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FM 3135

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL

JUNGLE OPERATIONS

HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


SEPTEMBER 169
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF 'THE ARMY
No, 81--36 WIJIHINCTfiN, H,C" itO S .. pltmbn J!lIJ!l

JUNGlE OPERATIONS

,....
(~lIAI"TJl( l. INTkOIWCTION I I 14 I I
\I, JOtU;LI':
1'11~:
~('t!;;n t.
;.>.wul ! 2,1 ,Z :l 2 !
If. J"'''I/l, ...w\trnlmN'I1 1---4,,'lHi 2~
Ill. AInH,~... n 1unrl~. 2-11~,'l_11\ %!'l
IV. Ar,."a 1.{1 -2 21) 2-19
v. O~"'ntJlI jlmltl"" 211-- 2 lIli 2 23
VI. Ml1ttAr), uj'II!rb 2-:7-- 2,:'4 224
vn. M"V ..IMM And dlwt..n<,~ \I:lf._21; ~2~
ClIAI"TU :; (~OMRA1' AN!) CONI'I"1' lHlf'f'ORT
fh~tI"n 1, lJlfl;ntrr .1! ::-1 .1 1
II. Arm ..... :J II ,:I-ll! :1_.
Ill. AyUll<>~y :1 1:1 :1 2:1 1 'I
IV, Air ikru.... "d .ir det,,..-.:- .rtm~f)' :1-24 .. :!21i :Hfl
V, N." .. I ~,,1I1'f' .IIPJ><Irt lnd lII<,li".! .,r Bllpport :l~2(: -~ \11 :1 12
VI. Army."I&oo" :1 2R :'\.:12 ;-11
VI!. Chtol,,'iul, Rkl\o;ri<,.t. an<l k.4i1,!nlfl".t (CnR) 01'
1 '~, :1 :111 :1 17
VIIL ~nl/ln,." '; 10 :: .11\ :1-2<"'
DC (,<,mtnl.lnlf.thlN :J 1:1 :1 (,4 :I 11
X. Cnt~l!lp"f~ :! 5r._ :1-,",1 ~ t/',
XL ,,"/ilarl r(lllr~ 1-r,R :l 1111 3>27
('1I.1"'!'!!;/! !'(!MflA1' SEkVICY. SlJVroRT
1-1,,-tl<.n {, G..""u.l 4-1--4~:l

II i'lliJlP;,. 4-4--4 fl
111 MI.in;"nalK.. 4 'I .~
IV M.-dI .... 1 4 11 I'l
V. 1'ran~rw;;ttaU(\n 4 1:1 { hi
VI. ''PTO.'''''' ..! "'.MpIMM ~(\n~\Oknl"'II ntl ""rv;~~1 4 11 4 III
{'!f,Ol"Tl':lt :,. JtrNnL1': Ol'-,;kAT10Nl/.
;'l'<'t",1:, I. (;""~nd {,('I\~hwr..Uu",.
It lW~nnn.,.ur""", ~\,ITV..m."".., and _utit~ Qpt'/'j!;-
Urll1~ f>-&---- " 1 ;; II
111 0.."111' ri,ll- t, III ~-HI
IV 1).,.1.."", r. 11 r, I\) r. If.
V R.. tnow,.atlr "",vrm.. "t '. 'lli ~_1"
VI (lO.H ~"lnhI.l "r"''''lj.. "~ ;, \II :, 2/\ ~ HI
1,111 }(iv",.ln.. (),IW'r.tion. ',or ,,\ttl 1,.0
VUI ~!"bmty "jl"I'Al!Q"~ ",1<, r. :l!l '-, :It,

;w,-hon I. In,livllh... 1.nd I'Iml ~r.lnh'l Ii' 11:1 1\ I


II. Jun/ll:4< livl". (l r I; '" I; I
III, 1'tll~ki". h 11. Ii 13 Ii ;,
IV 1"l1('I't d.. tl'~Unn .nd ~nl/""~ItI~1'It r. 1,1 ,\ 111 fl.t

Awrwnu A, Rr."I':Rr,NCr,,. A I
Ih't..~ I
'"~
PM. 31-U

CHAmR 1

INTRODUCTION

1-1. hl'pOM planninK e4wh lIlmratiull, lJnl(,MM olherwlM J;fIt'<!.


Th!~ mallual provitrea doctrinal KUldanet! to C:OJT!- (h'd. lhe mBtf'ri.al II! uWlicBhlf' to both nuclear
Tn8ndlt'rll, IItalf Qffi('It'Ni, and fltM!' pen:onn..-I con lind ttnnJl1J"leaT wartarp
cerned wlth tlOctkal olKlTationK in junKie areall.
1-3. Opwotianal Environment
1-2. k"I'o All' outiiRt'd itl FM IOO-f., tht'; operational envi.
". Thill manmll ~l\l'ri~ the ('ommon lUI well mnt'M'nt Will. HII IIct'alli01), imJlrn!~ certain Ilmil.a-
a" lh(' ail\timlui~inl( ('hara('terillties of tJw thl'ti' tionll on tlw fnoooom uf at'titm of oommande1'll at
mltj,'r *If(rlOl'hind junKie art!all of tht' wurld III! \(!V('''1. Slwh relltrktionft .re normal and will
thlll exM in S!luthllt Allla, Latin America ana nt't'ur in aU form!l' of military operaticnl. Tht! n!s.
Afrka. fl di~u!\IIt'1I the thilracter[lItk etf4lds of trllintll impollt'd in general wat, however, wiU M
junlp conditiolls fiT! troo~, equivment. oraanin- I;w. fnq1Jcnt Ilnd leM !I~ifk thall tholle imlXW'lfli
tkm, ami "perathlTI_~. It definell the role ot the 111 hmlted or ("old war.
romhHt, combllt IIUIJport, and ICUmbat ~rvice ftu,..
port flifTell and diltPulIAe1l tht' IIp(K'ialiu-d traininr 1~. Cho_
t'e'quirt'm.nta for fflrulud ~lr oper.UoM in a jun. t!1ieJ'!!, of thill manual are ent'ourapd to lIubmit
jotle t'nvirnnmenL recommended cb$nff611 and t'ommpnt.a to improve
I,. The materi.1 fU"sent~ ill applieable to oper_ the manual, Comm4!nbi Ihoukt be keyed to the
atiollll in limIted and ~eral war and in lI!.ablUty .... pedfic pajl't', parliRupb and line or wxJ in whkh
ope-rati())u\. It is di:'(!('wd primarily to o(,)eratlonll chal\lte ift recommended. Reu<ml ehoold be ptl).
at bri.ad" Ipvel and low~r. Th~ bailie eonaJdera- 'ildl:!d tor elM:h ("omnwnt to inaure Imderatandin,
liol\l\ of dlvlftinn It'V1'1 oJl('ratiorull will be Nl\{!n- and ('(lmplete evaluation. Commtnta Ih(luld be
Hally Wit' same all those in all ar.... of tlN! world. p~n>d u!linK DA Furm 2028 (Recommended
Cummfl.ndt'TIl and IItafT officerll at an levelll mUllt Cb.njleS to Public'ationll) and Corward+ti diHet to
undersbnd and appreciate the etrectA of the jun. the f'~mnumder, C.R Army FortU Sou\,hern
it'le en .. lI"mment nn opttrationll III bripop k!vpl ~~n;:;:' y~-::~~~mbet De\'elopmenta Oftke,
and lower and f's:rt':tully considn them when

.-.
CHAPTER 2
THE JUNGlE

Sfttian I. GENERAt

2-t, The Tropical Zone L!I r;,,lIrr> 1',,;',1/>/""1'. Tni .. JUIlj(le nrtn ('J(.
rh., tr"l'lntll'''11I' 11ti~ belw('('jj tnt' Troflit r,( Cnn 1\'11\1'11'1"1>111 horth<'rn I-:'Ilm{uf (linrih or the Hum
('er 1(n1l ttl<' Tr"t1h' "r ('III'rl('orn 12.1.5 lLt';rn'('~ b"ldt i"l'tf<'IIt) thl""!OJ.(h jlill'b; of Colombin, V('f\\'".
IlO/'Ih loud ""!llh nf 1h( j"IUnlt'rL Within thiK r,onc 1.!H<1> ;n;;! 0:(" Ih" hlhnl!!.~ .. f i'nulImlt
th,'!',- Uf, 'I,wh tlln'r~' "hvIT"nm'!1tnl ..ohi!1tion'" t:U !'",fr<l/.llllf'll''I1/. :-lnrth fr1.m l"mn.mll,
"lO ).'1"" "'UPlwd nl"t!H!./III'lI, hUI'n'1I dt'!l:t'rbl lUlll
11'1" ('"Hnd Am"rkull ]11111[1(' l'pr<'1tds h' ch" ")l"t
I'rn ...... I!. of !hl' ~!"ITII 1I1ud(f' Orwllhll ol M(''I(if''
THin f"n'~t~ Th1i" nmnl'll! I~ ('("W"TIW1l \\-ill! only
tl1nl PHrl "f th,' 1nlpi,,;, ",h('r,' tht' it'lnI'I'TlIillfl' '!!Id ii,' r:ll" "'wtn 't'. TlI!lIpi(". Th,' Plllj,d,' orr!!)! "f
a!h! nlati\,I' hlln:hli!v Tf'mlllll hiJ(h thr"H,..hflut ,11(' AUtl]II'!! 1,1"<' "I"" 11II'Im],'/1 ""'Ithit! thi~ l'iuodl\'i.
tht' Y,M. AI'('u~ wilh:11 thii\ Plitt or thp lr"llil'lI RTf' ~i"t!
"nflKi,j,'I'<,d \0 fM' thp hlltllidlr>:JpWlI anti It ill In Ut. h 7'11, .\11"/""" J'II':lit',~
hun' III lrnjH'" 11lnl Ih,' IIm;.tlf' 1'(j\'lt'<mml'nt il< ill U',.,t .I(""tII Bt'gillllltl!{ ~mHh "f
11ukrH, tl:!' WI"" i\rrl\"lt~ )HI!!{il' ITll'rp!I>lell in
f"luuL
d"1'11! ,11Hi knJtth II~ Oil!' ITh~,'Il< ~,,\!jhwlird nlHl
I'l\Hi""Jlf<; lil;,:",,1 lnl' 1",11111'1'111111 11\11\tl' uut)l tlw
2-2. The Jungle hll'h,'r 1<11111 '1\ Su'rm L!'OIlI' il' ct>d('ht'{1 Annther
}tIll' th,' lHII'I~I"f' ,.f !ni!! ml\!lIIHL JIII1M'le I" tlf'fined h.,11 ~tr<:'kh1'" 0'11,,1 I.. th!' W('l<tl't'll {'lImllrW)TJ bal'.
Illt lin I.rl'a ]'11'1111,11 !Ii tI'H' hUHlid tropit'K wtH'r..in d\'l"
thl.' litHl! :>1 !"'\l'fl'(l .... ith 1<\\('h ,INI!\(! f,('n\wth fir l:ll f,"/lllr/,,,,,,1 ..1{, 11:(1, 11l'ltinninlt ill Cama
tn'f''' or "thr!' h'p\'~ of l\l~luwih\t<:j vrvrlution thllt 1'''<>11. thl' limvj!' l'lnkh"j; t" th, flrl'ut ImTrier n{
11 lmpl'1h'l'I ffllhtnry <lfJl'rut,OIU\ lind tf'lldH to oh- \{!l'AI'l!jtnTI, IIml lrlt'll "\il'!I<J:.; ~(lIIthwllnl a('TO~1I
/itrtwl mlHtllry lllll'-/i llr 1'()ffll'lmTIl(,lItwn, Tropl('I_1 OW ('\ll!!tH 1" th!' \\.'",,1 .,( La)...' TillI\ta:l;vika.
VI'Vt>1I1lwn III jUII),(!l' nr('t\1I irrlmh'lI IQwland lind (!l) Hfflll (wd ("'lllrld Ajru'ttll, l""rmll!d by Q
hiVhlltlll1 tr~lpit'nl mil> rt)re~t, dr,\' df'<'idUGult Lor f,'w Wldt'I~' lU'l)<IT!lt~l ,~rn,dl (uno;;b< IInli lIeveral 111-
~l, M'{'Ul1ollry llrQwth fqT ...ilt, /lWKmp rON\lIt lind lund 1I1-e11~, the IIII'JtI'I4I pfl.r1 !If tlli'< IlT'!.1 ti6 In
tT;'pienl HlIVKnUfl'l, JllilJdet' aT(' ronfint'u to thf't'e l)"I'lht'I'1j Ith'1I1cl4in ~(J\lth (If I...ukt, Tallj(anyikl!.
majnr 1IrO:>I1" knnwn 1I" ttl(' AmpriC"llll, thr A(ricAfI, Anothl'r purli"ll Il('tl l\lnlllCl.hr Wi'~t "h",..- of Luk;>
lind Ow Orh'ntu\ jungl(,C'I. FiJrurl' 21 vivrll.. ~n. !'J,Val<H I1l1d u thirt! ill tht> hl'lln ()f llorth('rn Mu1.-
~'rttl \'l;'W lJf tho:> jlll)f,('lp tI~aB af thr wodd, lI1'Hhl'lIli'. Mllllr M('llttt'feQ P>ltthl"~ or junlllt' urt'
fouu!!!!' tht> I....... "ltlludl' vAlitYII fll"nl( the I'Oftlltlil
2-3, fJriMipol Jungl. Area. I'toVI!>jj nf Tam,/lIli1l lind M()%ltmbiqllt', while hl.M'h~
(t, Tllr AmrTIHf!I hll/fllt'/!, IflllO 11.10)'(11'1> mn 1)(' found f)1) ":lllon, Kell,V1t And
i I) Allm,trmi;n. Formoo by the extended l":iHmll.njflTn. AI!'!) inrlllrlt>d in ,hi!' Junlllt> !',ub<lj.
Anlh.toll ba"in Ilnd 1t.'I major tributarirll,. the Am. V1NIOn j,. fl ~tTip on thl;' Nllltern silk and notthenl
IlJl;!)lIillll i~ the world'" laTaMt junvle aN-A, It in. tip of tho:' iiolluHd III Mtldtlj(tlscar, ronfint'G to the
l'IUltell the Guinnll.ll aljd lIfluthern VeIUI%UelA, t'x mouutain ANiall of nil' lIellrby t~ltllld~ betweeo the
lNltlill:IC if) thi' And('J< Ojj the WMt. lind 38 fAr mKinllwcI tlnd MndullAlk'tlr
~!!!lth !l~ thl' {;rllll ChtlJ"1 of BoliYla, PllragUAY r. Tilt' Oril'lIInl Jfmgil'f1.
lu,d Arj(f'lllilll\. Thr Tllp! Forest is a uparatE' (II JlldiMI-C1'1J/rm1'JI' Thit. flren l'ontAin" ..
j,lnlClt' aTN, WIthin lhill subdivision and 11K alonfl' "ttlp tllonll the wellt COlUlt of fndl. Itflown BJI the
the t!1\!\lerl! 1'X),a~t <)( Brazil E'ltwndinJt from juet Gna,""," The jUII:IC!t' ("ontinut1l akinil' theo lIOutherll
Mbo"e lhf' h\,lmp wheT'" the continent iut- fllrthftlt tq) and lip fllonll' th(' EMt CrniIlt nr fndia into
t'/llllln a point 011 a ~Y{'I with Rin de Janeiro. 1';811t I'lIki"lallaml ill ff;1HUm('d II! CeylOn.
I'M 11-15

(2) ."1JI/fhtfUJ A~ia". Stretching from th~ {31 Pacitk Itdartdll. Thi! aubdivilio n in-
eulern .dOllCll (Ir tht' Hlmalayall (known I\g the clude" IndoneBia, the Philippine ", and the amaller
Khl\lIi HUh,. In the /llste of AMllaml. thia area eon hl.land Kroup/l containinK junKIe areaR.
Unuell d<lwnwald throuKh Burma, Thailand. Viet
nam, Combo<!ia, 1"&08 and the Malay Penlnllula.

Soctlon n. JUNGI! ENIiIItOHMENT


'2--4, o.,utral ail), OI'cl.lring m the artel"JlO\>n ur early evenin,.
For. l{iW)) year, rainf.11 KenertUy totAllI me:"
nl. .tcli"n oulllllf'1I environm~ntal factors
whkh mu",! be- ('flllaidered In planning and ron- than &u inchea.
d\.JttinK jungl" operation !. It include! a dettriP. d. A!m~;(pJH'rir H"midif/i. TM retatiw hlmid
tlcn of eHmate-, ~rrliin, ~~tation, lIOiJa, and anl- it)' m a trolJit'M.l raill /nrest are. averaxes be.
mal life. tnmcnptlo nll heY$in au not exhaUlltive. tween 61) .and 75 per~nt durinJt the day and ollt!:r
Where lIupplemental detaU ill needed. ~itlc 9i1 pct<'ent i Mar :mturation ) at nillht. The nature
aret. atudlMt I!Jmuld be consulted !u;;h as the mili of lhe vel(l'tation, the dank moiRtMII8 of the But-
lary !{'tolttephic eh.plerM Ilf the NatioMI Irttnzi- fac(! !loll, and tht' rnttnrwr in which bookA. f.brit'8,
II~IU"" Skr1'l"1i and the Tadlt'al Command er'a nr.
nnd other mate-rill I" !Jerume moldy unleRI! fre-
r_In Anal)'"1" Mal' of lhr country of intert'Rt quently eJtIH~.1 to wind and bri~ht lIunJlhine, art'
all lnd'lcalorll !I( thl' hillh il.veraxe relati ...e humid-
2-5, Clhn.oM ity.
Q. Gentral. The dominaflOK features
of junKie
1'. Wind. In ~ropical al't!U, wind velocttiell
ereM .re a hillh and conillant temperatu re, heavy are
rainfall durinlt thll greater part of the year and )ower thRn it) lem,..llrate arllall .nd VIolent wlndll
OpprtlllRtve himidity. ~.ollsl chaulli'!fl of temper. are lellil freq!Lent. Mean .nnual wind velocities
atllre art' itulillniflcil.nt cornPIIIMld With aeuon,a! dveraKt! !ellA thRn 8 mlle.t. per huur and III!ldom ex
vanation in rainfall. The year h.. no .summi!r or ceed 8 mihM J."U!'r hour. and their major influence
winter, only t'ydlc wet and dry Sq;aoOIl. In .wm@' all'eetl. onl)' the upper c.nopy, Radical wind van-
jungle area8, !lueh JUI Sin,apo-re and msny Pa('ifte stion", oc(,ur during typhoons, cydonM, and hur-
ialandg, climate vattations are lID AlI,M t.hat theft riesllell; however. lIuch disturbanc es are ront\ned
aft! no MtI.Jli)n5 Within emtplml veptAtion al rom w ct'naln tropit'.l aft'.II,
munitlH A\.Jttl. a. a tropical rain ro!'6llt, mkrocli~ r LIght. Tb.. kmilh Q( tropj(!al day and ni8ht
mates ui.t, &Gme of which diffar ~atlf from are almMlt equal, v.ryinll by little mote than an
the standard climate of the u.me locality, For <'Ii. hOUT at tne outer lImlta of the tropical lOne. Near
math" ck!.allol,lIef) TM 1-300. \he equator, doudleu dAY!! lire rate. CloudinMe
h. Trmpf'l"flt nr,. AlthnuJh lWa.wnal vari.Uon in da-te-aM~ a~ une mO ....R north or Alluth of the
tfmpeY$tu re IIl;;reaAt'tI gradually &I! (lne movell l"tJUl\taf.
away fnlm the l!(juator, in thll lowland humid
tropiclI the mean annual tempet'atu re seldom var fl. Mi('t'fl("limat~, Climatic rondltions on the
jes for more than IS~, _veraiCinil betwl!C!n 78" .and Krollnd, in -even Il Arnall p.atch of jungle, may not
82" Fahrcnhei t (F.) with extremes or 84" and tellCmble lhf)lIe A!::wIVe the unopy. Tn I\Qme junKie
g6" F, /lfelll_, the canopy ill iii) denl'e that it providf!fl 8
c, }(flilt{nll. The mAIO f_"tor conditioninK all j'l)ver within whieh the junlt1f' d....elopll ita own
tropical c1imateli iii rainfall. In KEtneral, the sea mimalurll dimale or micl"(l('lirna.te, fn lureh ILn en-
Illlftal di",lriblJtion of raln(an within the tropie.s Ie vironmc:nt, the sun may be JdlinillK hrlR:htly "oov.
aaaociated with latitude. At the equawr. rain the (""anopy. while Ii brisk shower may be in proll-
f.li. dunnif aUlleallonA; .IIJ', the dl8ianu from the rt .." at Ift'(IUnd h! ... e!, The fa-nOll)' not only inter.
equator inrre.ruM!A, there i. a dlllUoet dry and wet ,ptll and rmllret'lA ~ ('onAiderabl. proportio n 01
~n (or e&<'h year. AlthoujJh raln (M!CUU dur- the rain, it aIM Ithelten th#- junKIe from the
iRJ( the relati ...ely dry lWallOti, it IA 116 In qu.ntity wind, puventinl t a Aharp rille and fall in temper-
than during the wet acalUln. Rattly pntie or of atu"" ,"'inally, the ('aMp), dilfult"S itt. interior
lOOK duratwn, tropieal rain iA orten a<'{'ompanled liR:ht. tinting it Kreen and rendering it ffin.lden .
by thunder .and Ilghuning Tropical rainfall i.e: hly icl(!( llllecd't: on the (Ol"$t Roor th.an ron the
.also relativt'ly remltant 1ft IIJl daily tim!ni. ulW~ !!urfl'l' or the eanflpy .
fM 31-35
fM 3 1-35

2--6. J un91e a nd AssaciDted r."Din charRcter ized by IIteep, sli ppery slopes, a nd some.
FeotuNS (t) Lmv(tulfJ. l.rO}lical raitl !or,.d. This term where mo re " uu 1i~ ht rt'nchr.1'. th e k l'oun~i il; th ere
times by s teel, ,i d~!d gullies Mnd ravi nes which ill J(tme.rall y ltll pl it'd t.. trollical r n in fOn!st (II.,\' ur den. . und~rl(mwth wb i~: h iA of~n impeuetrable.
The vmjllU" tYl>e:' of jungle flrll claAA'ified b)' dis_ have lIt.t'n CU i IIY torrentinl rnin/l. The preHnc::e inl: in . 'Iflyat iollll bfllflw 2,000 led l.nd coosi!lt... Howe v.,... in Hit' [nlerior of 11 \' ir)l:i n for@Mt, t'!<11e-
Unci \'~ t.tiOlllll In- ; howClvrr . trallRition of numel'OUII ri d&'1M fHlt a bti<!hclI t hl! ex inentc o r a rruo,i n l)' o f tr~)C . lht' l:lli,,--,l1 u f whi~: h ro nfte be dlllly ill wltH.ir/tilled "rr." ,., mo\'eme nt ill ICll ~ dif.
frum o ne In)l to a no th e r ~:l(ls tn be gradual m:nlr br;Ulrh(."I\ drllinJl~f' ~y",tem wllich, In turn, ticu lt. Hor izontal visjbility ill obtltructed by the
tw~n 100 and 180 feet. W h ile these trees art'
rather than s harp. VcgeLatiOnul typell fire II llmer. cnU!lf'S 4 r tql',Fed anJ r Onlplt'.X ler rtli n !ltru clure. Wl ua lh' 10 to 211 feet I'Ipart, they often appear to tree truw "nd by th e leavetl on the thick \'inE:li
ous, alld t hey It!uu 10 int.er nli nl:K- which comllli- Tbc stt-eama and r i\'eN drn in ing these duges be m ~lc h doser l ogethflr becaun of tbr. ir but-. whicb RMi!nd to th e l oresl canopy like ca bles.
ea l.es IdenlificMton o f j u ngle vegelat ion. In some often hA\'e l!te.p, a lmost vertical banks and are tr~" , Th~ tree trunkll Are ulluall y "traiJzht and Heavy rJl. inf a ll throufthout the year s.upports t his.
"reas th is diff~ u l ty Is nol e nronnte.red btocause !iwift, ~Il and difficu lt to crOlJl. During hea\'Y IIlende r ltnd w it hout brnnche!l for t he first 100 t )pe of fort'lll; lhe .rollnll i!l lIea rly il lwa Yli wet
th e trll ntli tilm frOln on.' t~, pe vep tation to an. r/l ina, lI u(' h at reatrut lind rh'ef1ll may rapidly be-- f~L T hen the lJr:t nc h~ "J)rr~,ll(t out lind iutflrlock " od JU JlIle.ry. alitl th e humid ity r l!m;tinl hhth eyen
ut her ty pe Is (1iIlf,ine li vC! (fill. :! -2 ) , Savllnna g rass conl l I'ftgi l~JJ tOl'f"ell t.\. ~ p it~ t I profl,lj :on of to furm the up per Itr a-tum fIf the r ain ror<~~ t rum du ri n. lhll ho tl~ l pnl of th e dlY.
:5 one sueh 1urm. commonly ' (lund a long t he h.. \,y v~tlJt.U(m . with few nobhle I!xt elJt jons 11\0 nly known lUI the cllliupy (til:. 2--3 ). 'n KOmt' (2) Iligltl4 "d frt)llicol rai" !orut, The grad
frln ):!i:I: or dry d h lu tlWl ror..u... (lluch u JIIU ) , jll ll,lto ,,()II i, l)Q()r.
j u nl:lcs , the 1'11110111 i8 t:om proted of t wo I,f lht'ee utl l tra nsition from lowland tn highland tropical
a, (jf"ftrTfl i . l ioet lOwland j ungle,; are located in V. T roJlienl RO HI F()reK1. T rop ical rai n fo,.tlt 11l1('t:~ Mi ve levels of wllellltiol1 , which iii (tI!ner it!1y ra in fore... t occu r!! in ur ea!! betwtlCn I ,G50 lind
areu \'Mr,.inl( ~ m :<ea leyel to 2,000 fed of ele- Il re found in nf~ w here the fu lnfa ll a\tmgu as filled with folia ge. Beginnillit itt a height o f 20 2,300 feet in t'1t'\'ation. Hil:hlond tropical r ain
vatiul\., llorderinlt 011 bod i,. of waler and consist-. ~h Hili 80 i nd~ du r in. th e year. Allhou" 1\ to 2;) feet (rum t he ij'found s uch 11. l~all()JlY blob;. fort!$ l IIII~() kno w n lUI cloud Ilr moss fore!ll) l.e r
io lt' o f al lll \i.. 1 IJtill h L~ AL!d , wamps, Hi/o:'hland jun_ AO.,;a I\ed lir.r 1If!a~(ln ma y J)I'f'g r. t htt,.. i! Mtt li lluf- out t he ,1i UIl from tlt l' fMe>tl ft nor which, con;:.e- llI ilLllh-~ at yn l'i n u ~ ;llli1mJt!II:, del)e ntlillj.( upo n ito:
,;1,. are ILonnn lly rtllUi d in a ua~ f /lll /rill}1' {rom fle-limt ~n to IIUB LIl il1 t he Ilrow.1 h of the nill (Of. (j"cully, , Ujll)(lrt..-l rtlllliw'ly little U/lder~rowl h ("'llo."lII't'!(I wi lid IIlId ntinf:tll ; in cnnlill(~ntul in
2,0lW1 lo 1:1,000 (eel .bovill N!ll leuL They are ..t. (fill', 2--11. Only 1111 r l vl~r hllnk ~ nr in dearin~'lt h'ri"rll it 01;1\' ttil'minatli at l:t,OOu fllot. t'1t'y:,tio n,.

