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An International Journal

Energy Input and Particle Size Distribution

in Comminution with the Use of Piecewise

Regression Analysis

the Relationship Between Energy Input and Particle Size Distribution in Comminution

with the Use of Piecewise Regression Analysis, Particulate Science and Technology, DOI:

10.1080/02726351.2016.1168894

Mar 2016.

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=upst20

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Evaluation of the Relationship Between Energy Input and

E. Petrakis*

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E. Stamboliadis

K. Komnitsas

Abstract

It is known that the single linear Gates-Gaudin-Schuhmann (GGS) model is in some cases unable

to fully describe the particle size distribution of comminution products. In order to overcome this

shortcoming, piecewise regression analysis was used to predict the size distributions derived,

after grinding for various periods four mono-sized fractions of quartz and marble in a laboratory

ball mill. The single line was divided into two straight lines, which indicate the presence of two

domains of particle sizes and therefore the involvement of two distinct breakage mechanisms.

The obtained GGS model parameters were used to determine the evolution of particle size

1

In addition, the existing relationships between energy input and particle size distribution were

improved, by taking into account the effects of the feed size and material type. The new

relationships obtained can be used for a more accurate estimation of the required energy for

breakage.

energy

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INTRODUCTION

Size reduction is one of the most fundamental and energy intensive operations in the

mineral processing industry, consuming 34% of the electrical energy generated worldwide

(Deniz 2013a). Estimations on energy consumption in mining operations in the USA indicate

that 39% is used for beneficiation and processing operations, 75% of which is consumed in

comminution (BCS 2002). In addition, a large share of this energy is absorbed by the device and

only a small share, given that the efficiency of Semi-Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mill is about

15%, is used for size reduction (Djordjevic 2010). Therefore, continuous research efforts are

required to reduce energy consumption and obtain products with the desired size distribution.

The main and well known theories, that first described the relationship between specific

energy requirements and size reduction in comminution, are those of Rittinger (1867), Kick

(1885) and Bond (1952). Walker and Shaw (1954) proposed the differential Equation (1), which

considers the theories of Rittinger, Kick and Bond as partial cases and states that the energy

required to make a small change in the size of an object is proportional to the size change and

2

dx

d C (1)

xm

particle with size x, while C is a constant related to material type and m is a constant indicating

the order of the process. If m in Equation (1) equals to 1, 1.5 or 2, then the theories of Kick,

Since these theories do not incorporate the concept of particle size distribution (PSD),

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new approaches were developed over the years. Charles (1957) first proposed Equation (2)

assuming that both the initial feed and the final product size distribution were described by the

C

x 1m (2)

m 1 1 m 0

where and x0 are the distribution and size modulus, respectively, as derived by the GGS

model.

However, for the derivation of Equation (2) Charles used Equation (1), that has no

physical equivalent since it assumes that the particle size diminishes continuously, without

assumptions: (i) when sufficient force is applied upon a particle, this breaks into smaller ones

that all together have the same initial mass, (ii) the shape of size distribution, which follows the

GGS model, for the produced particles is similar for all energy levels, and (iii) the energy

required to produce a single particle depends on the surface area of the new particle to the power

3

A x02n3 , for 2 n 3 0. (3)

2 n 3

lnx0

, for 2 n 3 0. (4)

x0

If the exponent n takes the value 1.5, 1.25 or 1, these equations describe the theories of

Many other specific energy equations have been proposed in the scientific literature for

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the design of milling circuits (Turner 1982; Morrell 1996), but the results were not always

accurate. In general, these equations do not consider explicitly the effect of the feed size on the

consumption of specific energy in mills. Some factors, such as the feed size or the material type,

may have decisive influence on the specific energy consumption and therefore on the milling

efficiency. A noteworthy exception is the Morrells (2008) equation, which relates specific

energy consumption with the mill feed size (F80) and the product size (P80). However, the

assumption of representing particle size distributions with one point, (F80) or (P80), does not seem

appropriate, since different size distributions may occur at this point. Furthermore, Kapur (1972)

showed that well-developed self-similar size distributions should be used to develop energy-size

reduction equations. However, it was revealed that self-similarity does not exist in the presence

During the last decades, considerable work has been done, using a phenomenological

optimize energy consumption in grinding circuits. This model uses two sets of parameters,

namely the specific breakage rate and the breakage function for various size fractions (Austin,

Klimpel, and Luckie 1984). This function provides the fundamental size-mass balance equation

for fully mixed batch grinding systems and its analytical solution has been successfully applied

4

to metallic, intermetallic and ceramic systems (Matijai and Kurajica 2010; Ian, Bailon, and

L'Esprance 2011). Many researchers have mentioned the advantages of this equation (Ipek and

Gktepe 2011; Wang et al. 2011; Deniz 2013a; Gupta and Sharma 2014), while the scale-up of

laboratory data to full-scale mills has also been discussed (Deniz 2013b).

