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Session 18

Equal Opportunities
and Diversity

FOCUS
This session covers the following content from the ACCA Study Guide.

D. Leading and Managing Individuals and Teams


2. Recruitment and selection of employees
f) Explain the purpose and benefits of diversity and equal opportunities
policies within the human resources plan.
g) Explain the practical steps that an organisation may take to ensure the
effectiveness of its diversity and equal opportunities policy.

Session 18 Guidance
Note that discrimination and equal opportunities are important topics for managers in real life.
The implications of getting it wrong or doing it incorrectly can have legal and financial implications.
Understand the difference between equal employment opportunities (legally required) and workplace
diversity (ethically, morally and financial desirable) (s.1).
Know the forms of discrimination (s.2.1).

(continued on next page)


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VISUAL OVERVIEW
Objective: To describe the meaning and application of equal opportunities and
management of diversity.

DIVERSITY
Development
Research

DISCRIMINATION
Forms of Discrimination
Equal Opportunities
Equal Pay
Sex Discrimination
Sexual Harassment
Orientation and Religion
Disability
Age

MANAGING DIVERSITY AND


EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES
Managing Diversity
Establishing Policy
Equal Opportunities

Session 18 Guidance
Recognise best practices in managing diversity and equal opportunities (s.3).
Be aware if equal opportunities and diversity are of lesser relevance in your country, make sure
you understand what is standard in Europe. You cannot use the excuse that "we do not do it that
way in my country".

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Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity F1 Accountant In Business

1 Diversity

1.1 Development

Diversitya range of things.


Workplace diversityacknowledgement of and tolerance for
differences within and between groups of people in the workplace.

Equal employment opportunities under the law and


workplace diversity are both tied into business ethics and
CSR; developments in equal opportunities have been driven
forward by legal requirements whereas diversity is still a
more ethics-oriented issue.*

*Equal employment opportunities law against discrimination based


on race, disability, gender, religion and belief, sexual orientation and
age has been in place for many years. Diversity will be subject to
regulation in the UK when the Corporate Governance Code is updated.

Equal opportunity initiatives are grounded in developing


a level playing field for all people by ending or reducing
discrimination against particular groups and improving fairness
in the workplace through the application of law. As seen with
corporate law and regulations, from a business and moral
perspective, such initiatives will have a limit to their success.
Currently, best practice in corporate governance and CSR are
driving the concept of diversity in an organisation's workforce
to achieve a business, ethical and moral advantage.
Harnessing diversity in the workplace will theoretically create
a productive environment in which everyone feels valued, their
talents are fully utilised and organisational goals are met.
People's differences can be many and varied, visible and
non-visible (e.g. background, culture, personality, politics,
family structure, health, values and work style).

1.2 Research
Research has found that culturally diverse teams were more
creative than homogenous teams and contributed more
effectively to meeting organisational goals. Thus, there is
a business case (as well as the moral and ethical case) for
diversity, although coping with it would be much harder than
simply managing equal opportunities to meet legal requirements.

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F1 Accountant in Business Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity

By analysing organisations which actively pursue a diversity


programme (and do not just pay it lip service), researchers
have shown that the application of a diverse workforce:
increases competitive advantagediversity ensures that a
company has employees who come from all parts of society
and who are and who look, act, think like and relate to the
company's potential customers;
enables the company to relate much more closely to its
markets and meet changing consumer demands and
emerging niche markets;
improves effectiveness and efficiency by maximising the
human resource potential;
increases creativity and innovation;
broadens the range of employee skills;
improves working relationships in an atmosphere of trust
and inclusion;
improves customer relations and service to similarly
diverse customers;
enables recruitment from a wider, diverse labour pool, thus
enhancing the skills and abilities the company can choose;
enhances the company's reputation among job seekers; and
decreases recruitment and turnover expenditures of time
and money.

The main differences between diversity and equal opportunities are:


Diversity Equal Opportunities
Voluntary (at this point) Government initiated
Productivity driven Legally driven
Qualitative Quantitative
Opportunity-focused Problem-focused
Inclusive Targeted
Proactive Reactive

2 Discrimination
The areas of discrimination covered in this session are:
equal opportunities;
equal pay; and
gender, colour, race, disability, sexual orientation, religion
and age.

