1 views

Uploaded by Vivek Agrawal

xv

- 4305_5401_PS1_Solns_W2008
- Slides Flow Coriolis
- Pump Troubleshooting Vol_1
- Design and Experimental Validation of Low Stiffness Aerostatic Thrust Bearings
- Transport of Tank 241-SY-101 Waste Slurry(..) Effects of Dilution and Temperature on Critical Pipeline Velocity (Ed) [RECKNAGLE, K.P.; OnISHI, Y.] [US Dept. Energy; 1999] {28s}
- Wind Load Calculation
- Recent+Advances+in+Chemical+Engineering
- Non-dimensional Aerodynamic Design of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller
- Fluid Dynamics in Microchannels
- Comparison of Simple- And Piso-type Algorithms for Transient Flows
- 2.pdf
- EUCASS2013 a-Fischer Manuscript V03 7
- (n)Cewb222 Chapter 1 Introduction
- A Comparison of Existing Multiphase Flow Methods for the Calculation of Pressure Drop in Vertical Wells - J. H. Español, C. S. Holmes & K. E. Brown
- ptp exam 1.pdf
- Statistics of slug flow subjected to wall transpiration
- 1983 Comprehensive Design Data for Centrally Loaded Partial Bearings in Laminar and Turbulent Regimes Jain Wear
- Fluid Flow Regime INTRO
- Experiments in Model Granular Media- A Study of Gravity Flows Rajchenbach, Clement and Duran
- Vielmo, H. a. Et Al 2008 - Numerical Analysis of a High Swirl-Generating Helical Intake Port for Diesel Engines

You are on page 1of 9

Niranjan Sahoo

IIT-Guwahati

Lecture-4

1. Flow through Closed Conduits

When there is a fluid flow through closed conduits (such as pipe flows), the dominant

forces are inertial and viscous because there is no fluid interface. Compressibility effects

can be neglected for low Mach numbers less than 0.3. In these classes of problems,

geometric similarity between the model and prototype must be maintained. Geometric

where l is some particular length dimension of the system. It leads to series of pi terms

of the form as,

li

Pi = where i = 1, 2,.....

l

In addition, other parameter of importance is the surface roughness (e) . The

For low Mach number flows, Reynolds number must also match. Complete similarity

requirements are as follows.

lim li e m e i r m .Vm .lm r .V .l

= ; = ; = (1)

lm l lm l mm m

In order to find the pressure differential per unit length, the other dependent pi term is

expressed as,

Dp

P1 =

r .V 2

The prototype pressure drop can be obtained from the relation as,

2

r V

Dp = . .Dpm (2)

r m Vm

Example: Water flows through a large valve having 0.8m diameter at a rate 85m 3/s. It is

to be tested in a geometrically similar model of 10cm diameter with water as working

fluid. Determine the required flow rate in the model.

1

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

IIT-Guwahati

Solution: In order to ensure the dynamic similarity, the Reynolds number must match for

the model and the prototype i.e.

( Re ) model = ( Re ) prototype

Vm .Dm V p .Dp

=

nm np

Since, water is used as the working fluid for the model and the prototype, so n m = n p .

Hence,

Vm D p

=

V p Dm

The flow rate for the model and prototype can be related as,

[ p 4] .Dm2

Qm D p Dm

= =

[ p 4] .Dp2

Q p Dm Dp

Hence,

Dm 0.1

Qm = Q p . = 85 = 10.6 m3 s

Dp 0.8

2. Flow around Immersed Bodies

Typical examples that fall under this category are the flow around aircraft, automobiles

etc. The general formulations for these classes of problems are expressed in terms of

dependent pi terms i.e.

l e r .V .l

Dependent pi terms = f i , , (3)

l l m

For complete similarity requirements Eq. (1) must be satisfied. The parameter of interest

FD

CD =

1

r .V 2 .l 2

2

If the similarity conditions are met, then

2

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

IIT-Guwahati

FD FD

1 = 1 (4)

r .V 2 .l 2 r .V 2 .l 2

2

model 2

prototype

Example-1: In order to estimate the drag force on an airplane that cruises at 100m/s,

wind-tunnel test is carried out on a 1: 15 scale model. The airplane cruises at an altitude

where there is 10% drop in standard atmospheric pressure. The wind tunnel test is also

carried out at 100m/s and the measured drag force in one of the test is 5N. Determine the

required air pressure in the tunnel and drag force on the prototype (assuming the same air

temperature for the model and prototype).

