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Joukowski Mapping

The Problem of the Airfoil


Consider the ideal flow past a given airfoil at a fixed angle of attack

These flows differ only by

To choose the realistic flow solution we employ what is know as the Kutta
condition, that the flow leave smoothly from the trailing edge. The Kutta condition
is an empirical observation that results from the tendency of the viscous boundary
layer to separate at a salient edge.

u
u
2
The Problem of the Airfoil
Terminology

Lift l per unit span l


Lift coefficient Cl = 1
2 V 2
c

Chord c
Kutta Joukowski Thm. l = V
V

Invariance of Circulation under Mapping


z-plane -plane + iq = W ( z )dz
loop

Lo
d
Loop

op
~
= W ( ) dz
~
= loop
dz
~
= W ( )d
loop
~
~
W ( ) = W ( z )
dz = + iq~ 3
d
Symbol Conventions
Initial Flow Mapping Mapped Flow

-plane
z-plane
iy =(z)
Our F ( z) i F~ ( ) = F ( z ( ))
~
Mappings dF Critical at ~
W ( ) =
dF
=W
dz
W ( z) =
to this dz d
=0
d d
Point x dz

-plane z-plane
~
F ( ) i z= z() iy ~
F ( z ) = F ( ( z ))
The ~
~
dF dF ~ d
Joukowski W ( ) =
d
Critical at W ( z) =
dz
=W
dz
Mapping dz
=0
d x

4
Joukowski Mapping z = + C / 2

Effects on Space C = real > 0


-plane z-plane
Critical Points?

-C C -2C 2C

2
C z 2C
=
+ C z + 2C Behavior at ?

5
Consider a Series of Circles Cutting
the Right-Hand Critical Point
-plane
1. 1=0
a
2. Re{1}=0, Im{1}>0
1
3. Re{1}<0, Im{1}=0 C
4. Re{1}<0, Im{1}>0

a adjusted so circle always


cuts right-hand critical point 6
1. 1=0 Circle coincident
with mapping circle

z = + C2 /
-plane z-plane

~ i V a 2 e i
F ( ) = V e +
1

The Flat Plate 7


2. Re{1}=0, Im{1}>0 Circle centered on
imaginary axis

-plane z = + C2 / z-plane

-plane z-plane

The Circular Arc 8


Im{1} controls camber
3. Re{1}<0, Im{1}=0 Circle centered on
negative real axis

-plane z = + C2 / z-plane

-plane z-plane

The Symmetric Airfoil9


Re{1} controls thickness
4. Re{1}<0, Im{1}>0 Circle centered in
2nd quadrant

-plane z = + C2 / z-plane

-plane z-plane

The Cambered Airfoil


Re{1} controls thickness. 10
Im{1} controls camber
Mapping an Airfoil Flow
~
z-plane F ( z ) = F ( ( z ))
1 = mei dF ~ d
-plane W ( z) = =W
C 1 = ae i dz dz
2/
C
z=
+
2C ?
a
1 m >0

C
V

~ i V a 2 ei i
F ( ) = V e + log e ( 1 )
1 2
~ i V a 2 e i i
W ( ) = V e
( 1 ) 2 2 ( 1 )
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Results for Lift
-plane z=+C2/ z-plane

a dz C2
= 1 2
1 d
C c 2C

1. The lift on an airfoil varies as the sine


of the angle of attack or, for small l = V = 4V2 a sin( + )
angles, linearly with angle of attack
l 8a
2. The primary (and almost exclusive) Cl = = sin( + )
2 V c
1 2
influence of camber in controlling the c
zero lift angle of attack -
3. The lift curve slope at zero angle of
aC and a and c increase
Where slowly with camber and
attack is 2 for a flat plate, and c 4C thickness
increases weakly with increasing
and a C c/4 for a thin airfoil
thickness and camber
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Obtaining the Pressure Distribution
-plane z=+C2/ z-plane

a dz C2
= 1 2
1 d
C c 2C

V
~ V a 2 ei i ~ d
i
W ( ) = V e W ( z ) = W ( )
( 1 ) 2 2 ( 1 ) dz

1. Choose a set of points on the circle |circ = 1 + aei


2. For these points determine ~
W ( |circ )
with
= 4aV sin( + )
Velocity on the circle
dz C2
Derivative of mapping = 1 2
d circ |circ C2
z |airfoil = |circ +
Airfoil coordinates |circ
3. Evaluate Cp on the airfoil using

2
d
Bernoulli C p |airfoil = 1 W ( z ) 2 / V2 = 1 W ( |circ ) 2 / V2
dz circ
4. Plot Cp vs x, i.e Cp|airfoil vs Re{zairfoil} 13