you'll gain for doing those activities
Refereing the past projet activities
Everything you do to ensure the quality on the product. Starting from testing, writing standards, reviewing doc, meeting to
analyze the root cause, doing reqork to fix the defect

It prevebts defect from the project.It also describes how the work will be executed to met the quality reuirement

To ensure all steps were performed in right sequance

It define how quality will be measured
It inspects results to determine if they conform to quality standards. It involves product and project deliverables
When seven data points are fall on one side of the mean
Cause & effect diagram. These are used to figure out what caused the efect
It is used for decision making. It also gives the grapfical representation of process of work
A histogram showing defects ranked from greatest to least. Used to focus energies on the problem most likely to occur.
Pareto are based on the 80/20 rule. 80% of the problems come from 20% of the causes.

Column charts that allow stakeholders visualize the distribution of data. Histograms, are a special form of bar chart and are
used to describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution. Unlike the control chart, the
histogram does not consider the influence of time on the variation that exists within a distribution.

It allows to collect the data on the product under test. It helps to organise the test activities needs to performed and track
whether the product passes or fail. It also know as tally sheet
It shows how two different types of data relates to each other
Conform the requirement. It is a continous process.
Tells you the trend
Means continuous improvement. Its a japanese word
Things to made available as per the requirment instead of storing it

It tells about how the teams have been structured

It gives the detail decription of role and respinsibility of each person. RACI stands for Responsibility, Accountability,
Consultanted and Informed
When someone put in some other position they cant handle, just because they are good in another job
There is a resource that you need for your project but they dont report you so you need to negotatie with the functional
When all of the team member dont sit together or same location. Intead of meeting by person , they'll use phone, email,
instant messaging
A guarenteed resource
Looking outside of the organisation for resource
Reward & recoginisation is the best way to keep the team motivated
It tells about the soft skill
It sets standard rule how the everyone work together
When all the team member sitting or located in the same room and you increase the communication. This is also called as
War room
Sometimes you'll just make a decision and inform your team to follow them
Sometimes you will talk your decision with the project team and ask their opinion before decide
Talk few option with the team and making agree with any one of the given option
Randomly chose one option
Givinging instruction for doing the work
Bonous or rewrd for their work to motivate the team meber
One person is expert in his field. Teaam used to give respect or cradibility because of that
People admire u, loyal to you
You correct a team member for poor behaviour. It needs to do in one-on-one basis

It makes sure that everyone gets the right message at the right time

Figuring out what kind of communication your stakeholder need from the project, so that they can make good decision

How the various people associated with your project send and receive their information
How you can keep people in loop
Interactive- Where everyone exchange information with one another
Push-Push informtion out to your stakeholder by sending out emails, memos, faxes
Pull- Fetching the information from intranet

There are four type of communication i.e Formal written ii. Informal Written iii. Formal Verbal iv. Informal Vebal

Formal Written- Any time you are signing a legal document or preparing a formal document for your project
Informal written - If you drop some quick email
Formal Verbal- Presentatin on project progress
Informa verbal- Meeting
Tone and pitch of you voice

Best thing to do is o avoid the risk

If you can tavoid the risk you can mitigate it
To pay someone else to accept it
Last option
Geathering information, this session always have a facilator to lead the team
Asking opinion to everyone who'll use the product
Identfing the root cause
Strength & weakness
Fishbone o ishikawa diagram for cause n effect of risk
It helps to prioritze each risk and figuring out its probility & impact

Visually risk analysis

Exploit- This is when you do everything to make sure that you take advantage

Share- Sometimes its harder to take advantage of an oppurtinity. Then you might call another company to share

Enhance- This is when you try to make the opportunity more probable
Accept- Just like accepting a negetive risk, sometimes just fall in lap

It means that you are going to pay one amount how much it costs the contrator to do the work. This type contracts are
usefull where scope is well know
Going to pay a fixed price plus some bonus based on some performance goal
Cost involved for doing the work plus an agreed amount on top of that
Cost involved +extra based on byers evaluation
Total cost+bonus
Foundation Terms all of the PLANS of the KE are the proactive aspect of the Project

The work authorization system is actually part of the project

management system. 'The work authorization system is the system
used to ensure that work gets performed at the right time and in
the right sequence. It is the PM system for authorizing the start of
Work Authorization System work packages or activities. A work authorization system is place to
make sure work is only started when a formal authorization is given
(y as evitar que el plomero y el electrico se translapen al mismo

Scope Management

Scope Creep
Gold Platting

Schedule Model


Total Float, Slack, Slip

Free Float

Project Float

Time Management



Three Point Estimate (esto es el ttulo o nombre, las formulas son
las de abajo)
Beta Distribution
Triangular Distribution (simple average)
Estndar deviation

Cost Management

Life-Cycle Costing

Value Engineering (AKI Value analysis)

Order of magnitud

Conceptual Estimate
Preliminary Estimate
Budget Estimate

Definitive Estimate

Control Estimate

Fixed Cost

Variable cost
Direct cost

Indirect cost

Sunk cost
Cost Risk


PV (or BCWS)

EV (or BCWP)











13 TCPIc

Quality Management


Continous Improvement

Statistical Independence
Mutually Exclusive

Standard Deviation


Six Sigma


Attribute Sampling
Variable Sampling

Special Causes

Common Causes

Control Limits

Marginal Analysis

Human Resources Managememnt

Team building activities Tuckman's theory of team development: Tuckman's Ladder

first step, team members understand the project and their roles.
Forming Team members tend to be independent and not as open in this
the team begins to do the work, but there is typically a good bit of
Storming conflict and difficulty
its where the behaviour normalizes and members begin to work as
Norming a team. The team learns to trust each other. The PM shows more
its where the team is working at an efficient level that exceed what
individuals could accomplish alone. They are interdependent and
Performing work through issues smoothly and effectively. The role of the PM is
more overseeing and delegating

Its where the project is closed and the team is released. Individuals
Adjouring tend to fear change, this stage can be difficult on everyone

Theories of Motivation or What do people want?

Human needs are grouped into 5 basic categories. The theory states
Maslows hirearchy of needs that the need from the bottom must be satisfied before the upper
needs will surface. Needs (from Top to Bottom):

two ways of classifying people. Theory X- the team members are

McGregror's Theory X and only interested in their own selfish goals. Managers have to be more
Theory Y in supervision and forcing to achieve results. EG: Assemply Line
Theory Y in supervision and forcing to achieve results. EG: Assemply Line

Contingency theory In stressfull times a task oriented leader will be more effective, and in calm times, a

The presence of certain factors does not make some satisfied, but
their abscence will make someone unsatisfied (similar to maslow's
Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory of hirearchy of needs)-. Hygene factors must be present but
Theory they don't motivate , motivation factors motivate, but they will not
work without the hygiene factors in place

McClelland's Three Need Also called achievement theory.. Employees are motivated upon
Theory(acquired needs theory) three primary needs

Expectancy Theory people will behave based on what they expect as a result of their behavior. In other

Methods of Conflict Management (Managemen

Involves confrontatoin, but it is confrontation of the problem not the person. It mea
bottom of the problem and resolves it from the root cause The final steps of prob
Collaborations/Problem Solve decision solved the problem
When collaboratinng, teams or individuals work together with other individuals or t
(also refered to confrontation) from differing perspectives; requires a cooperative attitude and open dialogue that
Brings whatever power is necessary to get the door open. Worst way to resolve a pr
Forcing/Direct expense of others; offering only win-lose solutions, usually enforced through a pow
The PM plays down the problem and turns attention to what is going well. It doesn'
of agreement rather than areas of difference

PM is hoping the problem to go away. Conflicts are never resolved.. Its avoiding the
better prepared or to be resolved by others.