Solution: For a geometrically model and prototype, the Reynolds number must match i.e.

( Re ) model = ( Re ) prototype

r m .Vm .Dm r p .V p .D p

=

mm mp

Vm l 1

In this case, =1 ; m = , so that

Vp l p 15

r m mm V p l p m m m

= . . = . ( 1) . ( 10 ) = 15. m

r p m p Vm lm m p mp

It shows that same fluid with r m = r p ; m m = m p cannot be used to maintain the Reynolds

number similarity. However, one possible solution is to use same fluid (air) for which

mm = m p , but increase the pressure to increase the density to a limit such that variation in

rm

= 15

rp

r m pm

= (Assuming constant temperature)

r p pp

The prototype cruises at an altitude where there is 10% drop in standard atmosphere i.e.

at a pressure of 0.9atm. So, required pressure in the wind tunnel will be,

3

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

IIT-Guwahati

pm = 15 0.9 = 13.5atm.

Using Eq. (4), the drag force on the prototype is estimated as,

2 2

r V p l p

( FD ) prototype =m

r p .

. . ( FD ) model = 15. ( FD ) model = 75N

Vm lm

seawater at 50C. The drag on this transducer is to be predicted from wind tunnel data on a

model of 15cm diameter. Determine the required test speed in the wind tunnel. If the drag

of the model at test condition is 25N, estimate the drag on the prototype.

Solution:

D p = 0.3m Dm = 15cm

V p = 9km/hr Fp Vm

Fm = 25N

In order to estimate test speed and drag on the prototype, the following condition must be

satisfied, i.e.

F r .V .D

= g (Example II, Lecture 2)

r .V .D

2 2

m

For ensuring the dynamic similarity, the test should run such that

( Re ) model = ( Re ) prototype

For seawater at 50C, r p = 1000 kg m , n p = 1.57 10 m s ; At prototype conditions,

3 -6 2

V p = 9 km hr = 2.5 m s . So,

V p .D p

( Re ) prototype = = 4.77 105

np

The model must be tested at same Reynolds number, i.e.

Vm .Dm

( Re ) model = = 4.77 105

nm

4

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

IIT-Guwahati

nm

Vm = ( Re ) model . = 47.7 m s

Dm

At these conditions, the model and prototype are dynamic similar. Hence,

Fm Fp

=

r m .Vm .Dm r p .V p2 .Dp2

2 2

so that

r p Vp2 Dp2

Fp = Fm . . 2 . 2 = 229N

r m Vm Dm

The flows in canals, rivers, spillways, around ships are some of the examples involving a

free surface. In these flow patterns, following forces and numbers are of important. They

are,

Gravitational force (Froude number)

Surface tension (Weber number)

Inertia force (Reynolds number)

Thus general formulation for problems involving the flow with a free surface is expressed

as,

l e r .V .l V r .V 2 .l

Dependent pi terms = j i , , , , (5)

l l m g .l s

Since gravity is the driving force, so Froude number similarity must be maintained i.e.

Vm Vp

=

g m .lm g p .l p

The model and prototype is expected to operate in same gravitational field. So,

Vm l

= m (6)

Vp lp

In many of the practical problems, involving free surface flows, both surface tension

and viscous effects are small and strict adherence to Weber and Reynolds number is not

required.

5

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

IIT-Guwahati

Example: A spillway model of 1:10 scale is constructed to study the flow characteristics

for a prototype dam of width 10m and to carry water at a flow rate of 60m 3/s. Determine

the required model width and flow rate. What operating time for the model corresponds

to a 24hr period in prototype? The effects of surface tension and viscosity may be

neglected.

Solution: If wm , wp are the width of the model and prototype respectively, then

wm 1 10

= , i.e. wm = = 0.67m

wp 15 15

Since surface tension and viscosity are insignificant, so there is no need for considering

Weber number and Reynolds number. However, the Froude number must match i.e.

Vm l

= m

Vp lp

Qm Vm . Am lm 2

= =

Q p V p . Ap

l p

so that,

5

1 2

Qm = 60 = 0.19 m3 s

10

The time scale can be obtained as,

Vp l p tm

= .

