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1.1 Principle of Operation
1.2 Motor Connections
1.2.1 Star Connection
1.2.2 Delta Connection
1.3 Standard Types of Squirrel Cage Motors
1.4 Selection of Motor
1.4.1 Electrical Characteristics
1.4.2 Mechanical Considerations
1.4.3 Size and Rating of Motors
1.4.4 Cost
1.5 Types of Enclosures
1.6 Transmission of Power
1.7 Rotation of Motors


2.1 Mechanical Overloads
2.2 Abnormal Supply Conditions
2.3 Faults in Starting Supply Circuit
2.4 Internal Faults in Motor
2.5 Vibration


3.1 Introduction to Motor Starters
3.2 Concept
3.2.1 Power Circuit
3.2.2 Control Circuit
3.3 Types of Starters
3.3.1 D.O.L Starter
3.3.2 Star Delta Starter
3.4 Starting
3.5 Motor Control Centers


4.1 Short Circuit Protection
4.2 Overload Protection
4.3 Under Voltage Protection
4.4 Loss of Phase Protection
4.5 Earth Fault Protection
4.6 Temperature Rise Protection

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5.1 Direct On Line Starter

5.1.1 Power Circuit
5.1.2 Control Circuit Test Mode Run Mode
5.2 Star Delta Starter
5.2.1 Control Circuit Switching On Switching Off Tripping
5.2.2 Power Circuit


6.1 Contactor
6.2 Overload Relay
6.3 Fuses
6.4 Timer
6.5 Current Transformers
6.6 Ring Type CT

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The objective of this report is to highlight the basics about motors and their starters.
Since, motor is widely used in the process industry and a number of personnel other
than electrical also are concerned, therefore a clear understanding of the said
component is essential. In this context an attempt is made to cover the important
aspects regarding the topic in a brief manner. Hence it is hoped that the readers would
found this attempt effective & knowledgeable.

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Xxxx Fertilizer complex is equipped with a large number of three phase motors which
are involved in different process applications.
The following chapters unfolds the salient features of induction motors and their
starters. Keeping in view the industrial aspects of motors, their principle of operation,
type of connections, enclosures, transmission types, common faults & selection criteria
are covered.
Since only to describe induction motors was not enough because of the essentiality of
magnetic motor starters, therefore the components, types, principle of operation and the
protections provided by the starters are also covered. Mainly the motor starters used at
Ammonia, Urea, Utilities and Dap plant are of Direct On - Line type with a few

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C h a p t e r #1

Motors are one of the most essential features of any industry, because of their variety of
applications. Motors are used generally for fans , pumps , conveyors, agitators, rotary
valves , blowers , valves and also for many other purposes.
Among all types of motors the one which is used the most is the 3-phase induction
motor. Induction motor is also of two types due to some variations in construction, but
they have the same principle of operation. The two types are namely,

Slip ring induction motor

Squirrel cage induction motor

Mostly the squirrel cage induction motor is the first choice because of its rugged and un-
breakable construction. Also because there is no winding on the rotor of a squirrel cage
induction motor , and in place of windings there are skewed copper bars which are
shorted at the ends. Following are the advantages of skewing:

It prevents cogging
It produces more uniform torque
It reduces motor hum during its operation

While in slip ring motors additional resistance is provided at the starting which
decreases gradually in order to improve starting torque , it also have windings on rotor ,
because of which there is a possibility of fault in rotor. Whereas, in case of squirrel cage
motor, the rotor is free from any sort of winding and hence probability of rotor winding
fault is eliminated.

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The principle of operation of an induction motor is just like a transformer whose
secondary is being shorted.
Firstly , when the three phase supply is applied to the stator windings , a rotating
magnetic field is produced inside the motor. Due to this changing field ( with reference
to each single position of rotor ) a voltage is induced in the rotor. The magnetic flux of
stator is of constant magnitude and rotating at a synchronous speed. The flux passes
through the air gap , sweeps past the rotor surface and so cuts the rotor conductors
which as yet are stationary. Due to the relative speed between the rotating flux and the
stationary conductors, an emf is induced in the latter according to the Faraday Law of
Electro magnetic induction. The frequency of the induced emf is the same as the
supply frequency. Its magnitude is proportional to the relative velocity between the flux
and the conductors and its direction is given by Flemings right hand rule. Since the
rotor bars and conductors forms a closed circuit , rotor current is produced whose
direction, as given by Lenzs law is such as to oppose the very cause producing it. In
this case, the cause which produces the rotor current is the relative velocity between the
rotating flux of the stator and the stationary rotor conductors. Hence, to reduce the
relative speed the rotor starts running in the same direction as that of the flux and tries
to catch up with the rotating flux.