The examiner does not expect you to know the detail of the UK
legislation on work-based discrimination, equal opportunities and
diversity. Every jurisdiction will have varying laws on these topics.
You will, however, be expected to know the general principles and
good practice, using the UK as an example.

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Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity F1 Accountant In Business

2.1 Forms of Discrimination


Direct discriminationwhere one interested party is treated
less favourably than another.
Indirect discriminationwhen a policy or practice appears to
be fair in writing, but in practice actually discriminates against an
individual or group of individuals. Such a policy has the effect of
discriminating although it may not overtly intend to do so.
Victimisationa form of discrimination against an individual
who is penalised for giving information or taking action in
pursuit of a claim of discrimination.
Harassmentuse of threatening, intimidating, offensive
or abusive action, language or behaviour; includes verbal,
physical, mental or threatened bullying.

2.2 Equal Opportunities


Equal opportunities is an approach to people management
based on equal access to benefits and fair treatment.
Equal employment opportunities exist when there is no unfair
discrimination (against gender, colour, ethnic origin, disability,
orientation, religion and age) in relation to:
access to jobs;
employment terms and conditions;
promotion prospects;
training opportunities;
remuneration; or
termination of employment.

Employers should only take into account ability, experience and


potential when deciding who the best person is for a position,
unless it is obvious that a particular individual is required for
the position (e.g. a female nurse dealing with female patients).

2.2.1 Advantages of an Equal Opportunities Policy


A sound business case often can be made for having an equal
opportunities policy.
Compliance with relevant legislation and codes of best practice.
Legally, ethically and morally justified and a CSR reporting
requirement (see Sessions 9 and 26).
Assures a wide and deep "gene pool" to attract and retain the
best talent.*

*A survey of the UK's listed companies noted that the majority


of company boards were "male, pale and stale". That is, they
comprised overwhelmingly older white malesparticularly the non-
executive directors. This was considered to be a distinct competitive
disadvantage in that the boards did not reflect the environment in
which they operated, particularly in relation to their customer base.
The recommendation of the survey was for companies to "widen
their gene pool".

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F1 Accountant in Business Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity

Ensures that the organisation's employees and managers


reflect the composition of its operating environment (e.g.
customer and local communities).
Being able to demonstrate best practice and a non-discriminatory
attitude if taken to court by an employee claiming discrimination.

2.2.2 Circumvention
Enshrining equal opportunities in law (or codes of best
practice), however, does not necessarily mean the spirit of the
law will be followed. Some organisations (even some listed
firms and unlisted firms in the public eye) may only pay "lip
service" to the requirements and do the absolute minimum
necessary. For example:
Publish extensive equal opportunity policy documents
(e.g. in CSR and sustainability reports) in order to be seen
to be good, but in practice do very little.
Deliberately establish or create reasons and situations to
ensure discrimination "via the backdoor" (e.g. creating
reasons in a job interview, which may or may not be
justifiable, for not hiring a particular individual).
Create a work environment which forces an individual to
resign (e.g. work colleagues take a dislike and refuse to
work with or talk to the individual).
Apply a policy selectively (e.g. to workers and low-grade
managers, but not to middle managers or executives) so
there is no representation of certain groups at higher levels.

Illustration 1 Discriminatory
Selection

An investigative journalist (who was non-white) applied for the same


job using two different names. Her employment experience and
education were the same on both application forms but on one form,
her name implied that she belonged to an ethnic minority and, on the
other, her real name implied that she was a white national. She was
invited for an interview under her real name, but under the ethnic
minority name, she was rejected.
When the interviewer saw that she was non-white, he spent most of the
interview time giving the impression that the job was not right for her.
In addition, a white female colleague (who applied with similar,
comparable education and experience) also was invited for an
interview. She was offered the job.
The subsequent publicity was very damaging to the reputation
of the company (which publicly promoted an equal opportunities
environment). The directors sacked the interviewer because his
discriminatory attitude was at fault rather than the firm's policy.
A number of the firm's current and past employees, however, went
public and made it clear that the non-discrimination policy was a sham
and that the directors actively encouraged indirect discrimination.

2.3 Equal Pay


Under such legislation, any person is entitled to the same
remuneration and conditions of service as another who:
is doing similar work; or
is doing work which is of a similar value as judged under a
job evaluation exercise.