Both parties give up something. This is a lose-lose situation since no party gets ever
parties in order to temporarily or partially resolve the conflict.
Constructive Team Roles

Someone who actively initiates ideas and arctivities on a project. Its proactive and p
information Seeker People seeking more knowledge and understanding related to the project
Information Givers Someone who shares information with the team.. It needs good communication and
Encouragers They mantain a positive and realistic attitude. They focus on what can be accomplis
Clarifiers Someone who works to make certain that everyone's understanding of the project is
Harmonizers They enhance the context of the project and details surrounding it
Summarizers They take details and restate them. They keep things simple enough for everyone to
Gate Keepers They enfcourage the entire team to participate.. Also they make desicions whether t

Destructive team roles

Someone hostile and opposed to the project. He is no productive
Blockers Someone who blocks access to info and interrupts the communication.
Withdrawers They don't participate. He just sit quietly.. They don't buy into the project.
Recognition Seekers They look who
Someone at the projectteam
disrupts to seeparticipation
whats in it for
andthem. He is interested
communication in his ownopinio
by presenting selfis
Dominators rest of the team. They are opinion crushers
Devil's advocates Someone who will automatically take a contrary view. He frustrates communication

Sources of Conflict 50% of project conflicts come from 3 sources: HR, Priorities and Schedules. Conflict c
In order: Schedules, Project priorities, resources, technical conflict and admin proce

Communications Managememt

Communications Channels
Channels = n x (n-1) / 2 Where n is the number of people on the project
4 x (4-1) / 2 = 6 4 people create 6 communication channels
5 x (5-1) / 2 = 10 5 people create 10 communications channels

Official Channels of Which communications channels are official. EG: Who can officially
Communications communicate with the customer or key subcontractors

Messages can be conveyedWays of communicating

in verbal and nonverbal(effective communication)
ways. Below are some terms related to different
ways of communicating
Requires that the receiver takes active steps to ensure that the
Active listening sender was understood
It refers to
requires thethe
verbal and
full thought
a speaker
It means
must monitor
to to
see whether
the listener
and pysical
fully comprehends
communication theand
to provide
and smilingindicating
are examples
whether of positive
the message
has been
nodding and
Effective listening understood
blank stare indicate the message has to be re-coded for better
communication. Asking questions or repeating the speakers words
are also ways to give feedback.. When repearting what the sender
Feedback says, he has feedback

Body language such as facial expressions, posture, hand motions,

etc. Most communications are non-verbal. It carries a significant
portion of the message sent. It represents a major part of all
Nonverbal communication

Its vocal but not verbal. Tone of Voice, volume or pitch. A high pitch
Paralingual squal does not employ words, but it does communicate

Its anything that interfiers with the senders encoding the message
or the receiver decoding. It can include anything that disrups the
communications channel. EG: email app is down, Noisy
surroundings, Distances, improper encoding of messages, Making
Communication blockers negative statements, Hostility, language, culture

Communication Types
Informal Written Email messages, memorandums, post its, notas

Contracts, legal notices, project documents (charter), important

project communications, llamadas de atencion en forma de
Formal Written reportes formales al personal, request for the customer to increase
scope not covered in a contract, major project status

Informal Verbal Meetings, discussions, phone calls, conversations

Formal Verbal Speeches, mass communications, presentations

Communication Methods
Interactive A meeting where people can ask questions
Push a bulk email blast
a website where a video presentation or white paper can be
pull downloaded

Risk Management

Risk is related to an uncertain event

Project risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a

positive or negative effect on one or
more project objectives such as scope, schedule, cost, and quality.

A risk may affect the project for good or for bad. Although risk
usually has negative connotations, it may well have an upside.
Positive and negative risks are commonly referred to as
opportunities and threats

Lack of knowledge about an event that reduces confidence in

Uncertanity conclusions drown from the data. Cost, time, QA can be uncertain.
Investigation of uncertanities help identify risk
Risk averse Someone who doesn't want to take risks

Workaround When an unknown risk has occured it requires the development of

a WA

Decision Tree - Expected monetary value

Formula Risk Cost x The Probability + Initial cost

Expected Monetary Value EMV = P x I

You use EMV and add all the negative risks and substract all positive
Contigency Reserve risk. That gives the total round amount of reserve

Procurement Management

Contract Types
There is generally a single fee, although payment terms may be
specified so that the cost is not necessarlily a lump sum payable at
Fixed Price Contracts (esta es the end.. Its very popular when the scope is thoroughly defined
una categora de alto nivel, and completly known. Price is fixed, with no provisions for cost or
abajo se describen los tipos de performance overruns. The risk is shifted to the seller. Sellers
contratos fijos) under fixed-price
contracts are legally obligated to complete such contracts, with
possible financial damages if they do not. Fixed-price contracts may
also incorporate financial incentives for
achieving or exceeding selected project objectives, such as schedule
delivery dates, cost and technical performance, or anything that can
be quantified and subsequently measured

The most commonly used contract type is the FFP. It is favored by

most buying organizations because the price for goods is set at the
Firm Fixed Price Contracts (FFP) outset and not subject to change unless the scope of work changes.
Any cost increase due to adverse performance is the responsibility
of the seller, who is obligated to complete the effort. Under the FFP
contract, the buyer should precisely specify the product or services
to be procured, and any changes to the procurement specification
can increase the costs to the buyer.

Price is fixed, with an incentive fee for meeting a target specified in

the contract (such as finishing the work ahead of schedule, or
cheaper). This fixed-price arrangement gives the buyer and seller
some flexibility in that it allows for deviation from performance,
Fixed Price Incentive Fee (FPIF) with financial incentives tied to achieving agreed upon metrics.

A type of Incentive Contract. The buyer pays a fixed price plus an

award amount (bonus) based on performance. Similar to FPIF,
except the total amount is determined in advanced and
apportioned based on performance. The award paid sometimes
Fixed Price Award Fee (FPAF) might be judged subtectively
Its popular where fluctuations in the exchange rate or interest rate
may impact the project. An economic stipulation may be based on
the interest rate, the consumer price index, cost of living
adjustments, currency exchage rates, etc. This contract type is used
Fixed Price Economic Price whenever the sellers performance period spans a considerable
adjustment (FP-EPA) or Fixed period of years, as is desired with many long-term relationships. It is
Price with prospective price a fixed-price contract, but with a special provision allowing for pre
redetermination defined final adjustments to the contract price due to changed
conditions, such as inflation changes, or cost increases (or
decreases) for specific commodities. The EPA clause needs to relate
to some reliable financial index, which is used to precisely adjust
the final price. The FP-EPA contract is intended to protect both
buyer and seller from external conditions beyond their control.

Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) - The seller passes the cost back to the
buyer andtype of Fixed
receives Price Contracts.
an additional Its upon
fixed fee unilateral (signed by
completition ofone
Theused for pays
buyer simplethecommodity procurements.
seller the actual costs plusPurchase
a negotiated
Purchase Order (tambien es un orders
fee thatbecome
is fixed contracts
before thewhenworkthey are The
begins. accepted
seller (eg: equipmentfor
is reimbursed is
contrato fijo) shipped
all by the
allowable seller)
costs for performing the contract work, and receives a
fixed-fee payment calculated as a percentage of the initial
estimated project costs. The fee does not vary with actual costs;
thus the seller does not have an incentive to increase or inflate
costs. This type of contract limits the fees of projects with limited
scope definition. A fee is paid only for completed work and does not
change due to seller performance. Fee amounts do not change
unless the project scope changes

Cost Reimbursable Contracts

(used when the scope of work is
uncertain, there is a high risk on
the effort or the total costs are Cost Contract - The seller receives no fee (profit). Appropiate for
unknown, so the buyer has non profit organizations
most of the risk). This category Cust Plus Fee (CPF) or Cost Plus Percentage of Costs (CPPC) it
of contract involves payments requires the buyer to pay for all costs plus a percentage of costs as a
(cost reimbursements) to the fee. The seller profit is based on a percentage of everything billed
seller for all legitimate actual to the buyer. This requires the buyer to monitor carefully the
costs incurred for completed invoices
work, plus a fee representing
seller profit.
most of the risk). This category
of contract involves payments
(cost reimbursements) to the
seller for all legitimate actual
costs incurred for completed
work, plus a fee representing
seller profit.

Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF) - The buyer pays all costs and a base fee
plus an award amount (bonus) based on performance, similar to
CPIF, except the incentive is a potential reward, rather tnan a
potential reward or penalty. The award amount is determined in
advance. The award is sometimes judged subjectively. The seller is
reimbursed for all legitimate costs, but the majority of the fee is
earnedPlus Incentive
only based onFeethe
(CPIF) -The seller
satisfaction passes the
of certain cost
broad back to the
buyer and gets
performance an incentive
criteria definedfee forincorporated
and meeting a target (usually
into the tied
back to keeping costoflow
The determination fee or meeting
is based objectives
solely on the in the contract). The
seller gests a percentage
determination of the savings
of seller performance byortheshares
and overrruns.
is generallyIn
CPIF contracts,
not subject if the final costs are less or greater than the original
to appeals.
estimated costs, then both the buyer and seller share costs from the
departures based upon a prenegotiated cost-sharing formula, for
example, an 80/20 split over/under target costs based on the actual
The seller charges
of thefor
time plus the cost of any materials needed to
complete the work. The seller pays per-hour or per-item basis. Used
when the level of effort cannot be defined, it can be created quickly
because the statement of work is not very detailed. The total cost of
the work is not known. These contracts have terms and conditions
Time and Materials Contracts specifically to negotiate quickly and begin work sooner. These
contracts are best suited for small dollar amounts and short amount
of time. There is a profit for the seller in every hour or unit billed,
the seller has no incentive to control costs, this means a great deal
C of oversight from the buyer. It often involves an incomplete scope
Type of Contract Who Bears the Risk

Fixed Price Seller

Cost plus fixed fee Buyer

Cost plus Incentive Fee Buyer and Seller

Time and Materials Buyer

PTA Point of Total Assumption

Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct

4 values Definition

Take ownership for the decisions we make or fail to make, the

Responsability actions we take or fail to take, and the consequences of that result

show a high regard for ourselves, others, culture and the rescources
entrusted to us. An environment of respect engenders trust,
confidence, and performance excellence by fostering mutual
cooperationan environment where diverse perspectives and
Respect views are encouraged and valued.

Make decisions and act impartially and objectively. Our conduct

Fairness must be free from competing self interest, prejudice and favoritism.

Honesty understand the truth and act in a truthful manner

Aspirational Items Goal

Mandatory Items Firm and must be followed
Baseline - The final approved version of certain pieces of the PM plan

refers to uncontrolled changes or continuous growth in a projects scope. This can occur
when the scope of a project is not properly defined, documented, or controlled. It is
generally considered harmful. Typically, the scope increase consists of either new
products or new features of already approved product designs, without corresponding
increases in resources, schedule, or budget. As a result, the project team risks drifting
away from its original purpose and scope into unplanned additions. As the scope of a
project grows, more tasks must be completed within the budget and schedule originally
designed for a smaller set of tasks. Accordingly, scope creep can result in a project team
overrunning its original budget and schedule. If budget, resources, and schedule are
increased along with the scope, the change is usually considered an acceptable addition
to the project, and the term scope creep is not used.

Scope creep can be a result of:

poor change control
lack of proper initial identification of what is required to bring about the project
weak project manager or executive sponsor
poor communication between parties

Scope creep is a risk in most projects. uncontrolled changes lead to scope creep
Gold plating means adding features that are not included in the product's scope. The
impact of the unauthorized addition of the feature can be or bad. It's correct that gold-
plating is done by the project team with an intention to enhance the quality of the
product, but whether the product quality actually enhances or gets reduced by this gold-
plating will never be determined before the product gets to the customer. Remember
quality is a measure of the extent to which a product conforms to the customer's
requirements, and since you are incorporating the unauthorized change or
enhancement, whether this change or enhancement will be acceptable to the customer
is subject to his/her inspection. Goldplating is something which is done without any
"changes" to the baseline.