A squirrel cage induction motor could be run either in star connection or in delta
connection. At the motor there are a total of six terminals provided, two for each of the
three phase windings.
Internally these six terminals are connected in the following manner:

u1 u2 u3

v1 v2 v3

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V1 U2
V2 U3
V3 U1
The windings of the three phases exists between each of the three sets of terminals. viz
V1 U2, V2 U3 & V3 U1.
In order to connect the motor in star or delta ,connection strips are required. For star
connection these strips are used to short (interconnect) u1, u2 & u3 terminals to form a
star point (Neutral point).
Whereas the supply lines R, Y & B* are connected to V1, V2 & V3.


For delta connection the connection strips are used to connect the six terminal in the
following manner.

V1 U1
V2 U2
V3 U3

Whereas the supply lines R, Y & B* are connected to V1, V2 & V3.

* R, Y & B is Red , Yellow & Blue respectively.


Different types of three phase SCIM have been standardized according to their electric
characteristics into six types designated as design A, B, C ,D ,E & F respectively. The
characteristics of motors of these classes is as follows:

1. class A Normal starting current , Normal starting torque, normal slip.

2. class B Low starting current , Normal starting torque, Normal slip.

3. class C Low starting current , High starting torque, Normal slip.

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4. class D Low starting current , High starting torque, High slip.

5. class E Normal starting current , Low starting torque, Low slip.

6. class F Low starting current , Low starting torque, Normal slip.


The selection of a motor depends primarily on the conditions under which it has to
operate and the type of load it has to handle. Main factors for such a selection are as

1.4.1 Electrical characteristics

starting characteristics
speed control
running characteristic

1.4.2 Mechanical considerations

type of enclosure
method of power transmission
noise level
type of cooling
type of bearings
1.4.3 Size and rating of motors
requirement for continuous, intermittent or variable load cycle
overload capacity
1.4.4 Cost
capital cost
running cost

In addition to the above factors one has to take into consideration the type of current
available whether alternating or direct. However, the basic problem is the matching of

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mechanical output of the motor with the load requirement i.e to select a motor with the
correct speed / torque characteristic as demanded by the load. In fact, the complete
selection process requires the analysis and synthesis of not only the load and the
proposed motor but the complete assembly and the control equipment which may
include rectification or frequency changing.


The main function of an enclosure is to provide protection not only to the working
personnel but also to the motor itself against the harmful ingress of dirt, abrasive dust,
vapours, liquids, solid foreign bodies and mechanical hazards. At the same time it
should not adversely affect the proper cooling of the motor.
Hence different types of enclosures are used for different motors depending upon the
environmental conditions.
Some of the commonly used motor enclosures are as under:
Open Type
Screen Protected Type
Drip Proof Type
Splash Proof Type
Totally Enclosed Type (TE)
Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC)
Pipe Ventilated Type
Flame Proof Type


There are many ways of transmitting mechanical power developed by a motor to the
driven machine. viz

Direct drive
Belt drive
Rope drive
Chain drive
Gear drive

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Motors are generally bi directional , and their direction of rotation depends upon the
phase sequence of supply. With the positive phase sequence the motor runs in clock
wise direction and reverse for the counter phase sequence. The actual direction of
motor is that which is observed from the non drive end of the motor.
In order to reverse the direction any of the two phases are interchanged which would
result in the change of sequence.