The variation of the kinetic model parameters, when different mill operating conditions

are used, has been investigated in several recent studies. These parameters depend on factors

such as ball size (Katubilwa 2008; Katubilwa and Moys 2009; Deniz 2012; Olejnik 2013), media

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shape (Qian, Kong, and Zhang 2013; Umucu, Altnine, and Deniz 2014), mill speed (Carvalho

and Tavares 2013; Gupta and Sharma 2014) and powder loading (Shin et al. 2013). However,

other researchers have criticized the fact that the population balance model has no intrinsic

capability to simulate the process under different operating conditions (Carvalho and Tavares

2013). Therefore, the relationship between energy input and particle size distribution, which is a

Other authors focused their efforts on the advantages of the Attainable Region (AR)

approach. Although this approach has been initially proposed for the analysis of chemical

engineering processes, it can also be used for the design of comminution circuits. The AR

approach has been used successfully to optimize batch milling of various materials (Khumalo et

material and the knowledge of its distribution is essential for many industrial processes since it

affects product quality and behavior (Ramakrishnan 2000; Tademir, Ozdag, and Onal 2011;

Zhang et al. 2012). In mineral processing operations, the determination of particle size

distribution is the key to improve process efficiency (Xia, Yang, and Zhau 2012; Xia et al. 2012).

5

Several mathematical models and expressions have been proposed for the description of the

It is known that the GGS model is suitable for the determination of particle size

distribution in comminution (Wills and Napier-Munn 2006). As already mentioned, energy input

affects particle size distribution (Charles 1957; Stamboliadis 2000, 2002, 2003), providing that

the comminution products follow the GGS model and the shape of size distribution curve is kept

constant for all energy levels. However, the single linear GGS model is unable to fully describe

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the entire data and this is why only the lower part of the particle size distributions was used in

these studies. In addition, no explanation was provided for the method used for fitting the dataset

and thus the validity of results is under question. Several years later, comminution tests on

chromite ores using different devices showed that two different lines, indicating the presence of

two different domains of particle sizes, could be used in the GGS model plots (Tademir and

Tademir 2009).

Furthermore, the exponents (1 m) and (2n 3) can be calculated from Equations (2)

and (3) using the loglog plot of the energy consumed versus the size modulus x0. Charles (1957)

and Stamboliadis (2000, 2002) using different experimental results, confirmed that a relationship

between these exponents and the distribution modulus exists, and also that the terms

(1 m + ) and (2n 3 + ) for most minerals have values very close to zero. Also, they found

out that these terms are greater than zero for minerals that exhibit cleavage in their structure,

such as galena and salt (NaCl). However, it is not known whether these terms will be affected by

the amount of energy consumed for the reduction of the materials size. Therefore, several issues

related to comminution of particulate materials still remain unclear, and there is an urgent need

6

The present study aims to elucidate the evolution of PSD in relation to energy input and

improve the established energy-size reduction relationships, using quartz and marble as test

materials. For this purpose, piecewise regression analysis was applied to the GGS model data, by

dividing the single line into two straight lines. The parameters derived were used to elucidate the

effect of material type and feed size on energy demand during comminution in a ball mill.

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DISTRIBUTION

Many mathematical models have been developed to determine the size distribution of

particles. The most important two-parameter models are the well-known normal, log-normal,

(2001) has described truncated distributions e.g. logarithmic distribution, truncated RR and log-

normal distribution, while the fractal size distribution is another approach that can used to

describe particulate materials (Ahmed and Drzymala 2005; Tademir 2009). The GGS model

x

P 100 (5)

x0

where: x is the screen size, P is the cumulative weight % finer than size x, x0 is the

maximum particle size (size modulus) and is the distribution modulus. Theoretically, lower

values of suggest that more fines, more large particles and fewer particles in the middle range

will be produced (Lu et al. 2003). Equation (5) denotes that as the value of increases the

7

logP logx 2 logx0 (6)

If logx and logP are plotted this equation produces a straight line. The slope of the line is

the distribution modulus , while the size modulus x0 can be calculated from the intersection

point.