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Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity F1 Accountant In Business

2.3.1 Job Evaluation


If a job evaluation exercise has not been undertaken, any
employee has the right to apply to an industrial tribunal for an
order that a job evaluation be performed.
The job evaluation must use analytical methods to compare
jobs done by other employees with regard to:
skills attached to the post; and
demands made on the individual.

The tribunal's decision (e.g. to increase wages, re-grade jobs,


etc) is legally binding.

2.3.2 Measuring Equal Value


Even if two jobs differ in content, a claim for equal pay can be
made if the jobs have equal value (in terms of the skills, etc,
required to undertake them).
The benchmark for determining equal value is whether the jobs
are equivalent in terms of the demands made on the employee.
The legislation offers examples of possible similar and
dissimilar demands made on the workers undertaking two
hypothetical jobs. These are reproduced below.

Examples of similar demands:

Job Job

Responsible for contact with customers. Responsible for staff.


Lifts heavy weights occasionally. Lifts small weights regularly.
Diagnoses equipment faults. Analyses written reports.
Checks inventory levels and orders Checks work done by subordinates and
replacements. allocates tasks.
Uses fax and stamping equipment. Uses a PC.
On feet most of day. Has to concentrate on numbers.
Examples of dissimilar demands:

Job Job

Drives a van. Examines customer complaints.


Sweeps up. Chooses fabric for new designs.
Decides shift rosters. Responsible for packing and despatch.

Illustration 2 Equal Value Jobs

In the UK's equal pay framework, examples of "equal value" job


pairings are:
Factory nurse and skilled fitter.
Secretary and scientific assistant.
Administrator and data analyst.
Seamstress and forklift truck driver.
Quality controller and technical trainer.
Catering assistant and driver.

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F1 Accountant in Business Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity

2.4 Sex Discrimination


It is illegal to discriminate in the workplace on the basis of
sex (gender) in the areas of recruitment, job selection, terms
and conditions of employment, training, promotion and pay
(including the form of fringe benefits and redundancy pay
and pensions).
Though originally introduced because of unfair treatment
of women, in recent years the UK legislation has been
used successfully by males to sue employers because of
discrimination against them in favour of women.
Equal opportunities based on sex discrimination led to some
interesting cases and judgments. For example:
Age limits placed on promotion prospects can be judged as
sex discrimination because women who start a family are
naturally on leave and may not return to work until after
they have exceeded the age limit.
As part-time workers are mainly female, to offer only limited
or no retirement and health benefits to part-time workers
may be considered sex discrimination.
Some jurisdictions have a lower retirement age for women
than for men. This may be considered sex discrimination.*

*The difference between retirement ages in the UK (women 60,


men 65) was challenged in the courts by a group of men arguing
sex discrimination and asking that the retirement age for men be set
at 60. Although the court agreed with the men's sex discrimination
claim, the government has instituted a policy which raises, in the
first stage, the retirement age of everyone to 65 in a series of steps.
The second stage will be to raise it further to 68.

Schools or universities for students of one gender would be


practicing sex discrimination, as it is unlawful to segregate
the sexes in places of work without reasonable justification.
In some jurisdictions, however, specific laws are in place
where the sexes are not allowed to mix for cultural or
religious reasons.
The UK military services have, over recent years, allowed
women to join and serve in front-line fighting Army units,
to train and fly as fighter pilots in the RAF and to serve
aboard Royal Navy ships (and submarines) as ratings
and officers because of the threat that sex discrimination
claims could be made.

2.5 Sexual Harassment


Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours
and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature
constitute sexual harassment when this conduct explicitly or
implicitly affects an individual's employment, unreasonably
interferes with an individual's work performance or creates an
intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.

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Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity F1 Accountant In Business

Sexual harassment at work threatens the victim's confidence


and self-esteem. It can stop a person from working
effectively, undermines their dignity and can affect their
health and happiness. Such actions can easily become a
health and safety matter.
Sexual harassment can occur in a variety of circumstances,
including but not limited to:
The victim as well as the harasser may be a woman or a
man. The victim does not have to be of the opposite sex.
The harasser can be the victim's supervisor, an agent of the
employer, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker or a
non-employee (e.g. a customer or supplier).
The victim does not have to be the person harassed but
could be anyone affected by the offensive conduct.
Unlawful sexual harassment may occur without economic
injury to the victim.
The harasser's conduct must be unwelcome and made
known to the harasser by the victim.*

*A difficulty faced by many employers is that many people respond


to situations in different ways. What may seem like an innocent
action or remark to one person may be deemed offensive by another,
and the law often sides with the victim rather than the perpetrator.
This is particularly the case when the harassment concerns an abuse
of power (e.g. a worker being harassed by a manager).