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C h a p t e r #2

Following are the abnormal conditions and causes of failure of induction motors:


Bearing failure
Sustained overloads
Prolonged starting
Loss of supply voltage
Unbalance supply voltage
Phase sequence reversal
Over and under voltage
Under frequency
Interruption in phases
Blowing of fuses ( single phasing)
Short circuit in supply cable
Starter circuit fault
Phase to phase fault
Phase to earth fault
Failure of phase ( open circuit)
Mechanical failure
Rotor winding fault ( only in slip ring induction motors)

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The abnormal conditions are summarized as follows:
Prolonged overheating:
It is caused by mechanical over-loading. Due to this mechanical over-loading current of
the motor is increased which results in temperature rise of winding and deterioration of
insulation & finally resulting in winding fault. Hence motor should be provided with
overload protection.
Single phasing
One of the supply lines gets disconnected due to rupturing of a fuse or open circuit in
one of the three supply connections. In such cases the motor continues to run on a
single phase supply. If the motor is loaded to its rated full load, it will draw excessive
currents on single phasing. As a result of this the windings could be damaged due to
overheating. The single phasing causes unbalanced load resulting in excessive heating
of rotor due to negative sequence components or unbalanced current.
If the motor does not start due to excessive load, it draws heavy current. It should be
immediately disconnected from supply.
Stator earth faults
Faults in motor winding are mainly caused by failure of insultation due to temperature
Phase to phase faults
These are relatively rare due to enough insulation between phases. Earth faults are
relatively more likely.
Inter turn faults
These grow into earth faults. No separate protection is generally provided against inter
turn faults.
Rotor faults
These are likely to occur in wound rotor motors, due to insulation failure.
Failure of bearing
This causes locking up of rotor. The motor should be disconnected.
Unbalanced supply voltage
This causes heating up of rotor due to negative sequence currents in stator winding.
Supply undervoltage
The undervoltage supply cause increase in motor current for the same load.

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Vibration is one of the most important and ambiguous problem in motors. The actual
task in case of vibrations is the identification of the cause of vibration. It could be due to
several of the above mentioned abnormalities.
Vibration is of three types:
Vertical &
Vibrations due to electrical problems can be easily determined by disconnecting electric
power to the machine and observing if the vibration ( and noise) immediately disappears
or gradually winds down. An abrupt decrease in vibration upon power disconnection
indicates an electrically related vibration. If the vibration remains high and gradually
decreases as the rotor spins down, a mechanical cause due to rotation is indicated ,
possibly imbalancing of rotor, misalignment , or bearing failure etc.

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C h a p t e r #3


All motors require a certain specific arrangement for the starting and control purpose. If
we emphasize closely on this arrangement, than it would be noted that there are a
number of dissimilarities in it depending upon :
Number of phases
Rating of motor and
Nature of application
Single phase low rating motors ( capacitor start and run induction motors) are mostly
used in domestic applications. As it would be a common observation for all personnel
that nothing special is usually provided for the operation and protection of the motor.
This is because these motors draw small currents and could be switched ON & OFF
using the domestic switches. Moreover the protection is also not so critical for the
following reasons:
As compared to three phase motors their connections are simple and thus
reduces the chances of connection fault and phase to phase fault.
Since these motors are employed as centrifuge pump driver with the fluid being
water from reservoir tanks, therefore the possibility of increased density and
pressure etc of fluid is rare as compared to the motors used in process
These motors do not run continuously as compared to industrial motors so the
possibility of overheating is also a rare case.
Also they are protected from the hazardous chemicals etc as in the industry.

Whereas, for the operation, control and protection of three phase industrial motors
few specific arrangements are made. In order to comprehend the phenomenon it is
necessary to have several basic concepts.

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We have a total of four supply wires , out of which three are the phases ( L1, L2
& L3 ) and the fourth wire is the neutral.*
Between each of the three phases the voltage is VL ( 480 V ) for 60 Hz.
Between phase and neutral this voltage is reduced by a factor 3 ( i.e 278 V )for
60 Hz.
Power to the motor could be provided through two different types of connections,
o Star connection
o Delta connection

In star connection the voltage across each of the three motor windings is VL / 3.
While in delta connection the voltage across each motor winding is VL. Due to this
change in voltage level the current drawn by the motor is different for both connections.
Since , from ohms law we know that for a constant impedance , current value varies in
direct proportion to the change in voltage level.
Therefore depending upon the above justification it is obvious that the motor operating
in star will draw less current as compared to the motor in delta.