The schedule model consists of all the data that it is used to calculate de schedule, such
as, activities, dependencies, leads and lags, etc. The schedule is the output of the
schedule model

Colchn -- Extra time or cost added to an estimate. should avoid because is not realistic.
Team members arbitraty determine how much pad they want. Avoid The PM has the the
ability to reliable calculate what additional time and cost (reserves) are needed without
Amout of time activity can be delayed without affecting the project finish date. If activity
is on the CP then it has 0 float..
how long an activity can be delayed without affecting the ES of the next one

Amount of time a project can be delayed without delaying the externally imposed
project completition date required by a customer or management, or the date previously
comitted by the PM

Que es lo mas temprano que una actividad puede empezar.. No hay formula es calcular
el tiempo transcurrido y el ES es el comienzo de la actividad (tambien conocido como
forward pass)

Que es lo mas temprano que puede acabar una actividad

Que tan tarde puede empezar una actividad sin afectar las fechas finales. Also known as
backward passing
Que tan tarde puede terminar sin afectar las fechas finales
Cuanto tiempo dura una actividad


Pessimistic, Optimistic, Realistic (P y O son variables de riesgo)

Pessimistic + 4(Realistic) + Optimistic / 6
Pessimistic + Realistic + Optimistic / 3
Pessimistic - Optimistic / 6

It looks at the TCO from puchase or creation, through operations and finally to disposal.
E.G: generic computer servers (cheap) will be more expensive to mantain in the long run.
EG: produce a product with a reduced level of quality and save 9K; but when the the
product goes live the fees for maintance are 20K. So lifecycle costing is looking at the
whole life of the product, not just the project costs

Finding less costly way to do the same work. E.g. outsourcing. Getting more out the
project in every possible way.. The key is that the scope of work is not reduced. It answers
the questions "How can we decrease the project costs while mantaining the same

estimating is a wide range -50% to 100%.. It is done during project initiating, when very
little is known about the project
estimating is range -30% to 50%
estimating is range -20% to 30%
Made during project planning. Range is -10 to 25%

As the project progresses the estime will be more refined. estimating is -15% to 20%
estimating is narrow -10% to +15%

They stay the same through the life of the project. EG: a piece of heavy equipment. A
fixed cost is a non-recurring cost that will not change as the project progresses
Costs that vary. EG: Labor hours, fuel
Billed directly to the project. EG: Materials used or training. Team Travel
These are shared among other projects. EG: Fringe Benefits, Managers salary (his salary
is overhead), taxas, janitorial services
Costs that are unrecoverable
Risk that project cost could go higher than planned

Budgeted at Completition..

Planned Value (also known as Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled)

Earn Value (also kown as Budgeted Cost of Work Performed)

Actual Cost (also known as Actual Cost of Work Performed)

Schedule Variance

Cost performance Index

Cumulative CPI

Schedule Performance Index

Estimate at Completition
Estimate to Completition

Variance at Completition

To-Complete Performance Index

The degree of which a set of characteristics fulfills requirements

Everyone in the company is responsible for quality. It looks at the underlying processes
that creates products or results
Also known as kaizen
Zero inventory or near zero

Two outcomes are not dependant upon each other. The probability of an event ocurring
does not affect the probability of another event occuring. EG The probability of rollin g a
6 on a dice is statistically independent of rolling 5 in the next roll. Statistical
independence refers to two events not being linked
One choice excludes the other. EG: Painting a house yellow or white are exclusively
events. Flipping a coin cannot result in both head and tails. Two events cannot happen at
the same time. By definition, two events that are mutually exclusive cannot happen on
the same trial.
Statistical calculation to measure how a set of data is organized. It is used to set control
limits to determine if a process is in control.

Sigma is another name for Standard Deviation and indicates how much variance from
the mean has been established as permissible in a process. It is represented by 3 or 6
sigma. EG: at 6 sigma 1.5 out of 1 million doors will have defects. At 3 sigma approx 2500
doors out of 1.5 million will have defects. the more sixmas the more strict the Quality is

Achieve high levels of QA by controlling the processes and reducing defects

1 = 68.27%
2 = 95.45%
3 = 99.73%
6 = 99.99985%
Keeping defects from ocurring out of the process
Catching errors (keeping errors out of the hands of the customer)
Either a work result conforms to quality or not.. Pass or fail
Measures how well something conforms to quality. (Degree of conformance)

Unusual and preventable. EG: Assembly Errors

Normal.. EG: Defects due to bad raw materials

Limits your project has set of product acceptances. Range of acceptable results

Are set at three standard deviations above and below the mean. As long as the results
fall within the control limits, the process is in control. The limits represent the quality
specifications of the cuestomer

The point where benefits or revenue to be received from improving quality equals the
incremental cost to achieve that quality

Getting to know. Team members arrive. All is wonderful, happy, committed, things are great
We get to know each other very well. Individual caracteristics surface and conflict may
arise (siempre llega tarde, habla enojado, etc)
working out the differences. We fix it by conflict resolution

Our team is functional, knows how to work each others. This is were we are effective

People leave so we need to get the rest of the team to the perforfming stage

Self Actualization (living and working at full potential)

Esteem (importance, recognition, contribution)

Acceptance (part of the team)

Security (fear, job protection, safety)

Physiological (food, sleep, clothing)

Theory Y- it assumes people are naturally motivated to do good work. Managers perform
very little motiviation and the team is trusted. EG: Telecomuning org.
very little motiviation and the team is trusted. EG: Telecomuning org.

ctive, and in calm times, a relationship-oriented leader will work

Hygiene factors: Paycheck, personal life, security, status, good relationships, working
conditions (chairs, desks, etc)

Motivational factors: achievement, recognition, growth, advancement

Achievement - team members with high need of achievement (nAch) have a need to
stand out. They like recognition. They prefer to work alone. High risk porjects are not
appealing since their effort may be damaged by the risk of the project. Also low risk
projects don't appeal since effort will not be recognized. They need projects that are
challenging but reachable

Power - Team members with the need of power (nPow) generally desire social power or
personal power. social power is better because they get along with other members.
These guys are leaders and want to manage others

Affiliation - Team members want to belong to a team (nAff). They work best when
cooperating with others.

of their behavior. In other words, people will work in relation to the expected reward of the work

Management (Management Skill)

em not the person. It means dealing with the problem. The PM using this technique gets to the
se The final steps of problem solving include: implement a decision, review it and confirm the
with other individuals or teams to come to a solution. Incorporating multiple viewpoints and insights
de and open dialogue that typically leads to consensus and commitment. This leads to a win-win
. Worst way to resolve a problem.Its only a temporary solution. Pushing ones viewpoint at the
y enforced through a power position to resolve an emergency.
hat is going well. It doesn't provide a solution, just tries to diminsh the problem. Emphasizing areas

resolved.. Its avoiding the problem postponing the issue to be

on since no party gets everything. Searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to all
uctive Team Roles

project. Its proactive and productive

ed to the project
s good communication and good information flow
on what can be accomplished, not what is imposible. They contribute to team morale
erstanding of the project is the same. Common goals
unding it
ple enough for everyone to understand
y make desicions whether the project should move on and is still achieveing the business need

uctive team roles

into the project.
ation in his ownopinions
by presenting selfish goals
forcefully and without considering others. He will talk more than the

frustrates communication. Discouraging people from participating

es and Schedules. Conflict comes often between the PM and Functional Managers
al conflict and admin procedures

The PM is part of the Communication Channels

munication Types
used frequently on the project to convey info and communicate

Used infrequently, but essential for prominent documents that go into the project
record. The project plan is a formal written document (project charter, etc). This allows
your words to be documented and they will get to everyone in the same form. When
there are complex problems, you want everyone to receive the same info
Used to communicate information quickly and efficently

