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UNIT 1.

HOW TO FIND KEY WORDS

DEFORESTATION AND DESERTIFICATION

A The Sahel zone lies between the Sahara desert and the fertile savannahs of
northern Nigeria and southern Sudan. The word sahel comes from Arabic and
means marginal or transitional, and this is a good description of these semi-
arid lands, which occupy much of the West African countries of Mali,
Mauritania, Niger, and Chad.

B Unfortunately, over the last century the Sahara desert has steadily crept
southwards eating into once productive Sahel lands. United Nations surveys
show that over 70 per cent of the dry land in agricultural use in Africa has
deteriorated over the last 30 years. Droughts have become more prolonged
and more severe, the most recent lasting over twenty years in parts of the
Sahel region. The same process of desertification is taking place across
southern Africa as the Kalahari desert advances into Botswana and parts of
South Africa.

C One of the major causes of this desert advance is poor agricultural land use,
driven by the pressures of increasing population. Overgrazing-keeping too
many farm animals on the land- means that grasses and other plants cannot
recover, and scarce water supplies are exhausted. Overcultivation-trying to
grow too many crops on poor land- results in the soil becoming even less
fertile and drier, and beginning to break up. Soil erosion follows, and the land
turns into desert.

D Another cause of desertification is loss of tree cover. Trees are cut down for
use as fuel and to clear land for agricultural use. Tree roots help to bind the
soil together, to conserve moisture, and to provide a habitat for other plants
and animals. When trees are cut down, the soil begins to dry and loosen, wind
and rain erosion increase, other plant species die, and eventually the fertile
topsoil may be almost entirely lost, leaving only bare rock and dust.

E The effects of loss of topsoil and increased drought are irreversible. They are,
however, preventable. Careful conservation of tree cover and sustainable
agricultural land use have been shown to halt deterioration of soils and lessen
the effects of shortage of rainfall. One project in Kita in south-west Mali funded
by the UNDP has involved local communities in sustainable management of
forest, while at the same time providing a viable agricultural economy based
on the production of soaps, beekeeping, and marketing shea nuts. This may
be a model for similar projects in other West African countries.

Sentence completion

Read the passage and complete these following sentences. Choose NO


MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

1. The climate of the Sahel is described (= good description) as

2. In some areas of the Sahel, there has been no rainfall (= droughts have
become more prolonged and more severe) for more than

3. Desertification is caused by overgrazing, but this in turn is due to (be


driven by = be caused by) the pressure from

4. When trees are cut down, the soil is affected, which leads to the death (=
die) of the surrounding

5. The consequences (=effects) of the loss of topsoil cannot be reserved,


but they are

6. Looking after (=conservation) trees reduces the consequences of a lack


(=shortage) of

* KEYS:

1. semi-arid 2. 20/ twenty years 3. increasing population

4. plaint species 5. preventable 6. rainfall

The key word in IELTS Reading is not required to be a content word which has
meaning and serves as a key meaning of a sentence/ paragraph. To save time,
it should be specific as:

- long words

- numbers

- capital letters

- terms/ strange words

- synonyms with the words in the given statements


-

UNIT 2. HOW TO DEAL WITH TRUE/ FALSE/ NOT


GIVEN
THE GREATEST OF VICTORIAN ENGINEERS

A In the hundred years up to 1860, the work of a small group of construction


engineers carried forward the enormous social and economic change that we
associate with the Industrial Revolution in Britain. The most important of these
engineers was Isambard Kingdom Brunel, whose work in shipping, bridge-
building and railway construction, to name just three fields, both challenged
and motivated his colleagues. He was the driving force behind a number of
hugely ambitious projects, some of which resulted in works which are still in
use today.

B The son of an engineer, Brunel apprenticed with his father at an early age on
the building of the Thames Tunnel. At the age of just twenty, he became the
engineer in charge of the project. This impressive plan to bore under the
Thames twice suffered major disasters when the river broke through into the
tunnel. When the second breach occurred in 1827, Brunel was seriously
injured during rescue operations and further work was halted.

C While recovering from his injuries, Brunel entered a design competition for a
new bridge over the Avon Gorge near Clifton, Bristol. The original judge of the
competition was Thomas Telford, a leading civil engineer of his day, who
rejected all entries to the competition in favour of his own design. After
considerable scandal, a second contest was held and Brunels design was
accepted. For reasons of funding, however, exacerbated by social unrest in
Bristol, the project was abandoned in 1843 with only the towers completed.
After Brunels death, it was decided to begin work on it again, partly so that
the bridge could form a fitting memorial to the great engineer. Work was
finally completed in 1864. Today, the well known Clifton Suspension Bridge is a
symbol of Bristol, just as the Opera House is of Sydney. Originally intended
only for horse-drawn traffic, the bridge now bears over four million motor
vehicles a year.

Read the passage and decide whether these statements are True/ False
or Not Given.