I FI#.rr f # . TA . , . ", ", -I'JI. Tkc iwre-rno".oIft(coi .,.~I,- .... 01 IrH I:"," lortfY
.... ri ....l~ ""'1 .... r lA, jlUl.I.. II_r,

2-5
IIrllmtlvl' l't")P!I'II, 1I(,\"I\dllry fnrl'lIh lrJ vriritlu~ hmull U,;lltll1ll"o, ulHlllf'l\ir~'-um i\~ fu)' a~ th(', lidal ill-
tltlllie1l flf dl'vrlopmf'tlt have tl'pln;;...:jn !o,ull.'llnntiul thwlH:'t, .:1 f,.1t. ('IUll!'1y ,~I'IIN'ti lr;'I'~ with lhitk
twrrellinl(t' of vir"iu forl, .. t )n nl(...~t jlm,,!l' lItl'jUI f<ltilt r"'lh. (tt>llt ~htLPI"ll) that rxtrnd rV\ hlJ(h Illl
Ilml nf,' IllvnriaLly mIJfr dlflinlll tl' tTJlvt'rst' WI< !O f"I'1 ,.1"".; th., ~r"IIIlJ fl'm! II "flll~idf'mbl;> bllr.
2 .. 5 nlld 2 6). rIel' to nlOW'fllf!!lt Usually Ih,' IiI"OIHU:l 1,\ rovf'rlNl
Ill' >I\,,";\1111t vm(~'l'. Tn;' ..1A'f'ply llrehinl( rnntll
~.SIt'(rmJl P&rrl1(lI, hnllll"'T hHT\'IJlIltal vi~ib'lhl)' Mnd ttf'1ite lin e);~
(!) MIJ1i(jro,'f' 111:I(HlI}J, ";xten:<lve mnnKru\'f" lremt:ly .~hIlP('ry >1111'(*"", Ou the inland periphery
:<Wrinlp,1 {X'l"Ur in troJ.knl eOAl'ltat ar(llj.ll whkh art' wherl' thl' wuh'r ill Jellll 1<llIin(', mllngrllve IIw1itflJl1l
llubJf"t't t<, tidal l\oodillJ(JI. Thlll tYPi" of rort'~t III Jlfl' \j~!l!ll!;v lwrd('r.,d ill mlln)" plal'cli by man'hex.
,Ilellf!fRily (nund In ttw ~I'ft mild R",fUml ri\ll'r Mfl!ll(l"OVe apt'dt,,, ('Ull \l~\HlHy b.. ld\!'lltifl\!'d by thl'
hlllulhM, (I..itl\!i. wII!'V', 11.l(1og ~hHII(lw bUYI\ <)I: tolor uf ttwil- hurR. Ull lnlllHl'tllul ftV'wf', ~in~t'

"tRny d'U~rtt<"l~ri~h('1I of the Inwland tropical fAin 1101111 fOrl'!'l ~ubJl'd to Illternai-'mn of dry Ilnd w .. t
furf'1(\1\ 8110 apply t\, th!' hiJ(hlanil trolJirul min ~!'!~M"n)l ilf IIllpt(}ldtnll!l'ly t'!lual If'nlcth.
flm!!lIt Whllf' trt<e1( tinmil)lltt', they 1I.tf' ~mfillJer in (~) Th., lllilwr tal",!,y of I!. primary deddu.
heil(ht Ilnd illt'k hu!tn'lIlI toub!; ther .. ill Ili:'<{) ('X nUll fnn'.~, !.~ Y(,IlI'rMlIy flwnwd hy liI(l-(oot tret'!<
tefll'llVP (t'rn Itrnwth, Mo!ll( vt'j(etatiull. IH"(Jmlnt'nt Whl't;' thl' ('lIl)"PY il< ("dl1tnlll<ll.lM, thl'fl' is llttl~ un-
ruc'k rnrnJl,twn>l, I<IHI 11'11\ ,lffnum1 ltlWlf urt' ('(IV- II"nrTnwth; whl'tl' tht !'IUIUTI)' bl'"l'lI,h.", UlI' Iwder-
ereQ wltn "1('1< or a h~Ii\'y ~Ilm(', Altnll\llth thl' ItrDwth IwnmwlI dFnsi", comllrl~ifjg thorny shrub~,
tl'mpi'rAttlrl' may drop to 60 d(';rn',,,~. tn!' humid- knifp"'Ii)(I'd !Inri llaw-tuothed )(fll.!I!le!I, "Ofl IIpiny
ity ft'nmioll hij(n. Animals. inlle('t.<., find hirdll are vi 11ft>" F:\'(>1l durinn tht dry s~tIlwn thil'l under-
I\t"An'f' Movement In thill typ,' (If f()n'~( l,~ ex- glOwth n"hWt"ll borr7.!llllnl Vihibility in 5 to 20
tn'mely Arduoul! jlUltl hlU'llrdull,~ ~l!l ..e thf' ~IOfW;: nu'll,)'s. hurillK Ihl" millY ~"AIIIIO, dimnti,' Moillloj)
art' uaue,lly uteel', The wniunll j., ~lid( ltlld ill'l'l' ""I)!ht'''IL~ wllhm thil< kw!l (If fOrf'l't lire nNlfl\"
IRYeNi of j(f(ltlud m()I\I\ utt~'ll fiW!'f \lVN' hlddt'n Idpflhnl! !o thOM!' in th. fr{>l'il'kJ ruin (j,rF.!.t. 011;'
chums and r ..vlnt'll. At hlltht'r ulhtml!'~ tho:> jH~ !ilt' dry !<t'U!liII1, the wl'O{>ud lW('ol'l"ll'H Mid lIor!
mountain", au (If ten !l<hnmdt!d by 1\ dump l1\illt hllrd IWrl iI'ltlj)!'rature and hUml(My HuetualF
whirh Ilublltltntl~jiy rFtiun','l Villibility, nml"!' thiill inlh\.' trupkltt rain forf'st.
(, Trop;rol DtridlWIIJI FlIrf'I1!. U. S"I'Illldury Growth }<'()rc~rf1, Wherever trol'i.
n) !n I'>Otne ptlrt~ (If
thF tr.'l,k" {ht'll' ill Il "fll rtllll fN'(,hhl <>1' tt'npiral d(>(;idu(luI'I (oreKtli af'F
true dry liIE'a~il!, Jaatinw from thtl'!' ,<.> ~1" mnllth~. f'l('llrFd nnd lutN" ~!lIIlldon('d, ri lIet"tmdary junw:l('
with almuMt IIfl Ilrt'f'ljlllation . .\101lt uf thl' lfilt'll in Yl"nwlh 1'\',~\lI!!< BHctlil/<I' Dr l'xIH)~Ure to ~uolill:M,
this .r~.. nre dl'i'iduo\lA, thAt Ill, tlwy Ithl'd tht'ir tht'lw lIre!l~ nr(' rapidly "".'rllmwn by deruw
lea\'M (Ilr Ii ml'lllh nr InOr\'. Althoul(h tb(' !l'fIIVf'M btuo;ht''< knd ~hr'ubl! Hlld rhmblllY i,ililnt!(, Gradu-
bellin tn fnl! ,l!rndllalh: d,l !hF bl'j.(innin" of thr Itlly, 11,.. t'flmpmutir,n or lhl!( (ur(>j>;j ~lltne!l mor!'
dry 1\1'k.,<nu, thl' l~' tlm:!y ~DmF NlTl'1:pletely t'(.mplFX, ti't1dlhg til !\llllmMh ILlI (Irigimti "!\tUI"f'
baN>, Mu{"h ~).f lhF tf"fllf.: ASIlII! fort'"t i~ II dFrid- H('('Hll<W of utlf'llntrnll.. d rulllva{loll, \I1111HIl)' by
FM 31-35 FM 31 ....J

ground mOVl!melit. White man grove generally ItII n~rne from the Latin Amer lCl'l n cativt. or CAt!-
s tAnds further a part tha n other ~ pecies and hILI val tree. Foond in !lome JLl Il ~de are;(\,;, the eativa!
no I.cnt ",hapcd maiUl,;( roots (1'1... 2-9) . trL'tl prt'Ntut.I.'II fl high, dosed eaoopy of brilnehes
whil'h iII huls out l hl' Ilu nlilcht alld relardl'l the
(2 ) PM M I WlUll p. Palm t;wlI.m p i, i'll1er3l1y
~row tb of oth"!' VIlIi'l::t.tH>b, The ati ,,:!1 jlrowth is
cliar utr r it.ed b,. Il(.Kwil..'11 gl'Ol.uld and a PUle ta n-
oftell dry: howt. ver, ..... }wn upo&ed to l\oOOln,l[, the
opy of overha nging trees. The most common
pinllt IUII\o!K'jlllion I~ Manicaria palm and a hnj::e
ara is commonly referred to al'l c"Uval s,,",smp .
(4.) C(l(,,~tol tlliek(>1. Coastal thicket is found
fern of the gen us Gerosllchum, Usually found
alun~ sandy belC.h,..s a t or nellr ~ level. Dense
~ith othel' kinds of junR"le ~g('tation but also 0(:-
dilTerenceR lm'oh-e Jrrowth intensity, subjection to II,) 8kJck ,"(I'J'g,.o",~, Black ma n,lt' rove dots and diffieult to traverse, t he c~t.al thicket ill a
ftoodin),: And relat-ive Aixe of auial roob, all of cu ri~ i n dellll() sta l\d~, Manic::ill'ia plLlm J(ro\~a in
not produce the maJ.~ of ~l t-sh a ped (round n:>Ola rHIIOnallly tn vCI'lIi!,lc shalloW water. Th~ Mani-
nlixture of t,cn tl('red COl,allul IlItlnl trtt!i and Aalt..
which h;l,\,t: An elfed on m~ment. usually :lA&Oeiated with red mangrove . ""amp., tolcrallt IIhrubli (fi!,\', 2-11 land 2-}2) .
caria J)/'Irn h~ a "hart, thu::k bolt. which hILS been
tlf) R~ IIWHI,""" Red mangrove grows m ftkil1J: mrwenlt!l1l t'mllier than in .....m p.'8 or "ed
ma ntro\,. (lig, 2-8).
known to hllllK up tr:,,kcd \'chiclell. ACTOI< t it' hum, f. Anociflt"r{ Terr(l.in a7ld Vt'!1tl.lJ/_ion.
in dt.oeply fl ooded areM and has both aerial rools whi ch ie II beautiful fern, nonna,II)' stands alone (1) MO ">l/L Marshes g'l!nerally are found in
which drop to seek water, and ground roots (e) Wh it.e ma7lgToV~. Of all mangrove spe- 10 deepel' water because of its tendeney to choke areas where the ....'ater is not brackish enou.gh for
whkh bl'anch oul in a tangled tenwhnped mas!!, cies, the white mangrove, which actually lIppears oul other plants (fig. 2-10). ma ngrove, yet too wet for most forest trees.
(orming- 0. foonidable barrier (fig. 2-7), gray in color, presents the fewest barrier3 to (3) Ca/ i1Jo./ .'IW(l.m.p. Catival swamp derives T ropical marshes contain tough thick reeds

2... 2-9
~M 31-35
fM 31-35

2--10
2-11
FM 31-35 fM 31_15

(" ) C1dt ilJ(Zti(m. (b) The c ultiva tion of wet rice is an im


which t:row to (I h ei~ h t M 16 feef fi r more.. Wh ile I I. rowth Tile hli:hat lemllCrat u r~ in the portant coraideratio n i n the morl! den~ly popu
(a) Throughout the tropical are.u of th ~
the,.. offe r leA n.hltan~ to Jle,,"ration thll n l rCfl h um~ tropiC!! /lJ'1! 1'GI."CI~d In SIInnnll. &n :;' S. and bll~d f1arl~ or potl'lIli.' jun gle ojltlr/l.tioni l areal! .
world Il la rJ.,'"t' Pf'rl:l!nt~g(' of farme r>l till the ht nd
g r"wth:\, ma,rllh. n!liilrk t obsel'utloJl I\ t I!'l'Ound t h" dAily dltf~rl!~ in botJl ll!rn~tu re and hu- Wl!t rice i! ,.rown both in th~ lowla nd'" a nd o n
in Il rela ti"d y !Sim ilar man ne r. Sever.1 1II'.ru of
I~,cl to II feo\\. 't"I'l In m(lll CaMI, lb. f ootlnt la ml~ity . "1)
rMtll'r thli ll In the oth(!J" Jun,'1': the hi ll s lopCOll. In tht! l" wl;lI1ris r~:tlln ... ulllr field s
tret'll nre cut during the r ainy st:I!<on IlII d thl! I O~3
mlIraMI ia ~. tecUN: than ift other Jllnlk> Itmwth (fl._!-la). :;c"IHatl:d by dikCII two to {our teet high are
lI rtJ1I'tt\a tf1. 2-2). Rnd I! tumpa are len in thl! clearing. The"e are
(3 ) Ba~. Oamboo I,iTOws i n elump.s of the n burned duri ng the dry se.ason. At the begin- flooded dudllg the &,rowin,t! season through a net.
(2 ) '<;IU:""'III.. Tro pic"' lII!I\latln~, g r MlJ,lanus va rying lUe t hnmahoul the humi1l tropics. ning of the rainy seaton the farmer, punch s mall work of canals and irrigatio n ditcbes. On the hill
CilmmfTV"I' 1l 101~J.,'" t he fr inlt!i of t rop ical for e1'tl. Spril1iY. hollow Jointed bam boo .tems va ry holes in thl! gTOlind with pointed sticks, drop a s lopes. terraces a re constructed on which to IrJ"Ow
T~ a", MIlI't'e. Ixou'inr onJ)' In Ka t teroo .;mall .rully in ci ~ urn fPrC':l,(''' :llll.l lHUtth. Sorm lew s~s i n each hole, cover the seeds by , lamp- the riC!e : di kes s urround the terraced fieldl and
/.fro\!,. C) r :0;>1 illOlalA!d 1I.J'!ft"lnl4ll1,. Ohf:n compri"'n" ICI'ow\hI .. La.! n a htlKh t of wl!:lI IIV,,," .. hundred ii'll; th e ground with their feet . a nd wait for thl! t ht' fi('lds are Rooded by 1J'r:lI'i ty flow . Since mOl t
ih!' pri nrl li:.1 '!':jtf!.hitlon. "'-.nlla ..ras. raQu leet, limiting hurir.nnu.l visibilit y ~ fm ly :i few crop to grow. After one or t .....o years 01 UII':, of thelle rice fields ary fertililed by feee.-;. Acciden _
fmm II. heidi' 01 16 Ie In W'I!U .lIteM!(! .~.. to rtlel M"'\'ctnt'll t U~M""h t.n,bQo ill IloW aJld 1It- dearin, i, a ba ndoned a nd a ne w d earing i, tal pUnC! tu r" of lhe .sk in while crossi nS these
.. I tow a.. t.lm~ ff!el In mont "rId Wl'trl)r.lI. AI. n UQua br.t-",UIe or Itt. UI1U11U111 IItnrwt.ll (If l'fII;itl. made, This i:< commonly called "slash and burn " fiel ds will gone rall y re mit in nn infeclion.
thollih h urlwn1.lll \'lllbillt, in the tIIillTli.U U: re- a nel'. 1ft addition. p!.net ra tlon of bamboo growths . ,ri culture. Abandontld d earinp usually contain ( l:) In mUII Y ju.ngle areas th~re .Ire sev-
du(1ld to Il few r(ltt, the gru. OfTl':R 1c!S r~ i s t. U!!ll1l, lI y creates; I,,-ud 5",u llds 1IS the bamboo s tems dense srowth of scrub v~getatio n in which rel- eral types of t~ crops. prima rily rubber I nd co-
;li llce to movement t ha n most other types of j un- nre broken ( fig 2-14) . ics of COnTItlr crops, s uch as ban a nas, may be conut. Th~ lr~es an genenlly gro wn iD pla nta-
lound. tions. where the trees ar'Y planted a t regula.rl y
2- 11
"'13
fM 31-35 FM 31-35

~ced inten'als and all underbrush h all been re- 2-8. Animal life
mo~ed . Having the appearance 01 well-tended The animal poVlIlation 01 Jungle areas is abun.
pork!!, rubber lind cocunllt plantulionll alTor(! II. (j ant and dh~rsified. Some are r cmllrka ble for
well'nme ~I ) it(t f rom the jUlIl;'le but Ilrovide titHe lhelr .iu., sllC,': h all 3()-(OOt P)'lttoM . 00 anacondas,
jlround cOncealment or cover. t.M quart<lr-lon land lor'.oIHl, aia nt scorpion:!
and bet:tll;S. Anlll, I~ hfll., IIr ide~, m051lui t oell,
and other in~ll nre inl1l1men.ble and are round
2-7. Surface Motenu ls everywhel"t from ground level 10 the tops of the
The soils of the humid tropies va ry in s trudural, Uillest trees. Animal life i~ mOlit abundant in the
phyllical and chemical properties to at lust the forest canopy. deocreasi ng progruaively IlL both
!\Omc de,8Tee u those of other c1imaw. The cor species alld number as they app roach the fOrl!f't
relation between 90il and natural veget3.tion is lil- floor. EnvirOllm('nt illV"lv,," tiv~ lay(of~_lJlI!: can-
ways close, and tropical plant mmm unities reflect opy. the middle tier, lhe ~u r{'("I' of the ground, be-
difTerences in soil conditions no l ~ faithfullY neath the iTound, and in the wail'r:o.. Bird ~ ,;urh 110 :0.
than do those of temperate clima telt. Though the pOIrakeel, fruit pij.!('oll>', b\rd~ of paradise, tou
varied in maoy of their properties. the majori ty can., and (ropns li,'e in the canopy. The for est
of the soils of lowland j ungles ha ve eertain im- eanopy is also the habitat of monkey', apes,
portant (ommon eharacteristics: in color they are sloth., igUAnas, manupi :lIs, squirreil'O , and II rich
often brigh t red or yellow: in textu re they are in~t :and reptilian life including ana kell, spiders,
frequently clayey. sometimes loamy; and superfi- centi~es and lints. Beeause of it.! ulLproteclive
cial layers are OttasionallY SAndy , In spite of charact.f.r, I.he forest floor BUpports the Ifast Ani _
their lus h gTowth (m03t of which sterne from the mal Jlfe. In savannas and ~eco ndary fore:st$ ,
hothouse; environment) , soi ls $re generally low in which p r ovid~ good shrub and bush cover, are
veaeta.1 nutrient content. Trafficability is gener- found large animals s uch as deer, tapin, wild
ally poor, especially during rainy periods, pip. lions, !ireM! and anleate". On the "ocr of
fM 31-35
FM 31-35

(n l'"mA of I' nr-t'rtwhlis. Some t yp h\l~ and pl;l.gl.lc . imnce i r tbey lire made t o f(!el tOa t lMR i~
;u'e tr ll..nl m i~ b:r ,nJ,I!.of"tA >tuch &8 the mi tl.: and
tomtl 1"l'\l,JjQn fOI Jly in l tMi r Il\ltp. It it; 1t4'c~l ry
ft~li. Scrub lyr II !; I~ tra llJmitl..ed by n ,'rry >:ma.lI LQ l;o,.olm .. f:umllllr with t he C:Us.tonl.$, habi t", and
IlIlle aoo p\lIJrlJIiI I. tnll.miu ed by th~ rat i1tm. tR boo.-. nf thlt l1alh,. before IC'OI~" ;1\lo an ~,
S.ll~plu,. ~ldnu~!l8 is limitl'd to AfnCJI. $.illce the By v\Ol..a.lIl1Q a blend taboo. i ~ ia po&aibJe to ;lIitn-
nOCt:llSary carrlc r, lhe tse \..se fly, Is nO t found in ate hr. l, a h" I' ~ In "II ar(';t and, th\l ~. cut off a

the Jilngh.'>! (of Ln l in Amcrica a lKi M1 .... DilNses .tJIlU l~e of ir.ldlilt"li'fll:l' aDO 3 51lPply of votetlti ally
IrAMml tted by Il'ftc:d wllo!A! r ~r food lnclude ty- wlllln~ ,,'Ork...,.. who egphl be o:rrnJlI ()~, .....1 D- ~ ScOlI ts ,
J)hoiu (,,n'r And pilrnt ypho!d fe.\er , hepatitis, ba- tt:lJi~ . c;t.rrie rs .. c.. t r uClllifi wo rk,nl'>, and lI tt~r
dll ....y dy~C'" lnr)' . u ndulant (~-er (bruct'n~i8 ) t~rt'll1 In Ilealil1g ..... It h t h' md.1\1: lPulali(ln , . 11
,,00 nmblu,.I,.. Other tI. I~I~ wldellPJ'u .d in t.)Je ll-a l. dllJ n.t !Jill.lu'd be (."("[ l:du cle!i! with tht! hl!:ad~
[tOpi"'" """ m41!rlulritlU n, lLlbu'tukla ill . t bll~ mfo ll (If II; \'lliaS!'e IJI" Lri1~ A I\hCtu J! h ~hl!" II.~ o f
*
milllli5 {t rans.mIUe d hy blood l1uk(!~ . 8 1 d a van h''''l oountry "r toeal lnk q weu>tI W.D be . dva.nta,
Itl"'JiI~ , extreme <- :I re Im.st ~ eXf'.rd sed in u!.i ng
, y of inle..<;t\ ' UlI )J u f'1IAIlt! ll uch a s h oqkworm."
aoo pnIfly. y " WS. :1 conl..a!fiI1I,1S elisl' ('illlilfled the m 1~'('lU~ fj f their pNIIible unfamilia rity w ith
.1n105L I'Jtd"lli!.I~el y to th tropics, is I:htu :u::terlu!d (ltJ , i . lrlg\I;tIft". In t~r dft.in ,([I
bet Inlilful a ll(1 l~)
Ii) ,,~ . r. r.n lptJotl. whIch :He ~. f\ren d by direct con- m.ultnifl t h,.i .. fa vor(' p<Ull t ion Ir. lb. cttJnmunit y
t.. d w ltJt [lIf('o';I'3 1 propJt- nr hy Aiett. Vtlriou. r' r lnbr lhl!'Y m,w Il o)t Indn.lJo UIIl.l they do ~t
l} p8 of fUII !:1 [l1QdU(''' thr, moe.t widesprea d u nder"t.amj ,m" t h.,,. will prnvld, tile a ftlW'en
l ha l Ih er ~h lil k :Jr'~ w;loI1 I.,..d lnertCt.!"I!. It may
lnfectlo1l1 Lnnltnnt f' XI"'~u rO!: I, igh b ~L and
hlh l\umillily caurot' n.,.t t J1){!1i""' to hll roor f Ull - (l fte.n Iw. JU{tre .. dvAn~-eoWl to use .ltl1 l8n((1l.l.~
i\lg. Th t'.o,e organi< ms rrow at Illt extr e.mely tll~ t1y wltl>: t h(' heaum An or ~hle f. Thf! (olm'-
ra p id
ra te un !!o..C a ('f)n"Uu't .. Il(lrt i!l- Ml'Id e to k ~p th ... III:", sitould bf. b'Il!tld ..red .....hen d e.alinr. w ith
na-
body dry. Font 'IlTtl Is mJ)ll Impor tBl1t ; ho wE'""r, t he f"-'plIl.'ionfo
fUl llu infl'fll'I r."l :I."~" OCI!JJ r t,lI .tf. ro mJlM) r. ly :11 IJ. frkmdl y b Ul CltutiOUI
th.>f!OI'l'>.. '"'II t h.' hll-,H'b alUl II, lhe ~rat('h Ilre . Ve -
" . 1~(fl:,j rt ' '' l\I :Il: .
oor rlll d~'IUNo lIuch .. I)'phihll. and IQnorrhea r . H''1<IJI'C"t cudnm5, n 'lh:io\u bo'lil'f.o:, lI !'l d prop-
a r~ 4 u i t ~ COIlIIT")n ill n:lli w:. \"~ U.a .... " ~. (For f ur- .-rty
t h l'"r i nf(lrma tlon !U' " f"~\ 2 1 10 and the lI ppro- ri. Oll er I!ifl'<; Wi t h prudence.
prtllte TU MEt) u n tr ~:Io! me n t . clinjca l f~ nt ure ~, ~. AVOid tbrf!att!mng~l urt! ~.
n:nt rol a nd preVE'.l1tilln of ~pec i fic ,Ii;;ease, s uc h a$ f . Do nOllr'lClel-ol. W(,I rnen.
Til )1 E:O 1&4 on MIlItll'ifl .) II. Oll"d .. 11 4"lIi ~ t :...... ~ j o("ls~'hlc. 1'1:I'">'",=i811y medi-
ul.id,
2-10. Natives h. Do I, .t conflscatf! rOnd " nd bdcIUC: U1J(:I- l'ay
Tn.. f1"~ 1V eS of an an':. f an pro\'ide valuable as- ;1 ((IIi ~rl c e ((,If e\l ~ry lhill .i;: .