Used for public relations, special events, company-wide announcements, sales

Techniques and considerations for effective communications management include, but are not limited to, the following:
Sender-receiver models. Incorporating feedback loops to provide opportunities for interaction/ participation and remove
Choice of media. Situation specifics as to when to communicate in writing versus orally, when to prepare an informal me
Writing style. Appropriate use of active versus passive voice, sentence structure, and word choice.
Meeting management techniques. Preparing an agenda and dealing with conflicts.
Presentation techniques. Awareness of the impact of body language and design of visual aids.
Facilitation techniques. Building consensus and overcoming obstacles.
Listening techniques. Listening actively (acknowledging, clarifying, and confirming understanding) and
removal of barriers that adversely affect comprehension.
its best suited for small work, lasting a short period of time. The seller doesnt have an
incentive to get the work done quickly
Since the price is fixed, cost overruns may not be passed to the buyer and must remain
on the seller

Since all cost must be reimbursed to the seller, the buyer bears the risk of cost overruns
The buyer bears most of the risk here, but the incentive fee for the seller motivates that
seller to keep costs down

The buyer pays the seller for all time and materials the seller applies to the project. The
buyer bears the most risk of cost overruns

The subcontractor assumes responsability for all aditional costs after a cap. Its important
because it helps identify the cost point in the contract where the seller has the most
motivation to bring things to completition. Costs above PTA are assummed to be due to
mismanagement or the seller not estimating correctly. Sellers will monitor their work
against PTA to make sure they are still receiving profit

it focuses primarily on laws, regulations, policies and ethics. The right thing to do is to
follow the law or a corporate policy

We negotiate in good faith and do not abuse others. The respect we extend to others
includes interpersonal respect and the respect of others' property, including intellectual
property. We do not exercise the power of our expertise or position to influence the
decisions or actions of others in order
to benefit personally at their expense

avoid conflict of interest and we never discriminate against others.

We do not engage in or condone behavior that is designed to deceive others, including

but not limited to, making misleading or false statements, stating half-truths, providing
information out of context or withholding information that, if known, would render our
statements as misleading or incomplete. Tell the truth and nothing but the truth
Work Performance Data


desviaciones del alcance (en otras palabras)


LS= Es+FLoat
How much was originally planned for the project to

How much work should've been completed at this

point in time based on the plan

How much work was actually completed (as work

is being completed, value is added to the project)

The money spent during a given period. It is the

total cost incurred in accomplishing the work that
the EV measured

How much actual costs(EV and AC) differ from

planned costs.
How much the schedule differs from the plan.
Expressed in dollars

How much we are getting for every dollar

Its all of the periodic earn value calculations added

together (EV) divided by all of the actual costs
added together (AC)

How fast the project is progressing

Amount we expect the project to cost, based on
where we are relative to cost and schedule
How much more we expect to spend from this point
forward based on what we've done so far.

Difference between what we originally budgeted

and what we expect to spend. As of today, how
much over or under budget do we expect to be at
the end of the project

The performance which must be achieved on all

remaining work in order to meet either financial or
schedule goals
u use control chart to determine the probable
special cause

Control limits 3 standard deviation

ings are great

dont motivate, but their abscence will make someone unsatisfied


first for the exam

win-lose resolution. Worst for the exam

not usually the best choice

Second for the exam

Formal written allows your words to be documented, and they will get to everyone in the same form. Comlex
problems, you want everyone to recieve the same info. People from different cultures/countries you want
formal writter to have everyone on the same page

ude, but are not limited to, the following:

ties for interaction/ participation and remove barriers to communication.
rsus orally, when to prepare an informal memo versus a formal report, and when to communicate face to face versus by e-

ure, and word choice.

ign of visual aids.

ming understanding) and

in T&M I controll wheter the work is acceptable, I
have full controll but I also have the full risk,
becouse if the estimates are wrong, if the team
doesnt have the skill Im still paying by hour

The fix prices we eliminate all the risk, they have to

deliver time, cost, quality at that fixed price. I can't
see into their black blox, I can't understand their
their delivery, I can't do early quality assessment,
because the vendor will say: Wow back off, you
don't need to see what Im doing. In 5 months you
have your development done
Usas este cuando el Scope an no est totalmente
definido, cuando no est claro ni completo

PM aspire to not getting in over their heads, taking

ownership of their actions (including mistakes), and
doing what they say they will do

Valuing other people, cultures and opinions.

"Politically Correct". We conduct ourselves in a
professional manner, even when it is not

treat everyone equally, with no discrimination,

nepotism or favoritism. Make decisions transparent
and open. Impartiality

create an environment where it is encouraged that

people tell the truth. The PM always seeks the
truth in all dealings
details about project performanceWork performance data includes information about the completion status of
deliverables and other relevant details about project performance

Project Management Information System. An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather,
integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the
project from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated systems. EG: (e.g., an automated
tool suite, such as a scheduling software tool, a configuration management system, an information collection and
distribution system, or web interfaces to other online automated systems)
Contingency Reserve

Management Reserve
N/A EG: 20miles of sidewalk x $15K
equates a BAC of $300K

Planned % Complete x BAC

Actual % Complete x BAC

Sum of the cost for the given period





AC + Bottom-up ETC
Calculates actual costs to date plus a new estimate for the
remaining work. Used when the original estimate was
flawed. Original estimating assumptions no longer valid

BAC CPI // Nugets lo tiene BAC / CPI

Used if no variances from the BAC have occured or you
will continue at the same rate of spending (as calculated
in your cumulative CPI or based on the trends that led to
the current CPI

AC + (BAC - EV)
Used when current variances are considered atypical of
the future. It is essentialy AC pus the remaining value of
work to perform. Its used when the current variance are
thought to be atypical of the future. Current Variances
are atypical similar variances will not occur in the future

AC + (BAC - EV) / (CPI x SPI)

Calculates actual costs to date plus the remaining work
modified by performance. Used when current variances
are atypical for the future and when project schedule
constraints will influence the completition of the
remaining effort. FOr example, it maight be used when
the cummulative CPI is less than 1 and a firm
completition date must be achieved.


Control chart. Las lineas punteadas pequeas son
warning limits
ake someone unsatisfied
ocumented, and they will get to everyone in the same form. Comlex
the same info. People from different cultures/countries you want
ame page

to communication.
s a formal report, and when to communicate face to face versus by e-
mance data includes information about the completion status of
roject performance

nformation system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather,

ect management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the
include both manual and automated systems. EG: (e.g., an automated
configuration management system, an information collection and
online automated systems)
they account for "knowns". Identified in Risk Management.
They become part of the cost baseline. The PM has control
of these reserves and can approve the use. En Quantitative
Risk Analysis es donde se crean las reservas. Por ejemplo, si
se requiere un 75% de certeza de exito, entonces la
organizacin necesita una bolsa de reservas de X dolares).
Este analisis de la cantidad de $$ se hace aqui en riesgos

they account for "unknowns". Items not identified in Risk

Management. These are estimated (eg: 5% of the project
cost) and then these reserves area added to the cost
baseline to get the project budget. Management approval is
needed to use these reserves. You may analyse the
appropiateness of using management reserves to cover the
cost of opportunities (positive risks)

Forms of Power
PMs are often tasked with the responsability of the project without formal authority form the org. Its key that the PM unde
the forms of power to influence and manage the team

Reward Power

Expert Power



Punishment /Penalty
Liability = Responsabilidad

Limitation of Liabilities: Daos que puedes causar al buyer.