However, single linear models may not prove adequate for the description of the entire

dataset. Piecewise linear regression is a type of regression that allows multiple linear models to

fit the data, while the lines intersect at a point called breakpoint. Thus, the single power-law of

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f

x

P 100 , x x b (7)

xf

c

x

P 100 , x x b (8)

xc

where: xf or xc is the maximum particle size (size modulus), is the distribution modulus,

f and c are indices which correspond to the finer and coarser domain of products, respectively

and xb is the breakpoint, which is defined as the transition point between two domains.

Therefore, using the piecewise regression model, Equation (5) can be rewritten as

where f and c are the slopes and bf and bc are the intercepts of the straight lines. Each

term in parenthesis represents a logical operation i.e., if the term is true it will get the value 1,

whereas if it is false it will get the value 0. Therefore, Equation (9) actually represents two

models. The value of logxb can be considered as the upper limit of the first domain (fine

products) and the lower limit of the second domain (coarse products).

8

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The materials used in the present experimental study are quartz obtained from Assiros,

near Thessaloniki, Greece and marble obtained from west Crete, Chania area, Greece. Both

materials were obtained from quarries of the respective areas. 100 kg of each material was

sampled from several locations to obtain representative samples. Quartz has a microcrystalline

structure, while marble which is of metamorphic origin consists of carbonates. The microscopic

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examination of both materials in polished and thin sections showed that they are compact and

homogeneous (Figures 1 and 2). No open cracks, discontinuities or alteration phenomena were

noticed. Marble is a relatively soft material with a hardness varying between 3 and 4 on Mohs

The experiments were performed in a laboratory ball mill (Table 1) at a constant speed of

= 66 rpm (1.1 Hz), corresponding to 70% of its critical speed. The mill charge consisted of

25.4 mm (1 in.) stainless steel balls with density b = 7.85 g/cm3. The parameters that describe

the mass of grinding media J and material fc, respectively, are calculated from Equations (10)

and (11). J is the ball filling ratio, which is the fraction of the mill filled by the media bed, while

J 1 (10)

mill volume

fc 1 (11)

mill volume

where is the bed porosity of balls and material (assumed to be 40% for both quartz and

9

The ball filling ratio was 0.2, while the material filling ratio was 0.04 corresponding to

345.0 g and 351.5 g of quartz and marble, respectively. The fraction of the spaces between the

balls at rest, U, that is filled with material bed (interstitial filling) was 0.5 and can be calculated

by Equation (12)

fc

U (12)

0.4 J

The samples were homogenized by the cone and quarter method and about 6 kg of each

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material was used for the tests. Both materials were crushed in a jaw crusher to 4 mm, wet

screened at 150 m and the +150 m fraction dried and screened in a series of screens with an

aperture ratio 2 to obtain the feed fractions. Four mono-size fractions of each material

(3.35 + 2.36 mm), (1.7 + 1.18 mm), (0.850 + 0.600 mm) and (0.425 + 0.300 mm) were

obtained. The grinding tests were performed at various grinding times t (0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 8 min),

while the products obtained at each time t were wet sieved in a series of screens with a ratio of

2 for the determination of particle size distribution. All tests were carried out in duplicate and

It should be also noted that the following issues were taken into consideration:

ii. The feed charge was sampled and screen analyzed for size distribution in the same way

iii. The mill was layer loaded with balls and feed, following the standard practice (Gupta,

10

W 9.9 M N D (13)

where: is the total mass (kg) of the feed material and balls, is the rotational speed

The energy consumption in the mill is proportional to time t and can be calculated by the

formula:

E W t (14)

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where: W is the net mill power (W), t is the grinding time (s) and E is the net energy

consumption (J). If Mp is the mass of the feed material (kg), then the specific energy required

W t

(15)

Mp Mp

As mentioned earlier, the GGS model was selected for the description of particle size

distribution of the mill products obtained after different grinding times and corresponding to

different energy input. The linear best fit of the experimental distributions enables the calculation

of the single GGS model parameters and x0. Tables 2 and 3 show the values of the model

parameters obtained for each feed size using Equation (6), for quartz and marble respectively.