The basic concept behind the starter is to provide easy operation, precise control and
comprehensive protection of the motor. If we would operate a high rating motor with a
switch as are used in domestic motors than we have to match the rating of the switch
with the rated current of the motor. In doing so the size of the switch would increase so
much and the operation would become difficult. Also it would not be practical to provide
operation from multiple locations and for multiple phases.
Therefore, in order to simplify the problem two separate circuits are used. Namely,
Control circuit
Power circuit


Power circuit is responsible for providing power supply to the motor. But the switching of
this power is through the control circuit.
The power circuit is a three phase circuit.

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As mentioned earlier this circuit is responsible for the switching of power to the motor.
The switching duty is performed by the control circuit using the principle of
electromagnetism. On energizing a coil in the control circuit it pulls the contacts of the
power circuit and as a result of which the power circuit is closed and motor starts. The
main component which performs this duty is known as contactor.
The control circuit is always a single phase circuit.


In order to provide proper starting of motors following types of starters are available:
D.O.L starter
Star delta starter
Auto transformer ( not commonly used )


In direct on line starter, power is supplied directly to the motor without any sort of
voltage drop. The motor with DOL starter would run in star or delta depending upon the
terminal connections of the motor. With delta connection full line voltage is applied to
the motor terminals. Usually the motors with this scheme are connected in delta.
Motors starting with direct delta starters possess comparatively high torque and starting
current than the motors with star delta starting scheme. For this type of starter only one
cable is required for supplying power to the motor.


This method is used in the case of motors which are built to run normally in delta
connected stator winding. It consists of a two way switch which connects the motor in
star for starting and than in delta for normal running. When star connected the applied
voltage over each phase of motor is reduced by a factor of 1/ 3 of that which would
have been developed if motor were directly connected in delta, as a result of which the
starting current is limited. line current is reduced to In star delta starters, motor starts in
star but after the set time, switches over to delta. By employing this scheme the main
advantage is that the starting current is limited, because in star a reduced voltage is
applied to the motor windings as compared to delta.

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Depending on the fact that a plain induction motor is similar in action to a poly phase
transformer with a shorted rotating secondary. Therefore, if normal supply voltage is
applied to the stationary motor than as in the case of a transformer a very large initial
current is taken by the primary, at least , for a short while.
Induction motors when direct switched take 7 8 times their full load current and
develop only 1.5 2.5 times of their full load torque.
The starting currents for different types of starters is shown in Table # 3.1.


01 Direct On line 7 -- 8 x full load current
02 Star delta 2.5-3 x full load current
03 Auto transformer 2.5-4 x full load current
Table # 3.1


Motor control centers, as obvious from the name are responsible for the control of
motors. MCC is a series of interconnected cubicles in which there are installed
individual modules for motors ( motor starters). Along with separate starters there is a
common supply incoming, which is usually through a load break switch. This could be
equipped with fuses and than would be called as fused load break switch.
With the recent developments the starters are now withdrawable type i.e. they could be
racked in and out easily. There are three available positions for these withdraw able
starters, viz,
Racked in
Racked out

Racked In
In this position the starter is completely available for the operation of motor. Both the
power and control circuits are connected.

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In this position only the control circuit is connected whereas the power circuit is
disconnected. Therefore just the starter control circuit could be tested with this
Racked out
Both the power and control circuits are disconnected in this position. This position is
selected to physically disconnect the supply from the motor for maintenance etc.

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C h a p t e r #4

It is necessary to protect the motors from frequent occurring faults, in order to maintain
continuous, economical and safe operations. Generally, the magnetic motor starters
have several built in protective features. Viz.

Short circuit protection

Overload protection
Under voltage protection
Loss of phase protection
Earth fault protection
Temperature rise protection

Among the above the temperature rise protection is not generally provided in all low
voltage motors, they are only installed for high rating motors.