EG: En caso de que el proveedor se equivoc tumb el
punto de venta de McDonalds, Cunto dinero pierde
McDonals en esas 3 horas que estuvo abajo el dinero. Los
proveedores deben tener un seguro (commercial liability)
para cubrir esos daos (limitation of liability)
Direct and Manage Project Work also requires review of the impact of a
implementation of approved changes:
Corrective actionAn intentional activity that realigns the performanc
project management plan;
Preventive actionAn intentional activity that ensures the future perf
work is
aligned with the project management plan; and/or
Defect repairAn intentional activity to modify a nonconforming prod
Forms of Power
e project without formal authority form the org. Its key that the PM understands
team Ability to give rewards and reconginition. "I
understand that you want to participate in the
acceptance testing of this project. Because of Pay raise, time off,
your performance, I will assign you as part of the etc

Its when a Subject Manager Expert is involved People will listen to

It has to be earned. This project manager has the SME. He has
been very succesful on other projects. Lets give significant power to
her a chance!".. Ojo, Expert power needs to be influence behaviour
gained and control

AKA formal power. Its the power that the It would indicate a
manager has because of his position. This type of projectizied
power comes from being formally in charge of structure
the project. He has the backing of the org EG: "
You need to listen to me because I'm in charge"

its based on respect or the personality of the If the PM is very

manager. Its the power of charisma and fame, close to the CEO, his
people liking you. EG: The most liked and power will probabily
respected project manager in the organization be higher because of
says, "I think we should change the content of that alliance
our project charter"

AKA coercive power or penalty, this type of

incluence is the ability to push an employee if a
goal is not met. "If this does not get done on "if this module does
time, I will remove you from the group going to not pass Quality
Hawaii for the customer meeting" Control you are
going to be fired"
d Manage Project Work also requires review of the impact of all project changes and the
tation of approved changes:
ve actionAn intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with

anagement plan;
ve actionAn intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project

th the project management plan; and/or

epairAn intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component.
best for the exam
best for the exam

power dirived by my position in the company

power dirived by my position in the company

least for the exam/generally incorrect one. Power derived by my position in the company
A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. The temporary
Projectof projects indicates
management that a project
is the application of has a definiteskills,
knowledge, beginning and techniques
tools, and end to project activities to meet the
project requirements
Program management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a program in order to
meet the allocation,
resource program requirements
and that the and to obtain benefits
management and control
of the portfolio not available
is consistent by managing
with and aligned toprojects individually
Portfolio management aligns with organizational strategies by selecting the right programs or projects, prioritizing
the work, and providing the needed resources
Program management
and implements plans harmonizes
to achieve a its projects
specific andthat
scope program components
is driven and controls
by the objectives interdependencies
of the in order
program or portfolio it is to real
subjected to and, ultimately, to organizational strategies
OPM provides
A project an strategic
management framework
office (PMO) isthat guides Portfolio,
a management program
structure that and project management
standardizes to deliver
the project-related organizational s
processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques
Management by Objective is a systematic and organized approach that allows management to focus on achievable goals
Creation of a cogent lessons learned documentation is an important part of the closure process and it should not be byp
Rolling wave planning is the process of planning for a project in waves (phases) as the project progresses and things beco
Rolling Wave Planning We can see more clearly what is in close proximity, but looking further ahead our vision becomes
advance with a fair amount of clarity. Rolling Wave Planning is a multi-step, intermittent process like waves - because we
highlighted for the rest of the project.

Progressive Elaboration is what happens in rolling wave planning process. Progressive Elaboration means that over time
provide that missing, more elaborated detail for the work packages as they now appear on the horizon.

Geographical locations
Duration estimating databases and other reference data
Productivity metrics
Communication channels,
Scheduling tool to be used in developing the schedule model.
Market Conditions
Exchange Rates
Published seller price list


Working or operating conditions of the project or its

deliverables that may affect project quality

Cultural perceptions that may influence expectations about quality

Existing human resources,
Geographical dispersion of team members,
Personnel administration policies,

Risk Attitudes, Thresholds and Tolerances that describe

the risk the org is willing to withstand
Published checklists
Risk attitudes
Industry studies of similar projects by risk specialists

Risk databases that may be available from industry or proprietary sources

Industry studies of similar projects by risk specialists
Suppliers, including past performance or reputation;
Stakeholder risk tolerances, for example allowable cost overrun percentage;

Existing information on human resources including availability, competency

levels, prior experience,
interest in working on the project and their cost rate

Colocation or multiple locations.

Personnel administration policies such as those that affect outsourcing
Organizational structure

Project records - Project records can include correspondence, memos, meeting minutes, and other documents describing
should, to the extent possible and appropriate, be maintained in an organized manner. Project team members can also m
notebook or register, which could be physical or electronic.

Project Documents - Documentation resulting from the project's activities, for example, project management plan, scope
calendars, risk registers, change management documentation, planned risk response actions, and risk impact.

As a part of project closure activity, the first thing a project manager should do is review all prior information from the pr
all work is completed and the project has met its objectives. Then u seek customer approval

Product scope: The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result. Project scope: The work that ne
deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. Completion of project scope is measured a
, Project Scope Statement and its associated Work Breakdown Structure (WBS ) , WBS dictionary and scope baseline. Com
measured against product features or requirements.

The project scope statement documents the entire scope, including project and
product scope

you should have created a project estimate based on realistic work package estimates that do not include padding Then,
can look to cut quality, decrease risk, cut scope, or use cheaper resources (and at the same time closely monitor the imp
OPA: It is important to first read and understand your organizational policies on doing business in a foreign land. Many or
The performance measurement baseline is made up of the scope, time, and cost baseline
The control limits are set based on the company's quality standard and indicate the acceptable range.
The upper and lower control limits are above and below the mean, but are within the specification limits
Quality attributes are the measurements that determine if the product is acceptable. They are based on the characteristi
A data point that requires you to determine the cause of the problem is a special cause.
Specification limits are how the customer measures quality. The control limits are more constraining than the specificatio
Your quality specifications should exceed your customer's need. Otherwise you probably would not do the work.

It is the role of the sponsor to define the initial project and protect it from changes.
The resource histogram shows the number of resources used in each time period. In its pure form, a bar chart shows onl
sources of conflict: 1) schedules, 2) project priorities, 3) resources, and 4) technical opinions.
The first thing to do is to detemine whether the required training would benefit the organization in the future. If so, the c
project-specific training for team members would come from the project budget.
recommended corrective or preventive actions can come from the team or stakeholders in addition to the project manag
A corner office is a "perk" whereas health benefits are a fringe benefit.
Projects often need their own reward systems to affect performance. Project managers should create such a system for e
It is the sponsor's role to prevent unnecessary changes and to set priorities among projects.
It is not wise for a project manager to suggest a compromise when the issue is a technical one.