The results show that the type of the material, the amount of energy required per ton of

material (specific energy, ), as well as the feed size, affect the particle size distribution. The

11

accuracy of the GGS model was assessed using the correlation coefficient R2. t is observed that

the model cannot describe with high accuracy the data across the entire range of the produced

particle sizes. This is also shown in Figure 3 which presents data derived by the use of Equation

(6). It is shown that the size distribution of quartz grinding products is not linear and deviates

from the straight line for coarser particles. Figure 3, which is used as example, presents data for

the 3.35 + 2.36 mm feed fraction of quartz after 0.5 min of grinding (equals to 0.29 kWh/t). The

same trend is observed after longer grinding times, as illustrated in Figure 4. The GGS plots for

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marble show similar behavior. Based on these, data it is deduced that the particle size

Figures 3 and 4 show the presence of two different domains of particle sizes. Since the

data points deviate from linearity, the predicted straight lines are unable to fully describe the

particle size distribution of the comminution products. These domains can be clearly identified

The GGS model parameters for quartz and marble using piecewise regression analysis by

the Quasi-Newton non-linear estimation method are presented in Tables 4 and 5. In these Tables

the breakpoints with the highest correlation coefficient R2 were also estimated for each dataset.

Obviously, in all cases the values of R2 are higher compared to those shown in Tables 2 and 3.

Piecewise regression analysis was also found to improve the accuracy of the GGS model, during

Figure 5 shows the GGS plot of particle size distribution for quartz after 0.5 min of

grinding using piecewise regression analysis. The evolution of the particle size distribution in

12

relation to the grinding time, which is proportional to the energy input, is also shown in Figure

6. It is seen from these figures that two different linear regions exist, indicating the action of two

distinct breakage mechanisms. The first one is associated with the finer, while the second one to

the coarser fraction of products. As seen in Figure 6, the first domain (fine fraction) shifted

almost parallel with increasing grinding time, while for the second domain (coarse fraction) a

change in the slope of the straight lines is observed. It is known that breakage of particles in

tumbling mills is achieved mainly by impact, compression or attrition. When a single particle is

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broken by compression the products fall into two distinct size ranges, namely coarse particles

resulting from the induced tensile failure, and fines from compressive failure near the points of

loading, or by shear at projections (Wills and Napier-Munn 2006). In impact crushing, a particle

experiences higher average stress, that is necessary to enable simple fracture, and thus tends to

break apart rapidly, mainly by tensile failure. Attrition causes steady erosion of comparatively

smooth surfaces of lumps, due to friction of surfaces being in relative motion. The attrition

process generates a significant number of particles that are much finer than the parent size (King

of mechanisms and results in the production of two domains of particle sizes. As milling goes on

more fines are produced. This is also shown by plotting the breakpoint xb, connecting the two

domains of particle sizes, with the specific energy required to reduce each fraction (Figures 7

and 8). It is obvious that the breakpoint xb is reduced when specific energy is increased and

reaches a limit value. xb also depends on material type since for a given specific energy, e.g.

1 kWh/t, the values of xb, are higher for quartz than those of marble, for each feed fraction. The

latter indicates that marble is ground more easily that quartz. It is also pointed out that abnormal

13

grinding of quartz is observed, since for the coarse feed fraction, 3.35 + 2.36 mm, the xb values

are slightly smaller than the ones for the 1.7 + 1.18 mm fraction.

Figures 9 and 10 show the xb values obtained for each feed fraction as a function of size

modulus xf. It is revealed that the two variables are mainly very well and in some cases

moderately correlated. This means that the domain of fine particle sizes is closely related to the

coarse one. These figures also indicate that grinding of the coarse feed fraction of quartz is

abnormal.

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It is seen from Tables 4 and 5 that piecewise regression analysis is more suitable for

describing the particle size distribution for quartz and marble comminution products. It is also

revealed that, for the same material and feed size, the f value remains constant or almost

constant for different specific energies, whilst the c value decreases with increasing energy

input. On the other hand, it is observed that for each energy input, as the size of feed decreases

the values of f and c become higher. Regarding the effect of material type, their respective

values are lower in the case of marble. As already mentioned, lower values of indicate the

production of more fines, more large particles and fewer particles in the middle range, while the

Using Equations (7) and (8) the size moduli xf or xc can be calculated for the two different

domains of particles sizes. Size modulus denotes the theoretical maximum size of particles in the

assembly and corresponds to the size at which each straight line intercepts the 100% passing

level. The value of xc is supposed to remain constant for the same feed size and is independent of

the energy input, thus only the determination of xf requires investigation. Variations of xf values

14

for each feed size and at different energy inputs are presented in Tables 6 and 7, for quartz and

marble respectively. For the same material and the same feed size the value of xf decreases with

increasing energy input, suggesting obviously that particle size is reduced as grinding proceeds.