Section III. AMERICAN JUNGLES


t h.e trop ical rain forest only lizards, grubs, ter- atLack ~nle~ th ey are mo le~t.eJ. The dan ger of
m l le.~ and lInl<! can .survive. With the flxception of s na ke bIte,; IS cummo nl)' pagj,!r.rat ed. At the time 2-11. General thoo sand>! of aquBre miles of land. Upc.ou ntry,
monkeys , Hl) ul rrel:<o. ~I\akc!': and liUl.rr1 ~, the jungle of p ub lica tion of this mallUD- I, no U. S. ArnlY ptr- aoo l'(! t he :ll\)Ulb o( the Ri n .:r X illfU, lItdioJl!! oC
ca.!loP.)' 1/1 .virtually ne void of ani mal activity from The A merIca n Junl(l , or selva. are dominatp.d by
to llnel ha.,. dlt!d from ano)ce bih' " in(e 1'38, lhe the Am:,1.on n ()/~ pillin arc inll nda tt-d for us l on~
mld-mornm g" u nl ll a bout a n hour bdorf. 11,11\- the Am a ~!.I n ll4\lllll. v. bich co nlain~ lloouL Ollt!_
year th _L re<:o rus wen.! I\t"lt kept. Rnme re ptiles tall ~V4!n mOl '"'" IL \'car, The io wer Am;l7.0 n flood
down. WhIle lire (!x islll in t he j UlI lZle duri n, l hese SIx th of the world's Jun llle.1I Extend itJIo( mOl"e
s urh a$ the c rocod ile will aUado. wh"'n prulloked: pla il1 I ~ uaUy u nd ~ ,. W;\l!Lr from :ioV(:.rnber
hours. practit:ally all wIld life is r estill" under than 2,000 mil~;; f rom the :)outh Atia nt K to the
Il.nd !;Ornc fi s h, :luch u lhe I'inlllha of no rtheast.- thr ough Septembe r. Borderi ng t he Amazon flood
b~rk or ~ow;, sleeping in the dense masses o f ba..~ of t he Andes Mounta ins. t he ba1>l1l ~nro m
('rn Sout h Anlerica. will attack anything that plain are river hl uffs allerRgi ng (rom l rlO to 200
vInes or In the head s of palms, in holes in the passes a land mass Ilea rly D-S large a s the conti -
~olles. For the mos t par t, the an imals , other than feel high. Th e remainde r of the unsin con tainillit
ground, or in the rare patches 01 tall vegetatio n, nenlal U lli\~1 Stall::>. The heart or the Amazon
1I~ "~ ~ l ty pes, that inhabit the jungle are not abou t 90 p' ll cent of th ~ Amazon leRio n consist..s
a sig- 11lI~ i n ia t lMr i rn m ~II "t! Amu:wn Riller system, 1\11
usually ncar the water . .\Ios t animals in the jun- m!k ant hazard. t)f :1 low 1'lal.mu o f I"vllinlJ 1<'rrail"l w ith inltr llen-
gle will not Ilttack ml.n unle$ they a re friiht- inland >\f';8, which fall$ out from t he Atlantic
m il vallot!.\"1> which ~radual1y slope Inward toward
Cf)&$t til the And~ :~. The AmaUln a nd its
e.ned. There itn~ a few ex(eptiollS. The Asiatic 2-9. Diseases tributar- the Ama zon Ri ve r . Covered with tropical rain
Ies nre bQrdc reu by a n elCtenaiv. flood plain SOllle-
tiger, the Latin American Jagua r, and peecaries rorut.B an d extellsl w~ ~l relc hes of scrub brush
Troop~ opel"l\ti ng in the humid lropics will be ex- tim es varYIng in width [rom GO to 60 lnilM. Be-
(commOn ly ca lled wild boa rs) may attack unpro- ano .sho rt irassland s {campos) , the Amawn up-
voked. Thf!3e animals a re in t he mino rity and are posed to a va riety of diseases. The mosqui to cause of lo w e levation and poor draina ge, the
lands ate rel.th'ely well drained and gOl"le ralJ r
rar!ly e ncountered. Even snakes will not usually transmits malaria, yellow fever, den i ue (break- plain is frequently fl ooded , forming numerous
free of s v.-.m1)lL Facing the Amazon l.aSi ll, the
bone) fe ve r , filariaSIS (elephanti asis) and some swamps. calted paranas, that sometime s cover

"1-11
.. "..."

eutern footbill!. of th~ Andel forn; ItMp, dla- dMlIIf! tropical rain forest. AreM nceivinl ...... bat.6 an arutly eni'aerated. AIIO NSminl' the
.'1..a1
Iqllitca, rl ....r boat. ean tra....1 certain Amuon
_ted ,wPM and narrow valle)'" ThOlM!, ~er rainfall alon, the aoutbern edgn of the Amalon Am..on rqlon are wild pial or pa~u; when tribute: riell an the way to tbe bue O'f tlw! Andea,
with int.nnitt.nt IWampl and den.. vt'Je....tlon, buin and in the Llanoll along the Tl()rthern edpl tIIl!ItI animal. "re part of a berd, they can be vi Larae atwna of lowlaftdli Illona lhe btIM of tM
make land movement e:dmnei.y difficult. of the buin are tharad.ar!aed by 3CAttered ...van. dOL15 and _rleM.
Andell ha ...e wat.rwa,. that permit navlaaUoll by
nas, In the tropical lowland .rOll of Central unall boata, SIn! tbe A:rnas:on ItMlf 11l wild and
2-12. (11_ Ament., and particularly the West (ndlel, much
of tM origin.l tropical rain fOre!lt baa been al-
2-15. ,_""....... r",_"..
The jungle lIuall of the Amerias a~ 1\p&tH'ly
not MIlly navillited. theN are lOme limltatlonl
on wa~r tranaportatlon. The rile and faU of the
Climate in tM. Amazon huln and mOllt of the tered by centuriell of Ilasb-and-burn AlIdeultural river, and lOme tributarl-. often mattlNl .0
Central Amf,ncan tropici II ~har.cterued b)' m~hodll. Somf, of tbeae areu have been onn-
populatM. The j{I'X'At maJlll.of the Amlllon buln ill feet And, alon. the Andean hue, many ql the
hit'h humidity .nd a lack of MaIIOn.1 v.rl&tionl, vuted into perm.nent iTu.inll"ndl, wblle other Inhabited by prlmitwf' IndlllRl\. who p..rMPII num- Ilt~amA /lH! Interru'PWd b,. Ion. tinCtbta of rap.
[n ~n~r1lJ, humidity dl(fUlet witb dlltance .rua have re~rted to Si!<':ond.ry ,rowth junatt ber 1_ tb.n !{l.,OOO. Littl. II known of thM* J)(W.I- Idlt Indultry In tllt Amaaon bPln 1I pradie.alb'
from the AUan\i-c {)(!ean. In Panama, bumJdity which prel\ente: con.lderab~ impediment to move- pie, .11 they ullually avoid rontad witb tbe civl nonexilltent and the recton I. not alf-.\lflleient in
oft.. n reaches 95 prernt or more at nlaht, and menL Ho~r. IIOme lare tract. of vira'in rain liud populiltion. The Auca tribe of efl,llern Ecua- food aupplltt.
mort' than 6tI percent durin tMi day. At )IanaWi, forelll ltill ui&t in Central America. partkularly dor ill perhapll ttl~ moRt belllrerent stoup, In
in the beart of the AlnQ(ln bPin, humidity aver_ along tbe MOIIQuito Cout of Nlearaaua. Central many aectl61\111 of the: Amazon, IImali Httlementa
a_ i l peJ'tent The hl.m.t .peratuNil PNl- American eO&!ltal .rtoM of~n include ttlkkettl of dlll indicated on mapA have lona llince been .ban- 2-16. _
van alen, the Guiana and Caribbean couta, Av~ <:ocanut palm. !lei Ilr.pe, .nd Ihrub&. ManITO"'" doned; the entire Ama)On reaion contain. fewer
AI' In other jun.le aHa throuahout the world,
eract temperature aionll many ot the wtult.al low_ IWJmpl border areu covered by MIt wa~r, than 2.000 mHe.; Ilf roads and rallreadll. While
tbe rainy lowlandll of the: AmAZon ballin antatly malaria ill tbe molt wid.pmd and dud]y di,,",
land ,..,lo81 of Central America la 80~ F. Aver.
ealllt in the: AmerlCln junllH. Other tropical di..
ap temperatuN vari.tlens between ttt. wtumf!lt 2-14. ....1.-..1 Ufo limit land tr"fUIPOrlRUon, tbe Amllzon River
eall~usually aseodatl!d witb un_nita,.,. condi_
and rooltlt montha in tMi Amason bPln 118F. providM'l un Itlltenllive waWr tranllportation Il)'l-
tl(\T\II and poVf;rtY-&N PNValent In ttl. area. An
Low.t tamperature in many lectiotll ot the Ama- 8ecauR the)' cannot .urvi .... on the w .....ry floor, tem, Conaininl( I fifth of IlU tbe wO'rld's rivu
m08t Ameriean junl'l." wild life il found In treea_ Willer, tMi Amazon and it. tributaries can be n~v. f!tlmated 00 pel't&nt of the rora! ~1atlon of
#}n buln ate rewrded about' a.m., uaually in
In aeneral. the: American animale are smaller igatf;(! Il~ tar 11.11 Man&ua by o<ean Unera arQUln8 tbe Amuon buin suffera from InteaUnal para.
AUplt. whf/n temperatu..- drop below 60" F,
than thoH eXiltinl in the other tropical rQionl up to 10,000 tom!. Steamer. weiahlna up to' 4,OO{l. alteR. Vawll are _peelal1,. prevalent In Uta lower
Rainfall over tbe entire AtMt'icsn jUnl'le III pn-
I)f tbe w<>rJd, For eumpie, monkey. of ttle Ana- tonll Nlln .c<mtinuE' on tn IQuitOll. hru-a dlat,anee
Amuon balin, For Ildditionalinformation on dl._
er.11y abundant. In the Afl\UOn buln. rainfall
e&III!lI, ~ paralP'liph 2-1.
e.cee4t 80 Incb. In moAt Mttlonl. Tht Amason ton baain neVer .xceed 4{l. P'Jundt In weillbt, and ot 2,3{l.O mil... from the Atlantic Ocean, F1'Om
"winter" (rainy Muon) lat. from luloUlT'Y to rrumy aR: amaller than rat... The laraut anlmala
JUM. Yilth &imc::.t dail,. raintall 1n the form of include tapir.. jagu.r wblch BrulUana: can
clrcumterlbed abower. that bertn and end lud- ti.m onca, lOw 20 foot boa conatrlctors, 26-foot
46nl,.. Darin. tbil period, inhablt.ant8 of the re- anaermda!l, and 10-foot tr'OCodiJ_ and cayma.
aiM art ...nanny I'fttrleted: to their hom. _
'J'fHlde and tralll "n Inundated *lid beeome pr~~
tI~lJ impuubie, 'Ibe )ower Alnuon experi~
el'lftl a marked dry HUOft from luly to $ept4!m_
ber, Niahte: in the Arnuon buh~ "fa .I~ brll~
liantly ~t.ar. In C,ntral America., mOld r.infall
rarantulM. at'Orplon.. and rodema a", allO ('()tIl-
mon, Ute- lar,_t rDdent heinl' tllt tOO-pound caP7-
bl.ra. La,... ft.h auell M the Pinll)'bl. a &-foot
Amason River catftah. plus nutmtroua varl.tJ_ of
other ftIh, t1.:lrtl ... and Nptl" inbahit the atrunu
and ,warnpe, M.n, Amazon atruma eontJln the
eamlvotma piranha aah and the electric .1.
A standard eatln'Ulte of the jun,l., area. in Afrla
--equatorial rajn tarElt and manlro" Ilwamp-
'1884,100 8quare mile". or 7.9 percent of tlu! to~1
aNI. of the continent. If other toreat al1lU I.N In-
duded, that ill, tb~ tropic.1 dedduoul!: fo ....... and
the Montane (<mISt., then the _tUnate nMa to
Ita trlbutArl.. I.nd .ndOMd by u..
q. G~"enU, The heart ot Equatorial Afria La
ttle Conp hUln, a vat ahallow depnIMion in tlM
Afnetn plateau croa.eed by the CooP lU..." u.d
'nte
drainqe arta ot the riv.r II. approxhnatllll, I.'
mUlion !!quare miles, Vut, .pe.r.eI,. popUl.ted, and
n!l.tlvely 1.:Intoucbed, the rain foreat whleh (teo.
oceura alon. the low. /!at .tretdI. of the Carib- apprallimately l.4 million !!Quare milM <1r 12,6
bean eout. where 'IIf&l'lt4 utterly track 'lI'inds &n- M<WIt wlldJif~. indudin. ,nak.el, avoid man and ar. per~nt. Tbe larJ'ellt body of jun,le ill found cuplea much of the ConlO bPlJ'I. .nd tM .I'ft to
nutJly brln, btt.w.en 124 and 200 Inch. of preelp.. lefdom If!en, Theft' aN few ,,*1_ of (IOiIoOOWl alon. the equ.tor whlttver n.inf.ll is hlab. the north reaembl.... In man, JWptelI:, that of the
I~Uon. MOft rain ".1_ alonll the eout between 1"tPtI" i", th. Am.dean junatu. Mati u.n.r.roUl
.n the lara- buahmuter and the comtnOft fer ....
whfl'i! the temperatuN! r a . Is arnall. and wh.r' Amu.on basin. In addition to eo. (Kiuhau).
y and November. followed by a lir1.,. teuc)n the dry "'lOn, if present at all, la very abort. the rain for..t area eo~ pariI: ql Conp (Br....
IuUna from D4mber to April. On the Pacll\e a.nc.. n. eo,.1 anUe. _bill at:nmf1y polIon* Known al Equatoril., the center of tilt-aNa 11.- _vtU.). Gabon. cameroon, u41tto Ml;1ni III ...n
eout of Centr.1 America. uJnf"n IOrM'Irhat 0\1&, 1& ..ldom a menl.(ll to Pf'OPeJ'I1 dl'eMld _ in the Congo buln. In addition. a rain forat 0:. .. a narrow &trip &lon, the IOUtllwat.nI border
'-t.....rqiq betwtNln 40 .nd 100 IJMlha aD- trained petIOnnei. In BruU. none of tM poilon. tends into tb~ wetwt pe.rta of Weat Africa. pri- of the c..tral Afrie&n BapQbUe. TM ~l ....
nutJl1. OUI anabs un cliMb tr-.; however. In CentnJ marily Alon. tbe oo.u~1 rqioms. Althouih a tkm ot ICqptorta _lata of .. UI"1'OW, low pJ.a.I.D.
Ammca, a rnren-colored palm vl.,.r lIva In marked dry MUOn daM eJlist tIIete. It ia too abort ex....a4i_ about to mDtI intud 11l Conp Bru:::u.
2-Ul. "-piOIIen
Plant lIf, in til. Amuon buln ia oona!dertcI the
molt eompiu on earth-witb .. man,. .. 8,000
hWlh_ and tNtl and it danl\ft'UU. beeiUIe it r;om.
monl,. .trlkN bumana abm.lt tM t .... aM &m'II.
The fv.de-lanee it tile only poiaonOQl 'Mb
to\lnd In tht Weet Indl. The moO aMOfinI'
w .Iter the constantly blab humidity &nd tempar~
atur", Equatorla and Welt Africa art dlac:~
__ ratety _JOUle, thou.b 'be tha~ of tM
......... ___ Uld_. _
villi, fl'01Il 11 to 1 . mi_ Ie Ga~ &Del: Obl,r a
few mil.. Ie tht atnmt . . . of (!aaIrooft. 'nl.
_ _ _ _.I...04from ....
vqetatlon J& almlla.r, UM eonflf\lratioQ of the for
d.Unet .pede& per ~uan mile; v..-taUOft _Ud life .n the ever-pl'tMftt inaeetl. aaeh u tM Mt.6 III not, for the hlJ'h denaity of popu1aUon In _plaln_C-ODIIc...._
throuahout tile Am.um Nain varl.. &eeOJ'din. to n.
tIM: ralnf.lI, Alon, th. Andean toothIlla, &n ......
... of lip to aoo lnebea of rainfall aupporta
11I.nn1. a mat al.. fly wiU'l a bit. of Art.
ason *""
Am-
harbert mUUOIll: of "ta, tnelud.laa' the .....
W.t Africa hu caUNd a than,. in the fQf1llt .vllle. tht l&n4 . . . abNptlJ fila . . . of Wu.,

1-"
vampfn speci . Storia of anr-:i~ fIf
.....
lion, lhl/o type of ve~tRtlo., ,row.
...... &101\1' . .
m(lUt!laln~, al)d lilal.,.u~, all of whifh .re l'arall~l v~rgreen trt!1I Ihminilhell, tht' proportion o( de- thrn\,lj(hllUl Wt'Ht AfrieR '. hnw!'ver, io the interior
lh~re U'l)tl~ l() h1' I!. ttHllhl l'etl/IImal drop. In tlle
IHUlk!!. "f 1'i1!!'rA itowinlt hltt; ttHi Interior. Inland.
to the nl!Ul.L.
II, ('limal.'. The k~yn()te (If th .. eqlut.lorlHI rli-
dduOUII nel;1l. in('reAjJ('~, fl,lld therv are pakhe& of
.II:rmlH.!uwl On lhl!' htl(hllllldll of C"meroon ill (ip~lIl,,1 atelU\ tcn'lwrl!.luti;!! ~1t1lJ<e from '1'1" tn
Uw l'll!n fm';))ll devel()p~ into Rn am. CUft""
mhwu ('vr.r.j{r1'l'1l I!.nd dedduouA (oreat. beeominl
br
mate ill ml)notuIlY: nlll.-tanl tem]l~raturt!, con_ Ilrt'jUI ubl)\t, :J.onH fe{'t, the dt'llllily "f Uw Junille 82 y. In thl'lW Qnntt, whirh eoinride- with the
lIIl nrn "overed euUrely by decldooulli tfi!M whlnh
lIt1tnt humillily, nnd ronlltant n~infHIL In thv d(>('I"I'H"!':< MId {'vntUlI\II ('xtcmuve b>tmboo thirxrt/l rain (1)fI'At belt. the hjR"h tl'mpetJ\tur.A ('Dmbined
~hed th ..ir lenvl'~ durinl< the dry AellllOn, TM r.tln
Wf'A!l'rn Camermm" tlnd between the Jntttud~!\o 2. llnd hroud !!.reall of open p;r!!.I!~landx. a rondition with ttw ('unAllInl hi;rh humidity fAUIW cott'lidera
fflrt'Al \'e)ol1'tatil)n i" lIimilHr in tharlWu,r to the
and 3 Ntutb ill the Cona\>, there ill no dry Aea whi!'h III 11111/' f!llllld In the };lI$t Afril'lHl mounluin blf' djMcumfort; rnltllllorm ... brinK onl)1 temp(lr~rY
I':qulltorinl fllin fflYe>'>il1h't!lldy dIM'1l1Vlf!d, The pop-
lion. ami ttl{' annUli] Wmperature ranJ(e )11 U ure'I"' rel'l~f to the <l))pl't!>IlOive h~t FM "hart tJerlOO
niH I' "onct'llt or II. )IIII)(lc t'xtmplU\ed by that
tremdy Arnall. The ramce of temperature betWf'en ff P"p.iln/mj/ (lluf Tnnl~pnrl<ltiml. The rain durhllof the wintt'r when 1\ m<l/!1\lkllUlI wind ~O~H r"UI'ul :11 H<nlth Amer1rR !\tId in Equlilorilll Af.
day ami nilrhl dlw.a tIOt PII'f'tJ 10" Ilr 15" Mov_ (ureAl IIrl'lI. in F:~unh'rjal Afrirll hall ft low POIJU- (rom the Intl'rin!' {lh~ hlOrmllt\lIn}. tht' tmmldlly
fH'II, howt'ver, dOM~ IHlt apply to W4!1!t Af,ka, Not
(nil iwth north and ./IOuth from (hellf' l.titud~ the lutiolJ tI!'1\~ity IK<.mOJ Ii) pen'ent III thl' (,Htire dro]1li ",llIlhtly durit'll lhe lliJl:ht, and ~hc t'I1A11tal Hnty hi"" theft! he~m It !,'(JlIHirlernhle reduct1un in
dry 11"1\11011 \.wcllme!t Ilrll)(retlI!ively !mlKvr, Ilnd the ('~IIIKu hM !t>.1\I!. lhan ont' per~on per IIquarc mllc) peoph'lI, m'I'li'Hnted III thl' !lump, hot rllmal.e, fi'el
lh,. tuinl Ilre!l caver~1 hy rorelltl'. but alJlo, (rom
rlimn\.(" bt'Comel! prol<"'~lIRively ("01l1t>r and drier all II;l1tl tU!1\ low IWi! {;;ortlllly whkh di"""urajtcA np;ti an nduill (hill in ..."ile of Lhe hip;h temperature.
IllW-lhird to iwn-lhirds of what i~ fl'll'lIwd ,nnw
line apJltnachel!l th~ mPllntaillll. Totfl,l rainf.1l in ('uJt\lI'ul "rnduehon (when the hmd is clcared of It itt not unullual lo III~ prop1!' shlverinil in iHl t'Jmllh.t.~ 'If inferi.w. l'eI:oltdlty Ilrowth, In Su:-rra
the ConKo bnain vllrie!'! \.wtwtwn fi(t >l.tld 70 inchell; forellt, Ih!' Mlil L~ rapidly l(la{'hed by the hbVY wooth!'!', l",uu('. fur ('xllmplc, unly fill'erfimt Ilf the orip;inRI
but {)II thl' l""utt II rnpid chanl'e QCCurll from rfiinf~l1, and ft lung tim" i,~ tf'ijllired f(lf reeov- II. VI!ltiflf!m!. The vegetatIOn rnverinlf W Ml7
Afrwil ll\ thr~Lly reh\ted h) th!' l'AUt't1111 uf rutn,
fOfi'lItl'd jIIrf'JI remnin~, afltl eV1i'1I tbe mllllifrove
north til ~nuth_from 400 irl\'heA at tht' foot H( ('ryL llt'\'I'llljlmt'nt of ,.ny kinll in thp nin /nti'At ~wllmp~ un' Iwin)( l'!f'!lr..d lIi1d drained in an ef
CamNTI!;n Mt.unWin tn ao illrh~a nl thE" mouth nf ftteH~ III impt>t:I(<j! h.\' the valll dllltRtl!~ involved; (ilil. Tw') rMrlll.'terlAtirM nl thil\ pll.ttt'r!l Ilrt' 1m-
r ..,1 th lurll them into l'la ))/I,dduMf. Thn'(' factorll
the COIllfO River. and dwindling tu 10 ilK'hel at IofNlI'rlllly. th{' mUI't' denlle the f'lrN!t, the IImalll'r ptlrtHoL Flrttt, th('n' 1~ n proKP/lltIVI' (it'Fr{'!lI' 11\ l!'fal to redut'~ Ihe fOl'('~t HrCH~ hl We~t Africa:
Hen;ru~ljO (An~o!j.j). The hulk of tnt" rain iii the vi1laJl:eH and the Ifr... ler the dillts,lIi'e ~tW&ell tnhtl HIIIIl1"j ,Hioh.IIJI I!.II on.' Kot'l\ 1!'t1m ~'!Jlh
(It t~ in"reallinll POllullition whith foreet; the
Mnvedlonlll, and ;wl'r much of the Conl(O bMln them. F(!otpath!l, u;o,u.lly only wide enollah io !!.f (the C111U1Q tn north (inland), Yor example, IIlonl(
11~' Hf luntt'r areR!< for lIumlilltenre plotll And the
.ftunoon and t'Yenlnlr thundentorm.t are a daily cummodnll' n bicyrle, lead from village to village the rllalltal aren 1;( Nigeria, the avernJl:e annual
ItliopU<>n of It enarter f.llow period rot rellene~a
oct:u~fi('f! during the rainy liP/bUll and even dur- and ar.. mainb.ined throuKh th~ yelrR by corutt.nt rainf!!.l1 ill> 110 inrhe~; &6 milf!lI inlaml. it de- th'n of tht, ~oil; (2) lhv extenlllon o( commerc,.l
UIW'. Road!' ,ftrt' c!lpen!livl' to t"tll1l1trud or maintain cre>l.ttt'tl loll MIl ind'H!p. The h!'avielll rainfall i~
inx the so.('.nl'd dry ftelUlOn. whkh m.y \.w all aOll produ('tion~ and (3) 1ht dam.p by AN. The
Ihort AI one to two montlul. (The dry be1'HUIIt! of the torrential rain/.11 whkh washt'l! (ound .Ift the fOlillt tlf LIberia, which retei~ 120 h"l1\ i,. IlItrhrulnrly relevant to arelll (o....nd b~
!ledOn/1lflAllOnl! 6{Tur durin(( June.July and/or nul the Nllu!lwdlt Sinre the fll'!<t roadA built inchett; at Ut. inl!!.nd boundar,v ot that enuntry d;:riduHUII fm'e/lt~, with l'he ,..ult that in. ROme
Deceftl~r-Jahuary, depeudina upon the particu. lren!'rully follnwed the old footpathR, many (abo:Jut !2& milu) , annual rainflill declinefl: tn.60 IIr~"/i ther;: I" Hn tlbrupt tranaition from rain tor-
lar area,) roadll Hr~ now badly nlined and graded. Be to 80 lnrht:!!, St't-'Ondly, the l\lnKth of the rKmy ellt to Rt'HII;J11>l.nd, III the rAin fo~t belt it"lf. ~
c. VfDlltnliOl'l. In IIpitl' (If the po.... rty oC the ('lIUlle toadll cannot ahrt'.YII be efficiently drained HUOn decreaaell ptop;1'('Blliv..1y goimr toward the
IItI!!!.1I 1Irt' honey!'om\.wd with vill~, .aTlt!ul.
!lOibl, the cumulative I'tff!(:t of hilh tempe:ratul'U. and becauM their lIurfat'e ia aften not waterproof, interi'llr, Akmlf tl'IOAt ar the Maulhern milt lurll} rlc.I!rinjt'l. !!.nd ahandoned dearlnp, tn addi
humidity, and precipitation ill 8, dense, tuah vep- a lul'e j'>flrtion af tht' roads lire uuble only dur the rainy 1lfllllOn l&llI! Crom 11 to 12: mont'ha: tillli. footpll.th" .nd broader trailll lead (rom .n
latlo'" with treM .pproximately 120 foot hi;rh .nd hog th{' dry leason. Durina the rainy aeuon, inlantl 100 ml\t>lI, it l."lI! only about 9 month~. IAl(e to vlltap and to the nell'ftl: public read, An
& canopy of thick leavell, Unlike the Amuoe jun- rtladll lirE' wuhed out and mUl!t be rearaded in Different typtlll of veptatitm are found In other importalll (actOI' ill tnt peculiar lepey of
gle, which in ofttm described .. extl'ell'lely ((Ioomy IIpolJl before they ('an be u8t!d, For thee rNiSOnll, lll'!ltll which rtln llatll11el to the COM!, aerordin,I' lhl! tokmial llyd,em-m.Jor townll and f1l"'6rn~
wUh Iittit or 00 underarowth, the floor of the tht' !ieC!md mOlt impmtant meanll of trllvel jnext to the lIetUllmal dimate. Along the coast tbere IP> ment rcnhtrll were t'Bhbll"Md neer the ro&JIi.
Equatorial rain ftr....t fa. mat of almoat Impene- W pathl) in the mor. denae rtlilona of the (are&t the narrow belt or mangrove woodlandl and ThUll post World War II development of the
trable underrrawth _tid hu conaid4lr.b}e I!!Iwamp is by wlter rather than by road. The majority of und-bank Ifr.1UI forest with ((),Ir8(l gragell and tral1llpnrt lnfralltrurt\.lr. ball bet'n contentrated in
....... Often there I.a an undentory of .mall trees. the pupul.tion Bves on flw aubsiMteMe level. acrW pineA, ManiCrovell Cringe moat of the eatu the Jlouth.nl region of Wut African coun~n ___
and in th& more open patti there Ia a thitk growina food cropa on small cleaTed pakM' of ariell and tOll.lltal!!.wamps within lidld lImit.ll. The m the heal't or the rain foreJ1t \.wIt. III Nllfuia,
jTOwth of htthl on the fore floor, Woody ellmb- !.end whirh are then left fallow far a period of I.arJ<Clt body of manKrOYet. i" round In tbe NllNr GblIa, and Sierra Leone a lara- percen~ ?f
en. or ItulUl, aN UJlu&1i7 abundant, and many of JEan 110 that the /Wi! maY re,..!n J\.JI (ertillty, delta area (Ni;reria) where laKoonl, cree'ka. and th~ populatiun in the rain for. \.wIt 1l~ wltbm
tIM t:nII .... auppot'ted by buttJ1JB6ea, A IfN&t va~ Typh~a! troJ15 are UM.va, maize, plantain (II IwamPft form an inlricllte lIylltem of waterway...
!.en mill!A nf II. mlljor or lIecondllry road.
I'Mb' t41l*_ ot lrMt (lUI many lUI 2(0) can ~ relative ot the bal1ana). yams, maniot". tobaeeo, SWlmp rat8ta cOMil\ prlmarily of trees (rom, 6
found hi a 'mill arg, In the hnrt 01 the buln beana .nd oil palm. BecauM the aoilll an &andy to 60 feet hiJl:h, either standin~ on larie ablt
the riveta form a jumbl* o( branche. link~ with and a1* poor In pl.nt nutrient&. the crop yield roota whkh H(t the main .tem of tM tre8 .~ve 2-20. A..,.1t ancf D......
OM I.MiMr. Tbeae river. on.n ftow through a ill extremely low, The majority of the popu. hiah tidlll". or bavinJ( rMPiratory r~ta J(l'OWIft' 0, ARim41.t. Afrita ia (amed for ita .bu~dut
de... fortlt whieh la anaonally lnundl:ted. lace do not tat flllh or meat; thua the overall diet out ot the ,id.1 mud, Directly ~hlOd tbe man- .nd unique formll uf wildlife, Althou;rh dlmlnl.h
Throurhout ibt rain foteat the' aTOund in thoft I. inadequate, ,rove a... mp belt ia the tiqU&torial rain for.;t, lUff ill number and -exblnt, ml.Kh of it .tiU exl.ta
..... aNded from the dll'fllet ra". 01 the eun ia alao called evergreen fortat. 8eJ:inniq tout'h of In ..vanna parke and in the r.ln (oreat art:u.
molal, if not wet. durhlJ the antln year, VarU- 2-19. WOOl A"ko Oall.r (Senegal), It follow. tbe ("OUt In varyin. Ml*ially in Equatorl.l A(rka where the denM
titm& in thie p,tturn ot veptatlon are to be found The toporraphy of WetJt AfriCA conaiata of a ftat depthl ullually ~twHn 50 to 200 mil. . ThIA belt and BpanMlly populated. fortlSU otter. rehp. In
akn\a the COMal N.lona wbilrf' m.nllTOfli to aUabtl)' rolling tOMtal plain. 20 kJ .00 miles II broken only by an I,ea known &1\ t'he "Ghana the ConlO buin llevera! varietl_ o( ,ormo,
ewam.,. frltlP th& .tuart.. and laJO(>k To- dry belt", where the NVlmna extenda to the rout, ('himpan...... monkey&, ,Iant boarl, and elt!-