The status report is too detailed for a quick look. The forecast report only looks into the future. The progress report summ
Probabilistic analysis of the project occurs in Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis, and risk triggers are identified in Plan Ris

The only other factor to help determine risk reserves that would come after risk response strategies is the analysis of sec
Determining the risk rating of the project is done during Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis (high, medium, low; los rates e

A workaround is a response to a previously unidentified risk. Management reserves are set aside for such risks.
reserve is designed to cover specific risk events previously identified and measured in the risk management process.
The sentence "such payments are EXPECTED in the other country" does not mean such payment is legal. Meaning it is sti
Terms and conditions should reflect the findings of a risk analysis. This means the project manager has been assigned an
The requirement to provide PMP-certified project managers is a screening system. A system to minimize personal prejudi
The normal response to a force majeure is to give an extension of time
The procurement manager generally has the authority to approve change orders
The requirements traceability matrix and stakeholder register are project documents, not parts of the project manageme

RPN To calculate the Risk Priority number (RPN) for the risks, probability, impact, and timeframe are used. The formula fo
impact, and timeframe. The timeframe allows the project to readily assess prioritization. Prioritizing the risks relative to o
Total quality management (TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to install and make permanent a climate in which
Kaizen. A popular Japanese technique which advocates continuous small improvements involving everyone from top ma
TQM means organized Kaizen activities involving everyone in a company managers and workers in a totally systemic a
A project sponsor is the one who designates the project manager in the project charter and also authorizes a project man
PTA solo aplica para Fixed Prices Contracts.. Cuando hable de CR tienes que calcular el price que le pagas al seller pero sin
A communication constraint is usually derived from specific legislation or regulation, organizational policies, or a project
Secondary risks are those which are caused by the treatment or response to the risk, whereas residual risk is the risk whi
A secondary risk can be defined as a risk created by the response to another risk. In other words, the secondary risk is a c
The PM might use the WBS to prevent scope creep
It is important for the project manager to involve his project team to work out solutions to critical project issues; howeve
A Process Capability Baseline (PCB) specifies what results to expect when processes are followed. By using PCB a project
design of experiments is a statistical approach to determine the incfluence of variables on results,e tc etc.. El mensaje aq
In the event of project termination, the project manager should do scope validation to determine the extent of completio
The project manager should only consider documented change requests.
in a marix org resources are obtained from a pool controlled and monitored by a functional manager
A schedule compression technique is useful not only during project planning to see if the desired completion date can be
Withdrawal happens when someone gives up and walks away from the problem, usually because they're frustrated or di
a defect is any deliverable that does not meet its requirements. (including documents! Like PMPlan)
The project management team is a subset of the project team and is responsible for the project mana
leadership team. For smaller projects, the project management responsibilities can be shared by the e
degrees. Only the project management team (which is a subset of the project team) is responsible for

The project manager should try to manage information, so that only appropriate and relevant informat
In some cultures where offering gifts is a custom, rejecting or returning the gifts may be considered ru
Opportunity cost is the cost of passing up the next best option. The opportunity cost of choosing proje
The project manager need not be a technical expert qualified to determine the accuracy of technical s
Net Present Value (NPV) = (Present value of all cash inflows) - (Present value of all cash outflows)
time is already taken into account in NPV calculations. (higher the better no impoarta el tiempo)
The receiver is responsible for making sure that the information is received in its entirety and understo
Theory X: This assumes that the workers are inherently lazy and require supervision.

Theory Y: The average worker finds physical and mental effort on the job satisfying and likes his work
A Sponsor is the person or group who provides resources and support for the project and is accounta
Customers do not always provide financial resources for the project.
compromising= some degree of satisfaction
a value-adding change - The fourth reason for changing the scope of your project is a value-adding change. Value-adding
ities to meet the
in order to
ojects individually
jects, prioritizing

ndencies in order
or portfolio it is to realize specified benefits

ated organizational strategy

cus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from available resources
and it should not be bypassed. Although lessons learned are a must, the minimum expectation is that customer accept the product.
gresses and things become more clearer.
ead our vision becomes less clear. Depending upon the project - its length and complexity - we may be able to plan as much as a few w
ike waves - because we cannot provide the details very far out in our planning. A detailed, well-defined WBS is created for that period o

n means that over time we elaborate the work packages in greater detail. Progressive Elaboration refers to the fact that as the weeks an

Project calendars,
Lessons learned.
Historical duration information,
scheduling methodology
Financial Control Procedures
Financial DB's
Existing policies regarding Cost Estimating and budgeting
Cost budgeting tools
Existing formal and informal cost budgeting-related policies
The performing organizations quality policy,
as endorsed by senior management, sets the organizations intended direction
on implementing its quality
management approach;

Escalation procedures for handling issues within the team and within the performing organization.
Risk categories
Risk definitios
Authority levels for decision making
Risk statement formats or templates

Process measurement database used to collect and make available measurement data on
processes and products;
Issue and defect management database(s) containing historical issue and defect status, control
information, issue and defect resolution, and action item results.

Hiring procedures
Bonus Structures
Corporate Apparel

Configuration management knowledge base containing the versions and baselines of all official
organization standards, policies, procedures, and any project documents.
Existing formal and informal schedule control-related policies, procedures, and guidelines
Schedule control tools
Monitoring and reporting methods to be used

Issue and defect reporting procedures and communication policies.

Security Requirements
Allowed communication media
Specific technologies available

er documents describing the project. This information

am members can also maintain records in a project

management plan, scope, cost, schedule and project

risk impact.

information from the previous phase closure to ensure

scope: The work that needs to be accomplished to

ect scope is measured against Project Management Plan
and scope baseline. Completion of product scope is

t include padding Then, if costs must be decreased, you

closely monitor the impact of changes on the project

a foreign land. Many organizations also have in house departments that provide cultural training and language support
sed on the characteristics of the product for which they were designed.

ing than the specification limits. Control limits are how you measure your process quality.
ot do the work.

m, a bar chart shows only activity and calendar date

in the future. If so, the cost may be covered by the performing organization. Funding for

on to the project manager.

eate such a system for each project.

he progress report summarizes project status, and would be the most helpful for a quick review.
are identified in Plan Risk Responses

es is the analysis of secondary risks.

medium, low; los rates estn en la matriz de probabilidades

for such risks.

anagement process.
is legal. Meaning it is still a bribery. Hence, among the given choices, only B is the best answer.
er has been assigned and has completed the risk management process before the contract is drafted. Contracts are risk mitigation tools
nimize personal prejudice is a weighting system.