By comparing the two materials tested, it can be said that the size distribution of marble

Figures 11 and 12 show the specific energy values versus the size modulus xf for quartz

and marble, respectively. These figures indicate the specific energy required to reduce each

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initial size fraction and produce an assembly of particles with a size modulus xf, where the index

f refers to the finer domain of products. It is observed from the trendlines, that the relationship

between specific energy and size modulus can be described by Equation (16)

C x f b (16)

where C' and b are functions that depend on the material, as well as the feed size.

Generally, it is shown that for the same material the C' value decreases with decreasing

feed size, while the b value increases with decreasing feed size. The units for C' are the same

with the units of specific energy (kWh/t), while (b) is the slope of the straight line and is equal

to the exponents proposed by Charles and Stamboliadis (Equations (2) and (3)). C' and b values

are described with high accuracy as a function of the feed size by fitted logarithmic trendline

equations, with R2 values greater than 0.97. Thus, the general form of Equation (16) can be

15

It is noted that the feed size is supposed to be a mono-sized fraction and xi (mm)

Equations (17) and (18) are alternative expressions of the energy-size reduction

relationship, which derive from the general form of Equation (16), while (b) depends on the

material type and the feed size. These equations consider the presence of two different domains

of particle sizes and are applicable to sizes finer than the breakpoint xb. Despite this latter

inability, this study shows that the establishment of the relationship between size modulus xf and

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breakpoint xb, as shown in Figures 9 and 10, enables the full definition of the relationship

between energy input and particle size distribution of the milling products.

Table 8 shows that the existing theories apply only to a specific feed size. It is observed

that for larger feed sizes (around 12 and 23 mm for quartz and marble, respectively) the energy

required for breakage is proportional to the size or volume (x3) of the material, as Kick suggests.

On the other hand, for smaller fractions (around 5 mm) the energy is proportional to the size

(x2.5), as Bond proposes, while for finer fractions (around 12 mm) the energy is proportional to

the new surface area (x2), as Rittingers theory indicates. Figure 13 shows that with the use of

Equations (17) and (18) the relationship between feed size xi and exponent n can be determined.

It is revealed that for the feed sizes examined in the present study, the effect of the material type

on energy consumption is not significant. It is expected that the slope of the curve of Figure 13

will be higher as the material becomes softer, while n will take a higher than 1.25 value.

Tables 9 and 10 present the interrelation between the size modulus f and the exponent of

Equation (3) for each feed size and various specific energies, for the two materials tested. The

16

exponent of Equation (2) is equal to the one of Equation (3) and for this reason the exponent m is

not included in the Tables. Furthermore, it has been shown that the exponents are equal to the

feed depended (b) slope. As a result, n can be determined for each feed size and various

specific energies. In addition, when piecewise regression analysis is used, the slope f can be also

determined from the GGS size distribution plots. Hence, the value of the term (2n 3 + f) is

well determined for the materials tested. Results can be summarized as follows:

i. Equation (3) is valid if > (2n 3) and thus the term (2n 3 + f) is supposed to be

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positive. This was not shown in this study except for the case of quartz, when coarser

feed size was used. No theoretical explanation can be provided at present, but it can be

said that this term was calculated indirectly as the difference between the measured

terms, (2n 3) and f, and thus the experimental error bears on both terms. In this study,

the use of piecewise regression analysis indicates that the calculation of the slope f was

accurate.

ii. Despite the fact that for the same feed size the value of f changes as grinding proceeds, it

can be considered as constant because of its little variation. Hence, the average values of

f can be determined for each feed size. Figures 14 and 15 show the specific energy

versus size modulus xf for quartz and marble, respectively, thus enabling the investigation

of the variation of f. It is shown that the energy required for the production of an

assembly of particles with the same size modulus xf increases as f decreases and

consequently, the energy demand for breakage becomes higher. Also, Tables 9 and 10

show that there is an inversely proportional relationship between f and the term

(2n 3 + f). Based on these findings, it is deduced that the energy demand increases

when the term (2n 3 + f) decreases. Stamboliadis (2002) concluded that the term

17

(2n 3 + f) is affected by the type of the material; for example, in materials with weak

structure, which require less energy demand for breakage, this term obtains a relatively

large value. However, in this study, it was revealed that even for the same material the

iii. The same conclusions can be drawn for all feed size fractions and energy inputs.