-
wide and ,enerally leta than &00 feet abow ..a
warda th. outer rim 01 the buin WheN lb, dry level, whith rise. jlTAdually to an inland plateau, TM rain for.t ia found bat~ the lowlanda phanta ani found, aa well &1\ dw.rf buffa1oea, an_
MUOn beeomu marked, the number of al*l.,. of '" Cli7lUdf. TemperatuRI &re uniformly hl,h and in areal up to 15(1) teet elevation. In addl
1-21
PM'I""
Medon V. OatENTAL JUNOLI$
telolWll, and th(! pygmy elephant. In Welt Africa, breed. Yflr).' easily and i8 not parti('ular about
becaUN of th(! Inera.ini' human populatJon. where it ('An depo;oIit its egj(lI. To the nonAfriclln alllO frequent, In the Philippines tnd Vietnam,

I ..me animala are not tllWuntered .. frequently


.. In the pa.at: the larrer mammalll MIlk the more
enterinU' II m.larial ar.a, tbt' dllleMe lit rlkes with
d.yutatinS{ eff....,t, Yellow fever I" an Inff!ttloua
dl,,",lle tranllmitted from man ro man by the mN
2-21. _ I
The Oriental jan.le il th!! mOllt widely dilltrib.
ut.ed JunKle extendin;!l' l10rth of the Trople of Can
tht' main typhl)110 !\ea.~n lllAta hom July to No--
"ember: in Millane!!la to the !lOuth of New

fl 1~lbI. PIlrt. of the denae forellt. Elephant.


ar ..tilt found In awne WeRtern arull, ee~lally
Sierra Leone and the Ivory Cout Ot.calion.Uy
qUito Aedea aej{yptL FlltalitiM from the d!!leMe
for natiVf!!l Btl'! in the range of Hve perc&nt: aur
nr in Atulam~.south oflhe Tropic of Caprieorn in
aolltheatit!!rn Q\leensland: all far eut all the Fiji
Guinea, from November to April MOYinU' in fl"OM
the ONl'an, cloud. otlen beenme trllPped in moun
taintlUM ....alleyl' fOr 11"11'111' periods Qf time and can
an elephant ja aWl leen in Ea&tern Nigeria, but III vival from ItU attack provide. immUnity. Fatall. lala-nds ttl the Southern Paril\{": and u far Wl\llt rBtltrirt Bir npt'ratiOlrut,
r quickly hunl.ed and killed ~auM' of the dama$f*
it caullell to cultivated arua. AI8(l fOUM In (lartA
ties from the dilK!aM amonS{ non_nati~ t'rom yel.
low fcllcr.tr~ .reall (i.e., the Unlted Statu} may
.. the Wt'lltern Ghau: of Intlia, Tht> junp ia rru.m
or
edoe-nllivr in .r!!l&ll Mttlaya-, Sumatra, Borneo
and ";ew Guinea, and aloo cove-ra Iublltantjal
r. Vt'flftfrfWlI. Srtuthea"t Allia hl\ll: a y.rif!ty of
vt'lI'ettttillR The mlljor ditft'ren11 involYe the
I. of Wellt AfrlcII are the I"@d hu/falo, 8()1nt ep(!dh rllnj(t upward tn 40 per('ent. The carrl.. r mcaquito
f,TUII in g.,.t rakil!.tan, Burma, Thailand, t..aoe.,
tropll'al r"Jn (orellt or both the Iuatorial low-
of anlelope and wild lio.., IMp.rdA, hy(!n.II, and ill lIery widely dilltrlbuted-(!oY!'rin.ll' perlwlP8 l.odK- and the humid tropical :tone north and
Cambodia, Vlctnam, and the- Philil1pinell. AI
I ,reet y.riety of IIm.ner .nimalll. partieularly
trooilll of ....ild monkeYIl. HipPOpotami are eommon
nnehaL( or Afrira-..and b~dll fref'ly in any-
thinll whkh WIll hold waler, eapeciaUy .round thoUCft V&IIt jungle areall h.ve been rleared or
lWuth of th(> equator &nd the iropieal d(lt!idUOlUl
fOFl' ..tlt (monsoon fOrlnda) 'reBlI of seA8(lnal
l' in river. throulhout Africa. Domedlc animall townll lind vjlh~lI't!1I. FQrtunat..ry, ther!' ill lIate modltl.ed, the orhmtal junrle still is r~iu.ble drooKht, Trop-icttl r.ln fortatll in Allia are ex-
are few beeauM! they .re infected by tM tAellwl fly and etf....,tive inoculation a.ll'Bin8t \'~lJow f~lIr_ and prt'vAIf'11t flyer most of ita former ranll'!!. tN'mt'ly rienMe, ulluaHy O('eurin, in thJ'ee layen.
which tr.nsmlt. flletpinll' lickMt!811 (the animal an esentiaI r(,lluirement for an)'OJ;e enterinS{ the Only in Ceylon, Java, and /lOme uf the Pacific la_ with the talleltt. trf!elt j(rowinK to 156 tNt, The
v... iety ill tailed nagama). In Wellt Afrl~ .n ex. tropIC'll. in Atrlra the aame mosquito tranllmlta landII-, hall there r-n an alrooat complete altera- R:round iUI>Jt ill thickly carpeted with a wide range
tremely Ilmall JI'OAt, the lIize of a doS{, un be lret>n "breakbon.... (dt-n;rue) fever. Thoullh rarely tion of lhe jUllS{le environment of plantll and ehTubM-, The denAt' undergJ'owtb ill
everywhere-eapecl.lly on the roKdll .nd Yilla~ '.tlll, the yirtim ill Jmmobili:wd for two or three further (:amplieated by liana (thick tN!t!j)l?Ml) and
aUtMa. Bird&, the n.tur.1 tnnabit.antA of tbe for. wookll with hlllh temperatures, e IIk!n eruption, 2-22. _ A I I I a palm rattan, making moYffl'Ient very difficult.
eat, llbound in artat numbert and yarleti@ll. In the and .cute Plliml of tbe jointll and mu8('iu. New Southeut Aeian junttleA are impor. C10lle!y IIpaced Mmboo commonly II'rOW4 between
Congo ballln aJone, BOme 1.2U<J IIp.dell have been
ai,hted and r.talorutid, Common Over lIetUed
lttrivlI-lH to the tropiC'll Af(' (,II-pedatly vulnerable to
df'njf'Ue (ever. Oth~r major d\1Ie-a1llHl are th~ ear~
lA. GIJl'H!ra/,
tant bec.u" of the vast aru given OWIr to jun!ie. lID t6 40 fl!t!t hi"". and at timt!'fl reaches tbe
heiKht of 18(1 feet or more. Prey"hlnt 111110 in vlr w
Dl!t!ply penctrttted by rulill and arms ot' the Ilea
.reu .re vulturel, the 8Callflnlit't'a of Afrla. The ried by wltterborlle Orjfanillmll. effeclll of Whirh and marked by an intrie.Uly rujfj'ed terr.ln, stln junglefl ill a .tron, odor emanaUnlf trom de-
crocodll.. art the- lar....t reptiles found in all the rallll'e from mildly uplI-et digflllion to death. 'rh ... mainland Southeut Alia hall bien a/fee-ted by eayln.. ve~tion. Tropical deciduoua (mOlWlXln)
river. and atru"ta tbroughout the forest ate.ll, includ.. dyllt'ntary, "'ariooll forma of diarrhea, .and abundant rainfall which hall treated .n elaborate foreau are found .t lower altitude., mainly In
and an.k. includln!t' the d.n!t'eroua .peciN of Yi. other mort' uriou8 dilleWle&. .U of whkh are ae network or rivera and delt.u. M.nifNll. awamps IOUtheaatern lndorutlia .nd on the mainland
pera .nd eobru. the puff .dder, ItNIen mamM, quif1!"d prim11rlly thl'Oulth drinking or uainlf oon art a prominel'll eharart.eriatk alnnr ooutal north of 7fj where thll annual rainfall dON not
.nd python .re numeroull. However, tbey are M!l- !.amlna~ weter. Untreated water ~n al8() al'Ull and riveT' moutha. With the el~ption of ex~d 80 lu(li-ea. The trUII monllOOn foNtt 11: . .
doInaeen. cont.aminati' e{lukin!t' utetl8HIl or uncooked Ye$f*' the _rat riyer v.!I~e Jrrawaddy, S.lween, in winter .nd tbe underirowth I. fairly thick;
b. lHHtJ,f.,. The evil reputation of tropical Af- tablell, Indirectly rMponelb/i! for much di.. Me-811m, Mekonr. and 8anjf~Koi-the relief ia tlwl main trMl .,.. more widely .paced. and haV&
ric.. .. til. "white m.n'!'! ,rave" III linked to In. eh!! 18 the climate of the troP1C& whirh favore the moatly upland, Intenpet'Md with ateep .. rrr.ted leu folia .. than th.e ill tlwl tl"Opleal raiD fone\.
tMlefJt. Moat p.r'" or Africa.,.. dli:n.reroWl bec.uMl r.pid df'COmllORition of t'oodatuff!! and low~,. rid,... of the Arakan and Annamita chaina and AlonJ tIM! eoutal utual"lee of South. .t Aala are
Of the many dilleu whleh thrive und.r tropitlal mtut'll fftillLanee, Few nonAfrieanl who af.H!nd tfte IeMer ruidual rlnpe of the M&l&yr. interior. be!iA of maqroye tAea, varyil'l.f" in width man
oondit!one, and to their carrlers-in..ecl$, etlpe. time in tbe tropica are able to .Jtape llOtne form SeparaUq then rMorbacked rldpa are innu- tOO y.rde to two mil.. or mOl'll. Bayond thla ....
eI.lly the moaqulto. The tIIetae fly belt COYen per- of th.... problema.. The rodent and liC* llpeelu are merable valleY., many of whieh lore choked with fr.h water aw.mptl are fTCIQuently found, Thie
hap! oh~tbird of Afde&. and c&u8(!a eleepin, nother 8(oursre of Africa. In addition to belnl a bamboo. TheM toporr.phieal charactedaUea ara kind of terrain covt,. Y8.lt IU'IlM of Malay., ...t.
akkneu (trYPll'W:WOrniuia) in both man and .nj. conllt.nt Irritation, rodente and II~ are fu more PFeyalent al.8o in Ind0ne8i& .nd the Philippine.. ern SumAtra, and aouth __ t 80.,.." Tb. orlrinal

forat near rlllra and la_.


rnal, Found ..peclslJy on tht!' m.rrln. of buah or
the fllllll .rt partleu,
larly tl'tH.lblMC)me durinr t~ hotter perlodll of
import.ent becaUile of the dl ...ae. they earry.
TheM! Include varioua typrell of plarue and re1&.-.
Ina fev,r, caUled by a blood paraalte carrie by.
b. Chm/dt!. The temper.turt of pr&etk:alty an
SoutheMt Atl. very Mldom. falla below 84". and
the mean temperature I. eround S()~. Throua-bout
eharactariatka of oriental junr!" haft been aI
\fted either by bell'll" e_ted p*mtanently for
cultiv.Uon or by belni' deane! by .luh-and-burn
tlwl day. Thanks to hnproveli dru,., the dlse&le I. louse or tick. Other dit\6Uetl, not ezdulliv. to the SWth....t Aaia, the air II quite damp all &he "I... cultivation which ha& eJ'Uted NI'!Ondary r!'OW\h
no Ionpr a menaee to bUlQn life, The mOliflt Pf!r- tl'Oplu, are at'rioU8 problem in Afriea. Frobably bv. humidity ia hl..h, e)teeedlnr 00 pe~ent .t juni'&' that ia not all taU ... thouib far IrION tan-
nicioua In&eeta in Atrle. ara the mo.qu.ltoea, ear_ the matt frequent eaU&e of death in tropieal At. ni_lIt and r.rely droppi nl below 86 to 'fa: percent tried th.n, primaQ Il"Owtb. Monsover. once the
rlers of two of the moat dn!aded dwaaea-ma. rica III toberculOtlia. Pneumonia, amallpox, and by day. Heavy rainf.1I la typk.1 In Southeatt land fa cleated. the "verdon to the orirtnal Jun.
larl nd ,yellow fo ..r. Th. A~" ramWa. menlnrltl..... allO importanl Gonorrhoea and Asia, Durin. the m6f11OtOn I6&IOftt ftOl'thtrn i'le may take .. Ionr 8.1 100 yurs.. Be loft....
mOlqulto ia tht chief arrier of m.I.Ma, The con. ayphUi& are very ImImon in muy diatrkt.a. Ut- Sarma ree.:!"'" .n extr.!n'dln.Q 200 tnchN of ahUUn.. cultivation eontinue&, rtVfton to the
trol or ellft'lination of malarl.. d.pend. upon the tie h... been done to cheek Utili .pnad of a1PhIIlt. J'Illnfall. The rnon&OOnal winda In Vlitntm. for }un..le annot oec:\lr, at trlbBl cultb.ton: rarely
~ruetlon of &he mo.qulto by preventitll it from n.
.It
For a.d,dltlofUil information on dl....." MIl PIlra. eumple, ~\I" an annual raJnfall ranainl from leave an ar.- tallow for mo" than US ,........
brtedln,a:, Unfortunately, t.JM: Anophel. pmblae ar.ph 1--9. 80 1;0 12S Ineb. Atmoepbei'k: deprMIiona in .pita the den.. veptation of th. IMICOndary
Southeut Aa!. are alao tommon. ueually atem,. j'l'O'III'th jl,ln,l.. mOIl of tM In 1n Southtut MI.

-
ml"- from marked dlfrenmca betw"" .... and ie not fertn . Furthe~ portlo_ at tbt
.ir temperatures.. Squ.1Lt In tfl'tain ...... a" hliblanda In Su.mat.... ~. New GulMl& and
1M I1-IJ I'M 11'"

nmli')uud A~il' hll'-(' b.'Ph :] Hl'Yel"ely erodf'd by lW(!CII Ii al1d 26' north HIIII 72 lind M' {,11St. bw III JUllg!t' If'rrlHn; thl'r(lfort", It ill W>lenliHI :W or :1(1 meterlt. In the tropical declduoua toreat,
"1",,I'Hlfld_hul'n mllivatlHl! that ullly walltch.nd Suhtrnplrul 1';inUll!' lind l!linfHl1 'HTllr in thE' that t'"mnl'lmh'l"" !ll 11.1/ l('vel1'. ('"mploy ndeqllHt., thf' tlllll;e'le ()f lIe<'ondary growth may limit I'l'O\lnd
1<.. run will !Crow, fj,rm',..}( tllnA'l!'~ u~ hi/{h IHI 11'1 wl'~INII flt'lIitISlli,\ lIlId 1<I>uthW!'Htl'rn pllrttl of
He-'urlt)' nln.~!ln'~ l" prl'\'l'ot RIll"prill!" IUld to pro- o~('rYfttl()n to !'i Il'l\lterll or telUl (ftJ:. 2-14), In
tt"!'t thf' ('llml'llllltill1l all typ.,,,, l,f jlPNhtHlrIH, trHplt'ltj 1\.!\VlI.nn., (ommol1iy c:&lhld elllphant
'M'L hUhn. HH"llldll\~ thl' W\''1!A'rh Ghnt<>, from Rom.
ri, Tnl!ll<. {k.. upyiua: the jungl .. areft. in Suuth- ba,\' l\uuthwur;t V!'gellllilill imdudl'l'I twpit'll! rain It. Tht "rlOrnty or ""I'!d". trldllt, and railr{)lld /ofraill'. whlrb IIOmeiimee Itrowlt to .. htiJ'ht of US
i'llllt AIHI! arE' nUl'YWfTIu!> prlmlliw tril.Jell in Illid trol,in,! dj'ndu{ju~ (ort'IIL ShruLs lind wood netwlfI'k!l 1/I\'N:tl\~f' ("omvl'!t 1I('r\'ire 5ullporl ft'{'t 01" more, Itrovnd ob#ervt.tlon may be limited
Burma, it i.s b('hev('d tht" tnbt:1; Iln:ouut tor one- dirnhf'r" ure nbllIldullt 1Kanafll. My!!ore, Coorol:, prnb!('ml< and inNralt(' rnjlint't'r wUPPOl"t rrllilire- to u fe reel. In manilTOve swamp.. IJ'OUnd ob-
fifth ot the p.,pulution Hlld ()('l'Upy about orw-half Rnd Kendn r\'I{Hm~), rt'!1fI{,Tmol: IHrgc urra~ a1- men!!. h, mlltntnin Hnl'~ of l"t,mmltl1ieatiohll. rom- III'YVatinll will 110rmally be limited to .bout 20
hf thl' I"HtL II! I ....."s, thl',v mHY I'Gmprillt!' Il!! mut'h mnndf'r~ mUI'Il t'xpl'at all mt'lin" of S\'N.llnd. air, m .. WI'lI. ObJo.enaliou will be i't'*'ltly nlltrldld
IlWl<t ImlN'tlt.'lruh!e_
\tit Ollt!.thlrd o( Ihl' jlOllulatioll lind O('l'upy BO per- .lind wstcr tNl.I1~lj()rtal.i()1t ill the movement of durin.lf rlliny I't'a!lon~. 1I0t. only by the raIn Unif.
N~\lt uf the Iltlui. In ~l1lth Vi,'tlulm, lhf!l!{' l>rIm! 2-24, C.ylon lIupplie!l lIlld tI'fIfiP!'!_ The trnpieaJ dim.aie ot the but nl~n by the heavy 1l10und folt' whlch J'l'tAy Un-
ltv\' tl"llw.'\ ure known roljr<'('l!Vply by the Frtlnch juna:jt' mul1iplir ... thr maintenance requirementft /ofCr (!Or /W\'erlll hOll"" .ftel" I'Iunriee.
wilrd Mnntat{lIIlnl (mounlailU:tlr",; SI1(\ RCl"OI1l1t ('.,,.h'll !I(,,'1 in !hl' lnflllstlHtI rf'/of:!)n ()f Southf'fl.!!t for an wt'ap(>/1M and equipment. f)ally de.nillM' Ii. The tOllS uf rldg~ lind hills oWer .1I,Mly 1m-
(or Hboll! 1[, ~ITl'nt u( thl' population and more A,>llil und hll..., til(' 1'lum1' h'lmid iropwlI.l t'ilmah,,_ and in8pl'rtion of equipment are mand.tory, pve)) proHm obl!rvatjdn berau!l. these teatures ullually
thau lw(.. thir.i1; of HIe I,Hld arcs. Moltt of the M~'1tI\l!rilll!: 240 hy 14H mil"", Ceylon bat> II 1Iub for weap<!ns that have not been fired. ('ontain ~pal'Mr junK!r ycltrtation then IS tound
~lnntl!ill'Oa .. tul plRill, mn!lt exlen"lVe Of! the north T_ The tropical dlmate and difficult. dttlllely ... eg~ jn the valle),!'!.
tribt'li uUliz.' l\h\~h .uodburn ml'thodM. Ttw mOIl-
!'!OIm 14,..*111'" It'o~'('rn their' ajtrin.lltllre: IIlltntlll.lf ltid\" wh.eh >!urro!wdR 1m lIpJltll(\ 1H'lt Thl' moun- eLated terrain ftver whieh opeTaUl1nll mUllt be !'. Aerial tlbllel'\'ation ill generally Inetredlve be-
!1I1/I;>1I." l'elltrul n'gl(!J! il' th" MII/rn' of I':mafl riv. I.'ondut"t('d dielltte that Ill! ijQuipment acrompany. CAUIIt' ov!'!erVi'"I'M l-lIllntlt M'e the Mftivity under.
1'i< In j~JU'!y lIollrlrl/of IIIJ"w,.; jtrnwtb during thf'
1'1"11 fI",,..lllii tn thl' ",,",,(. 1\1,,1'\ of thl' 1Ij)!lthwe~t Ft'- n ..ath tbv junllk ",mo))y lind obllfrvation is ex-
rl!.llly !'!I:NI~," lIml hnrH'~lin){ in lhl' (lIlL Nor_ ill/t rombllt fOrTe!! be rUItJtOd, lilfhtw.illht and
1(1<>11 1;< l\j(rknltuml, hUl'illg o.'t'l' dlumed (rom tremely dltfkult durhl/of th(' nlin), AeaAOn due to
mully, thNlt' Irilll'''' mllv" ntM>lIl .'vl'r,v ~V"11 yeuTIl ml'lll.porlahJt', The fiR"htill/t l"ad of the IIoldiN
III onler to fill,l fr'f'sh Moil, 'fypkaJ {If lribal mov,,, Ih(, .I ling!.' jf"Wf'Vl'r, III Ihf' llorth ulld CAl':e llhould IX' keflt under 4G jKlUnd elCTl'!I~ive downfall And loW hllnltinK dou<ls plua
mellta Rrt' tht' Si'mlll) ,,( MalaYR, who Kroup in l'JIl!lh*IIIHI.hurll nlltivatwn ill HiiH prll.f'tu:OO and J. TrnoPM n-peratin/of In a jun/tle environment tng and haze, ThiR artivity may include mc~~
b./HKL" (If 20 to :1.0 individuai,; Rtld have C1'rta;n (f\m<i "f tht' u.rt'U l" !'mf'fI't! with Hccnnds1'Y I'{"rub art! expoee;i to many health haurdl!:. An ill' ment of I!ub~t.ntial bodieM of tl'O!lp!\ over tairly
"t('l'I"ltor,,'," ('on!<llItif!~ of alM)(lt 20 !!quRre miwlI. JUbj(!(', TN'I"nil rl\ll1 (on'lIt OC"eUt'll in the ~)uth ('reaRed diA(!allt' nlf' will normally Teltult from 1011Itd!~lancelt.
111111 lowljlmll~, liml j, truple/II thorn rnr~"It coven! the "udckon elltranre inta a tropical area of
hi thi1\ tH'l'll Ut,-s roam, culled in/( what they ran
lind til jnt_herrieH, null!, pith. Itmvel!., /ofrubfl, and Iht, lIorthwesh'1'1l And "(iuthw(!"lt'rn Hllulttll ar~M. largc number of Ullarelimattzoo !loldler, who 2-29. III.W. of ,.~
roulH Hunt!n,.. II.nl\ tiHhillit Rrf' llporndir at'ti\'itiell, haye )lUIe or no re!li!ltllnre to many ot the en (!. EXe('pt aloll/of lrailfl .ud road!!, f1:eld. of ftre
I', "''''/fInll.l!t flmllJillrl'lSfl/. MOIIt of the tropi. 2-25. PMiflc Area demir diaetuws, Surh eonditi(ln~ will probably are poor in jungle areall ('ontftinini' denIM! ......t..
cal dllWlIlIl'" ff'lmd !II the tither junltte ati!all are Tht, Pit, lIk jl'land~ tx-~'ond 'lIdlln{,lIia Rnd tht, exist in the early perind III uny jungle action. Tbe tion, Becauj\f' fie;dK of fire (indudini' IIruinr ftre
AI>!'.) jtrevultJnt 1ft Southea1<t AlIi_: tnalaria ill the PhllippinI' Art' a. rll~ial CII.>\I' whlrh ('an ol1ly be< /tt'1IateHt 10M ot eft'e<'l\v.nea... amon/of twldiera will for automatic weaponll) are limited to Ii to 00 1'M-
l(lmlt mrnmOh. In moulltain{lUR areaa. IHleh a,; the /off'o{'rllhzt'd in view f.f the prcY"iHlllf vl\riatlon in probably be the diarrheal digeafleM and funp' teu, lanell muat be ('teNTed, 111 order to &vo14 ~
lIorthwel!U>rlle{)r!l.~r of Burma. malari. ia parlie~ phYRi('l\1 relif'r. rllinfJdl, And tt'mper'ltturr, Among infection, Continuoult proterlion will be ti!qU\red ..,ea!illlt weapone p<!ltitionll, a fire laM In dltlll
ularly "'Irulent. Numernus varlet"l1 of snakes are the iHIIIUd..., 11.11 lypt'.~ of t"Tralll ION: f'1l('otmtl'rRd, IOltll.irll1t mo'Oflllitoes, llit"M, fi"II~, lm-rhe!! Ilnd other \'e~aliofl uauallr ill in thl' (l'Tm ot fI tunnel (rom
found In ~outheaMt AIlI ... One of the mOllt v(tne- fNlm illlrt('n Al'ClVO with rock~ and /Ulud to areaM pfl;rMilt"~, I<:xper!t'lwt' hI'!" ~howtl that more I to 3,4 mt't.!rll wide wllh the \werhancini' foliaaw
m(lUfI ill the WIl1'ld ill the blue kralt in Vietnam. It with deu!'!!" vegetAtion. trm:.pM were hospilalir:ed durinlt jUllKle opvraUons left intact, 1:h..'Cau~e u( the limited Qbller .... Uon and
111 blulahblark ill rolor.nd l.eaA than four teet in btt.u~f' (.( diM'w' thnn lx>eRUI\!:' pf woundll, the redured. fields of fire, 1!:hort ranre. quIck
lenJ.tlh. MOI\t active atter dun, the krait [II sel 1', '!'hI' Junf{'ie i~ tI('ither impenetrable nor un bur"t, Quirk Ft'!IpOnMl weapona are the moat UN-
2-26. A\lmalia
dom encoulltert!d durlna- the day. LibwiI'W, mOllt friClldly. Tht! mll,lor etft of the jungle t!n ... irol1~ ful.
Al<isn and Killg Cobras .are rarely IMltn, One of In the Darwin II.re& uf the oorth Alld down the ment on warfal't' IS the nmtri('tion impotled on h. The thkk canopy of the tropiul rain fo,...t
the mOfit (ommon ,InakH in Vietnam ill the Bam. l'lOst ('OJI.!'!t III Briabane therl~ iR ~'ejletaijon RP- marwuve\"!'l al1d the tempo of operationR, The .C~ and the trollieBl 4erld1,lous fon:!flt will ablorb the
boo, Its Vfl'notTI. however, III ret.ati\-.br weak, For proAchillj( that -orthe jungle. Ip thi!\ hot. wet reo ('epted prindplell (If war arc tully appileablll- fraanwnill of mo~t al1tiperAonne! 1Oul'ldt.. thereby
oddition.l information on dises.tlJ, llee paragraph jtlnl\, tropical dl~eaMe-l\ hav(' !.wen /llmost elimi- only thE emphllH1R varieM, All fiJ(htinlt iM at !!hort rOOurin/of th. etfC<'"tivf! burlltlnJt radiua of artillery
2--9. nated and the condltionM and l':iandatdS of JiVltlK ranKe ulld('r ronditiops of exlrcrMly limited ylal. and mortu roulld/!, In making adjufltmenta, for-
are as ,IroOd . . thoae of the tempEtate parts of bility, JunJ(le warfare !'eQui"" IIPf'I"ialited tEch ward obHerverA NhQ1,Ild be profi('ient In adjuatinl
2-23. o.to., 0.;.""" Ju...,. _ . AUl'ltralia, tMliimony that Caura~ianfl can remain niquel! und demanda hl/ofher fltalldards of tr.ining by sound ~jnr~ obserVAtion and visibility may bI
healthy in the iroplrs, in thi!l are/l; most snake.. and l(>tldet"llhip at lowrr l.vell': than any othe:r limited to a few l'IleterA, Wben oppoalnii to~
The tropia! and Ilubtropical area!! of [ndra liE' Iw- Ire poiMMUe..
torm of fightill,. art' in dose ron tact, the diftkulty of t.ecurately 10-
rating and markinjl tarJleu mt1'kllt the e:trthre
kctloft VI, MILITARY ASPECTS :1-21. Obtorvatlon t"mp.lo)'ment of lIupporllnlt urtllluy and .ir
IItrlke!! dl J'ertly onto the enemy p<!IIitiona,
(I, Ground nb!lerVlltJOI1 in jangl. IlI'tliS vade
trel, battlefl:eld auryeillanL~ and tatset aequillJ.
acconiing to the type uf vegeution, In the tropl.
(I. Military operations jn a junllie nnvironment
are influeneed chie6y by the tropkal dim.ate .and
tion. Those timit.ationll apply, in varyinr derrees,
to all illnd combat forcea and flUpport clemente
ral rain forest the ('.nopy. which conRist3 of ma- 2-30. ecmc.om..nl
tht! forCfl~ vesetation whi ...h limit movement. ob- whether they bt: diamoullted, mountmi or airtno ture tF'OO$. iflo flO thkk that it ruts olf most; sun. JunKie .~IUI provide excellent ('on~lment from