Vm t p lm

i.e.

t m V p lm l

= . = m

lm Vm l p lp

so that

6

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

IIT-Guwahati

1

tm = 24hr = 7.6hr

10

4. Turbo-machinery models

There are certain situations of practical interest in which there may be more than one

dependent parameter. So, scaling is done for the dimensional groups with multiple

dependent parameters. A typical example is centrifugal pump. The performance

parameters of interest for a centrifugal pump include the pressure rise (or head)

developed, the power input, and machine efficiency measured under specific operating

conditions. These performance curves are usually generated by varying independent

parameters. The independent variables are volume flow rate ( Q ) , angular speed ( w ) ,

variables include the performance quantities.

The dependence of head ( h ) developed and power ( P ) can be written in terms of

independent parameters as,

h = f ( Q, r , w , D , m )

(18)

P = j ( Q, r , w , D , m )

h Q rw D 2

= g1 3 , (19)

w 2 D2 w D m

P Q rw D 2

= g 2 , (20)

rw 3 D5 w D

3

m

The dimensionless parameters are,

Q

Flow coefficient =

w.D 3

P

Power coefficient =

r .w 3 .D 5

r .w.D 2

Reynolds number =

m

Complete similarity in pump performance tests requires identical flow coefficients

and Reynolds number. Thus form Eqs. (19) and (20), when

7

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

IIT-Guwahati

Q1 Q2

= (21)

w1.D1 w2 .D23

3

It follows that,

h1 h

= 22 2 (22)

w1 .D1 w 2 .D2

2 2

and

P1 P2

= (23)

r1.w1 .D1 r 2 .w 23 .D25

3 5

These useful scaling relationships are known as pump laws. If operating conditions of

one pump are known, the operating conditions for any geometrically similar machine can

be found by changing D , w in Eqs. (21) to (23).

Another dimensionless parameter is the specific speed which is defined as the

speed required for a pump to produce unit head at unit volume flow rate i.e.

w.Q 0.5

Ns = (24)

h 0.75

A constant specific speed describes all operating conditions of geometrically similar

pumps with similar flow conditions.

Example: A centrifugal pump has a specific speed of 5000 (units of gallons/min, rpm and

m) when operated at 1170rpm and volume flow rate of 300gallons/min. In order to

increase flow rate, it is fitted with same size motor operating at 1750rpm. Determine the

flow rate, head developed, power required by the pump at this conditions. Show that

specific speed remains constant at this speed.

Q1 Q2

Solutions: From pump laws, =

w1.D1 w2 .D23 , so that

3

3

w2 D 2 1750 3

Q2 = Q1 . = 300 ( 1) = 449 gallons min

w1 .D1

3

1170

w.Q 0.5

Ns = or,

h 0.75

8

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

IIT-Guwahati

1.333 1.333

w1.Q10.5

1170 300

h1 = =

= 6.462m

N 5000

s

Again from pump laws for head developed,

2 2 2

w D 1750

( 1) = 14.45m

3

h2 = h1. 2 . 2 = 6.462

w1 D1 1170

Pump power at 1170rpm is given by,

P1 = r .g.Q1.H1 = 1000 9.81300 6.309 10 -5 6.462 = 1.2kW (1gallon/min =

6.30910-5m3/s)

From pump laws, pump power at 1750rpm is,

3 5 2

r w2 D2 1750

. . = 1.2 ( 1) ( 1) = 4.23kW

5

P2 = P1. 2

r1 w1 D1 1170

Specific speed at 1750rpm is given by,

w.Q 0.5 1750 449

Ns = = = 5003

( 14.45)