Sexual harassment can take many forms, broadly categorised


as verbal, non-verbal or physical.

2.5.1 Verbal
Comments about appearance, body or clothes.
Indecent remarks.
Sexually explicit jokes.
Questions or comments about one's sex life.
Requests for sexual favours.
Sexual demands made by someone of the opposite or the
same sex.
Promises or threats concerning a person's employment
conditions in return for sexual favours.

2.5.2 Non-verbal
Looking or staring at a person's body.
Display of male or female sexually explicit material, such as
calendars, pin-ups or magazines.

2.5.3 Physical
Physically touching, pinching, hugging, caressing or kissing.
Sexual assault.
Rape.

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F1 Accountant in Business Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity

2.6 Sexual Orientation and Religious Beliefs


Employers cannot discriminate on the basis of an individual's
sexual orientation or religion.
Employers can be held responsible for conduct (including
harassment) deemed offensive in regard to an individual's
sexual orientation or religion.*

*Employers must ensure that, for example, stable same-sex partners


are treated the same as married couples, dress codes are sufficiently
flexible to allow for religious expression and staff are not prevented
from taking absence for religious holidays.

2.7 Disability
UK legislation makes it illegal for employers to discriminate
against disabled individuals:
in deciding whom to interview, whom to employ or in terms
of an employment offer;
in the terms of employment and the opportunities for
promotion, transfer, training or other benefits, or by
refusing the same;
by dismissal or other disadvantages.

The employer has a duty to make reasonable adjustments to


working arrangements or to the physical features of premises
where these constitute a disadvantage to disabled people
(e.g. easy access for wheelchairs).

2.8 Age
2.8.1 Impacts
Age discrimination occurs when someone treats a person less
favourably because of that person's age and uses this as a basis
for prejudice against, and unfair treatment of, that person.
Age discrimination in employment can:
affect anybody regardless of how old they are;
reduce employment prospects for older people, younger
people and parents returning to work after a period of
full-time child care;
favour people ages 25 to 35; or
prevent the full consideration of abilities, potential and
experience of employees.

2.8.2 Factors to Be Considered by Employers


Age, age-related criteria or age ranges should not be used in
advertisements other than to encourage applications from age
groups which do not usually apply. Where this is the case, it
should be clearly stated and made clear that all age ranges
will be treated the same. Failure to do so will be considered
as positive discrimination (i.e. favouring one age group over
others) and is unlawful.*

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Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity F1 Accountant In Business

*Companies and recruitment agencies have drawn up guidelines


on the use of certain words in advertising and recruitment literature.
Words such as mature, young, energetic, dynamic, student or
graduate, or age-specific messages (e.g. 10 years' experience
preferred), must be very carefully used as they are age related.
Photographs in any company literature (including financial statements)
showing employees must avoid creating an image which would
exclude or alienate certain age groupsa fair balance must be
obtained overall.
Application forms should avoid asking for age and date of birth, unless
this is specifically relevant to the job. Most companies now have
a separate (detachable) section on the application form requesting
information used to monitor equal opportunities and diversity (e.g.
gender, age, religion, ethnic origin). This element must be detached
when the form is received and not used in any recruitment or selection
procedures other than to meet legal monitoring requirements.

Interviewers and those concerned with selection must not


be subjective on the basis of physical characteristics and
unfounded assumptions. They must ensure that their decisions
are based on objective criteria, relevant to the job and merit.
The age regulations make it unlawful to base decisions on
appearance or perceived age, whether older or younger.
An individual's age should not be used to make judgements
about abilities or fitness. Where such a judgement is
required, an occupational health or medical practitioner
should be consulted. Age should not be used as a factor in
physical test requirements.
Pay and terms of employment should not be based on age
but should reflect the value of individual contributions and
standards of job performance.
All employees should be eligible for training and development
regardless of age, even when they are nearing a benchmark
retirement age (e.g. 65).
When considering promotion, criteria cannot be based on age,
only merit.
Redundancy cannot be based on age (e.g. last-in, first-out),
as this usually means the youngest employees are made
redundant first. Similarly, decisions cannot be based on
minimising the cost of redundancy, as this implies that workers
who have been with the firm the longest and (probably) are
older would stay, with the youngest going first. Redundancy
must be based on job-related criteria and applied fairly.
Forced retirement of those below the benchmark retirement
age (e.g. 65) is illegal. Requests by those approaching
retirement age to continue in a job must be carefully
considered by employers. If an employer refuses to continue
employment when the individual is still physically and mentally
able to continue (and the job is still available), this will be
considered discrimination.