.....
~t'vatlon and fields of fire, communicationa. con bite, Excellent rover And (onl'"ealmcnt art' avalla lillbt, and M'round obllerv.tion 18 limited to about air and ItN.lund obHt'vatiou" By employinl prop.er

.....
.tades can be uled to. ulily improve nawral ob,.. bl.nu of rlvera, beeaun of the denae Vi!lIfItation,
.Ude condillon presented by the junlil'le. mud, .IIwampll. and tributary IItreamli nurmally l0-
cated in the vicinity of rivel'ft. It II ealter to fol.
low CQrrldon than It ie to CrtW! them. [11 flat j\ln-
t-S3. K-r '.trQln hatvr.. ile .reu taltintl' a direct route from om! point to
Ke)' Ulrrain featurtll in Jungle area. include anuth*r may be wn"enif'l\t; however. in hilly
roads. trails. navigable rivera. hi'h aMund, and junll* anL.". lIuch a }"(lute may prove to bt the
communication ~nterll and allY other feal~relJ IftOIIt demalldwj{ on the IJhYlilcal condition or
tha\ expedite movement, Tdupply and evacua\lon. troopl-.
Clearinf,fl\ in which a heh('opter can land may be ll. Wheeled vehid., ar~ rel'ltrid.ed La roads and
ta('tkally I. 1tey u-rrain teatun! in any operation. trailR. Crou~Q\lntry mcvement by thee vehide,
ill JlVrf'llA.lIy in(eallible unlells t!:deastve enalneer
!lI.lpport ill pn.vidl'd. The (tlOllt suitable rouUe for
2-34. A_ .. 01~ tracked vehideH are I'm\da, trailll, beaches. gr....
a, CrOJlIl-rountry movement in junKIe areall ~s or bUllh-ccver'OO nelds and ~tream valleyti: bow-
a!ow alld diffi("ult. Troopa may hBVe t<> cut tbelr ever. tflH'ked VI,hkl\'ti ('aU move thmuII'I difficult
Way throuKh C()l!tiIlUOIll'> thick undergrowth or t..rrain and al time~ will be able to pUlJ thrQulh
make detO<lrll of impallllalfl!' ",wamplI, On mOlt ram forellt lind IIttfondary IfrPwth IQrel!t. Theft!
trall~ troUPII must rtwve in culumn and the rate of are few bridge!! jn jungle areas and mOlt of tbeM
movement rarely e:teeedil I "I'j: kilomtterlJ per life nut rupahlt \~( ImPIHlfting military vehicles
\., bour. Ridll'll lines are the moat fnvomble routes heavier than a L 440n truck. Bt(aulIIP of the lack
-.nd pnl1erable to valley travel which involv~ the of lateral conhrl.'tion1l between UllltinlJ roadJ or
crOlUlIUll of numt'tllUII IItN'amll and Kullil"I'I, On trails" wmmuoicatiol)!I and mutual IIUPport bt
ridlte HI\~, tre~ an: more wi~ly IIpaced. but. tWIWn \lnit..l m()vinll' ou ~arftte &Xu ill an add!
tNlUIed rontll leM t1l-mmon, and the better draln- tillnal problem whll'll mUl4t be con'idered.
nge ,.,aulu. in l!'Is muddy surtaeea. In addition, r. Sejet'U<m nr IlVtmueli or appruech muM: be
anImal trailll and native trai'lll are otten found on balled Oil A deta.lJed reron!laills,anct (If the area of
the ridgell, Movemf'nt on rldlt.s ill usually eaaier, o~rati()n. hI ..elfM;tinlt avtnut'll of approach avail
{uter and lellll lir\ng for troops, M6vement III able to th(' en('my. tbe intelligence oft\(er .ho\lld
po!slble alonlt small, tallt flowlllit .1.reams with eonilider no poltion of t.he jungle all impu&.abk<,
traverl\ll.ble bed!', Movement ia poorellt aloni the no matter bow diffil"ull or thick.

Soctlon VII. MOVIMINT ANO DiSTANCl

t-lS. Geftlrol and capa.bUity mUlt be ~ermined by command.-


eN through e:tpericnce loud~ detailed study ot
Movement in the junale calculated in termt of
til
time rather tban dIstance. In the early ,taBU of a the area of operations.
ct.ft'\oullap t.ebniQud. oonculmtnt of troopl and inchM in dla~; Itl are.. where larre trunked
"Iaipment from lilt lind lltound obhrvation and tn!ea art: located t.M tretll an Il.ually widelr junKIe operation, road neU: may be limited or non a. Foot M(l~me,/it., The terrain and prevalUn,
from Jt'MWt tnea of lurveiUaMt ",vlt:.. I. poui- .paced. Bec:au.. of Ute hiah annual rainfall and existent and C!'fiM,C(rllntr:; mo~ent ia alOW hiah temperature and humidity limit the rate of
hit 11'1 an typM of Jun,le vepu.Uon ~t the the ,.lulttnt eroaion, UMllent cnVflr in Junclfl and difficult. Tbe rate of movement will d*Pltna foot mo-v.menl Soldj*rM tend to tire much futer
very yount MeOndary fI'OWth croup. Seuobal a,... I. provided by aurface IrrqularlUea, aveh
"'''It. Dllltanee to be traveled . and heat oha-u!Jtion il, a oommon occurrenCf:.
chal\Pl of eoIor.tlon must b. atudl6. Stril'll'!'nt .. rlVllIM,aulUee and lar" roeo, In 9I"taiJ, junA Water eonaumptiOIl ill hi"h, crutinl tIM ntteeAlty
dl.elpliM mUlt be mr.lntained whetl Jiuakin, ale a,..., hilh water ta~ 1't)qulre iMt utlftdal h. Availability of road and traila. for eacb mAn to carry two canteeNl. When tM
~q and "'hen occup)'in, ptlIIltlon. 10 In- ~r be cONllruet:! .bon around ...,.1. c. Soil type ana condition, ta.ctical situation permit&, traehd vebieiea ean be
aurt _!\It unn~ry dearltl, of oWlrMM: d. Dflnalty and type of "f'getation and type of uaed in !mne areu to break trail for foot troope.
coneMbnent.. It mlllt be remfmbe~. however, 2-32._ terrain (e.I., mountainous. flat, inundated}, (1.) Tr.opfal mintor.. /,. Averqtl rate of
that the ~Jment provided by 'lefetatlon 1t1 00 ~. Number of obetadea to be travened. mo~nt is a.bout 1.000 met.n per hOllt', depen-
The jUtlfl)e itaelf it an obtItaele. Kajor obItaclea /. The formation and MlCurlty elemen\l to be dent upon th. Int!ldenee or hilla, riven, and
".y ~ the toldl..,. from enemy Au. It I.
...,. tor troopa to mlatake collCealmt1nt for (OVeJ'. to mo~nt include: den.. vqNtlnn; deep, 8Il.ployed. Iwampa which will 110w mownumt wnalderably.
e100ed 111.1111.. ; steep hillnd dUh; wtdalll'\d d-.p fl. Ph)'lieal ~ondltion af troo~. (2) Trl.l>Pieu:L decidvolI.l fr;rtl#A. AVf'raee rate
rivera; and numerous fut ftO'fritl, unfordahle
:1041. eo- attMrna which an become raein&' wrrent. \flIrl~
lit about 500 metera per hour.
2-46. ' .....Dhtana Fodor (S) 51&14111:1'1, Aver.1! rate la about 100 to
Bl:;eept in tropleaJ ralnfoNllt. the traM in moet the ntlny M&IJOn. Duntl&' tha Bin)' aeuon, ...ampe: 600 m.eten per hoLir. Durinl the rainy ....on

-
Janflle at(IU . .ill not provJde extoalyt cover, Av- may become ImJ)&IU.ble to e~n toot mov.ment The followlnlil' data are oft'eN'!d for plannina pur-

.."
..me .....mpa btIeome ImpaaMble beuuH of UM
. . . . tNe ,,"utlk. are pneralty not more than 11 beeaUII8 of tM deptb of the "tar. MlfImade ob- poua only, Accurate tf.timale! ot movement th'rttl
relatlve!y xmall in diameter_When puilled over rorovidhur directh)n and in lIeledinIf root.
depth of the watl'r, Uli'.refo!"e re<juirinjt th. 11M of in) Soilll t'ompoAed or red dBY silt (com through .reat! of denMl V4!III'flatlon.
boMb, rll.ftA. Mnd nmphibioll'; vt'hkll'lI, mon 111 jungle areal) tend tl) break d()wn whfll by a tracked vtlhlcll!, they may create a m .... of
v~atjon !lumdent to Atop the veh\de. Larlfe d!~
(4} 1'rppiwl /1111'""114 (Ci?mmr/IT(/f tulird f'l~. wet SinJ(Je tr;wkl'! mlly ullually be made but re- 2-37. , ... _ S _
ameter lree. ulH,Ially IlTOW 10 to 20 teet apart,
phQ'IIt f11"U~1t), Raw ,If mov('ment lit about the IIf'Awd )"llLMeI'. or "harp turnM eaufle thele !1011A to
..me all tor tropkul dedduUll!l t(lrut, but il'l morl' hreak !klwn and bec~me unlnffieable, Sueh !loi! thereby making it poMib!e. to pick A path thrOUlft A flrimary tAllk: of emrineer uoitl!! roarlieipAtin. in
tl'le vegetalion. The lK.ltt aoil conditionR, e\IIpedaU)' junlt~ operations ia the eonlltrucUon of roadl and
taltinjt and uhau;<ltinl{, eonni!Hmll ofk-n e!ij;~t in rolimtati(lM areatl where
(6) 9f1ml""l1'J Extremely 1I10w, dependent trlickinJ{ ill: not IidvillabIe during tM rainy seuon,
during the rainy ae.uon, mUlt be eoruddered when traila and the conlltruetion of bridges over .ap&
upon the 1l1%e, Ramboo ~r()wlI in impenetrable A lIimpl" tf'st for fhi?> type of tmil ill to stick a rod
determlnim{ movement c.pablllty ()f tracked ve for the movement of the whetied and t-r(iC!ked ~
hid.. in jungle areall. The UM of a neld expedient hidt!l< of the ta,ctieal foree, Normally, eV4ry
dump!l whteh CUll normally be b),pll..'Ised. (~u('h lill fronl lUI ammunition box) into the
(6) !liu pllddif'lt, Outing the dry ~!I()n. lhe
cuttinsr bar acrUAII ttl(' front of tanke. can effec- road or trail tv be luted by the f()f'(e Is newly con-
jtr!lUnd where l\urtat'e: water hil lIt.nd!ng. If t.hl'
tively alli!lt in dearinll brush and trMS. IItrueted, The ffl~ engineer, baaed on Available
r.te of movement II' the Mme ,Ui for op('n terrain. wutt'r dr.lnll: lhrou~h the tin!., eJay ill ulluallv
Ourinl{ the rll.inY !\.!'.On, the aV{'rage rate ilt jl1'eKeut ltnd trAcking ill not Advisable during the c, Cl'oWl-Co,",ntT'M Mev,.""l\'ftl. Maintalninll' direc- Jrl'ound, map ()r aerial reconnall!88nce, Ilubmilt!
about 1,000 metera per hour. rain), !WAllon. fo'UT detailed dillCulI.ion on lIDii eon- tion durinll' cr(ol.toWuntty movement in junQ'}e tomprehensive plana detailing the type engineer
(7} Rtnld 1111d trollit. AvuaJ{e tate of mo'/4!- areall i& enremely diff\cult, Unit comrnander& at unilJl to be employed and tht additional engineer
dltmTM !lind lrAffi<'ability, llee TM 1'r1530 and PM
ment ill S kilometefl! jlf'r hour on roada and 1.5 3#-10, all levelt! must be -ptotieient in land navigation. equipMent II.nd material t(uired. For further de
kilometeH per hour on trails. (h) (nundated ateN rontaining yellowish Alter.1t (etilpedal1y the helicopter) ean be eff.~ taLlII 5ee paralrTlIphll 3--13 thn,ul"h 3-28 and PM
b, Ydtit:u Movem~nt, r,...qs and eloucy water un be e;rpeded t.o hAve a tlvely uaM to HIli", in deterntining poeltlon, in 6-1.
(l) The t!rlmary faetol"ll that affed the ;'!nft bottom.
motnnent capability of wheeled and trae:ked ve_ (d In thf' dry ae&!ii)n. riee Aeld. art I(@n-
hldfllara: erally trafficable for APe"s and t.nkll; however,
(II) Avai1abllity- of roadllA-nd trllilfl. SOMe rlt'e 1I.ld~ adjaeent to rlverll are not trame-
(b) Sr.IiJjndltion. abIe (or the tnllkl, During the rainy MUOn. rice
(c) Denaity and typt of vtJretati()n. MId" are normany uOlnaflkable for medium
(d) Slope. of hilla and mountains. tauklt lmd th~e lit<!da without IItanding water are
(e) River, strum, and IIwamp ob.l!.tsd;M to too g(lft to IIul1lmrt the APC, whereu thOR rke
b$erOlMd. A.ldll wllUtining dear water and Iltfen vegetation
(f) Weather wndftlons (dry or rainy; are ullunlly trafficable for the APe. WlIteh tbe
(gi E1feclJl 01 hlgb and low tid.. 011 riv~ waler buffalo aLld IIlmilar animale., They do not eo
eH, lItream,p. and munda~d areu. whet'(! they eannot "tend on the bottom, it the
(2) Although any en. of the aboV4 feton bott:om IIUPPOrt$ them. it will ull\.lally AUpport the
may aftt('t vehit'w movement. a combination of APe,
falotll. sueh all westher and Boil. 'dope and Yeg!- (d) Br\d,lng tequirementa mue.t be con-
tation, will Ml"mBlly have to be eon.idered when ailhLred lor all tank and APe movements. TlInk!
determi ninlf the affect on moveml'nt. normally rajulH' bridlfinll Aujatance to erosa riv-
(3) Wh~led vf'hkle& are ('MeI1Ual!y hl. .or.. eana!!l (lnd stre.m.-:. The 110ft 1I0i! bottom .. ()f
.trieted ro roads and traila throughout jUn!(le rivere. and JKlme &trelimll rener.Uy do not have
arfts While much of the JITOund beJmell Arm luff!.cient bearing atrenjtt.h to support: medium
eoou(l'b to lI ... ppO!"t whet'led vehiclea dunnlr the tank!. The brid\tM f()\.Ind a!()nQ' roadl lin fr.
dry Muon, numeroutl ob.l!.tadell lueh Sll rlee quently leM thin el-.u 20. Sinu the APe tan
-paddy dikel, denM veptation, IItMp tI1opell, a..wlm, it will norm.lIy not require bridrinll U
ditehtlt and canals. snd .wamfjl m.kl! er()II4<OlJn. IlllItanee in crOIlRlnR riven; howevtr, Aeld .xpe.
try mOYftMnt lmpractle.1 without extensive enlfl dientll ma)' have to be uaed in negotiating th*
ne.r IUpport. In the dry &t!Uon the ave ...p rate IIUle}!, Mit-Mil bfi,nkl'!. DurinII' the rainy IUII(In.
of movement on l"oadll and trail. is 25 to 40 and 8 the Wllter velodtie/l of .trttltlUL .nd rivera may
l() 16 kllorneter per~houl". re.IJpectively_ During eltt'eed tlle IIwimmiOi' apood of ampl'libim.lll vel'li.
the rall1Y fl8a.llQn movement ~omea diftkult be- clef!,
uuee of -agetation adjacent to the road or trail, (e) The capability 01 tracked vehid.. to
deep rota, &Oft .IIl.lUa and floodlnr, penetrat. junIfle veptation ia de.Ptndent fin lOll
(4) Tank. And Apt'tI. In /lOme jun.le aretUI eonciition, slope, and v~tion denllity, 1',..
It '- irnpraetkaJ to expend the enirlneer effort with trunk diameter! of 15 to 2() eenUmNn (.
n~ to move anno~ unltll; In other areu lo 8 inches) a ... eoMide~ to be the pradleaJ
.rmor tan mol'l!! with eft.4t. Betw",n theM ex- upPer limit of treM whleh tan be toppled by med
tnmes. Nnditiontl will vary widely in dl.tr.rent ium tankll. Qn siopy of ao
lMH'eent and If_",r,
parta of the area of operation. lind at different
tim.. of the yur Some general.uldellne. are:
tr,* 10 eentimetera in dhmt'~r will llow and
may stop tanb. Ciouty llpaeed tree_ Ilflually are ....
---
CHAPTER 3

COMBAT AND COMBAT SUPPORT

s...1oft I. INFANTlY
3-1, o.f'MII'al e. UnBttelided ground IrellAOr6 can bre profttably
(L Infaotry. bauae of ita venaiiiity. mobiUty employed in junjflc opcrAtiong 6uch && .ttack, de.
and CliIpahility to ('(Induct ItperatiollA in all t~ fense, riverine, 1It'\'utity, and airmobile. The un.
oj' t~rn.ill and tiimatc. will play the dominant Mlr ~ylltem ,'lUI devclolJ tu:eUTatf! And timel, Infor
role in jung\(, "per.Uona, Other combat and COm matlon at the echelon where mAMUVer forces or
bat Ilupport unihl Are used primarily to IIUpport firepnwer NUl take rnll advantage or the informa.
the advanu of infantry element&. The tundamen tion. 10 planninlf operBtlona, the employment (If
talA ur employment and condud of tactical opera. aenlWr deV!c. should be included In tM vuan
tiofUI ror combat unit. &II contained in the 1.-eerlea information collection plan, The totceu (If HnllOr
field manuals and FM 61-100 are applicable. with devices will depend to a degree upon the abUlty
modilklltion& to meet the conditions of the juu,le o( the employing (ore. to deliver tlme!y and .1
environrMnt. feetive l'iru upon the area 1n which a t:hreat il de-.
C. To ohlAJn tM full value of co~nt,..t.d fin- tecled. The methoda of employinl' Ute fir. aup,
pow~r from sUPport!llll weapontt, c~nd.n
port, in eonjUIKUon with I!enaon, aTe limited
mUllt det.rmine how and to what lI.wnl tMy ctln only by the (,ommander'l inlltlnulty; howt'v.er, de
Ovtin:'(lfM thtJ limitations of the jun~ on the m0- tailed planning- and eJ(I8f! coordination belwMn
bility. vi.ibility. and control of the inrantry'a 01'~ the commander- and fire support elemen ... is M-
Ifank I!upportlnr __ pons. Good tiring poaitioM eentiat It should be noted that the In(ol"'mJt.tJon
for direct fire and indirect fire WMp61l1 aN com produced. by MInson ia of no tadlcal valt,te unl. .
PAratlvely hard to lind in dense junale terrain. it can be r~lved. Interpreted and acted I.\pGn In a
The frequency of close combat IlIneraUy teQuiree llmely manner with appropriate ftl'fl1lOwer or ma.
additional automatic tl:re, canister, fragmentation mrover forcel! or both. Senl!orJl mUlt be monltonld
and ooncuallon ammunition, by dev!ceI, either manual or automatic, and In.-
(ormation Inttrpreted and tranlmltted to the 0p-
c. In jUn,le flrMin,. every ll!Uund or movement
erational unit which muflt reapond to ill intelll.
to tbe front is not made by the enemy, 11 could be
gence. Doctrinal coneepta for the employment of
A small (riendly unit that hal Itrayed. fram iw. ILl-
thele deviCe!! are being developed and wi11 be In-
I"ned. lOne into tM adjacent unit'. line of tl:re.
corporated in FM 7~20 and other appropriate
All unJu mutlt include in their standln, oper.tlnr
manuala.
pr<cedu~ the clrcumltancn under which Indivld.
ual and Crew~lerved weapon! will fire on targetlll
that are not deftnite1y Identltl:ed. The SOP Ihould
3-2. Morta,.
eatabUllIh methodll of maintaining I.ttral contact 1l..lltd'PetlrUrtt Operationa OJ,! SMGll U1Iit.,
and mUll preac:rlbe .peeiftc proc:edurfl.l (or obtlllin. (I) Mortan may be etreetiveJ, employed by
In. the current location o( adjacent un! .... the inrantry rifle eompeny ir properl, taUored to
d, The enemy may Mnd out arYl! prabln, unite I!uit the miulon and if penonnel art thoroul'hly
to Invitt ftre. In an effort to loe.te wupon pMl~ proftcient in crew drlll. Any .mall eleann, In tlu!:
tlonll. There(ore, the eomn\finder ml.l8t ln8ure tl:re jungle canopy un provide a mortar with the OT
dllCipline at nirht. and PrtflCr!be the condJt!oJ\l erhe:ad clearance neeeaury t.o IUpport the nne
under which each l)'pe we.pon wll) open /\,... eompany with doa..ln tl:rea. For quick IUpport
TbIllH conditio", mUlt bre undertrtood .nd ILdhered purpolfll mortar crew llftd earry only the
to by weapon crewl and the- leaden o( IUpported tube, bipod, inMr ring of the baM plate, and the
unita, lijfht. The bailie laad per tube (or operatioNi at