Short circuit protection for the motor is provided by the HRC fuses. If a sudden short
circuit develops within the motor and causes a current flow many times larger than the
rated current, these fuses will blow, disconnecting the motor from the power supply and
preventing it from burning up. However, these fuses must not burn up during normal
motor starting, so they are designed to require currents many times greater than the full
load current before they open the circuit. This means that short circuits through a high
resistance or excessive motor loads will not be cleared by the fuses.
Moulded case circuit breakers could also be used in place of fuses for short circuit

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The most frequent problem of motors is overloading. This problem is frequent because
it could be due to a number of mechanical , chemical and electrical reasons.
When an induction motor is overloaded, it is eventually damaged by the excessive
heating caused by its high currents. However, this damage takes time, and an induction
motor will not normally be hurt by brief periods of high currents ( such as starting
currents). Only if the high current is sustained than a damage would occur. The
overload heater Overload protection for the motor is provided by the overload relays.
These overload protection devices senses the increase of current beyond the calculated
safe limit. Whenever the current of the motor On an increased value of current this
device breaks the control circuit which in turn shuts of the power supply to the motor.
This protection is provided by an overload relay. This relay on sensing the increased
current trips the control circuit after a certain delay.


For undervoltage protection no special device is installed and the protection is provided
through the coil of main contactor. On a noticeable drop of voltage the coil of the main
contactor would de energize due to which the power supply to the motor would be
Also with a decrease in voltage the current would correspondingly increase and the
overload would sense this increased current.


When one of the three phase supply is disconnected than the motor would run on two
phases with an abnormal sound an increased current on the remaining two phases.
This increased current would be sensed by the overload relay followed by tripping of the


When the earth fault current flows through earth return path , the fault is called Earth
Fault. Other faults which do not involve earth are called phase faults. Since earth faults
are relatively frequent , earth fault protection is necessary in most cases. When
separate earth fault protection is not economical , the phase relays sense the earth fault

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currents. However such protection lacks sensitivity. Hence separate earth fault
protection is generally provided. Earth fault protection senses earth fault currents.
A core balance current transformer is generally provided which reflects the residual
current cause by an earth fault. This residual current operates a sensitive device which
in turn trip the circuit.
The majority of fires which occur as a result of faulty wiring are started by current
flowing to earth. Fires can be started by fault currents of less than 1 Amp. The normal
overload protective devices such as fuses , MCBs or overload relay will not detect such
a small current. Thus a correctly chosen residual current device will detect this fault
current and interrupt the supply.


Among Low voltage motors this protection is provided only in high rating motors. For
this purpose temperature detectors are provided inside the motor windings for
temperature sensing. With a change in the temperature of motor windings the
resistance of these sensors vary accordingly. These sensors could be of both types:
positive temperature co efficient
negative temperature co-efficient
The selection of the type of sensor depends upon the control / protection logic used.
This protection detects temperature rise due to high ambient temperature, failure of
cooling and other causes.

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C h a p t e r #5

Generalized description of control and power circuits of DOL and SD starters is as



Since direct on line starters are used at FJFC complex, therefore the design close to the
actual is used as a reference in order to describe the functionality of the starter.
The components used in the starters are mentioned in the following table # 5.1.


The power supply to the motor is subjected to the
01 Main Contactor
energization of this contactor.
02 Current transformer Used for current metering.
03 Ring type CT This CT is installed for residual current signaling.
This relay senses the residual current from ring CT &
04 Earth fault relay
trips the circuit.
This relay is responsible for the protection of motor
05 Overload relay
from overload.
06 ON/OFF push buttons Controls the operation of starter
07 Run / stop indication To visualize the current state of motor.
08 HRC fuse This is for short circuit protection of motor.
09 Control fuse This is for protection of control circuitry.
10 Selector switches For mode selection (runtest & localremote)
11 Isolator switch For physically isolating the circuit.
This relay is used for starter availability signaling to
12 Aux relay R3
the DCS.
Table # 5.1

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Power circuit for a direct on line starter motor is as shown in figure # 5.1. For this type of
starters only one power cable is required and on this power supply line following
components are installed.
Isolator switch
HRC fuses
Heater coils of overload relay
Main contacts of K1
Current transformer ( for metering)
Ring type CT ( for earth fault protection )
Through this power circuit motor would get the power when the isolator switch is in ON
position and the main contactor is energized in the control circuit.