0.75

h0.75

- 4305_5401_PS1_Solns_W2008Uploaded byscoobeeney
- Slides Flow CoriolisUploaded byahmed_boucherit
- Pump Troubleshooting Vol_1Uploaded byChristopher Ruiters
- Design and Experimental Validation of Low Stiffness Aerostatic Thrust BearingsUploaded byf32569
- Transport of Tank 241-SY-101 Waste Slurry(..) Effects of Dilution and Temperature on Critical Pipeline Velocity (Ed) [RECKNAGLE, K.P.; OnISHI, Y.] [US Dept. Energy; 1999] {28s}Uploaded byR_M_M_
- Wind Load CalculationUploaded byAli Al-Basha
- Recent+Advances+in+Chemical+EngineeringUploaded bySivateja Nallamothu
- Non-dimensional Aerodynamic Design of a Centrifugal Compressor ImpellerUploaded bySubhash Padmanabhan
- Fluid Dynamics in MicrochannelsUploaded bythlpap
- Comparison of Simple- And Piso-type Algorithms for Transient FlowsUploaded bymacromolecule
- 2.pdfUploaded byATUL SONAWANE
- EUCASS2013 a-Fischer Manuscript V03 7Uploaded bytsikas
- (n)Cewb222 Chapter 1 IntroductionUploaded byFatin Nabila
- A Comparison of Existing Multiphase Flow Methods for the Calculation of Pressure Drop in Vertical Wells - J. H. Español, C. S. Holmes & K. E. BrownUploaded byFrank Heber Estrada Valdiviezo
- ptp exam 1.pdfUploaded byKeshia Saradima
- Statistics of slug flow subjected to wall transpirationUploaded byengenheirojarmeson
- 1983 Comprehensive Design Data for Centrally Loaded Partial Bearings in Laminar and Turbulent Regimes Jain WearUploaded byDharmendra Jain
- Fluid Flow Regime INTROUploaded byKyle Saylon
- Experiments in Model Granular Media- A Study of Gravity Flows Rajchenbach, Clement and DuranUploaded byAllan Erlikhman
- Vielmo, H. a. Et Al 2008 - Numerical Analysis of a High Swirl-Generating Helical Intake Port for Diesel EnginesUploaded byla8805
- 3 chapter 3Uploaded byJohn Smith
- Koiranen PaperUploaded byMichelle Jácome Fonseca
- 91025eUploaded byultimate
- Double AveragingUploaded byVijit Rathore
- LCC-0094 Text - The Turbulence Induced VibrationUploaded bypaivensolidsnake
- A9.pdfUploaded byvcharles
- EXP 3 (1)Uploaded bySionglin Hon
- PENEMPATAN FLUIDAUploaded byRiana Okta Lestari
- 11ACWE-Munoz2.pdfUploaded bymaxibosso
- 1Uploaded byAbdulrazzaqAL-Maliky

- Ds085!09!08 h Seawatcher 100 LrUploaded byKenneth Lee
- PropellersUploaded byWilliam_Bitter
- dioun.Light.Metal.Alloys.Applications.ed..by.Waldemar.A..Monteiro.pdfUploaded byelmarda
- The SIPRI Top 100 arms-producing and military services companies, 2012Uploaded byStockholm International Peace Research Institute
- Cycle Dump.txtUploaded byLeandroMaia
- contents of all wings of war boxes and packsUploaded byairfix1999
- Trade Register ReportUploaded bydeath666dark
- IFR 6000 ManualUploaded byfariasvn
- ICBM Datasheet PagesUploaded byprabhath
- ENERCON_Produkt_en_06_2015Uploaded byskorabn
- anemmeter thesis.pdfUploaded bySakthivel Palani
- Fluid Mechanics (ECH3113)-Chapter 3 Flow in PipesUploaded byTalal B. Osman
- Electro Hydraulic Servo ValveUploaded byabyzen
- Formwork Calculation Report - Rev.Uploaded byNishant Gaur
- Airline Aliance ARIEL(1)Uploaded byZen Wiz
- CFD Computational Modeling of Nearfield to Farfield Plume Expansion AIAA-2007-5704.pdfUploaded bymojicap
- Safety Aspects of Tailwind OperationsUploaded bystanchell
- 79 12 Cantilever Fabric Stiffness TesterUploaded byKarthickRaja
- Helicopter Control Systems - A History, Prouty - JOGC V26N1 2003Uploaded bylgrome73
- DMG_27.pdfUploaded byrol Nowa
- Chart-Your-Way-To-Easy-Steering.pdfUploaded byZa'im Saidi
- Air Corps Field Manual Air NavigationUploaded byisland14
- Aerodynamics 1Uploaded bybitchwhorecunt
- lta-03Uploaded bydazed_32
- Fail Position.pdfUploaded bySergio Iván
- Model Rocketry Visual AidsUploaded byAviation/Space History Library
- PBNTF-ECTL-RAISG2-PPT04_ Fleet Equipage According to FPL ContentUploaded byPero Peric
- control systemUploaded byPULKITJOSHI
- XTreme EFIS ManualUploaded byCristi Lupuleasa
- Abstracts Book 23rd PAC conferenceUploaded byJeroen