1-1
24 houri'! or mOI"# will vary with the a~ilk ..Itu. be lilted lUi l'illmouflagc to reple.;.- the cut canopy, ftrepower ill not required and leave them with the number (If r-ound~ a IIflldler ('lID cerry and the
lOtIOn IUH! will I:w prt'N'ril:wd by the rommander, nm! tr~h .;ut Iltumptl must tit. bledl,rna). eomb.t or !leld trainA. WeiKht of the nlIXtlllMil rapid rate (If fire providea In~rMtlId ftMpower to
Thirty round" for Ain:tle lube or 20 r<nmdll per Hn The thlek Undf'rKl'tlwth (orca the Ilir. rif\!! and the IImmunition in thill .!Iitu.tlon ia Ii'- unibl enRaged in r1nllein "tthtlng,
tube for tW(! or tum? tlllM'H III a valld pianning vey t~am ill Meftl'HJrr IIhorl inrr(lmen~ of Klven nl1kant factor. c. Mn.chifH'gun, r.8Im,", Thu. weapon II! an
l1s;ul"#, To fire Uu: weaptm, ulle the sight for find- line a1allme with rel'oultinR' IOJIJI in accuracy. ideal automl.tlc arm for jungle ('ombat. Its com-
ins; elevatiufl ant! the LENSATIC cumpasa for de-
~rminins; deflection. At dOlte nnges the error
(7) Slmm nwrtnr per~onnel mud be phYlli.
cally c(lndltionf'd tn displace without >rehieular
S-5. Indlyldual Light Antitontc """pont pt.(:t del!i.l{Tl. li,ht welsht and exceUent eI!lhte en-
able it to be nroo fMm the "tandin,. 1Iittinl' or
far-till' when usins; the I ..ENSAT)C comJlallA will Individual Jillhtweight antitank weapona lauch squatti nK ~ltl01Ul and effective hip tire ea.n btl
trMn~porlnthHl, Unit SOP mUllt ell/mte I<ubordi.
I:w minimal. With the Mbrtar, Ute infantry rifle as the LAW-M72, which ia iuuet! as an item of delivered it e lI!illlf aopport ill uMd, BaU and tra.-
nlJte el('nle-ntfl witb the- refl.ponllibll!ty ot hand ammunition and ill du.clln.led after UlMl) are
company Cftn (urnillh It" own qblck and effective carrywR' ammunitIOn f<lr the ",,,rtarll tt! IJredeJIiR" cer linked ammunition (1 trattr to 4 ball I ahould
supporting flr~ In numeroulJ inlltancell where ideally au!ted fOr juni'le opentlona.. Their amall be ulted and the 1'1111 I1red In burata (If IS to 8
n&ted li!~int.!l. lJll1li1 mUllt orten iocre.ue the Ilire
llpeed i~ of t~ essehl'(, and higher ~helon fire IIIH and lillht weillht make them eaaily tr-anaport. rounda; fire can then be obaer'ved In aubdued
or mqrUlr !lfjull.d~ nud providc nddi~j()nal ammuni.
"upport ia mfe-adible duc tl! inabllity to quitkly able t.hrou,h the jungle even on extended dla light alonK the line (If tr.eer tlre_ The blpod
lI{1n team.;, Or Mhlliff the ammunition lOad with mounted operatioM. tn a tondary role, they <:an
pinpoint the friendly unil'~ location In the jungle, the rifle eJemenb to fadlitate displacement on IIhould be folded except when the opportunity to
Forward obltCrVffI'! must be pMfident In adjullt. be U&ed to MIIlllt in rOOlKing piUooXeJI and bun- I1re from the prone Mltion ex!.
foot.
inK fir" by Mbnd since obllervation ill e10q to nit kerll frequently enetlunt.ered in jllngle .operatl{lM. d .Omm G~ LAuIMhfr. Thla We&pOn, al~
!n heavy jun,Je. areall morta .. , are often Jimlted
in U,eir ulle when arrnmptlllyinK mavins; for<:ea,
(8) The limitatIOn impoUd on observation
and viaibility t't'Q.uir.m an increued number of ob- ., 3-6. MJn.. Clnd Ioobytropl-
though ahoulder !Ired, ia a J,t.rre bore wupon and
it ill extremely effective for junale fllfhtln&, It la
serve" ahd aoll leaderll mw'li have a workinl'
and it ill generally betti'r to prepoflition them knowledxe nf omervt'd fire procedu .... and mun.!l The jUnKie lend!! itself to the u!!e of mines and I:ompect, HgM. and can be fired u.ln. the ume
with the ballf' of fint'. MOrlano are eft'ectively ulled of rommunk.ting fiff ~lJe ..b and adjuatmenll\, booby traps.. The charactt<riAtiea of the junale ))OIIitiona aa the Mrvlce rltle. It can be UMd for
lo provide fires In lhe defeM('. (9; Obllervers must reeeive traininll in ad. caue their emplacement to be eomparaUvely easy reduction of point tarpt4, a,ainat rroupa of
(2} Mortars are etrecti~ if they are carried jUAtinR' flre by using the ctelepina method af ad- , and detection to be exthemely dU!k:ull When 1.\1- onemy SQldiara and for firo into the kltlll'J: SOnfla
on vehieie8 All antimlltor tran!lport ambWlh weap... juatment. Obllf'rved flre on tM ground will be ex. I thorbed by appropriate .commander, minH and of ambuM6!I. Great eart! muat be taken \0 prnent
onl u tht'y can ~ employed either in vehide" or
from the ground after di~mount!na" Fire ran boe
brou.bt I)n ambulh pmitionll, then lUted on all-
tremely difficult due to the ve~tion which lim-
itA ob&ervation and vllllbllity to IIhart dilltaneea.
The <mHrven mUllt operate well farward to be
t booby trap. cen be uacd to advantage alon. b'alle,
roada, rl~ 1iUl!, Imamll, and in conjunction
with other detfllll~ me&l!Ure8. RecordlT\l: and re.-
ItA flrea from being muked b)' tree Umbl, Al~
though the individual round I. lilht. caNtul a..
lec:tlOn Of tarntl III neceuary, to reduea Nlupply
lIault and ahltted to Mock e""",.pe (If amboab ete- ab~ to ob&erve adequately. portinR i, eJ:tnmely important and I, ecl!Om problem", nenBe' >rentatlon wlit l'tIdue. ita normal
rnenu. pUahed aa oliUlned in appropdate publlationa eft'ecU.,. bumin. radiul. When uainl: the 40mm
Lntel. (FM 6-81, FM 1).....84, tM 2Ch82). BaLllle mlneA multiahot antiperaoonnel round., the We&pOn 1a
b. Emplofllt.mt of Mtn'tM'tl at Bai.Wio1t 3-3. 106mm ..coil.... 100.
(1) otten 81 mm mwt..r elemenu from rifle have a tendency to .hltt durtng heavy raina, they highly effecti.,. a,alnlt Kl'ouped peMIOnnel cut to
cmnpaniell may be plHed under battal:lon eontrol. a. Employment of the IQ8mm reeoilleu rifle mutt be turely Impll.Cf!d. a ranllt of 86 to SO mtU:1'Il. It I. Ideal u a toUlIt-
(2) Commanderl mWlt anticipate dll1plaee-
will ullunlly be restricted to roadll and under bat- erambuah weapon, and I. often emplo,-ed with
menta well in r.dvanee and plan t() prepare P<*i- talion ('(Jlltrol. When employed, it ill .... il:ned lu 3-1. Small At,.,. the point durinjl movammt_
tlcna All far in advance u pouible. Tha time tae- primary miaaiml of anUtank protection with a f. GrMWI41', Gr.nadea mut be uNd cattfu1ty
aecondary mi,,"ion of providini' flre 'upPOrt tl-. V.S. Hifle, r,8111'1"'. The 7.1l2 cartrldl'e givell
tor for the preparation I)f emplaetn'l~nt. enb-y ex:~l!ent penttr-ation and aeeuraty: the buJ~t in the jun.]a. The limitation on diatante they can
reada _and muk cltarance is i'fUtly increased, b. When flring BEEHIVE ammunition, the be thrown and dllftculty {If observation m.., Nr-
Im5mm recoilrellfl. rifle ia extT1!mely eft'edive u an 8(lmetimea eheda ita Jacket when paaalnl: through
sometlmq requirinll up to 24 hour&. thick, trflel or Jarge roota and the lead taM eon- ault in <:uualtlee by uainl: troop&. 'thO are moet
(8) The uJection of rood flrln. positll)na il antJpet1Onne! weapon in the defenH O'r convoy ea.. eft'ecti'ltl when: uaod a.alnet hutlly prepa.red poIt-
eon in a oounter-ambUlh rolti.< The lID cal, apottinr tinuea on to deliver- aood d6!ltl'uct1VE' eft'ect.
difficult. POlIitiona will be IImall becauae they Thia characterietit: I_ena the effeet1veneu of tionll, IITOUpa of enemy peraonne1, In pleplred de-
mllat be cut out of the jungle. Adyance r>artiee ritle can be effectively u.1!<I ..alnat Ilnipera or fenel.,. poaitlona. and aplnat du.~ln poaltloM In
other loni' rann point tarae, JV9l' made available to the enemy by the ~
must be inereMed In 5in and aupplled with addl~ tion. Care mUlt be o:el"dMd to prevent droppina the offenae. CS lrenade. can be ett'eetlvaly \aled
tienat asea, machete.; and englMler too&., mtl'uinea on the jun floor whef\l! tbey may btl apinat a dUI:-in eHmY. or to countAr an ambush.
(.) In preparinll mortar emplacements .. ~. -... _ .... liflo SfIt{IU itenadM are &: neeeutb' to mark the roea-
sully k>lL
outlined In FM 28--92. the fl)llowinr modltkationa B. Beeause (If it. a'uraC-Y, portability and b. U.S. Rifltl, 5.6tm1t. Thil extrflmely lil'ht and
tIon of friendly elamtntt for ..mal obM.rvt:ra,
muat be made! atrikin. po...r, the OOmm l'f!COilIfIBI r16e. orrenk compad weapon ill id_lly auited to juna1e com- One or two amoke l1"o"*dM are norrnaUy ~
(a) Dirt muat be piatt betw_n the 1.,.- to tnfantl')' unita, I, a valuable aupporllnr bat Ita ahort length and the Ulbt welght at the by nch Individual. Care muat ba t.abrI. In wdq
ere of kip to deerease bouncing, wtl8pon in jun.le operaUona. It I, OIJ)IIIeiaUy 11M- ammunition it n,.. make the wfIf.POn ..., to em- them alne. the amoke may han&' below tht e&nopy
{b} Bue plaRla mlllt be peued at the tvl In redudnw pillbox .. and bunk.,.. frequent!y poy rapidly. The earlrldllt la a hiP velocitY in heavy junllle, and may riM above the ea.t\@J'
rear to prevemt alldil\g. eru:ount41'ed. in jun'M operation., Can muat be round with aood bam.He characti4tiea; the bullet at a eon.tJderable dlatance fmn wh.... It ....
(6) To mlniml... the probability of aerial d ... taMn to aekIet poaItiona that alford UMy trom. t.nda to tumble whan defteet.d, "vina' aood tit........
l:tJon. the euttinx of muk C"'ra.nce muat be and prewmt dfelCltllre by the bac}c;bJuL wound tlfrod.. The abort la~ maba it Moa)' to f. B~t. Thla wtlaP<tft II otten cumbtnome
kept to a minImum. Small t .... Iohould be bent b. For utend~ diamounted operatrona when U&II by men of amall atatuf\I!. Precaution. with tor UM in jun&' . It la efl'ed::ive ill iJPIJD &rIU utd
and anchored to PrtJelude the pennaM'l'lt lou of bunkered enemy positioN are not IIktiy to be en. m&lraainea apply u with tM 7.82mm rile, 'f'lM II Ideal for ha.rul.t.o-Und l\a'bdQ' 4uri_ oouotv~
oWtrhe41d canopy. Branch.. of fallfm trIt mat ('OtJntered, the eommander may decide that thla light weight of the ammuoitJon toe...... the att&eb from .s.t...... poaItlOll In wWth U.
PMll-aJ fM:n~s

vel('etBtlUn hal< been lIhot or burned aWIlY, It the ... hotf(un ill itll fte:dblhty, becauae the ammunl. munication pltl(,11 J'reater reliane~ on aircraft for power of armor. Tllnk! pr04!Mdlnlf thf'(lu,rh den..
IIhould be affixed 1<1 tnf' rifte only on order of the tlOn III Mvai1!lbJe ill Vnrltlull IHaWl, Thf: UMr tan ",IUPPIy. junale may hllve a limited cIlpablllty ot traver,-
fMll.latt or plat()ol1 reader, e;o;erclU II choice In MlectioJl of a load to lIult the (4) RArely are ftelda of ftrt ad9quate for em- IJItr their lurr~!.8 due to interference by trM
(1, S1tot(1/J>I. The Ilhotgun h.. ptoven to be lin nature fit thf' target, ployment or the tank's mam armamenl in it. c:on~ lrunkll. TwO' tllrmatloftll to enbanee the abiU,y of
ettedivt weapon tor dOMin fiptina, which dom. ventionallona raqecapacity. tank unitl'l Ih Are in directiun!! other than to the
lnatM jungle combat. It ie etreetive (01' ulle in am~ It. Omwl,'le Mattery Arm.t, Becaulle of the t Hi) Villibility r.tricUonll plate i nc:nued front are the inverted w~ (U'e fI,r. 3-1) lind
bURhee and by the tm-ward ekmentR of a patrol. availability of mllituy lIrmR on the open market,
ellj)i"lly of /)Q)t action dfletl.. it will be found
~. emphuia on commtlnd and control of armor unit. the itLvert~ echelon (see fIJr. 3-Z). Theae two for-
The eMtj(1.I11 welrhll, in the roit/wmbat vet'tlion, when traverain&, junale terr.in.
about. 6,6 poundll and III IIhorter than the lIel'vke that truerrill4 fore.,. will often lH\ armed with (6) Knowli!d~ of terr.in in tbt" a .... of op.
rille, Thi. Rhort length make It uaier tn UH in tht'1'e ~.ljQnl. Itvery jungle *Oldier IIh<mld be er.ttOn III of vitAl importance.
denll(' Jungle. The Jlimple lind rug~ meciUUlillm, trained in th~ ulle of enemy weapontl; howiI!ver. (1): Pr8llence of many waterway. with 110ft
COlllltltuted of 0111y &eV~1 major pan- or par~ these wuponl< KhouJd be used only in ~merf'ntjell bottoma ('ouploo with lac:lt of adequalt' bridlfU In-
Itroup!!, lIimplifies maintenance and nlpair and reo all the eharartel'i!ltlr lIOund of both friendly and ereaM bridling support rtlquirementa.
ducel the chance of malfunctiOn in a tropical en enemy weaponll ill often a valullble inlAllligenre (8) Knowlitdp flf apedatilled t.hniqu.. to

-".-
vlronm~nt. An outlltandlnJl' attribute inherent in IlOUrTe ulW<! to identify firing unilll. tnvent' juni'le terrain.
(lH Armor uni!.8 will normally QfJl:rale with
infantry heavy teama or wk forcu,
(to) Tratlkability limitations may natrict
the Ulle ot tAnka Ih IIUpport by fire.
J-I. Iktllk eo..tidllrat\aM inlf armor in thil manner, When the terrain <In. (I J) A 5freater nMju!rement for Cl .... III be-
a. Gtln~rat. not accommodate croM.({)Untry mOVtlment,. armor e.ullt or a llower rate of mOVement.
(1) The fundamentalll of emploYment and may be uled alol'llf exlltini' roads and traiJa.. In (lZ) Ammunition baAic loadll require adjuet-
eondl.ld of tactiea) operationlS for armor unite WI addition to their primary m!lUIion of (bin, with ment to include more "ntipenonnel roum.
contained In the buje armored field manual!! aTe the enemy by di~t aaaault or all part of a COm~ (13) We"ther, ('IIrtaln teTTain, hOlltiie air, aIr
applk:able, with modificatIons, to meet the condi- bined arma team, armor units .... well .ulted tor defenlle. and fltreRirth and comJl(lBition ot oppt'l&--
tions of the juni'Jt enviroflment The (adott,.. of ronductinl' route lIecurlty milllllOM in the jungle ihlt forcel When employ.ni' air t.valry unita.
M'ETT (Mihion, Enemy, Troops available and all well I I provldlna convoy eIIcort.
'ferra.iu) remain the prineip4l.l tonlliderlltlone for (8) Armoud (allalry units may have to be '. 3-9. o."onm.- lor c........
determiniIltr how and when to employ armor in r~rlJanjHd to adapt to tile Iota! Jungle environ.
fn jun,le tomlH\t operations armoN!d unita are
jun5fle OpeutiODII. Emphallill il p1~ on the fae. ment. Vehicle and personnel rhanaea may be t1\w
quired While armor~ cavalry un ita wUi be em- )lOrmall)' employed u: part of eumbined armll
toM! o( terrain and the anemy'lI antitank capabd-
ployed in their traditional rote. of reconnaill8_ forN! nr team. Since jun&,ie terrain redUC" the
ity. AlthoulJh the ~neral natUN! of the terrain
an. lleCurity and economy of fo~, they may be "round mobility ot vehitlt'lI, tank units wltl nol'-
di>ell Imt favnr tllnk employment on a laTIl" KAle,
employed In miMionll that are usually ualped to mally oT!rate with infantry heavy teamll or wk
armor all PArt of a rombined armR forte or team
armot and [nfantry combat maneuver lH\ttalions.
fOrN!Ii. Othel' e)ementa lIueh III utUlery. ~ngl
tan be effectIvely employed in the junjfle. By bold
eare ehould be laken to avoid pi~1 pe.rti. n(!erA, tUid lIigna1 are Inc:luded all r9quired. The
and imaj!'inative emproYlrnmt, aul"Prl.e and pe.y.
tionment of armored cavalry units., troopI and !)rltaniuiion tOT c::ombat must be baaed on a thor-
ehological advant..all" may be nintd by the .ud-
Outrh anAly*is uf the Catton: of METr. The Te-
den appearance or armor in an unexpecltd area platooM in particular, to uwmpii.h eeparate
qUir~ment.K tur (ombat Jlupport and oombat ser
or from an unopect;ed direction rathjJ1' than tun. Thia practice ndun. the overall capability vic~ lIuppert element will depend on th~ type ter.
throuah apMd of movement. of armored cavalry unit. and, nc:ept when fully
juAtitt.d, nMucea tM total trtklen(y o( .nnored; rain Ilnd ~Itet.allon. f)b!ot.d~ .nd watel'waya
(Z) In many areu movement of armor un1ta
cavalry unita. fl~valent ih th~ Ilrellll of operatiuna. En(int'er
may be Umlted to road" trails, beschee, or MC- bridj!'lnj!' lIupport requiremell~ will normally be
ol'ld41.ry jfNWth areas; however, armor vehidu (4) Air tanlry unita .t!ecUvely utftd the
(fTolJJld oommamkr'tI influence In the Jun,1e ..... greatlllllt in Iowlllnd jOftlll1" areaa be<:auae of the
can nwve throUl'h dlffleult wrrain and at timea many unbrid~fli waterwa,Yl\ tound in this type ef
they will be able to plUll! thr1)l'h primary rain of operation&. Hii'hly ro<>biJe. with .uperlor oorn-
area. The orllanintion of arm!)r units mil)' re-
fortlllt. Visl11mty reetrictionl in dtlnae vepta~ munkationll end lIubatantlal firepower, these
unitt an r~adily adaplable to tbt c.v.lry minion quire RU!fffientatiml with .ddltlonal or apeelal
tlonAl areu ooupled with an enemy antitank c.* equ!pm~nt J1iuch a, doteT tanb, armored vehltit:
l:IabiUty wlJl requi,.. the\ dlamounted \rooPt pre in the Junde environment,
b, Sp'fri.al toJUid.enJ.tiORl. Spe<elal armor coneld,.
laun('hed brld.rtM. and movement expedtenta..
cede armored v.hlelM. When the enmy has a
limited antlt&nk capability, armored vehicles (!an erationl'pplieable to junale operatlo .... re:
lead attaek. throuah the jun,le wh.nevv poul_ ( I j Increued emphuill on malntenanee. 3-10. Combat formatiaM
bte, bruJdnJ' tranI, deatroylna antlpenonnel (2) A IJn&ter r~ulnment tor Clull V .up- Although wnvtntlonAl termationa .hould be ueed
mines and dlaruptlni' eMmy de!et\HAl, A careful 1'111., whenever po3slble, terrilin relllricUona tn the jun-
J'round l"eOOnnalaunce la a must prior to employ. (S} Laek of auit.ble l[fOund HntIII of ann- Itie may require the ule of other formatlonll in
order to maintain tontrol and to employ the Are
...
(..
PMJ1""!

matiolltl allow for all tanka eltt'ept the lead tankl\ leveL Although the terrain doea not favor tank OQnlldnation. or the otrenN! for armor forcer. ble for tanks to take ~rt in the a.uault. In thi.
to traverse and flre at one tlank and to the mar. ~mployment Gn a lara_ .cal. in ,mphlWoos op~r_ appl)' to otrenJli~ comtnt in jUngJel'l, ROAd.I, ene, lhe tankl. may support the attack wIth over.
The inverted wedit! formation is alflO .ulted for MtiOt1!\ agailltlt the cOlUlt~lInetl of jungte areb, india, and river. arif key !errain in junlt!f, opera head and 6atJinng fire.
O'peninit' trllillJ .tId clearing jungl. read. (aft flit. tank. ma.1 play an important roll!. Precillion tlonl. Utle of mechanlUld 6amethrOWifn and the
J. /}~f"lIHf' III jU'lgtl'lI.
8-31. IIJwotillj( by Lanb 111 pin point tarll'eW luch all tncrelUled 'WIt' of tlw! canni~ter rouM ahould be
bunke~ or buildinp jlJ often the moat vtduable con.Iiderifd einee junale (!onditioM otten l"tQuire a {I} fn lill'ht junaies. the prthclple. of de-
fire support available to infantry in juni~ Raht. variety of munitions. fenlle in wood. generally apply, ThorOU8'h lind
ing. on Junale combat ia eaaentlally a firM by continuoull ground reeonnaisunl'.e 18 ne!lulJ,ry be-
caUM the ob&ervatJ;}n ot !fecurlty elements jA r'M.
6. Trulu 11/ Tdnlu. Tankll pl'()vi~ nat only m&~ ltmall di.mount~ infantry unitll operatinlf ex.
tt'riJ bul al.o: m;}r.1 IIUpport. When operatinr tremely close to the .nemy. A tank platoon may trieled and air l'tIConnai,.ance is often iMffective.
With infantry, their talk.t are: be attacht!d \0 an ...... ult riRe cmnpeny to ..rouee LanK ranI! flrt!1J ean .lH!ldom be employed. Armor
(I) Oe.ltruetion of weapons. troofll, poti_ enemy autcmatle ~aponl and posltiona by dOle- ean eiTef'tlvety dear Ilmlted 6ejds of fire by ddv
tion. and enemy armor whith would Impede the rAqe flru. In dose terrain, diemounted troop.'! !rut around s dden.iW! polition.
advance or hold up the HIIault of the Infantry, and tanks move toaether at the .. me rate of' on in a detl8e junr!e. troops are dl1!pmsed
(2) Aeeompany Infantry to the objective, If speed, On trail., dilllYlOunt.d troopa ,.nerally alanit' the (orward edae of the batUR area with
thil! i. not I>O*Illb1e becauae of the terrain, tanks precede the tanu at about 2& to &0 metera, de minimum intervals between foxholt'!! and no rap"
flUPlK1l't the in/antry by ~re if pouible. Pilnding on the terrain atid enemy resilltance, At between units. Se<urlty elements tona/at or small
(3) Dominate the tlbJeetive and de,troy times the tern!n may MBtrlct deployment to the .rouP!!, dualn for ailround defeMe, to cover trall!!
en_my armor, when appllc.ble, v!dnily of the trall and may limit operaUol\3 to and other approacMIJ to the poeltlon. Security
(4) In the deferuw, dHl;TOY enemy fo~ pe:n~ on~t&nk front. Tanks mUllt b4 pro_ted by dJ, IJhould be out to II. dl.tane* that will InlluN detec
etratina thedetenlJIVe position. mountad patrola that nconnoii.er for routN of tion of the enemy before he iM within r.na* to
e. Ta.h 01 11'I/altlr'f/, advance, antitank gUM, and antitank obetadea. employ his hsndheld antitank WeapoN. Fre-
1 J) Sine and hold the objective. Ri~emen are deaill'naicKl to proWiCt the nanD and Quently. unita an IflOlated in this tyPil of terrain.