The control circuit of the DOL starter is as shown in the figure # 5.2. This control circuit
could be operated in two modes :
Test mode
Run mode TEST MODE
In order for the control circuit to operate in test mode the mode selector switch must be
in test position. The main purpose of this mode is to check the proper operation of the
control circuitry without supplying power to the motor. i.e. the power circuit remains
In this mode the circuit operation is possible from the ON /OFF push buttons mounted
on the starter door. The circuit would energize with the door mounted ON push button
only if the overload / earth fault relay is not up and also the stop contact should be
closed. With the momentary contact through the ON push button the contactor would
energize and latch the supply via its own normally open contact.
Since, the R3 relay does not picks up so there is no motor availability signal on DCS
during this mode. Also if there would be a fault ( overload or earth fault ) the fault
indication would glow.

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This is the actual mode in which the motor is operated. For this the starter panel
mounted mode selector switch should be in run position.
In this mode motor could be operated from :
Local ON / OFF push buttons
Operation of the motor from the starter door device is not permitted in this mode.
In order to switch ON the motor from local panel , it is necessary to change the position
of the locally mounted selector switch to the local position and then press the ON push
button, whereas, the local OFF push button is operational independent of the selection
of local switch.
Operation of the motor from DCS ( distributed control system ) is dependent on the
locally mounted selector switch.
When the motor is racked in than the relay R3 picks and via a normally open contact of
this relay an availability signal is transmitted to the DCS. For this relay to pick it is
necessary that none of the two protections be activated.
A fault indication is present which would glow in presence of any of the two overload /
earth faults.
A run indication would glow when the supply would be present at the coil of the main
contactor and when the contactor is de-energized a stop indication lights up via a
normally close contact of the main contactor.


The operation and control logic of the star delta starters is described with reference to
a simple circuit. ( figure # 5.3 a & b ):
The components of a star delta starter are mentioned in Table # 5.2.


This contactor remain energized for the whole period
01 Main Contactor
the motor is running.
This contactor is energized only during the starting
02 Star contactor
This contactor energizes just after the de
03 Delta contactor
energization of star contactor.

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This relay is responsible for the duration of the motor

04 Timer relay
to run in star.
05 HRC fuse This is for short circuit protection of motor.
This relay is responsible for the protection of motor
06 Overload relay
from overload.
07 ON/OFF push buttons Controls the operation of starter.
08 On indication To visualize the current state of motor.
09 Fuse This is for the protection of the control circuitry.
10 Isolator switch For physically isolating the circuit.

Table # 5.2


In the control circuit the auxiliary contacts of the contactors and relays are used to
control the operation. Following is the description of ON /OFF and tripping of the control
circuit.( figure # 5.3 a). SWITCHING ON :
Operation sequence of the starter for switching ON is as follows:
Firstly, Press the ON push button
Due to this momentary contact the supply would through to the coil of the main
contactor and the timer via the normally closed contact of overload relay and the
OFF push button.
On energization of the main contactor the ON push button would be latched by a
normally open contact of K1 as shown in the figure.
The timer relay would remain de-energized despite of receiving the supply. This
relay would pick after the set time priorly adjusted on the ON delay timer.
Therefore , firstly the normally closed contact of timer T1 would remain closed
due to which the star contactor ( K3 ) would pick. After the set time has elapsed
this normally closed contact would open and the normally open contact would
close. On closing of this normally contact the delta contactor would pick as a
result of which the motor would start running in delta.

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Press the OFF push button :
Due to the pressing of stop push button the supply would be disconnected to the coils of
contactors and timer. The most important effect due to this momentary breaking of
circuit is the removal of the latching due to the normally closed contact of the main
contactor ( K1). This action would finally result in closure of the motor till further ON
command. TRIPPING
In this type of starter tripping is done in the similar manner as the stop push button.
Because as the overload relay operates it opens the normally closed contact used in the
control circuit, which results in the closure of motor until the resetting of overload relay
followed by ON command.


