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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN

BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION 2

PROJECT 1 SKELETAL CONSTRUCTION


(TEMPORARY BUS SHELTER)

GROUP MEMBER NAME:

CHANG MAY CHEN 0322636


CHERILYN CHIA 0321986
LOO YEE PEI 0329148
LOW CHI YIN 0329147
WEE SUE WEN 0322633
YANG JING LOO 0323066
CONTENTS

1.0 3.0
IDEA DEVELOPMENT TEST RESULT
INTRODUCTION pg 3
FORCES AND STRENGTH ANALYSIS pg 27 - 30

DESIGN CONCEPT pg 3
CONCLUSION pg 31
PRECEDENT STUDIES pg 4 - 5

DESIGN ANALYSIS pg 6

DESIGN CONSIDERATION pg 7 4.0


APPENDIX
2.0
REFERENCES pg 32

CONSTRUCTION APPENDIX pg 33 - 35

DESIGN PROCESS pg 8 - 12

MATERIALS SELECTIONS pg 13

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS pg 14 - 15

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS & COMPONENTS pg 16 - 26

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1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 DESIGN CONCEPT

In this project, students were required to design a 1:5 temporary Where would human be without trees? Trees play important part
bus shelter that can accommodate at least five to six people with in natural world, its no surprise that tree had inspired design, art
maximum height of 600mm and base size of 400mm x 800mm and even architecture. Adopting Branches and Leaves of Tree
(scale 1:5). In to understand of skeleton structures and it relevan as a design to enhance the visual and symbolic cues into the
components. Throughout the whole project, students will manage structures itself.
to demonstrate and manipulate skeleton construction.
The perforated of steel column and bracings gives the impression
Tetrahedron and Cuboid were chosen as the main skeleton form of tree branches when the sunlight penetrate in. Abstract in term,
to construct the temporary bus shelter. the roof had mimic the pattern of the leaves to provide lots of light
but keeping the sun shading effect at the same time.

FIGURE 1.2.1: PATTERNS OF THE


BRANCHES AND LEAVES HAD BEEN
FIGURE 1.1.1: TETRAHEDRON FIGURE 1.1.2: CUBOID ADOPTED INTO THE V OF THE
COLUMNS AND THE PATTERN OF THE
ROOF.

FIGURE 1.1.3: COMBINATION OF BOTH


TETRAHEDRON AND CUBOID
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1.3 PRECEDENT STUDIES

GERMAN-CHINESE HOUSE EXPO 2010

1.3.2 BUILDING MATERIALS/ TECHNIQUE

The 2 story building is 8m in height with a footprint of 25 x 10m. The


roof is held up by 8m long, giant bamboo columns with a maximum
diameter of 23cm and are connected using steel and concrete.
Laminated bamboo frames were designed to support the upper
floor. The exterior faade is covered by a light, permeable EFTE
membrane while a PVC membrane covers the roof.

FIGURE 1.3.3: BAMBOO FRAMES AND


COLUMNS AS THE SUPPORT STRUCTURE.

FIGURE 1.3.1: GERMAN-CHINESE HOUSE EXPO 2010

1.3.1 INTRODUCTION

This building was an architectural highlight of a large event


series Germany and China - Moving Ahead Together in China.
The two-storey building had load-bearing structures made of
bamboo and emphasized on the theme of sustainable
urbanisation. The aim was to promote the use of bamboo as a
construction material due to its traditional and cultural heritage
FIGURE 1.3.4: BAMBOO FRAMES AND
in China. FIGURE 1.3.2: LAMINATED BAMBOO FRAMES SUPPORTING THE
SUPPORTING STEEL CABLES.
UPPER LEVELS.

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1.3 PRECEDENT STUDIES

1.3.3 INFLUENTIAL ELEMENTS

The use of bamboo with high-tech components and materials in the


design forms a mobile and recyclable building. The combination of
Chinas traditional and cultural heritage with Germanys precise, FIGURE 1.3.7: THE GERMAN-CHINESE
high-tech engineering created an interesting building as this. HOUSE HAS THE EFFECT OF BEING
LIGHT, FUTURISTIC AND
Bamboo is used for the floor, structure and even the built-in ELEGANT WITH THE COMBINATION
OF BOTH GERMAN AND CHINA
furniture. This building stood out from the rest as its components CULTURE.
were either recyclable or could be dismantled and reused
elsewhere at any time and in different ways.

