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CHAPTER II - REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Review of Related Literature

A review of related literature is the process of collecting, selecting, and reading books, journals, reports,
abstracts, and other reference materials. The following information may be collected:

1. Background information about the problem and related concepts.


2. Theories that explain the existence of the problem and the possible connection between certain
factors and the problem
3. Data that confirms the existence and seriousness of the problem
4. General and specific findings of studies related to the problem
5. Recommendations for further study given in related studies

Why Review Literature?

A review of related literature is a must in research. The following are some of the obvious reasons;
1. It helps the researcher identify and define a research problem
2. It helps justify the need for studying a problem.
3. It prevents unnecessary duplication of a study
4. It can be a source of a theoretical basis for the study
5. It enables the researcher to learn how to conceptualize a research problem and properly identify and
operationally define study variables
6. It helps formulate and refine research instruments
7. It provides lesson for data analysis and interpretation.

When to Start Reviewing Related Literature?

While the research problem is still being conceptualized, the researcher must already start reviewing
literature. In identifying and defining the research problem, the researcher must be able to show
evidences that the problem really exists and is worth investigating.

It is important that the researcher knows what is already known about the problem or what earlier
researchers have found about it and what questions still need to be answered before the research
questions or objectives are finalized.

Theories which the researchers use to explain the existence of a research problem and used as bases in
analyzing relationships between variables can be generated from reference books on theories or from
related studies. The researcher therefore, must have already read adequate literature at the start of the
research activity.

What Materials to Review?

General References
Examples are indexes, reviews and abstracts
Primary Sources
Examples are researches found on published journals.
Secondary Sources
Publications where authors cite the works of others. Examples are books, encyclopedias.
Secondary sources are good references for overview of the problem.

Steps In Literature Review

Review the precise definition of the research problem. Note the key variables specified in the study
objectives and hypothesis.

Formulate search terms (key words or phrases)

Problem: Adolescents Perceptions on the Effect of Punishment on Self-Esteem


and Academic Performance

Search term: punishment and learning, self-esteem and performance

Using indexes of general references, search for relevant primary and secondary sources guided by the
search terms.

List in a note of index card the bibliographical data of the pertinent information selected as follows:

a. author
b. title
c. name of publication
d. date of publication (include place and date)
e. pages of the article

Read the selected reading materials, take note and summarize key points. Prepare a note card for easy
retrieval and classification. In taking note, be as brief as possible but include all relevant information
which you can use in your full review, such as : the problem, the objectives, and hypotheses, the major
findings, and conclusions.
Writing Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

A literature review is designed to identify related research, to set the current research project within a
conceptual and theoretical context.

The second chapter should

start with a brief introductory paragraph concerning the researchers exploration of related
literature and studies on the research problem;
state the main coverage of said chapter;
should be organized thematically to confirm to the specific problems;
should synthesize evidence from all studies reviewed to get an overall understanding of
the state of the knowledge in the problem area;
should be limited within the last ten years;
should include a clinching statement showing how the related materials had assisted
the researchers in the present study at the last part.

How to Write the Introduction of a Review of Related Literature


Identify the general topic of the sources under discussion. Thus, you will provide the context of
your review of related literature;
Discuss what was already presented about the topic of your paper: conflicts in a theory,
conclusions, gaps in research and scholarship, etc.
Explain why the literature used is worth reviewing.

How to Write the Body of a Review of Related Literature


Group the sources according to their common dominators (approaches, objectives or any specific
chronologies);
Give the examples of how to sort out these groups. Use quotations, evidences, data, etc. They
will make your review of related literature more valid.

How to Write the Conclusion of a Review of Related Literature


Summarize the contributions of the literature sources made to the area of study you investigate.
Maintain the central focus in the Introduction;
Give a kind of insight into the relationship between the topic of your review and a larger study
area (e.g. a discipline, a scientific endeavor, etc.