The power circuit of a star delta starter is as drawn in the figure # 5.3 b.
In the power circuit, main contacts of contactors and relays are used. For this type of
starters two cables are laid contrary to the usual practice of single cable. Out of these
two, one cable remains permanently in contact with the main contactor, whereas the
other cable is responsible for the motor connection in star / delta.
In the main line, usually following components are connected:
Isolator switch
HRC fuses
Main contacts of K1
Overload relay heater coils
On the other cable there are only the main contacts of the star and delta contactors ( K2
& K3).
The overload relay could be connected at two locations ( A & B ). If the overload relay is
connected at A than the setting of the overload relay would be in direct relation to the
rated current of the motor. Whereas, if the relay is connected at B location than the
setting of the relay would be reduced by a factor of 3 as compared to the setting at A.
This is because the current at location B would be the phase current and in delta the
relation between the phase and line currents is as follows:

IL = 3 Iph

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C h a p t e r #6

There are a number of components used in the motor starters. Out of those the most
critical and important components are described below.
A contactor is a switching device capable of making and breaking and carrying
electrical current under normal and overload conditions. Contactors have two
types of contacts.
Main contacts
Auxiliary contacts
Main contacts are normally open contacts and are used in the power circuit.
Whereas the auxiliary contacts ( both NO and NC contacts)* are used in control
Contactors are equipped with a coil, energizing of which changes the state of
normally open and close contacts. Contactors are selected depending on the
rating & nature of load and type of motor.
The available types of AC contactors are given in table # 6.1.
Non inductive or slightly inductive, resistive AC 1
Slip ring Induction motor starting and
02 AC 2
Squirrel cage induction motors, starting
03 AC 3
switching off.
Squirrel cage induction motor starting ,
04 AC 4
inching, plugging.

Table # 6.1

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The overload relays normally used are of bimetallic type. i.e they operate on the
principle of bimetal ( bends on heating). These relays are equipped with three heater
coils each for one phase and due to their heating effect the bimetal is operated. These
devices have an overload setting range due to which the sensitivity of the relay is
changed. Moreover, for high current motors it is not feasible to expose the heater coils
to such heavy currents. Therefore, in order to avoid this, the overload relay is connected
via a current transformer and the relay takes into account the ratio of the connected CT.
This relay is contains normally open and normally close contacts, out of which the
normally close contacts is responsible for the tripping of the main contactor in case of
A test button is also available in order to check the working of the overload relay
mechanism. Tripping of the overload relay could be visualized because of the presence
of a trip indicator mounted on the front side of the relay.
Along with the above a hand and auto reset dial is also available. It is recommended to
keep the resetting mode on manual , because every tripping should be noted and
investigated before resetting.
This relay could detect:
Overload current
Undervoltage ( because due to low voltage current will increase)
Single phasing
Locking up of rotor ( stalling)
Heavy starting
Continuous overload

Fuses are used for the protection of equipments against short circuits. These are
selected in such a manner that they blow out before the short circuit current
reaches its peak value. Fuses are used for protection of equipments in the
control circuits, main wires and also as back up for circuit breakers.
Fuses are of two types:
Quick acting

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They blow out as soon as short circuit occurs.

Time lag
They blow out after a certain time delay only if the short circuit persist.
These fuses are used in order to handle transients and heavy in rush
current in case of motors.

Timer is a device which controls the energization of a relay depending upon the
time setting. Timers are of several types:
On delay timer
Off delay timer
Extended pulse timer
Pulse timer
Reset timer
Stored on delay timer
From the above mentioned timers, on delay timer is used in star delta
starters. The time set on this starter is the time for which the motor would run in
star and than switches over to delta. i.e. the relay would energize after the set


Current transformer is an instrument transformer whose secondary current is
almost directly proportional to the primary current. It has an accuracy class of 1,3
,5 i.e. current error at rated primary current is +-1%,+-3%,+-5%,
CTs are used to drive ammeters ( for current measurement) and operating over
current relays (for protection).
In LT* circuits CTs are used for metering only. For protection double core CTs
are used.
There are two types of CTs
Window type
Wound type

*LT Low Tension

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This CT is used to provide earth fault protection, for which the residual or leakage
current is to be monitored. In this type of CT a single ring shaped core of magnetic
material , encircles the conductors of all the three phases , A secondary coil is
connected to a relay unit. During no earth fault condition the components of fluxes due
to the fields of three conductors are balanced and the secondary current is negligeable.
During earth faults such a balance is disturbed and current is induced in the secondary.
Core balance protection can be conveniently used for protection of low voltage and
medium voltage systems. The burden of relays and exciting current are deciding
factors. This form of protection is likely to be more popular with static relays due to the
less burden of the later. Instantaneous relay unit is generally used with core balance

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