-pon. (2) Deltroy enemy mort range antitank

(S) De.tro)' enemy woaponl poaltiol'tlJ whkh


rear of each tank. When the tank. are *nP.red,
rif\amen UN! the tanks lUI ahield whit. determin.
jnr location or the enfftl'ly flrlna poattJona, When
In this event, the need for allround defen.e
talc.. on added .Jan!61'.Ilnee. Ev;;1'Y eft'Mt should be
made to eltabll.h a perlmeu-r u BOOn after hal~
the a.lll.ultlna t.mb may have only tempDuril)' the enemy I, toeated. the tank.lntantry ta&m .t- In. &1\ poillible. Particular ure must be taken to
/1'"",,.. '4. c~ i".,..1. ...."'~ ....1\1 "".I'W aileneed.
(4) Protect tankll (rom attaW by enemy In~
taeka and destroYI hIm. At tim .. , doa. terrain
maka it n~ty for tank commander to ft
ruard qalnllt t!nemy lnlHtratlon and diamounted
Infantry attacu.
~.,~~ fantry, JIOM h!mulf from the turret to locate and maIn_ (8) Limited puslv. air defense fa poaalble
d, C(;",fn'~d ar",. OJIrmtiOM, tain contacl; With n..rby tanD. for armor units in junale opersUons, thef1lby ....
OJ Combat ill jUnjflt' aAU requl,.. a hirh (a} Sometimes the terrain mUe.ilt lmpoui duclna the number of .Ill" defense units requJnd.
:l-11. Prior h<onncN. . . .
..tj1,.ndard of combined arma tralnlllll' i( operatlona
The r!lllriebon' to anno~ mobilUy In tha Jun by tanka aM lnfantry art to be eft'eeUv.. Actio", _ III. AIITIWlY
ale can be .Janil\eantly l'Idueed by areful eelte- will be fought at dON rantre and aPIfId I., thtH-
lion of rouw bMed on accurate information, fore, eflMntiaL Without precialon in tMmwork, aponslv. udal ~re support In are.. not (OVered by
Movemnt... e.apecialir erou-eount1"yhould not :1-13. - . . . .
tank~ and IItfantry win .uffer needleu. CNu.IUa. eonvtntlonall1"Ound .rWlef7.
be bAUd on map information alone. HQvy rai", Infantry muat ap;Jreciate the aeeuracy of tbe tank a, ....rtiUety pritteiplu. Tn. taetiul and techni. (8) Artllif!rY!;'an become watarborne in 1lUp-
can au". junaie rivera to alter their courlJ. and cun in order to work dON to the tank .ill" 6,.. or cal prindpl. Nt forth by I'M 6-20-1 And FM
port of riverine 0Ptratic.na.
cTeate .tee...... ided gull'tIIl, Stronr wind, can eause the tar~t. Th!t requite. practic. and r __ nal, ~ an appJjeab1e to .nitlery etnploYJMnt In
c. Li",ttaHmu ffftp(J.Itld b1l Jtl1tl1ll! <m EmfJt.ow-
windtalll whlcb rNult in a t.anll'led ma,' ot im- with tankll that wilt lupport partieuiar GPt!'&- junale ope:rationa. ffte7U lJt JhiilUTr.
penetrable yet'ttaUon. Map rltConnaillHll(e must tlon. b, Ftfzlbili4t 01 ArtllUo,, f'tJvtwa EI!'l~ (1) Oba6tvatlon from the j'f'OUnd !. ver)' rell-
be suppiem4lnted with elU!lltIiVe II'round ~on. {2} When operatln.r in the junl'k!, the tank ill Jlt1tole. tritted. and aUlThentation by air obeervatfon !J!,
na~ and air l'ercOnnal..ance wh.... posaible. is vulnerable to dose ran~ antitank weapont. (1) Use of artill;;ry fiN! i8 not rutrlt:ted by normall), ne(eau.ry, &th methodll will be ham-
Durina euh operation detailed n;eorda should be The dearoo and nature o( infantry p:roteetion re- badwaatMr. peNld b), denle v~tati01t and tree canopy.
kept of pertinent wrrain infol'Tl'lAtiO'n, ftecorded qulred for tank. mU6t be ..Par....'y Mtt!rroltted (2) ArtHlery can RN eft'eeUvely dllYor nl.rht (2) B8('.uQ of the probJemlJ of obMrvation,
InformaUon un redu~ tbe nNd fO'r tuture aer~ tor each ehana!ng lIituation. Often protection for (8) Art!llel'Y can achievellurprlae III tlN can it !IJ dlftkult to compare resullll of pl'1ldkt.d fiN
tal or around reoonnaiUl.nee with it. rl.lt of dr., tankll will be aWorded by the proximity of the In~ be broUlI'ht down upon a taraet without wamin. with o_l've! ftre. Even predicted 6re may be
clOIII~ the planned Gperation. (antry within whORe form.tiona or d18poaitlone (4) ArliU;;ry Jill capable of auatalned lIft'or\. leu accurate than normal beauM o( \naceuratf!o
the tanks will be movlna or operatlna, The aise of (5) Artillery clln condld direct ftrt 1l1l'..ln.t map!t and eearelty of current meWroloaical data.
3-12. Dpo",tIo.. infantr), prottion provided and the t.actia enemy forceJl. Heavy v;;ptation maY e..uu the round. to o.to-
adopted .Ire <Mtermined by tM t.a.4k toeu 0,1" team (4} Hellcopten a-reatly increue artillery mOo nate hiah In the eanoPT. thu. redudna- the e;red;
4. G(!lIMUI. The value O'f tank support in jun,le: commandn'. bUity and improve ammunition reaupply, on enemy PilMIOnneJ at g1"ound )evel. Delayifd (uc-
operations lie. in the accuracy and amount of fire. 1\ OUntle, (7) Aerial rocket artillery can deUver 1'6<- Ina wllJ otten blI t'equired to min!mlr.e thit eft'~.
power thai can be produced even at aingle tank, (1) Ttle tundamentals of empJonnent and
....
PMSI4J
PMll-U

OH Limitation. on obervation neceMitatt> Kun emp!acemenUl and panonOf'I lIhelterll, The (31 Locate t'nemy artillery fir mortar ~l, Ihrll.b and KTa.s !Il'ellM bet.Wlt! the vt!ae:tation
the ute or inr-reillted u(ety (acton and dlatatH'ell .wampy condition o( tbe terrain may make It 1m Uonll. ~rt!Ventl'l obll4!rllalion o( the KrlJ\lod eft'ee\A,
when dellvulnll' I\re c~ to frlandly trOllp.J. Tbe pou/ble to dia adequate aun mplacemen\ll. (4) Oblerve snd adju!llllrtiUery tll'6, (3) The delny fUR: !/I. valuable for obtainini"
man~ver commander mWlt aJtl\lme a lt1'uter than Thfl"efore, mobile srun platrorma mUlt be uaed or bun~ on 01' Mal' Kround lellel when fonawe is
t', The amlt!oyment ur tarll'et acquillition dev!tll
normal rlllk of injury to the risk of providln(( wooden pada conlltru;:ted (!lee FM &-lfj) to prov_ is jl't!nf'nlly restricted by tree unopy, .10'11' lIur~ hillb Ilnd tbick.
';
friendly troop8 when eloae In artillery !Upp.ort or idelluitable ftrin. poeitionA, VI!)" jl(Jor trAils ror movinsr hellvy equipment and (4) FU1e qukk i& effe<::tiw in low tret! clnopy
en,apd units is neceuary, The df'ltr~ ot rillk AII- b. B~uae the juna!e afl"ordll exc~~nt conce.l. Ilf'ees.,,!t)' for dearina fields ot operation tor the or rllgljlllnd, often lI'ivinx tree b\lrgU Ilt a dealra-
llumM mUlt be ba.B.d on the tadleallituatj(Jn. ment tor enemy ofI'enfl.ive opera.tionl, all artillery radar lieU. When they I;'an be properly tnlltalled. ble heillht with the bonua efred of tree splintering
potIitiona mulll proVide M<::urity asrainllt enemy in4 the Mund and !'I/l5h ranging ballGll .nd the rada,.. And eliminatlnlf lInipel'll in the treo,
3-14. T..hnl.,.. 01 ArtlKery fiN :lwpport I'Iltratlon, Tu iT!llut'e: protection for the }'XMitlone. clln uper.te eMeienUy th01l,h tbeir eif.divt! (Ii I Smoke Of' WP ill vKluable tor UM in ad.
4, Gflltrrat Enemy lrooJ)l. in tblck junll'le elin be MeUl'Ity meaaurea Induda perimeter de(.lUIe ranjl't!:4 mil)' be redueed, jllatmentl and markinK tarvel! ror Illr IItrlk.. , ea-
drlvf'n out of their ar~ by artillery tire and wunin, devkell, all... mund (6.40(1 mil) tire ca.pa- ~ia!ly for K4!rial obllen.tion.
forl't'd in.to friendly 11mbu$h and bloekiftJ pM!_ bility and patrol" to maintain Ualiwn with other 3-18. Offe.- ancl ~ {6) Chemical sbellll can be 4!ft'tively em-
til:ml, in.tallationll. Normally, infantry unit. wHi be pro- ployed to produee "asualtlo becauae thf: llilh
See PM 6-20-1 tor the prineipifll of the employ-
b. H(lf'fI.JI,iJtf) rire., Artillel'Y ean be uted to keep Vld.d to- al'lfliAt in tbe defenH ot torward artillery temperatll.re and low wind IpeOOa IH't!lvaient
rMnt of .artillery in theoifen8e .nd defense.
the em;<my on the move if the iteneral location or po.,:tionll in junjtle wrrain. To f~llltate He1.Irlty, below the junrle tanopy help to maintain bill'"
the enemy i!\ known or to haRM tbem by nwthod- ft~ IIUpport .. nd !osriatieal inllt&llaUolUI m.y be vap.or conctmtrationll of the tbefni(al a"nt.
xTOuped in .It1!neral proximity to eu:b other, 3-'9. Ta,...
kll!!y Belirehinll' an area. This fire mu.t be au.
fully planned and euntto!k!d to a ....oid nee_lve Withlf\ the poaltion, flAtbl'l or trenches Jlhould be TIU'lI'KR are hard tv Ioc.te. Arter toeaUn, SUJl- 3-21. Cornrnunkat_
upenditure of limmuniUon, Cll.t to- connett each howitler uctlon witb other peeled tarlft:U, it mliY be f!eCa!Ary to blut aw.,y
batt.,y llUItaUatiolUl and foxhole!! whkh tan be 4. Wire il tbe mOllt meoehanieally reliable munll
r, nf'..strm:ti'(m F'lr~, Thll il espocililly u.duJ in j unxle undenfrowth by munll of air bureu and
of communiu,lione; tor controlling Ilrtillery in jun~
attarklnsr known enemy alronJ"POinta. However. OEcupie:d to IIUppart the: peri'l'n4!ter det..,ae. Sewr- tree bul'llu before mnimum effect on the tarpt
ity fur artillery pcaltlonll IhouJd lnelude ad..:auata can be obtained. Thil will often l1IQ;uire upendi~ itle opfr..tlol\l; bowever. it I, dlftkutt to inatall
UM of tbj" type of I\re hi limited by the ~ujre
air defenae mf'/l5ures, The batterl.. of a battalion tUfflll of larae quantitlee o( ammunition. Caves
and maintain. Lirbt wire can be laid on top of tp-
m(!nt that the b.rjfet be vilJble to tbe (lbMtrv~, lia" by army aircraft. Security of.n en-naIvl
d. /ntnd1ttim/ (jf Eftt;mjl R{}ut~., Canalit:atwn of "in cannon unit Ihould be dOR enou;h to eacb and pillbox empW:ementa: ct.n be dfllltroyed by
other for mutuallupport. When the taetiea.llitua- lield artillery mt.H. or by heavy and medium wire net ill difficult Ilnd may PrKlude ita UN tor
enemy forcet! Into Alrollnd of the attacken' cbooa_ other thlln very routine tommunlcaUon.tJ,
ing 16 pGllllible with artillery 1\1'11. AddiUonally. tlon permits, dlrt lupport artillery ehoulo be lo- artillery uaed in a di~t liN! role, Chemical sbella
b. The ransre ()f radios ill IIbortened by jun.1e
probablt> enemy rnut", can be blocked lia the at- CAted within tbe reaerve \tl take advan.usre of the may be uaed (or e&lIll.alty efl"et or to fo~e indivld.
protection it providell, ual, trom PN!ptmld poaltiona that are relatively growth, but thill problem may be partly 1I01ved by
tack forte nQultllan enemy fOl'ee.
t;, In roaltal afeU, Ihin. ~ition& may be (OIJnd Invulnerable to other weapot\/I, 1n adjll.Uin; util- Ullin; radio reiay stations. both"'r and lI'Ouod.
t!. DI'I'f'ptiflll. Artillery fire in an area away from
that. in wbkb friendly trooPl' are operatinsr may (m the beacbell, around plantatiottll, or on nearby ~ry. the IiTlt round Ilhould be white phoephoroua
detel\le the enemy, Artillery 1\,.. ('an cover noille illandl'l, with a hel.hi ot bunt of ~ met.fra to preclude 3-22. III.....,
of movement of frit'Udly rOTref/ &0 th.t they may the lint arUna!')' ruund8 landinll' on frlendl, a. Since adequate msp!! do not ailt for meet
bt able to apprOMh wlthin aMaultln, dlatAnee fI( troops. areaa in junl(lu, the Htabliabment of wrYe, con
the enemy without beinldeteded. n. f'orward obser ....er teams are hllndkapped by trol ie: an important ron,lder.ticn,
f. StJdT('Jdighlll, Searehlhrbta can be uaed effec_ l'tllIirided visibility and the unavailabillty of Ault- S-20. Ammpttion b. Survey contrtll i. ullually tll&llibla and un
tively in IIUPp<nt at offet)6ive and defenalve OpeTa-. able observation poatll. k"p up with the torward .!em.nt&,. thoull'h it I.a
4. Special care mu6t be tPen to protect ammu-
!lOM and to provide datll.m pointll (01' a1rt:raft and (I) Forward obMt'rver8 must con8tantiy reo more difficult ..nd time conaumina.
nItion from dampne&& and deterioration in jun,.
rallyinll' pl)lnbl. for Q8embly of pfnlnnnet Sf't PM main in duae contact with the I!Uppcrted unit and t. Tar..t area ."rvey ill ulUally vel')' rettnded
81-8f! (Teat), dlmate.. See FM 9-6. FM 31-41. and TM
well forwlird. 9-1300-206. or Impoulble.
(2) }o'orwnrd oblervel'll ehould, where the b. The Ml:tlon of tyPN of ammunlUtm and d. TrlanwulaUon. J'Uil(tion and trH.tar,tl.on
3-11. c-dlncollon With tho Inl.-, tun((le terum pertnits, coordlnat. with the afl"11l1 tuNIl (Qr tarreta In the junlle la the ume aa for tKhniqu. ar. ~t d1Hkult aince II~-lili"t la
<1~'rVeT ttl "~rlfy tblJ location of friendly troopa, /limnar tarrreta in norm.! locationl euept that: extrtmely ahon or nonexla~nl
flee. FM 6-2\}-1, FM 6-20-2. and 7-fleriet! lield and to obtain potIitive lpattin; of rOllndL
manuall, (1) The humor proximity (VT) (~II dlf
(3) In makltllladju.tmenta, torward obt>erv. 1k:1l1t to llpot In adju6tmeDI and I, ..nerall,
en !!hould be )Jroftclent in adju8tin, by Mlund be- a-22. PI... CoftmII
iT!llff.eUve becauae o( the reduction of frqment&-
3-16. PoIItlom <aulle nbser ..... Uon and vil'libility may be limited to tlon flfl'ed in the tree canopy. Th4! Pf/rfonunee at Fire control i. centrallud whenever poutblfl;
A f~w yardll. thl' fUN elm be II'reatty Improved lhrouib the 11M howeller. decentralization of centro) will be neeea
4, Battny po.,ilionl. fkld6 of lire. and c1elirlngll Mry al the deMity o( the jun;le inc,.... and
h. Air t>bMervation i. rentric-tt'd aver jll.nsrte ter. of "d...nllti:adn!r" tape ",bleb ean be t'Itted o\'tlr
may hllve to be cul O1lt 1)( the junKIe and are, nin, but may be ll.fMNl to ~d advantalP to: communleatiolll become more dlffl.cutt. J.. a r.
therefore, amall ano rompact. Thil work ill eJlpe_ the VT fUN betore t'Irlnll'"
i I) Obaerve rt>r enemy IIctjvjU@!\ !lll.ch &Il (2) Time tuu ,djUlltment 1, dli'ftcult. even in tlult. bstteriell may sometlme6opeuta .IoM.
diU!<! by employinll' IHtpportinl{ eoginoel'l with
movement over water or ('leared arul on land
portabw power cuttinlf tooln and demolition&. (2) Glw the ((eneul locstion of enem; in.
Lop from cle.rinx IIhould be uaM W roolltrud lttaUationL

....
PM :U-35
PM,t-l'

s.~tion IV, AI, D.fen.. ond AI, o.fo.. AnltllH)' ". Employ",,.!'1/' and mterdictirm fiu1\, localllt><'urity, and combat
{I) Thl"r~ will nnrma1l1l" be a requirement for lIupport of toperat;ontl, "nd ran participate in rl ....r.
3-24. Air Defltft" (If Army Unitt. vn!Vl'lj in tht, f'mptllYml"nt or air dcfenAe artillery both ADA mlMi1e and xun AyJlteml ttl provide In" operation. All Run-type FA W can be airlifud
(I, (;, {'"mflul./lderll M Ii:! echelon!! muat
IIrI'nf. lAnA) will m.t t'hHngt" greatly in Junltl~ opera, complete hiR'h and low altitude' eir d.fenAl! artil- and the Mljr. can be tranllpnrted by helicopter,
l'IHjSjdl'r dl!flltiJlf of their (.'{!mnmndJ\, from obaerva- tlon~ {FM U~l Rnd FM 100-6). F.dent\ive de- lery cnveraKC at portA. beachheade, and other When Uf,ed in a lIurfaee role, gun.type FAW
tiO() nnd Httack by hUll-tile Bin'raft. A!ttkl!,urh: much tallf'd planning i~ rl'quired before an operation to areaa Ulled ae forward batIetI tor jungle oper.tion!!. Mould alwa)lll be \ltled HI conjunction with otMr
()( thp fur deftml\t' Will kw provided by tactical Air determine tbe amount, type, and mO;\'!t effective ADA lIyatefM which may be used inf'tude the Nike ~ombst arrNI.
Forc(' lind lilr deJen"le artillery unitM, all unit rom- flllployment of ADA. Air defense m~t be pro- Hercule., Hawk. and Chaparral mlnUe eyatemll t. Reaupply. The RIIUpply of ADA untte i, a tre~
mander" mUlit l'mp;()y active lind paasjve air de. vim-d for pam, bet!chheadll, and f.dvllnce hue!! and the Vulcan, the twin 40mm "~If-propetled ",n mendous problem in junrle oper.tione, Thii!l\. par-

t
fen.."t.' meAllurt'j'\ to Bugm(lnt thl$ defen!le. which ar(' the lltartin" point. f;-,r otYenllive junlCle (M4Z). and the multiple caliber ,150 machlntgun tlcul'rly true with FA W, all ot which un la,..\!
" Arfh.. Ai,. D"/eNII". opnationll. All the (;"Pt'ration prt)itrelll'len, air de- (MH) ,un ilYAt.ema. Cheparla1 and all iun aya- amount of C!1.IUl III and V SUppllfllJ, UlJually I'ftUP-
(1) The air dt'fenMe capability nf nnnair dt.'- f<'nJl(' mwti. be plannl'd and pro ... ided according to tema are dHi,nated. all forw.rd aft'a weaponn ply of illOlated ADA unite i. :noet practica.l by
(enM Wt.'I'IPOtlS !lhould nm. be overloolood when priority for inlltl\llationll, troop conrentrations, i FA W). Under $Orne cjreumetancell the SP Hawk helicopter iii ereu auitable for ADA pl>llitlolUl will
planniltJ{ for air df'f~nl!e. Rifh~lI, automatic weap- airflelda and otber activitiea e:ubjeet to ...,ria! ab- may be- deploYed in the forward aree. The alu and lIeually provide IIpate for helicopter landinp, In.
onll, And other nouAir defenlle W"paOIi in the M'rvatmn and atta~t. Two Important facto,.. to be weight of ~t ADA eqoipment CUUMR aerioue wme CU.., however, auppliell mURt be hand-e.r~
hRndK of properly trained perlWlnd nerdll!na: thl' f'fiMilkrNt in planning and &electing ADA pGll. problema in movement through the jun,le and rled or delivered by ~k animale, Where a"V&tl..~
riR'ht uf at>lf . <I.,r..ntlt' to"lllU~t lOw-flying hOfttill' .iT- lInnl< art': until IlUch time ae the bearier ADA weapone c.. n ble, edvantare may be taken ot waterw..,..
"11Ift I"IUI materially Tt'I:luce the plfeetlvent'AI'I or
the IOW_Altitud(' threa.t Whil(' deMe ve~tatlon
within AjUn1e mRy olfer cnn>alment from aerial
(I) lllAtallaUon" .. ubjed t() ground attack, In
the early pha!'l1"11 of an operation, AnA deployment
I.. limited by .a defMdable perlmewr, ADA murt
t be deployed forward \netaUaUona muat depend up..
on wetlesl aircraft for detenlle fr<lm hi'h altitude
anial attack. Siting of ADA ayat~ma dependent
through the jun.Je. Beeause of the dlftlcu\t,y ot re-
eupp\y in the junale, commander. mUllt ,Mure
that etrict conQrvation meuurell fol' an duus of

j
\)btlervati~m Ana Attack, it will alao limit the f\elde fflI1ain within the main perimeter or be provided on redar for ftr. control iemueh more critical than aupply are tOnslantly entorCfld.
of fire Ilf we-ll.p(l-f\1\ uaed in air defenae (denAl! Wlite- with a IItronx loeal defense. The extent to whk!h th~ that do not UM radar. Gun Iydem& (an fre- d. Degrndati<m of Radar umf COMMWftU:atiOlu.
tation will not Ilrevt"nt detettion bv infrar" !len. !'It'("urlty is. developl?d requi ree an underatandln, of quently be lilted to fiu on around and waterborne R.dar performance ie ,natty derradat becauee of
IIOU), AUhouR'h the right or Qlf-d~fentle is never jungll" <'haraderllltk!e. To a determlMd attacker tarteta in addition to hostile aircr.ft However, toli.,e .nd ttrrain. Early warn1nar radare may be
denled, fin' at hOAtlle aircraft should bf rontrolled there are ntI impenetrable junKin, Impaeaab1# ADA w",pona having both e lurf"cet.Q.&lr and diaplaced. 1100 u not to be atYected by local condl~
by commanders tn InSUff' that poaiti(!n location... !lwampe. unlurdable rl"'en, or unllcalable clift'&, eurr~to ..urface cepabHity will never be i"iven tiona,
are not l'omprumiMd. ThE't'ommander muttt not &uume tbat hili poeition both a aurtace and air detenR mllll'lkm aimultane- (I) The limlta.t\one impoaed by the jutI,le on
12) MOllt combat4.1nite, ",nd some combat IIUp- ill protected by lIuch OblltadH. ADA unit com. ouly. Th!" does not pr:lu.de firing In Mlf-dfl'en.. communicatlona may caule grMUIr dependency
port unite, will have the Redeye I{llided mllll'llle mandete mllst make a thorou,h tenain anal)'tlla of &pinat either enemy air or jft'Ound fONM. Con~ on wire. Ground wil.. route. are IImit.d and tbe
Rytltem "'vallable to provide Joctoi air defenst. In the a.rea they are to occupy and ..pply the princi- etrtretion equipment mull be avallr.ble. not only to f.-w avail.. bt. routes will bf heavily traveled,
jungle "peration!!, Rl?deye CSln ",1M be WM!<i in the plei' fif pf'rimeter dden". The limited field, of ab- prepare road. and eiull prior to octupaUon, but makin, overhMd conattuetlon Imperative In meet
Mile d('fenae rm.. H;)wev('r, "RedeY""1I limitatlonll !ll!rvatlon and the t'{)n~e.lment atYordtld by the ,1110 to maintain, improve, end u.pend tbe de- catea. HeUeopun ahouid be UNd to 1aJ wire rap--
again"t h!gh-l""rf(!rm",ru.'(, aircraft make it leu JunR'lt' allow the enemy to approadt the jXlIIition ffln .., Rtlquirnenta for eonatruetion. equipment idly o~r the Jun,le eanopy. The tatlliq r~ of
Uum .In optimum bue detente weapon and fllth- without detedjon. Infilt.ration iii HAY end tber~ III and pel'lCnnel are much Iln&ur In june1e oper.~ wire ou lon,. linea may be rtducecl by moiaturt.
ler.jntl"I'Ceptor IIUpport ot brute areu Is required. jfh"at danKer of attark from .11 dlr4lCt!ona. Tb. tiona than In otber tyPill of operation.. Bueh elrcultJ .houkt alwaya btl dealped em the
All defended aTea! increAse in size and impor_ denae junJ(le impo8&llse .... re limitation. on tb, tilt (Z) ADA weapoll. .ymme used ... FAW t..re buia of wet wiN tr.ntmiHkm f&eton. Inel'lAled
tance, augmentation by air delen" artillery of dereMlve weapons be<:ause obaervatlon and more mobile and have fewer teehniw limlta.tlona upabiUty of hottl" InlUttatkm maku telephone
weapon IQ'detna ill require!:l CondltioftJI normally fielda of fire a~ often limited to atlwral mttel'l. than oth!r ADA I}'ItemL AI cOnlntrationa of ma- MCurlt,y partieularly import.l:nt.
found in jungle areu, euch u hllth humidity. may The proper uae of all aec-urity meuurea aUi:h u uriel arut penonn.1 art .,..Uy r.trleted in Jun- (Z) Althouib ndio e<imfllunic:&tion in tb.
CIlUIit' th(' ran~ capability ot the Redeye lflJided liatening lXlIItIi, warnin, de'vlcM, .nd thorouib and rIea. tbeu will normaliy be t ....r ueu rtuirin, lunale I. hi,hly dee1rable. Itt normal ope~tinliJ
mllUlile a)'tltem to be reduced, eontltHlQUIJ pa.trollin, ani required to protect tbe ADA protection. Althou.iI: tM num,*, of de- ran... I, Mrlou.l,. ml.k"Aid by denae veptation
~. PflarilJe Air Dtfffl.t. The ad!ve ait detmee command. fended &reu will normally dec ...... In Juncie op-- atld adven. atmoeJ)berk etmdiUona, Badlo oper.I-
effort mUllt be Aupported by the maximum practi- (2) In.taUatlone re.latJvely eeeure from eratiolUl, tbol6 IUbjtrct to .ttl.ck "Will bteome in.. ton muat bt ttahted to eopy wuk tJpala and to
cable use of palll'live air d~fen.e aelf'Pl'otection lrfOund attf.Ck. In defeftdln, ulaUn, iMtallAtiotlll cl'MAin,ly tnol'fI vital al'1d may jUJttfy a biabtr UN evet'Y upedient poer.Ible tn eoMtNctiq and
rMUUnlll; i.e" cover, l'once.!ment, disperaion, de- in friendly ~rritOl'Y or the UpalUllon of detentrei' level of detel'lMl than aimU.r illllWlatlon, In. other .tUn,. antenn... a.mote eontrol of equipment m&7
eeption, warn!n, lIignals, electronic lli!lCurtty. and in captured territory well behind the combat zone, tn- ot operationl, The overall requiNmant tor be helptulln ph'lln, a mON favorable kut1<m of
blackout dlteiplbte. Thll \e e.peclally important In. the preparation and OCc\lpatlon of 'UC"b detenalve FA W will depend upon. the requlremtnta fot' eacll tbt nidlo Nt. RadIo ..... mq han to be will-
luna-Ie operatlont bKau3e of the austere .n4 poaltlone are relatively d,liber.te, Poeitktn ...... oparaUon. In the abu"nc. of .n air Ulnat .nd at traMported and b.Dd.ope~, Suh.tltutkm of
widely dl.pened fore.. employed, PortiOn! of ahould be aelected to maximla the e&p&buttiM th ditcntlon of the for commande, IUn~type: man,.ued ..... tor fthleul.v .tt mar be aec:.-
tbne toren will often flnd thtmHlvtlll without an and minimise the limltAUona ot equipl'IMl1t em~ FA W an provide con07 prQt.Ktlon., ~na ""'Y.
ef'l'ectlw all' defeNUt capability. ployed. Roadt may not be preeen.t and .1 .... may

I-u,
tl,
A"_........,
Gnmll, The buit tactic. aM teehniqW!ll In-
t1IquJ~ exttnllve p~paratJon at the time poaltiV1l
areN &A selected, I...oeal lecurity mutt be pro-
wid. and the ume oonalderatiolUl u outlined In
(1~ above mUlt be applied.
11-
...."
IIMJI-U