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F1 Accountant in Business Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity

3 Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunities

3.1 Managing Diversity


Managing diversity includes:
ensuringthe opportunity for all employees to maximise
their potential, self-development and contribution to the
organisation;
meeting the needs of a diverse workforce; and
reflecting the labour market and customers in the diversity
of the workforce.
People from different backgrounds can bring fresh ideas and
perceptions, which can increase production efficiency and
improve products.
Practical issues and steps to achieve workplace diversity
may include:
Building and maintaining teams in culturally and/or
ethnically diverse work groups.
Providing support for different family situations of the
workforce (e.g. child care and flexitime).
Ensuring that career opportunities are attractive and
available to all members of the workforce.
Promoting a work atmosphere of tolerance for cultural
differences.
Communicating with customers and employees to make
sure their diverse needs are met.

3.2 Establishing Diversity Policy


The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD)
provides a series of "tips" for companies to follow when
establishing practical and effective diversity policies.

3.2.1 Overall Strategy


Ensure that initiatives and policies have the support of the
board of directors and senior management.
Consider managing diversity as a continuous process of
improvement rather than a one-off initiative.
Develop a diversity strategy to support the achievement of
business goals, including ways of addressing the diverse needs
of customers.
Focus on fairness and inclusion, ensuring that merit,
competence and potential are the basis for all decisions about
recruitment and development.
Keep up to date with the law and review policies through
checks, audits and consultation.
Address work-life balance challenges in ways which take
account of employee and organisational needs and offer
suitable choices and options.
Encourage ownership and discourage risk aversion, aiming to
create an empowering culture so that decisions are not passed
upwards without good reason.

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Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity F1 Accountant In Business

Design guidelines for line managers to help them respond


appropriately to diversity needs, as they are vital change
agents, but give them scope for flexible decision-making.
Link diversity management to other initiatives such as
Investors in People and total quality management.
Consider individual working styles and personal preferences in
the context of national cultures in which the firm operates.

3.2.2 Workplace Behaviour


Introduce a value system based on respect and dignity for all.
Aim to describe the desirable behaviours to gain positive
commitment.
Make clear that everyone has a personal responsibility to
uphold the standards.
Introduce mechanisms to deal with all forms of harassing,
bullying and intimidating behaviour.
Make clear that discriminatory behaviour will not be tolerated,
is regarded as contravening the values of an organisation and
will be treated as a serious disciplinary matter.

3.2.3 Communication
Develop an open culture with good communication channels
based on open dialogue and active listening.
Use different and accessible methods such as newsletters,
in-house magazines, notice boards and intranets to keep
people up to date about diversity policies and practices.
Consult people for ideas.
3.2.4 Training
Build diversity concepts and practices into management and
other training and team-building programmes to increase
awareness of the need to handle different views, perceptions
and ideas in positive ways.
Consider skills-training and awareness-raising programmes
about diversity to help people work together better in a
diverse environment.
Include diversity issues in induction programmes so that all new
employees know about the organisation's values and policies.
Train line managers about diversity, aiming to help them
understand the issues and drive them into organisational and
operational policies and practices.

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F1 Accountant in Business Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity

3.2.5 Measure, Review and Reinforce


Regularly audit, review and evaluate progress and keep
qualitative data to chart progress and show business benefits.
Use employee surveys to evaluate initiatives, to learn whether
policies are working for everyone and to provide a platform
for improvement.
Track actions to learn whether they have had the intended
results and make appropriate changes if necessary.
Include diversity objectives in job descriptions and appraisals
and recognise and reward achievement.
Benchmark good practice against other organisations and
adopt and adapt relevant ideas where appropriate.
Network with others inside and outside your organisation to
keep up to date and to share learning.
Celebrate successes and use failures to identify learning
opportunities.