1. Brunel was less important than the other construction engineers in Britain
during the Industrial Revolution.

2. Brunel was less involved in railway construction than other engineering fields.

3. Brunel worked only on shipping, bridge-building and railway construction.

4. Brunels work was largely ignored by his colleagues.

5. All projects Brunel contributed to are still used today.

6. Brunel became an apprentice with his father at the same age as other
engineers.

7. The Thames Tunnel ProjectTrue/


wasFalse/
moreNot
difficult
given than any previous construction
venture undertaken in Britain.
(containing comparison)

1. Two items are mentioned


1. Two items are mentioned
1. Two items are mentioned in the question.
in the question and the text.
in the question and the text. 2. One item is in the text.
2. One item is greater, etc
2. There is no comparison. The other item is not
than the other.
mentioned.

NOT GIVEN The text is the The text is the


other way round. same.

FALSE TRUE
* KEYS:
1. False 2. Not given 3. False
4. False 5. False 6 & 7. Not given

UNIT 3. Version 27103


Steps to do for Section 1:

Cc bc lm bi c hiu:

- c tiu bi.

- c lt c bi vn nm cc mc chnh (nu c) hoc nm ni


dung chnh ca bi c ang ni v ch g.
- c cu hi.

- Xc nh th t cn c cc on vn trong bi.

1. Thc hin cc bc chung nh trn.

2. Xc nh th t cn c cc on vn trong bi:

- Phn 1 (cu 1 5): thng tin nm c bi khng lm phn ny trc.

- Phn 2 (cu 6 9): thng tin nm c bi khng lm phn ny trc.

- Phn 3 (cu 10 13): c 2 cm t vit in hoa d nhn din (South America


& East Africa) c 2 on vn tn South America v East Africa trc
tin.

3. South America:

Cu 10 & 11:

- Gch chn t ecotourism cu hi v tm t ny trong bi vn (v t ny


khng th paraphrase qua t khc)

- Sau tm thm t a/ one v nature (Lu : a trong cu hi c th thay


th bng t one hoc gi nguyn, nhng t nature c th b thay th bi
mt t no khc, do tm lng t cng l mt cch xc nh v tr
thng tin).

- Nh vy, thng tin cn tm c xc nh on D ch khng phi C.

- Cu 10: thay v dng li ch not, bi vn s dng rather than, mt cch


din t rt ng lu cho cc bi c sau.

- Cu 11: lu rng but trong on cu hi khng mang ngha tng phn,


m l ngha nhn mnh. Vy trong bi c ta thy cm t significant for
ecotourism.

Cu 12: destruction l t c kh nng c paraphrase cao (= primary


threat).

Cu 1 5: nhn lt qua cc cu hi. V c k on vn South America cho


cc cu hi 10 12 d dng xc nh cu 3 l p n C. i vi dng
multiple choice v matching, khng nn c trc p n gi v d gy ri
thng tin.
4. East Africa: thc hin tng t

Cu 13:

- Gch chn cutting trong cu hi, t ny c th paraphrase, tm trong bi


c th thy t reducing. Lc ny, ngi c c th ngay lp tc xc nh l
illegal hunting hoc allowing wildlife populations ch rng gia
hai cm t ny c t and nh vy khng th c hai p n cng ng (Lu
or th c chp nhn nh!) v cm t pha sau nhiu hn 3 t.

- Sau cu Illegal hunting of the new study l Most residents could


solve the circumstance. Vy p n l illegal hunting.

- Quay li cu hi 1 5: chc chn ri illegal hunting = unlawful


poaching t ng ngha.

5. Cu hi 1, 2, 5:

- Cu 1: on vn th 2 ca phn B din t ny. D nhn bit qu phi


khng?

- Cu 2: c my cu u ca on Indonesia l c th on ngay ng ko?


Hoc c th da vo thng tin cu cui cng: welcomes diverse levels
of travelers.

- Cu 5: t healthcare system xut hin dng 14 ca on Cuba ka!

6. T cu 6 9 s da vo vic ngi c nm thng tin trc khi lm cc


phn trn ri.

- c cu 9 trc, v n c t Cuba. Chn ngay p n B: job


opportunities = employment opportunities, residents = locals.

- Cu 6, 7, v 8, gch chn cc t (6) cheese factory, (7) honeymoon, (8)


picnic, ng c p n trc nh! D ri lm! Lu l cc cu trn tri
di cc on Cuba, South America, East Africa, v Indonesia ri. Vy cn
on G v H lm g? T l cao l thng tin 3 cu ny s nm 2 on
cui.

- on G, c t honeymoon (dng 3) ka! Private (dng 4) depending on


(dng 5, c phi l cch din t khc ca comfortable service khng?
N !).
- Tip no, on G dng 11, c t picnic. D m! C phi ngay sau l
local fruit vi fresh tropical juices ko? Ri, chn A l ci chc!

- Cu 6, chn C thi, khi c.

VOCABULARY