FIGURE 1.3.5: BAMBOO COLUMNS CONNECTED TO THE ROOF FRAME FIGURE 1.3.6: STEEL TUBES AS A PART OF THE ROOF FIGURE 1.3.7: BAMBOO COLUMNS
WITH STEEL JOINTS MADE UP OF BOLTS AND .NUTS STRUCTURE. CONNECTED TO FLOOR WITH STEEL JOINTS.

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1.4 DESIGN ANALYSIS

1.4.1 FORCE DISTRIBUTION ON SUPERSTRUCTURES DESIGN


1.4.2 BRACING DESIGN

The diagram below explains both path of forces: Tensile Force and
Additional bracing can enhance the load and force distribution through
Compression Force that had applied on column, and bracing. The forces
the X-bracing that been welded in between column and column before
are distributing through the C-channel roof to ground through the
transferring the load directly into the ground.
columns with x-bracing in the middle.

Tensile Force
Slanted Columns Bent by Compression Bracing gives
Compression Force
Force Support

1.4.3 FORCE DISTRIBUTION ON


SUBSTRUCTURES DESIGN

Pad foundation had been chosen to strengthen


Column X-Bracing Pin Joint Foundation Ground
the structure. The forces will be transfer from:

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1.5 DESIGN CONSIDERATION

1.5.1 SPACE 1.5.3 RAIN FLOW 1.5.5 SUNLIGHT & SHADING

The long bench allows more people to sit while The single pitched roof allows rain to flow The slightly pitched roof provides more shaded
waiting for the bus. backwards instead of the front side to prevent space for the users while allowing enough lighting
obstruction to the bus stop during rainy days. into the space. The roofing structure also creates
shadow pattern in the bus shelter.
w
Rain flo

Venti
la tion
Leaning structure

Sunlight Shadow

1.5.6 ACCESS
User access to the bus shelter is through the sides
and the front where the seats are facing.
1.5.2 VENTILATION 1.5.4 FUNCTIONALITY
Absence of walls maximizes the ventilation in the The bracing structure at the back allows leaning
bus stop and views towards the surroundings. of the users while obstructing entry to the bus
This prevents heat from storing up and creates a stop through the back.
comfortable space of the bus shelter.

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2.1 DESIGN PROCESS

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT - SKETCHES


1. - Column could not support the load of overhanging 2. - Additional support surround the structures limits the path of
roof structure. human circulation.

3. - Bracing added in columns allow stronger 4. - Columns added in front holds the overhanging roof structure, able
supporting system to carry the load from roof to to withstand harsh weather.
the ground - Bench connected to the bracing structure allow load distribution
from the columns.
- Slightly slanted structures allow better ventilation in the space.

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2.1 DESIGN PROCESS

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT - STUDY MODEL

STUDY MODEL 1: The initial design was based on the


inspiration from the bracing method of construction. Thus,
there is an extensive use of triangular shapes for the structure.
The design was deemed unsuitable as the overall stability is
not achieved.

STUDY MODEL 3: Study model that developed from study model 1: made with wooden stick and
paper as represented as steel column and tensile fabric.

STUDY MODEL 2: A more stable structure is produced where


the bracing styled columns were placed at one side while the
opposite sides are vertical columns.
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2.1 DESIGN PROCESS

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT - STUDY MODEL

STUDY MODEL 4: New study model created by using Google Sketch Up. The steel column and bracing remains as the same, meanwhile roof material had been
changed from tensile fabric to timber roof to provide better sun shading effect.

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2.1 DESIGN PROCESS

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT - FINALIZED DESIGN

Finalized design after several amendments were


made to ensure that the bus shelter is more
stable and can withstand loads. Consideration on
the usage of materials further enhanced the light
penetration and visual lightness of the structure.

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2.1 DESIGN PROCESS

FINAL DRAWINGS

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2.2 MATERIALS SELECTION

STEEL TIMBER POLYCARBONATE

Steel columns are used as the main support of Timber is used for the seating of the bus stop Polycarbonate is used as the roof shading. Tinted
the bus stop. The framing of the roof is made up and also the roof joists.The timber roof joists polycarbonate reduces glare under the strong
of steel C-channels to be joined to the steel allows the overall weight of the roof to be lighter sunlight while keeping the bus stop users shaded.
columns and allows the slotting of the timber and looks aesthetically pleasing.
joists.