3.3 Equal Opportunities


Equal opportunities requirements must be thoroughly
managed, not only to ensure that they are recognised and
implemented but also to ensure that they are practical and
effective in operation.
Management stages include:
3.3.1 Buy-in
Ensure that all senior managers are fully aware of the need to
follow not only the letter, but the spirit, of equal opportunities.
If they are not seen to be applying the spirit of the legislation
rather than simply complying with requirements, employees
will not take any policy statements seriously.
Establish a board-level working party (which should reflect the
diversity of the workforce) to produce a draft Policy Statement
and Code of Best Practice for all areas of equal opportunities.

3.3.2 Review
Audit all the organisation's current policies, practices and
procedures, even those not labelled "personnel", to identify all
areas which relate to equal opportunities.
Establish areas which meet, exceed or fail to meet current
legislation requirements. Update as necessary to ensure that
all functions meet or exceed legal requirements.
Produce a policy statement and codes of best practice for
all employees.

3.3.3 Policy
Implement policy as part of an approach to diversity
and inclusion.
Use only objective criteria essential for satisfactory performance
and ensure that these can be objectively justified.
Communicate policy to all managers and employees and offer
training where necessary.

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Session 18 Equal Opportunities and Diversity F1 Accountant In Business

3.3.4 Stance and Key Actions


Undertake regular audits to ensure that best practice is always
used in all areas of equal opportunity.
Management should challenge any form of discrimination used
by employees.
Educate and train all staff about the implications of any form
of discrimination.
Embed diversity and equal opportunities into the culture of
the organisation.
Include discrimination offences and disciplinary procedures
into every employee's terms and conditions of employment.
Ensure that "whistle-blowing" channels are open and used.
Monitor key profiles (e.g. age, gender, ethnic origins,
disabilities) to ensure that discrimination is not being practiced.
Record all processes, monitoring, incidents and action taken,
as such information may be needed if a court case arises.

Example 1 Advert Discrimination


Consider the following advertisement from the viewpoint of discrimination.
"Attractive, young, blonde females required for duties as barmen. Must be available
to work at 30 minutes' notice between the hours of 11.30 a.m. and 11.30 p.m."
List the possible ways this discriminates.

Solution

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Session 18

Summary
Equal employment opportunities were established under law in the 1960s. These laws refer
to discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, disability, age and sexual orientation.
Forms of discrimination include direct and indirect discrimination, victimisation
and harassment.
Discrimination may be in relation to access to jobs, employment terms and conditions,
promotion prospects, training opportunities, remuneration or termination of employment.
Discrimination with regard to pay may occur when workers performing similar functions, or
judged to be of similar value, do not receive the same pay and terms.
Firms should perform a job evaluation in order to establish the pay and terms for
each position.
Workers who feel discriminated against based on pay and benefits may request a tribunal
to intervene, and the tribunal may require a job evaluation, and may re-grade jobs and
increase wages for the position.
Even jobs with different content may be considered similar if they require the same skills,
etc required to undertake them.
Although an organisation's policies do not overtly discriminate, the firm may be found to
discriminate if the effect of its policies is discriminatory.
Sexual harassment can take many forms, broadly categorised as verbal, non-verbal
and physical.
Workplace diversity refers to the acknowledgement of and tolerance for differences within
and between groups of people in the workplace. Although not yet required by law, a body
of research indicates a business case for a diverse workplace.

Session 18 Quiz
Estimated time: 15 minutes

1. Explain the concept of "diversity". (1)


2. Give FIVE advantages of a diverse workforce. (1.2)
3. Briefly describe FOUR forms of discrimination. (2.1)
4. List FIVE factors an employer may use which could discriminate against a current or
potential employee. (2.3, 2.8)
5. Describe why an organisation should establish a diversity policy. (3.2)

Study Question Bank


Estimated time: 15 minutes

Priority Estimated Time Completed


Equal Opportunities
MCQ18 and Diversity 15 minutes

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EXAMPLE SOLUTION
Solution 1Advert Discrimination
"Attractive" implies particular physical characteristics.
"Young" implies a particular age limit.
"Blonde" implies particular races.
"Female" denotes no males (despite the fact that they will be
called "barmen").
The notice period and timing implies preference for individuals who
would not have family commitments.

18-16 2014 DeVry/Becker Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved.

Ali Niaz - ali.niaz298@gmail.com


NOTES

2014 DeVry/Becker Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. 18-17

Ali Niaz - ali.niaz298@gmail.com