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(a) [PA] use an eyepiece graticule and stage micrometer scale to measure cells and be familiar

with units (millimetre, micrometre, nanometre) used in cell studies

If we are using the stage micrometer in the lab, one division on SM is 10 m.

So 17 div. SM= 7 div. EG

SM/EG= 2.429 units

Now for this particular magnification, one division on eyepiece graticule is now 24.29 m.

So lets say something takes up 4 divisions, just multiply 4 with 24.29.

If we are using standard values!

X4 25 m

X10- 10 m

X40- 2.5 m

(b) explain and distinguish between resolution and magnification (see section 5), with reference
to light microscopy and electron microscopy;

Resolution: ability of a microscope to distinguish two objects as separate from one another. The
smaller and closer together the objects that can be distinguished, the higher the resolution.
Resolution is the wavelength of the radiation used to view the specimen. If the parts of the
specimen are smaller than the wavelength of the radiation, then the waves are not stopped by
them and they are not seen. Light microscopes have limited resolution compared to electron
microscopes because light has a much longer wavelength than the beam of electrons in an
electron microscope.

Magnification: the size of an image of an object compared to the actual size. It is calculated using
M = I/A (M is magnification, I is the size of the image and A is the actual size of the object, using
the same units for both sizes). This formula can be rearranged to give the actual size of an object
where the size of the image and magnification are known: A = I/M.

(c) describe and interpret drawings and photographs of typical animal and plant cells, as seen
using the electron microscope, recognising the following: rough endoplasmic reticulum and
smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body (Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex), mitochondria,
ribosomes, lysosomes, chloroplasts, cell surface membrane, nuclear envelope, centrioles,
nucleus, nucleolus, microvilli, cell wall, the large permanent vacuole and tonoplast (of plant
cells) and plasmodesmata. (knowledge that ribosomes occurring in the mitochondria and
chloroplasts are 70S (smaller) than those in the rest of the cell (80S) should be included. The
existence of small circular DNA in the mitochondrion and chloroplast should be noted);
(d) outline the functions of the structures listed in (c);

Structure Function
Rough ER Transport protein throughout the cell
Smooth ER Makes lipids and steroids (cholesterol and
reproductive hormones)
Golgi body Collects, processes and sorts molecules
(particularly protein from rough ER) for
transport in Golgi vesicles either to other parts
of the cell or out of the cell (secretion)
Golgi vesicles makes lysosomes.
Mitochondria Carry out aerobic respiration (make ATP)
Synthesis of lipids
Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis
Lysosomes Contains hydrolytic enzymes which are used in
the breakdown of unwanted structures (old
organelles or even whole cells)
Chloroplasts Absorbs light energy (photosynthesis)
Cell surface membrane Controlling exchange between the cell and its
environment.
Nuclear envelope Allow exchange between nucleus and the
cytoplasm
Centrioles (not present in plants) Help with cell division in animal cells
Nucleus Controls all the cells activities
Nucleolus Manufactures ribosomes using the information
in its own DNA
Microvilli Increase cells surface area where diffusion of
materials both into and out of the cell is
possible
Cell wall Gives the cell definite shape.
Prevents the cell from bursting when water
enters by osmosis, allowing large pressures to
develop within the cell.
Vacuole Help regulate osmotic properties of cells
Tonoplast Controls the exchange of substances between
the vacuole and the cytoplasm
Plasmodesmata Transport of materials from one cell to another

(e) [PA] compare the structure of typical animal and plant cells;

(f) [PA] draw and label low power plan diagrams of tissues and organs (including a transverse
section of stems, roots and leaves);

Plan diagram for dicotyledonous leaf


Plan diagram for vascular bundle in dicotyledonous stem

Transverse section of stem


if there are some large things in the cortex, they are air spaces.

Transverse section of root

(g) [PA] calculate linear magnification of drawings and photographs;

(h) [PA] calculate actual sizes of specimens from drawings and photographs;

Just apply M=I/A formula.

The length on paper is the size of image!

(i) outline key structural features of typical prokaryotic cells (including: unicellular, 1-5m
diameter, cell walls, lack of membrane-bound organelles, naked circular DNA, 70S ribosomes)
and compare and contrast the structure of prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells (reference to
mesosomes should not be included);

Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
1-5 m Diameter of cell 40 m
Naked, circular and lies free in DNA Associated with proteins
cytoplasm (histones) (forming
chromosomes), not circular and
is contained in a nucleus
surrouonded by nuclear
envelope.
Present (contains Cell wall Sometimes present (plants)
peptidoglycan) (contains cellulose)
Very few organelles(none Organelles Single, double membrane-
surrounded by nuclear bound organelles
envelope)
70s (smaller) Ribosome 80s (bigger)