Advantages: Advantages: Advantages:


Durable, light-weight compared to timber, can be Sustainable, reusable, esthetic appeal, insulator Blocks UV rays, light-weight, resistant to heat,
recycled, can withstand extreme forces and sunlight and rain, able to withstand force
weather conditions

Disadvantages: Disadvantages: Disadvantages:


Low fire resistance than concrete, high If untreated might cause discoloration and forms More expensive than plastic or glass, not scratch
maintenance cost, susceptible to corrosion mould, able to shrink and swell resistant, possible denting on surface

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2.3 CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

1 2 3 4

1. Cutting of steel columns.

2. Discussion of works.

3. Measuring and screwing of pin joint.


5 6
4. Welding.

5.Steel hollow section cutting..

6. Detailing of pin joints.

7. Initial construction of pin joint.

8. Bracing structure and bench installation.

7 8 14
2.3 CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

14. Steel reinforcement added to secure the bolts in place.

15. Concrete pouring.

16. Formwork filled with cement to form the foundation.

17. Welding of the pin joint on a base plate.

18. Fastening of floor joists.


9 9 10

11 12 13
14 15 16

9. Measuring the slanting angle of the roof.

10. Weld the U-joint to the roof frame as a connector of column to the the
roof.

11. Install the roof structures and slot it into the roof frame.

12. Insert the polycarbonate into the roof framing, above the roof structures
and seal it with silicon.

13. Placing silicon on the roofing.


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2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

Polycarbonate roofing

Timber beams and joists


Steel roof framing

Bolted & welded joint

Slanting square hollow section


Square hollow section

Welded bracing structure

Bolted & welded joint

Timber bench
Welded bench steel support
Pin joint to base plate connection
Flooring

Floor joists

Concrete floor beam

Concrete pad foundation

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2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

WELDING ROOF FRAMING TIMBER HALVING JOINT


BOLT AND NUT JOINT

Roof C-channel framing is welded unto the C-channel frames the timber roof joists and Timber roof beams and joists are
metal joint, which is then joint to the constructed with interlocking joints and
supporting beams together. Polycarbonate is
supporting columns with bolts and nuts. arranged in an angle to provide shade while
then slotted onto the framing. supporting the polycarbonate panel.

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2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

WELDING PIN JOINT

Steel bars are welded onto the columns to support the timber bench of the bus stop. It also Steel columns are connected to
increases the surface area of load distribution to the ground. baseplate through pin joint. Steel
base plate is then joint to concrete
with bolts and nuts.

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2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

NAILED JOINT BOLTED JOINT WELDING

Top parts of columns are welded on steel A pair of columns are welded on steel plates Welding of the cross bracing on the
plates and then screwed to C-channel and then screwed to the base. supporting columns increases the strength
framing of the roof. to transport load from the roof to the
foundation.

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2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

2.4.1 ROOF JOINTS - FRAMING SYSTEM

Plan view of the


roofing details

Steel framing made up of Side view of the structure


C-channels holds the timber
support and polycarbonate
Steel together.
framing
Timber
beams and
joists

The polycarbonate covering is


also further bound to the steel
framing with silicon to prevent
leakage during rainy days.
Polycarbonate roof
covering

The figure shows the components of the roof:


steel framing, timber beams and joists and the polycarbonate layer.

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2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

2.4.2 ROOF JOINTS - LOUVERED TIMBER

Side profile of the


roofing structure
showing the 3 main
supporting beams and
the louvered timber.

Timber halving
joint on the roof

Plan view of roof


support system
with dimensions
The beams and
the louvered
structure are
connected with
Halving Joint. 21
2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

2.4.3 ROOF TO COLUMN JOINT

The steel roof framing and the front


steel columns are connected by
welding on a piece of steel plate and
then fastened to the frame with bolt
and nut.

The actual look of the roof framing to front column joint. The front support is made up of 2
square hollow section welded onto
steel plates.

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2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

2.4.4 COLUMN TO FLOOR JOINT

Plan view of the column showing


the steel plate and the bolt
connection.

The bottom of the front columns joint to


the ground.
Bolts and nuts are used to secure the front column to the
ground.

Section showing the connection of the


steel plate to the ground with bolt
detailing.

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2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

2.4.5 BRACING JOINT

2.4.6 WELDING

The bracing structure is welded


onto a pair of columns where it
strengthens the whole structure
and prevents from buckling.

Pin joint is used to connect the


slanting bracing structure to
the ground.

The figure showing the


components of the joints with
the steel columns, base plate
and the bolts and nuts.
The pin joint connects a pair of columns to a metal plate,
which is welded 7 from the perpendicular position. The
base plate is also screwed to the concrete floor with bolt 24
and nuts.
2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

2.4.6. BENCH JOINT - TIMBER SEAT TO STEEL BEAM JOINT

Screws are added on each piece of timber to fasten


securely to the steel support below.