Obviously, as the specific energy increases the term (2n 3 + f) decreases, thus

indicating the increasing difficulty for breakage as the material becomes finer.

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iv. Quartz is much harder than marble and this is the main the reason for its higher energy

demand during grinding. Thus, one would expect that the term (2n 3 + f) would be

smaller in the case of quartz. However, this applies only in the case of the two finer feed

sizes examined (0.850 + 0.600 mm and 0.425 + 0.300 mm). To address this paradox,

its size reduction was investigated in this study using approaches based on kinetic

models. Kinetic models use the concept of specific breakage rate, which is the rate with

which a material of a defined size fraction breaks out to finer fractions. Variations of

specific breakage rates of the materials tested at various feed size fractions showed that

there is an optimum size (around 1.7 mm) at which this rate is maximized. Above this

value breakage becomes abnormal, because the particles are too large to be nipped and

fractured properly by the grinding media used. This is the reason why the two coarser

CONCLUSIONS

Batch grinding experiments using quartz and marble were performed in a ball mill to determine

the relationship between energy input and size reduction. The results obtained show the existence

of two different domains of particle sizes, thus a single linear model, namely the GGS model,

18

cannot describe with adequate accuracy the particle size distribution across the entire range of

particle sizes. On the other hand, this study proved that piecewise regression analysis is an

accurate approach for describing the particle size distribution of the comminution products. With

the use of this approach the GGS model parameters, namely f and xf, were determined. It is

mentioned that in general, the f value remains constant or almost constant for all energy demand

levels. Also, it is observed that for each energy input, the value of f increases as the feed size

decreases. As regards the effect of the material type, the f value for quartz is higher, indicating

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that the size distribution of the comminution products of harder materials is more narrow.

By plotting the specific energy versus size modulus xf, it is shown that a power-law can

describe the relationship between energy input and particle size. The resulting curves depend

both on material type and feed size. This power-law is an improved energy particle size

relationship and its main novelty is the consideration of two different domains of particle sizes,

as a result of the involvement of two distinct breakage mechanisms. Despite the fact that this law

applies to sizes finer than the breakpoint xb, this study shows that the establishment of the

relationship between size modulus xf and breakpoint xb, enables the full definition of the

relationship between energy input and particle size distribution of the milling products.

he present study, with the use of piecewise regression analysis, has proven that after

comminution two populations of grinding products are obtained and also made clear that the

produced particle size distributions do not follow the single linear GGS model. This finding is in

contrast with the existing theories, which assume that a particle of size x is continuously reduced

The proposed power-law also shows that the existing theories of Rittinger, Kick and

Bond are valid for a specific feed size. Moreover, it is revealed that for the size range for which

19

the theories of Rittinger and Bond apply (n equals 1 or 1.25, respectively), the effect of the

Furthermore, this study revealed that, even for the same material, the energy required for

size reduction influences the term (2n 3 + f), as opposed to earlier studies which mention that

this term is only affected by the material type. Finally, grinding kinetics shows that when the

feed size is above nearly 1.7 mm breakage becomes abnormal and the effect of the material type

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References

curves. Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing 39:12939.

Allen, T. 2003. Powder sampling and particle size determination. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Austin, L. G., R. R. Klimpel, and P. T. Luckie. 1984. Process engineering of size reduction: Ball

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23

Table 1. Grinding conditions

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Number 77

Porosity (%) 40

Marble (2.7)

24

Table 2. GGS model parameters for quartz

e (kWh/t m m

(min )

x0 R2 x0 R2 x0 R2 x0 R2

)

(m) (m) (m) (m

)

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0.5 0.29 1.0 8,88 0.94 1.1 3,14 0.96 1.3 1,58 0.94 1.6 640 0.94

