Aerodynamics

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Aerodynamics

© All Rights Reserved

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Consider the ideal flow past a given airfoil at a fixed angle of attack

To choose the realistic flow solution we employ what is know as the Kutta

condition, that the flow leave smoothly from the trailing edge. The Kutta condition

is an empirical observation that results from the tendency of the viscous boundary

layer to separate at a salient edge.

u

u

2

The Problem of the Airfoil

Terminology

Lift coefficient Cl = 1

2 V 2

c

Chord c

Kutta Joukowski Thm. l = V

V

z-plane -plane + iq = W ( z )dz

loop

Lo

d

Loop

op

~

= W ( ) dz

~

= loop

dz

~

= W ( )d

loop

~

~

W ( ) = W ( z )

dz = + iq~ 3

d

Symbol Conventions

Initial Flow Mapping Mapped Flow

-plane

z-plane

iy =(z)

Our F ( z) i F~ ( ) = F ( z ( ))

~

Mappings dF Critical at ~

W ( ) =

dF

=W

dz

W ( z) =

to this dz d

=0

d d

Point x dz

-plane z-plane

~

F ( ) i z= z() iy ~

F ( z ) = F ( ( z ))

The ~

~

dF dF ~ d

Joukowski W ( ) =

d

Critical at W ( z) =

dz

=W

dz

Mapping dz

=0

d x

4

Joukowski Mapping z = + C / 2

-plane z-plane

Critical Points?

-C C -2C 2C

2

C z 2C

=

+ C z + 2C Behavior at ?

5

Consider a Series of Circles Cutting

the Right-Hand Critical Point

-plane

1. 1=0

a

2. Re{1}=0, Im{1}>0

1

3. Re{1}<0, Im{1}=0 C

4. Re{1}<0, Im{1}>0

cuts right-hand critical point 6

1. 1=0 Circle coincident

with mapping circle

z = + C2 /

-plane z-plane

~ i V a 2 e i

F ( ) = V e +

1

2. Re{1}=0, Im{1}>0 Circle centered on

imaginary axis

-plane z = + C2 / z-plane

-plane z-plane

Im{1} controls camber

3. Re{1}<0, Im{1}=0 Circle centered on

negative real axis

-plane z = + C2 / z-plane

-plane z-plane

Re{1} controls thickness

4. Re{1}<0, Im{1}>0 Circle centered in

2nd quadrant

-plane z = + C2 / z-plane

-plane z-plane

Re{1} controls thickness. 10

Im{1} controls camber

Mapping an Airfoil Flow

~

z-plane F ( z ) = F ( ( z ))

1 = mei dF ~ d

-plane W ( z) = =W

C 1 = ae i dz dz

2/

C

z=

+

2C ?

a

1 m >0

C

V

~ i V a 2 ei i

F ( ) = V e + log e ( 1 )

1 2

~ i V a 2 e i i

W ( ) = V e

( 1 ) 2 2 ( 1 )

11

Results for Lift

-plane z=+C2/ z-plane

a dz C2

= 1 2

1 d

C c 2C

of the angle of attack or, for small l = V = 4V2 a sin( + )

angles, linearly with angle of attack

l 8a

2. The primary (and almost exclusive) Cl = = sin( + )

2 V c

1 2

influence of camber in controlling the c

zero lift angle of attack -

3. The lift curve slope at zero angle of

aC and a and c increase

Where slowly with camber and

attack is 2 for a flat plate, and c 4C thickness

increases weakly with increasing

and a C c/4 for a thin airfoil

thickness and camber

12

Obtaining the Pressure Distribution

-plane z=+C2/ z-plane

a dz C2

= 1 2

1 d

C c 2C

V

~ V a 2 ei i ~ d

i

W ( ) = V e W ( z ) = W ( )

( 1 ) 2 2 ( 1 ) dz

2. For these points determine ~

W ( |circ )

with

= 4aV sin( + )

Velocity on the circle

dz C2

Derivative of mapping = 1 2

d circ |circ C2

z |airfoil = |circ +

Airfoil coordinates |circ

3. Evaluate Cp on the airfoil using

2

d

Bernoulli C p |airfoil = 1 W ( z ) 2 / V2 = 1 W ( |circ ) 2 / V2

dz circ

4. Plot Cp vs x, i.e Cp|airfoil vs Re{zairfoil} 13

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