The actual view of the screw on the timber seating.

Section showing the timber seat


screwed to the supporting
Square Hollow Section.
Plan view of the bench showing the distribution of
screws to lock the timber pieces to the steel support.

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2.4 CONSTRUCTION DETAIL AND COMPONENTS

2.4.6. BENCH JOINT - STEEL BEAM TO FLOOR JOINT

The bench on the supporting Section showing the


steel structure is connected to combination of 3 materials
the ground with screw. joined together, forming the
bench of the bus stop.

The steel structure holding


the weight of the bench is Detailed view showing the
joined to the ground with L-shaped steel support and
welding on a steel plate and the screwed joint.
further fastened with screw.

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3.1 FORCES AND STRENGTH STUDIES

3.1.1 LOAD DISTRIBUTION

The overall structure has load distributed evenly to the ground. Cross bracing structures allow the spreading of load from the roof,
The single pitched roof is supported by the slanting steel thus reducing the weight load on each column and preventing the
columns with cross bracing at the back and a pair of columns on columns from buckling.
both sides at the front.

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3.1 FORCES AND STRENGTH STUDIES

3.1.1 LOAD DISTRIBUTION

The connection between the bench and the bracing structure Weight of seated user is transferred to the bench, which is also connected to the
increases the surface area in-contact with the ground, thus bracing structure and carried down to the ground beams. The bench is able to
increasing the stability of the whole bus shelter. withstand the live loads of 5-6 people.

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3.1 FORCES AND STRENGTH STUDIES

3.1.2 RAIN WATER DISTRIBUTION 3.1.3 WIND FORCE

Single pitch roof prevents the accumulation of rain on the roof, Open structure allows even distribution of wind force into the bus
thus increasing the ability to withstand weather. stop, causing balanced air pressure above and below the roof,
reducing uplift force on the roof.

Uplift force

Balanced air pressure

Wind Direction

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3.1 FORCES AND STRENGTH STUDIES

TEST RESULT

Bricks placed near the sides of floor is supported by Bricks stacked on the bench.
the concrete foundation.

Bricks placed at the centre of the floor. The test result of the strength of the bus shelter is successful, whereby the floor is able to withstand the load of 6
bricks (12 kg). The bench also managed to hold the weight of 6 bricks as well.

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3.2 CONCLUSION

The stability of the bus shelter is achieved through the design of the
substructure and superstructure, whereby the load from the roof is being
transferred to the ground with the help of the bracing structure, front
columns as well as the bench which is connected to the bracing structure. The
presence of bracing structure strengthens the whole structure, preventing the
roof from collapsing. Hollow steel sections used are able to withstand the
structure without having to use solid steel poles which are heavier.

The knowledge on substructures and superstructures allowed us to apply into


the bus shelter design while considering the possible joints and their
connection strength. The type of materials used also affects the load and
strength of the design. Through researches on the different types of load and
forces, we managed to understand more on their effects and how to
overcome these forces through the structural design.

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4.1 REFERENCES

1. The German-chinese House Expo 2010. Available at http://www.archdaily.com/58871/the-%25e2%2580%259cgerman-chinese-house%25e2%2580%259d-at-the-shanghai-world-expo-2010.


Accessed on 16 May 2017.

2. Shanghai Expo: Bamboo German-Chinese House Glows Like a Lantern. Available at http://inhabitat.com/shanghai-expo-bamboo-german-chinese-house-glows-like-a-lantern/. Accessed
on 16 May 2017.

3. Innovative connections. (n.d.). Retrieved May 10, 2017, from http://www.tboake.com/SSEF1/pin.shtml

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4.2 APPENDIX

FIGURE 4.2.1 IMAGES AND


SKETCHES OF THE BUS
SHELTER AND JOINTS.

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4.2 APPENDIX

FIGURE 4.2.2 SKETCHES OF


BUS SHELTER DETAILING AND
SOME ROUGH DIMENSIONS.

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4.2 APPENDIX

FIGURE 4.2.3. SKETCHES OF THE FLOORING FIGURE 4.2.4. SKETCHES OF JOINT OF I-BEAM AND
COMPONENTS. FOUNDATION.

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4.2 APPENDIX

FIGURE 4.2.6. SKETCHES OF PIN JOINT


FIGURE 4.2.5. SKETCHES OF COLUMN DESIGN

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