6 8 5 9 7 5 1 3 1 8 0

1 0.58 0.9 6,04 0.97 1.0 2,30 0.99 1.1 1,20 0.97 1.4 581 0.96

2 0 8 4 4 0 5 7 7 8 3

2 1.16 0.7 3,80 0.99 0.8 1,59 0.99 0.9 905 0.99 1.2 505 0.98

8 8 6 9 7 8 9 6 6 8

4 2.31 0.6 2,24 0.97 0.7 1,09 0.97 0.7 669 0.97 1.0 427 1.00

3 3 3 1 2 0 8 8 2 0

4 3 3 7 7

25

Table 3. GGS model parameters for marble

e (kWh/t m m

(min )

x0 R2 x0 R2 x0 R2 x0 R2

)

(m) (m) (m) (m

)

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0.5 0.28 0.7 7,09 0.96 0.8 2,72 0.97 0.9 1,49 0.94 1.2 700 0.91

4 8 0 3 2 8 8 2 8 6 8

1 0.57 0.6 4,13 0.99 0.7 1,81 0.99 0.8 1,07 0.98 1.0 552 0.97

3 9 2 3 1 8 5 9 9 6 6

2 1.14 0.5 2,22 0.97 0.5 1,20 0.98 0.6 770 0.99 0.8 458 0.99

0 4 7 8 1 1 9 7 7 8

4 2.27 0.4 946 0.93 0.4 623 0.96 0.4 587 0.96 0.6 387 0.99

1 0 6 4 9 5 4 6

6 0

26

Table 4. GGS model parameters using piecewise regression analysis for quartz

m (k

f lo xb R f lo xb R f lo xb R f lo xb R

e W 2 2 2 2

c g( m c g( m c g( m c g( m

( h/t

xb) m xb) m xb) m xb) m

m )

in

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0. 0.2 0 2 3. 1. 0. 1 3 3. 1. 0. 1 4 2. 0. 0. 1 4 2. 0. 0.

5 9 . . 19 5 9 . . 21 6 9 . . 80 6 9 . . 41 2 9

8 9 4 6 9 0 2 3 3 9 1 1 2 3 9 2 1 8 6 9

6 2 4 8 3 1 5 9 2 2 4 8 8 7 2 9

1 0.5 0 1 3. 1. 0. 0 1 3. 1. 0. 1 2 2. 0. 0. 1 3 2. 0. 1.

8 . . 18 5 9 . . 13 3 9 . . 82 6 9 . . 41 2 0

8 9 7 3 9 9 8 0 5 9 0 6 6 7 9 2 1 1 5 0

1 1 8 9 6 2 0 9 5 8 0 6 0 2 8 0

2 1.1 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 0. 1 1 2. 0. 0.

6 . . 90 8 9 . . 95 9 9 . . 65 4 9 . . 49 3 9

7 7 3 0 9 8 8 4 0 9 9 9 3 5 9 1 9 1 1 9

8 8 0 9 9 9 0 8 9 9 0 6 7 9 0 8

4 2.3 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 0. 1 0 2. 0. 0. 1 1 2. 0. 1.

. . 52 3 9 . . 80 6 9 . . 47 3 9 . . 41 2 0

27

1 8 4 9 3 9 8 1 5 3 9 1 6 7 0 9 0 0 5 6 0

4 3 8 9 3 8 8 6 1 2 0 5 2 2 0 0

8 4.6 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 0.

3 . . 55 3 9 . . 58 3 9

7 0 0 5 9 7 1 2 8 9

8 9 5 6 9 7 2 7

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28

Table 5. GGS model parameters using piecewise regression analysis for marble

m (k

f lo xb R f lo xb R f lo xb R f lo xb R

e W 2 2 2 2

c g( m c g( m c g( m c g( m

( h/t

xb) m xb) m xb) m xb) m

m )

in

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

0. 0.2 0 1 3. 1. 0. 0 1 2. 0. 0. 0 2 2. 0. 0. 0 3 2. 0. 1.

5 8 . . 14 3 9 . . 90 7 9 . . 72 5 9 . . 44 2 0

6 6 2 8 9 7 5 0 9 9 8 8 4 3 9 9 7 4 7 0

1 7 7 9 2 6 4 8 0 3 0 9 3 8 8 0

1 0.5 0 0 3. 1. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 1 2. 0. 0. 0 2 2. 0. 1.

7 . . 07 1 9 . . 81 6 9 . . 61 4 9 . . 43 2 0

5 8 2 8 9 7 7 3 5 9 7 2 1 0 9 9 1 9 7 0

9 3 0 7 3 3 0 8 7 8 8 9 1 5 5 0

2 1.1 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 1.