f the project management plan. Most project documents are created by the project manager for his or her use during the project, and

are used. The formula for risk is Probability * Impact * Timeframe (P*I*T). These three elements determine each risk's Risk Priority Num
ng the risks relative to one another assists the team in deciding how to allocate resources for mitigation, especially when there are a la
nent a climate in which an organization continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers
g everyone from top management to the lowest level in the organization
in a totally systemic and integrated effort toward improving performance at every level.
authorizes a project manager to use project resources for the project. Therefore, he is the one who needs to provide clarity to the team
e pagas al seller pero sin usar el PTA por eso ustas el 20% del 80/20 y se lo multiplicas por que van a compartir los ahorros .20 para el
al policies, or a project constraint which limits the project's options during communication management (teams working in different ge
idual risk is the risk which remains even after you have treated or responded to the risk.
the secondary risk is a consequence of dealing with the original risk.

l project issues; however, he should use this approach judiciously because it can be an inefficient use of time. Furthermore, in many sit
By using PCB a project can predict at a gross level, the effort required at various stages, defect densities, overall quality, and productivi
,e tc etc.. El mensaje aqu es la palabra statistical
the extent of completion of the project
completion date can be met, but also during integrated change control to look at the schedule impact of changes to time, cost, scope,
they're frustrated or disgusted. If you see a team member doing this, it's a warning sign that something's wrong.

for the project management and leadership activities such as initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controllin
n be shared by the entire team or administered solely by the project manager. The entire project team is not resp
m) is responsible for these activities.

nd relevant information reaches the appropriate stakeholders.

ay be considered rude and inappropriate behavior. Appreciation of cultural differences is the way to win the trust o
st of choosing project A (over project B, which is the next best option) is equal to NPV of the next best available o
curacy of technical specifications.
all cash outflows)
arta el tiempo)
entirety and understood correctly.

g and likes his work.

ect and is accountable for enabling success....Customers are the persons or organizations who will approve and

ng change. Value-adding changes are caused by factors that cannot be considered when the original scope is defined, but if implemente
ustomer accept the product.

able to plan as much as a few weeks or even a few months in

WBS is created for that period of clarity, and only milestones are

s to the fact that as the weeks and months pass we have planned to


anguage support
ontracts are risk mitigation tools!

her use during the project, and do not require outside approval for changes.

mine each risk's Risk Priority Number (RPN) by multiplying attribute ratings for probability,
n, especially when there are a large number of identified risks.
s and services to customers

ds to provide clarity to the team about the project manager in case there is confusion.
ompartir los ahorros .20 para el seller..
nt (teams working in different geographical locations). However, (the availability of a key person) is an uncertain event or risk in the pro

f time. Furthermore, in many situations, meetings actually delay the decision making process due to internal conflicts.
s, overall quality, and productivity. Most of the organizations set up organization level baselines called process capability baselines. If b
of changes to time, cost, scope, and risk.

uting, monitoring, controlling, and closing the various project phases. This group can also be referred to as the cor
re project team is not responsible for Initiating, Controlling and Closing, although they will be involved in these pro

is the way to win the trust of people from divergent cultures.

of the next best available option (in case of various options)

ions who will approve and manage the project`s product or service, or result.

ope is defined, but if implemented into the project scope, will improve the project or make it more cost effective. In a software game de
ncertain event or risk in the project which needs to be addressed through risk management

ernal conflicts.
process capability baselines. If baselines are regularly established, trends in the process capability can easily be obtaineda key reason
so be referred to as the core, executive, or
will be involved in these processes to varying

effective. In a software game development project, a value-adding change could be new technology that enables players to play agains
asily be obtaineda key reason for having a PCB.
at enables players to play against other competitors online. This situation would require a change request due to a value-adding chang
est due to a value-adding change.
Initaton Planning
1.1 Devlop Project 1.2 Devlop project management
charter plan

Scope 2.1 Devlop scope management plan

2.2 Collect requirements

2.3 Define scope
2.4 Creat WBS
Time 3.1 Plan schedule management
3.2 Define activities
3.3 Sequance activities

3.4 Determine activity resources

3.5 Determine Activity duration

3.6 Prepare schedule
Cost 4.1 Plan cost management
4.2 Estimate cost
4.3 Determine budget

Quality 5.1 Plan quality management

HR 6.1 Plan HR management

7.1 Plan communication

Communication management
Risk 8.1 Plan risk management
8.2 Identify Risk
8.3 Perform qualitative analysis
8.4 Perform quantitive analysis
8.5 Response to risk

Procurement 9.1 Plan procurement

10.1 Identify
Stakeholder 10.2 Plan stakeholder management
Execution Monitoring & Controling Execution
1.3 Direct & manage the 1.4 Monitor and control the project 1.6 Close the project
project work work

1.5 Perform integrated change control

2.5 Control scope

2.6 Validate Scope

3.7 Control Schedule

4.4 Control cost

5.2 Perform quality assurance 5.3 Control quality

6.2 Accquire project
6.3 Devlop project team
6.4 Manage project team

7.2 manage communication 7.3 Control communication

8.6 Control risk

9.2 Conduct procurement 9.3 Control procurement 9.4 Close procurement

10.3 Manage stakeholder 10.4 Control stakeholder engament

PMP Exam Formulas


This is the formula for Cost Variance (CV). EV = Earned Value and AC =
CV=EV-AC Ch. 7 - Project Cost Management
Actual Cost
CPI=EV/AC This is the formula for Cost Performance Index (CPI) Ch. 7 - Project Cost Management
SV=EV-PV This is the formula for Schedule Variance (SV). PV = Planned Value. Ch. 7 - Project Cost Management
SPI=EV/PV This is the formula for Schedule Performance Index (SPI) Ch. 7 - Project Cost Management
BAC=Total PV at completion Budget at Completion (BAC) Ch. 7 - Project Cost Management
ETC=BAC-EV Estimate to Complete (ETC) based on atypical vaiances Ch. 7 - Project Cost Management
ETC=(BAC-EV)/CPI Estimate to Complete (ETC) based on typical variances Ch. 7 - Project Cost Management 27300

EAC=AC+ETC Estimate at Complete (EAC) using a new estimate. This is done by Ch. 7 - Project Cost Management
performing organization.

EAC=AC+BAC-EV Estimate at Complete (EAC) using remaining budget. Most commonly used Ch. 7 - Project Cost Management
when seeing atypical variances.

EAC=AC+((BAC-EV)/CPI) Estimate at Complete (EAC) using CPI. Most commonly used when seeing Ch. 7 - Project Cost Management
typical variances.

Total=n(n-1)/2 This is the formula for total number of communication channels within a Ch. 10 - Project Communicatations
project team. N = number of stakeholders. Management
Expected Monetary Analysis (EMV) is a statistical output that calculates
EMV=probability*possible outcome the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that may or may Ch. 11 - Project Risk Management
not happen (ex. EMV = 90% * 20,000).
Present Value=future value/(1+R)n
EV=Actual % complete*BAC Earned Value (EV) calculation
PV=Planned % complete*BAC Planned Value (PV) calculation
Expetected duration (Optimistic time+ 4xmost likely duration+Pessimistic time)/6 Ch-6 time management
ES of 1st activity 1 Z
EF of 1st Activity ES+duration-1

ES of 2nd Activity ES+1