4 . . 87 7 9 . . 68 4 9 . . 47 3 9 . . 39 2 0

6 3 5 5 9 6 3 9 8 9 6 6 7 0 9 8 9 8 5 0

5 7 0 7 7 2 9 7 9 9 0 7 4 2 0 0

4 2.2 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 0. 0 0 2. 0. 0.

. . 55 3 9 . . 53 3 9 . . 40 2 9 . . 37 2 9

29

7 5 0 7 6 9 5 1 7 4 9 6 2 3 5 9 6 4 9 3 9

9 9 0 3 7 0 4 4 3 4 3 7 8 5 9 9

8 4.5 0 0 2. 0. 0.

4 . . 37 2 9

4 0 8 3 9

9 2 9 5

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30

Table 6. GGS size modulus xf for quartz

Time xf (mm)

(min (kWh/t

3.35 + 2.36 m 1.7 + 1.18 m 0.850 + 0.425 m 0.425 + 0.300 m

) )

m m m m

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

31

Table 7. GGS size modulus xf for marble

Time xf (mm)

(min (kWh/t

3.35 + 2.36 m 1.7 + 1.18 m 0.850 + 0.425 m 0.425 + 0.300 m

) )

m m m m

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

8 4.54 0.3

32

Table 8. Upper feed size for which the existing theories apply

m n Quartz Marble

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33

Table 9. Interrelation between f and (2n 3) for each feed size fraction and at various specific

energies for quartz

(kW

2n n f 2n 2n n f 2n 2n n f 2n 2n n f 2n

h/t)

3 3 + f 3 3 + f 3 3 + f 3 3 + f

7 1 8 1 9 0 4 8 1 8 5 2

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

7 6 3 3 0 2 9 8

7 1 8 1 9 9 4 8 0 8 5 2

7 1 3 6 0 5 9 0

7 1 7 1 9 8 4 8 9 8 5 1

7 8 3 9 0 9 9 7

7 1 8 1 9 8 4 8 9 8 5 0

7 4 3 3 0 7 9 2

7 1 7 1 9 7

7 8 3 9

Ave 0. 0. 1. 1.

34

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

rage

1

8

0

9

35

3

0

7

1

Table 10. Interrelation between f and (1 m) for each feed size fraction and at various specific

energies for marble

(kW

2n n f 2n 2n n f 2n 2n n f 2n 2n n f 2n

h/t)

3 3 + f 3 3 + f 3 3 + f 3 3 + f

6 1 6 9 0 7 1 9 8 3 8 9

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

9 1 5 2 8 0 3 3

6 1 5 9 0 7 1 9 7 3 8 9

9 9 5 3 8 7 3 1

6 1 6 9 0 6 1 9 6 3 8 8

9 5 5 7 8 9 3 4

6 1 5 9 0 5 1 9 6 3 8 6

9 9 5 7 8 3 3 8

4.54 0. 1. 0. 0.14

6 1 4

9 9

Ave 0. 0. 0. 0.

36

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

rage

9

5

7

6

37

2

7

4

8

Figure 1. Compact mass of quartz. Sample VP30, reflected light, // Nicols.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

38

Figure 2. Coarse grains of calcite with polysynthetic twinning. Sample VP15, transmitted light,

X Nicols.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

39

Figure 3. GGS plot of particle size distribution for quartz after 0.5 min of grinding.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

40

Figure 4. GGS plots of particle size distributions for quartz for different grinding times.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

41

Figure 5. GGS plot of particle size distribution for quartz after 0.5 min of grinding, using

piecewise regression analysis.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

42

Figure 6. GGS plots of particle size distributions for quartz after different grinding times, using

piecewise regression analysis.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

43

Figure 7. Breakpoint xb versus specific energy at each feed size for quartz.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

44

Figure 8. Breakpoint xb versus specific energy at each feed size for marble.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

45

Figure 9. Breakpoint xb versus size modulus xf at each feed size for quartz.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

46

Figure 10. Breakpoint xb versus size modulus xf at each feed size for marble.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

47

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

48

Figure 11. Specific energy versus size modulus xf for quartz.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

49

Figure 12. Specific energy versus size modulus xf for marble.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

50

Figure 13. Relationship between n and upper feed size fraction.

Figure 14. Specific energy versus size modulus xf at different f values, for quartz.

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51

Figure 15. Specific energy versus size modulus xf at different f values, for marble.

Downloaded by [Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi] at 03:04 10 May 2016

52

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