S.ctiol'l y, NAVAL GUNfiRE SUPPORT AND TACTICAL tive area just prior to the airmobile/airborne &a- lame areal by the lAme pllota tor extended pe-
A'. SUPPoat Nul\. In .Mit/on, they can Of ltationed (MIr the riod. of time. There .re (our I(tmttr.l catelOrl..
~lbJt!('\ive .rea to be "VAI!able during the inluat of villual reconnalU.lnt!e-.rea eeareh .tpe(!1~e
3-26, Novol Gunflnt Support (1) Alr.drih mllilllon~ IIr(' th .. bIld~bfHle ot and very critical phue of the ground M41-uJt or _'l1!arch. rout.f> rN"OnneillMnce, ,.,nd weapona 1\re ad.
n. G"lttNJ1. U.s. Navy Ahip1l. operatinK off dUIIe IIiI' Hlipport, Hfil'iIIYlill'med titctiCttl fhthteNI to IJrovidEi' lleCurity (or the helioop*r wlthdr.w.1. jualment,
.!Inore COlli provide fast, acrnrate ftre tlUPpart (or t'Xe(ult- thelle mll<ll.iontl by en"a"lng w.. M.pon poll!. c, TGCtlNlI A ir/.i/t. Tactical airlift (Ol'CM mOve (2) Imng"'1I, Reoorded bnagM at v.rioua
ground !(lITfti olwratioK in the jungle ./"fas in the tlOIlI$. tal:kll, truQ\u" vehid*, and other largeta In cOmbat. fcrees and lIulltaininfl materiEi'1 under kinda .re required whenevf'r vilma! retonn.luanc(l
vicinity of the t'OtillL Delttro)'erR or IImaller in- du:~ prNumliy to lhc reque3tina around unit. A. widely varying altuationll rllnging from IImall doa not lIuffic. or becOM(llIlmpractical. The prln_
ahore ftrp lIuPPIlrt ships may be able 1.0 provld~ the distanee betwnn fr1endly j)OIIltiOf)3 and the movemenlil in baule to larKE! movementa over eip.1 imep type!! an!;
lIupport alonK prirn:lp.1 iungle rlY(ln. POAltiona target dei:'rvaM'll, r .."trainlll and tbe derree ot eon- long dilltancu. One of the mOlt crlticaJ facton: in (Ill Opltral. Optical 1m .... l't!tII.Ilt In 0-
may bl> r~tdct(>d by mudfi.at/l and Mndbat'lt hoi 1I)('rNUU'II. Tht> "'orWMl!1 Air Controtklr Ntabhllhitlf an air line of communle&t1on eellent photogr.phll, !wi they requIre IiW1lIi dqr~
which may e-..tend for !lfl:veral milv. from the- (FAC) and th(' .ttm:kllllf' aircr.ft exchanae in. {ALOe) i.e the location. election and eOn&truc- of lIIumlnatlon .nd are ever.ly reatrlcted by &4*
mouth of the rlvl"r into the ea. Thla auppart eRn (Ormation on the tadjull\iluation, the pro~imity ticn o( auitable landinlllOnes (LZ), pickup 10MB verM: we.ther _ Night optical Im....r)' requires .r~
be either dlrwt firf', where the tarKet ill villihle of tlUl taJ'g\!t to friendly position&, and tnt degree (PZ) and drop W1111f1 (DZ;. The aite ~leetion tor hllcial illumination and ia ,.nerally ratrlcted to
frOm the IIhip, or indired rire directed by aIr or of r,"k the g-round force comm.nder is willing to a network or grid pattern of thIH :ronN llhould low altitudelL
ground obl!erveMl. heeaulA! of their mobility, acoopt. In junIl!' Ol)(!rationl it ill ulluaUy beIll it Of aecompliahtd at tM outlet or an operaticn, (.bj Tltrrltlagrar1hk Thermopap!l.l are
IIhlpill ran be uJltd t4 provide !'Ire lIupport over It the .'AC I. airborne HQ tbat he tan have vi.ual The aircraft milliloo eneomp!lMe1l thcwe baa\(! not dependent Upon 111M C-f>nditloM and promi_
wide aru with !lUle time klet Oflween miuionll:. contJCt with both lhe tarJtet and the .ttaeking wka: nently r~ord object. hllvln.r a t.mp'ratu~ dit-
Their IH/.pJH>rt i'lhould be UM!d whenever condi~ alreraft, All available me.nlJ must be UKed to marit (1, Loaistlcal airlift operatloflll. fentnUal with the aurrounding area. The hlfrared
t.ionl permit both friendly and enemy ptl#itlon. ('2; Airborne op'ntionl, imajfeA may be lnlltantly reeordtd Or tranam.ltted
b. R~qUt"1 (fir Hal/ttl Gun/b'iI), The reqUNt for ('2) The foUowina factora mUAt be ('onlid. on Taetical aeromedic.1 evacuation, to a I'ro\lnd lltation, Severe degradation. however.
naval gunfire IIUpport (NGFS) ill tranllmltted ered betON requeetlnf( dose air iluppor\ in the (4) Special air IIUpport op'rationL B.aUIle elln be expected If fOir, cloudll, or other weAther
through normal fire IUpPOrt channell to the n..r~ Jungle: ot the natUN! of their airlrarne, airlift aircraft phenomenll exillt.
eRt rire IIUpport (II)rdination center (NCe) (a.) The atturaey with which the tarpt hllve the cap.bility or adaptability t.Q accompllih (r) RffMlfrnpJiie. Thtl Imarery a.lao In
wheTf' a naval gunfl~ lI"illOn oiftter (NOLO) 11'1 e.n be located, both from thf JP'Ound and trom lueh .Jl8!Ci.ll mluiona lUI flare dropl, air atrlk.. , dependent of liwht oondUionll and la prattlcaUy
loc.ted, or the nHrf'lIt coaAtalliurveillan('e eenter the.ir. command .nd control mlUlion&, loudBpl.ker mill- independent of weather condltiona. Radoirrapha
(esC). The esc or NGLO will eomplltte pYOCelll\- (b) The- dlrtall which the targtll ean be de- !liona nd ieflflet drop.!!. lack the fine detail of optleal 1m. . . . nd tnerme-
ing of the rt'QUNt. Tnt ~GLO will .bo m.ke er. llcribed. d, rru:ti~ Air RWf!nIlMIftJNe'. Air ronnala.. gr.ph., but moving obJeeb! can be lIpe('iftu.lIy
r.npment,a for the neuaaary ob&ervera or llpot~ (t) The deaired effeet on the tarpt to be lIance of varlOUII target typell ill aceompiilfhed by identilled, and extremely large areu can be Im_
lo",. produeed by .ir action. different retOnnaillll8~ IDtthOOli in ktepinr with alNd at IImall *,a~,

,
e. CO!tri:tl:nditm. When a unit ia eonduet1nK (d) The j)oIitlOn of friendly torcel! in ,.... the tArret; charaeterllticlI. Tarpt.& are often (OV- (3) Elm:trmil~, Elect.ronj(, Nll)onnaiuaRU ta
combat oper.tionll within ranp tJf naval .runftre laUon to the targ-et. ered hy more than one mode of reo:::onnaiuance. the interception and analy.11I of hoatile ellllCtronie
.!IupptJrt, a n.v.llpothnlir team IIhoold ~c!)mpany {e) The deaired timing and durlltion ot Th(> pneral methoda of reronn.l....ne. aN: emiMionll In' order t.o flain int.lIIll"!ne~ 01 enemy
the maneuvering unit Oblervat\(!n from the the air attack, (1) VilltulL kenel\ta to be derived from vi. activiUes, ('apabilitlea, deployment, IItrenlltl'l:, and
ground II very I'ftltrleted and augmentation by (I) The eommunications and control mea.- aual reeonn.illll.nee are minimised In primary intenti(!nII, Shrnalll from enemy rommun!eationa
.lr o'be.er\lat.!on ill nee....ry. When nltVll e:pottttrll
have no available ai~rafl, an artllklry (orward
Iluretl ( . g, IlmoW panel., ete.) available to con.
trol the air attack. , juntfle areall due to the cover ot the ('Snop),. Ellie
where. however, vtllu..l ftie1)nnaillance can Of of
emit.... r. and radar arll hl.rhly yulnerahle W lfliol-
HiI'f'nce (,ollettion, proeeulng .nd dllllleminatiofl
1)b6erver may baw, t.Q adJullt navlIl .runftre, See (S) Column coyer ill !!OYer ot a column Of gTut value, particularly if conducted over tilt tetbni(luel,

h_
FM 6-40 and PM 81-12 for a detalltd diaculUlion ground foteell by .ireraft wh!eb provide prote<'_
of nav.1 gunftre1:O(N"dinaUon. ti(ln by re;nnaw.nee and attack of tar,.tA _ VI. AJN.Y AVIATION

i
which thruten ttt. eolumn. Aircr.ft ('an be used
3-27. T _ I AI, to neutllllize element. of potenUa1 enemy reai4t- 3-28. Go..... , erine operation" ('an Of enh.nced through tM tnt.
anee before thcwe .!It:mante: can Of bro\lght into ployment ot "UpJ)Orting- aviation elemental. M11I~
I). Doe,""!!. T.ctical air ,*upporl Ineludu close contaet agalnllt friendly fOTt'IIfI, and ean be em~
TM )UnP! environment. with Ita limited road "ionll that ran Of accompli.hed during Jungte oper~
air .uppon. tactieal air rounal&aAnce and tac:ti~ network, de1lll& vegetation, and runed mountain~
ployed effeetively to attack jXJtanii.1 ambuab ationll by avi.tion elcmentll require imaglnatlon.
('1.1 aIrlift. ~uiremenlil .nd proeedure for re- OUII areas, off~l1t .n excellent opportunity to upi.
pointa which could poee a threat to conVOYI 1I\Ip- thorough planning, and knowlfdae of the capabH_
Qllfttlng dOk air and tactical air reo:::onnatuance lalh~e on aviation IIUPPOrl. Army ainuft can p'r-
portinrllnH of eommunlcat.iona in envlronrJW!nta itiel and Ilmitati(lna <It lIupportlng a"jation on the
IIlIpport are outlined in FM 61-100. ProeeduRft form reeonn.iu.nce ml ionll, f.clUtate com-
without 'labUud front linell, rart ot commanderl and IIt.ff of&cer. at an lev.la,
f1)r ~ueatinJC .nd directing t&etlc.1 airlift aup. (4) Ai r cover may !:Nt provided tor tadkal
mand and control, lranllpoM men and equlpmeot.
port.reoutllntd in FM 100-21. lind perform matly other important ta.lka that
aireraft formatio!\fl durina' airborne or airmobile
may be otherwi~ jmpraetle.b~. elle of airmobile J-29. U... of Arfofty AvlaHoI'I
b. Clou AiT Suppnrt. CtOlle air .upport ill air oper.tionll, The covering al~raft provide defense
action ag.lnllt hostile tarlfllta which are in dOlle force. enablea eommandeTll to mOVe troopa and Army aviatioll augmenta the ellpablilty of the
.plnll\ an enemy air tnreat and att4(,k ground
proxlm!ty to friendly lorCH and which require eQ\llpmtmi over edended dilltancM and ov~r ter- Army to eonduet prompt and aUlltainld eombat
taTpta along- the routel into tM landing or drop
detailed in\egr.Uol'\ f}f eaeh air million with the rain obstaelu. upitalising- on Iurprlae and m.~ incid~t to oper.tiona on land. The advant&.11'e8 to
zonell, The aircraft are &180 employed to neutral.
1Irt; and movement of tno.. fOTCM.

..... 1M tarKE!ta within and in the vlclnity of the obja::-


ne\!ver to g.in an advantage o"er the enemy. Rlv- be gained hy the proper utillr.atlon of Army &vla

.....
tion in junld~ owations are especially 111"111fi. support jun.le operationl, They may be usi~ th~n :ftx~d wing airpianell, they may be mrn"i! Ilult be provided IW'tlrily by the ~uppvrted unit. A Urn-
cant. 80m. of the tuks Army aviation may per. eaoort. ronnaillllance and aecurlty, .nd dlr.ct
form in junlif1e areu "n 11.11 follow.:
i\rupport mi,"iont. They are Mpeclally adapta.
able fur prvviding )llltial reaupp!,. .nd for evacu
ating raalla!Uew. Ua~ ot alrrratt in thill type ot
ited number Df aircraft may remajn in the for-
ward base overnljtht to provide a rapid reaeUon
Il, IfluiUu~ee. Army aviation provldell the
ble In providing ellcort to l1'Ound convon on jun.- operation can normally be aceompiillhed with !ellll t'Apab!hly,
lifl'Ound commander with an incl'Rled cBpabilt*"y Kie route.. The), can perform reconnaiuanre e~poavre time to enemy amblLlh than that experi. d, /)(lfiHlM Aircraft PrMedu1'fJlI, PtaM should
for lifatherlnK intelliKen jn the junlle environ. Alonr the ruute, and provide Nrly warninz of
ment, Aircraft rnA)' be used to conduct vi.uaJ. enud in the uee ot aurf.~ tran.pGrtation. Pre- !)(' developed (or tire t'4lKt\.le of downed aviator!!
poulble amblulh or attack, Att.ck he1koptera are lItJeciion ot landing ltOnes and laadinr areu and
photollTaphit!, or electronic ot.erva'ion into arUll' and the serurity and J'f!<!overy of downed .1~Tatt,
appropriately arMOO to immediately att.t.ck and coordina\ion with fluppon unil6 are elpedally im-
wMch are rela'ivtly inilCc'euible to lifround J'f!<!on. Security fl)~, including aircraft. should be des
nllutralize ambu.h fortell. The p~ of inade- portant in jungle 0wationll to prevent IUppUe&
nai ...nee units, Aerial obaer'lera tan detect mtely ignaled fot' !hie fleCurity and rtoowry mluh:m.
quate IUrf~ routes and formidable terrain obo from tailing into enemy handll, The helicopter
poln" ot ambUlh. and provl" intermation for Tht!lle fnr('8ft may continue on their adiarned mi.
.ltatlea normally found In the jun.1i! mak.. tit. "Iail itl '" Awift, fhtJ:lble mean/! for e&llualty !"Vllt'-
Ule by friendly troope in avoldln, or ceunterlnr ~ionR, with the rec<lvery mission as a eon\inlency
movement of conventlonal ftN .uppol't meant more \.I)ltion. The knowl~dge thllt IlIJ('h a meuml e:(llIllI
the ambuah, Hand held cameru may be used by tuk, or they may be held on e standby bfl,all, The
dltfteult; rargo hellcoptera CAn be ut.illzed to move enharu::es the morale ot trOO1l ol)tratinj.\' in areall
aerial ot.erven to lIupplemen, viaual ronnala- ('rlbcaJit.v of the rnillJlion And the availability of
artllHt1'y uniu. withIn the Uttle area. Artillery lnarceuible to other evaculition m<!&n .
aanC*, Intrared lIen80r. mo,mted in aireraft will rMourcex will determine the technique emploY4d.
unite can be moved rapidly by Mlicopter to a pnt-
obtain ta ...., Indications throu8'h 118'ht junale fe e. Piehl) alld LAl'ldin.g ZmM (PZ IlM LZ,)
liap that are not poaalble by '11lual mNna or UT_
Mlected aUa, fire .. pNplanned million, then be
recovered and returned to bPe atu by helkop.
3-30. ~"'I c.._..... _lno Pkkup and landing wnu are wenerally limited in
la' photo,raphy. Airborne pet'llOnnel <Mttor de- EmploylMftt JunKie areu, bnth in number and aiu. A contln
ler. TIti, &et:hnique. "The Artilltr)' Raid", It et~
vk when o~at4!d In alrcran at altttudea jut fedlvi! In An interdletory role and ..t.ndt the .r. There are IIlmilarltie in p!8nning tor the: UM of UOUII ('olleM.ion effort Ahould be mad. to locate LZ
above the Junlift. ranopy, anal)'Jlll the all' ant . . tlIve ranre of artillery and the area of Inftu avialion :re80urcea in all envirOnrnFnu.. The jungle and PZ for JKWIible future uae. Exampli. or LZ
teet airborne products Indicative of human habi. .enee of the diyillion. Attack h.Ueopten may oeea.- envlrvnrnMt With itll Ilpecial terrain and weather and PZ tound in jungle Qre&& are rldpa, rice pad.
tation below the canopy. Unattended ll"'Ound I8n. Ilionly provid~ the onJy ftre .upport available to factora IntroduC'M Problema that deserve speelal die cultivated areu, .tream bedx. bomb crater..
sora may be uHd to rain Information on enemy iaolated forces. They can operate directly with mention to th. planner and operator _ These fa.c- and plantation . Troopg may be Mquired to enter
movement, The aide lookinlif aerial radar (SLAR) ,round torce. and pNWld, direct ftre aupport toMl art' Ji.ted below: a landinlif ;.une by rappeilln. or UIWI of the t.rooper
may he uaed to provide .lurveilUmt. ot rout.. durlnr perlodl of low yWhility and eeJllnp wbleh (f, WmBdT F'attM's. Jun.1e areu are charac- ladder to improve the LZ or PZ prior to arrival
mDM,. or areu where the ve. . .tlon la not too limit the elfeet;lvenea of hli'h J)ft'formance air- terlud by hNt, humidity, mon.con ..wone and of the main rOffe, An LZ may be roo ,mali .. to
danl8, It Ie particularlY valuable durin. indebt. craft. Att.t.ck halcoptel'l IUpported by MU'C'h- other wN\h~r phennrnena that Mrjou.1y alf~tt a!low UM by only one or two "Ir eraft ata Ume, In
ent weather when: black and white pbotornphy ll.ht.-eqlilpped hellroptere an particuw-Iy effec. the performance ehara.eterilUclt of airwan, par~ thil ~ .. thoroull'h analyal. of enemy capabUl.
and infrared lmapry quality ia "...tly Nduted,
Thll SLAR may alao be utlll,eci end",'), for
tive for patrcllin, jun.ie rivar3 and can.aw at ticularly heJicopUlu, High density altitude d+-
crea the lift eapebil1ty ot helicopters and In-
tiM m'Ullt be made to dlltermine whether tJle rlak
of landin. 8(; few men at one time il aeeeptable.
nirhl
nl.ht ,ut'velUanu of ooutal, river, and canal cr..... the take-i)if and landinr toll reqviNld for The chanee ot an aircraft helna: do1V1llJCl In _
tratnc, d.. C01!I.maMd, Crmtn'il. (1M COM~. !\xed win, airplanM, TheA factora, coupled with small LZ mUlt be conllidered, Should tltl. event
b, ll~. Milltary ol"raUont in Jun,te areu The problem. of command and control aNi .vnaJl larntlq areu with hirh barrlerl. often occur, it may be impoaalble to ret. more alre:raft:
are rh.,lIrteri&ed by redUl!ed maneu",rablllty of If'Utly IncreaMd In Junal4l o. .atlonl. The or. cause a!arnlbnt Nlductlona In loada that can be into tbe LZ becauae it I, bkx:ked by the 4owM4
jTCUnd eiefMl)ta, Thll dlaadvanta.p may be offtit pnle eommunlcationa an~ aerial vbJual aurveU. carried by aireraft 't'ba aviation UalllOn o1fteer alrcraft. Planl must be made to tUPport penon-
or minlmiZCld by auaxnentin. around torcM .lth lance et.pablilty or alrmoblta eltmtnte aXOMd can provldll valuable ...illuce to aupporied nel In tb. LZ tither by attack he1icQP~" artn..
ArMY avillUon unit.. 'I"heae unita provide an Jlddl. t.hoee of conventional around forcea. 'l'h4 Mt1.al unite durlnl planninr and operationa, CoMlder... lery. taeUeal air torea or by movement of ~
tional mNna of rn&nt\tvtlr by IIlrllftinr trooplll command poat aod cornmunleatlona facilities em- tion should be !riven to the number of ainraft by land. Ute ot the trooper Iadd!!r fOT the atrae-
lind equipment in airmobile operation!, The rap. pioyoo by airmobile fOrtM enable eom_nd and avaitable .. compared to the numbsr reQuiNd tor tion of theM trooplll trom lhe LZ mould be eorWd~
Idity with whleh airmobile tora an I"$fd control functionl to be exf!1't:iaed over widely r.ep- the mlaaiOn, how many litt. will bs required, and eNId; however. \xIth t'roopI and airerart are
make them particularly efftiYe in junj'le oper. arated unite. Army aircraft may act u rad10 PQII8tbJe Nduetlon In ran,. or inc,.... in fre. hllbl)' vullMlrable durinl' tltlt prooaa. LZ and PZ
atiOM .bert: tM enemy u ) ' mAN for only a rtlay ltatIon. In &Teu wheri! the terrain rMtrlcta quene), of retuelln. operaUona, on.n m1Jl;t be orrranised 110 .. to provide tor an
.hori Umt and th,n quickly diapen.e, Airmobile
Ilnl. l"mllt eomb.at troopa to be MOved lwiruy
eommunlcalionll amon. tTOund atat!onl, When
f,QujppcJd with dlf.:penserl. they mat alao be u_
b. Baa ""MI. Bue areu tar,.
enourh to fill artillery ~rlni' poeWon. an avtatlon refuaUn. and
reQulNMlnta for muelinrr pointa. rurmlnl NlUmin, al'U, aDd a bril'&dll or batal.lon head
o,*, ohet&elM and landed on or near the objecti..... to lay wire over dtmae jun.1e: terrain whleh ... pointe for a.rmed hellcopien. malQtel\l.ll.C4! a,... quar1era and trains al'4&. It it .vident that in
.lthout the fat/rul .mieh accompanlca ioq vereiy imped.. turf.aJ movement Comtrtand and and to allow tor diapersion of ai~raft 1nll&t be . . lueh ('.M8:II, tht ana will be el'O'fVded. wlnanble
marc-bet throUZh junr~ terrain, In &1'&U wWe llaillOn functlona are fa.cllitated by tbt uae of air- tabUthed tor aviatton unit.. BeeaWli of the eia to enemy attKk. and dllflcul' 10 oontrol, P1au for
adtIquate lamhnr &Until ani not available. troopa craft to vilit widely ..parated unita. required of theM but a ..... and the requirement the uae of available IIPaoe and tbe emttrot of thI
may _end from hoverina helieopten uain. a.
t. CombGt St!t"IIie. SU'PPort. The dlft\eulty of for ,!JIICurlty. main bug of opwaUon will Qor- ar.. muat be thorourh and well eoonUn.at.t.
roPM and 1addera. SUPportiq wupona eaJI be eurlnillnea of eommunleatlona and tha laek of an mally be In a relatively Heyre .aru. The maje>rity ,. PatA~ P..,.,m."el, AllaIrUd to a'f'latlOll
rapidly lifted by helkoPtere to area which would adequate rommunleatlon network often make it ot tbe: aircraft return to ttt. but area each nli'ht. unl.. and trained to p:nmde control and JQi4aDcM
be inlWWllble by lITOund route.. neccauty to Ule an air line of communlcatiotu to c. FfJ'I'Witrd. ""MI, Forward but ...... abouJd to Army ai~raft. pathftndM J!i8NOftntl an a val.
tl. Fi~. Attack heJieopt.Irl orranlc to rtIIuppJ.y fo~. fnppd in Junrle op.6ratlona by normally be Ntabliahed within the IlUpporied brio UJi~ &alIfet to wround toreea. 'Whtnmr poedM.
Army a'ltat/on unite ate eapable qf proYidin. rca- air llnee of communl.cationa, BeeauN helicopter. pile or battalion area. Tbae buG- .ill contain tHy ahoukl be placed In landlq 'lC)MI WoN tIM
ponaive, dle(!rlmlnatory Are IUpport n.......". to are hIM daptndent Upon Improved Iandlna arau fotward rtfueUn. uui rurmlni' point. and muat: uin bcrdr to temOft or mark oI:wdadII. . .
..... 1-
PMJI_31
PM II-aS

therf>llfler lo I'Iltwiu(' ctIhtrn! ot landing airtl'lltt, 3...J 1, Stobility Operotlo"'l ImploylYWlf\t Ilirmnbil;:' unitR ean aIM hi' lUted In aupporUnJ( lIiKhlnlt lIul\l}tlrl to h(>~l rOllntry and u.s, forceR,
J'athfinde!' pel'ftonnf'! wili often move trom tM
(I. (;nI1'l'!lt ArmY ,vialion unil!! art' well nUited the!' operationR a!faln!!t lnl<urJ,l1!!nt (Orrell in the ml<.V Iw tftllkvtl w)lh I<Mit'.tlll1{ intel"u.1 develop,
IllndinK :lOne with the intAntry when Ji IJindinll
for participation in "tabiHty operati,m" in th\" jUn;de, Air liTlt'l'\ I>f t'OfI"!muni('ulilm (ALOr:) m"y tm'Jlt olwratimlll Ht'l'I\Ulle ',f thl'll' Il'k (,f !'en"j.
tune til Atmnrlnoed, Patht\ndrn. IlTe tamiHal' with
junlt'le "nvi rOllment Thl'Y ('fI,n ('(Induct Aurvell be l'Mllloyed to I"t~(hlet' the problem. of dHllt'ult (!\'ity ill lerrlllll ront!lthmr.. thelll~ UlllUl are highly
the carmbilitiell and limitationll tit the ~uppol'tinll'
lane, over wide areal, and provide tl"OOP lift, tin!: lCl'rttln, ladt ..r "dt'qHate 1111e<l of commun!rRtion, .-If'-f't!ve in pl'Ovidlll)( AMilltiUlre in r('mote jUllgt.
aircraft and II'hnuld be UlI('d W aHiat in IOldinll
support, resupply, And command control flldlitlf!R and nlllu-lc of gl'ound !lUpp!.v rOiwuys, arf'h. The)' tllll lranKllOrt nwdiul, alfrkultul'.l,
:wne aa well All landin, rone (lperet1ons. They tiln
throuKi'lout j\Onlte areaa, Airmobile fol't~ ate ,3) A "mall larUeal f"l't'~ may be organited and nther team~ whn~f' mlAAIull ill tu improlle the
.... tllt in "etUna trOO'pA into Ilil'craft in the proper
partlcul.uly vaJUl.ble in the condU(t of widely to proVide lin lmmt'di"te I'hrlion or pUl'Auit upa~ ~ocial, puhtll'ld, alUi economif' nwuitioOll nf i~)"
IIflquenre and orlflllnizing the piekup wne tOI' pick.
aeparated actiOM a,ainat inllurpnt elements. bltity ttl Ix> U1l.ed ill {"mjunttion with other alrmo- jllled villaKet< linll hamlet~. TraJlllporiaUon or
up ot louppilltll, artillery, ahfiK loads end trooPl,
Ail'mohile tort'eK, relatively Unimpeded by terrain bill' or J(rotmd nperationlll, Tht!! rOI'('e ill of ap_ IUlI)phet'. and e1luillmtmt <tVI'r t'.urtKee linel' of com
g. Firt $tI,IJport. obatad.... provide a frmom of R('tion unequaled tH'mumately platoon Rtrength lIupported by an ap- mUlll('lllllm mRy be limited lIy r()Kd or uil ea~.
(1) [.Gl'Idmg Z;n'U~ Pr"mmtfcn. Prepar.tory by other i"TOUnd unjl!!. The flexibility of oraanlu- Ilropriltw number of tran"poi"t helkopwMI witb a lty, by iU.'Iurll'eut Adwtty, And hy ",hortalfell of
ftl'NI Illlould be dehveted on land!n, ,:oneil wh4!n- bon and inherent capabll1tiea of Army .... aitlon lI('t'ljoll, tt-&m, or pilltoo(l of armed helkopterll. tran .. porlation equipmellt, Army AvIation will
ever enemy activity &r oupation ill lIua~. unib enable them to provide I'gp.onalv, support The Kpe~ nf reat'tlOn of thiR force, when on air- frcqUtmtly be the mOllt effective meaTtI'> of mOiling
Th. scarcity ot landiJiK sane6 in the junlle are&l thl'ougb the full raniit' ot Internal def'nAe and in. born "lert enablea it to I<tl'ike inllurp;ent for'{'t't'. rntl('ally needed ilel'l'\k to thelle areu
anablu t.ht enemy to eover & hilh percentare ot lernal development operatinnA. before thE'Y can tilde InUt tM protective rover of (2) ~t'utity and damKIl(' tontrol operationA
thoee avanable with Are. LZ'. may alllO be booby- o. J,atMMJ DrftnAl' ~,...h'01U. the junll:l\" HI" m(!rj(e with the local populace. are 1I3rti('u!Arly lmrmrlanl clurfnj( internal devel.
trappfNi with mjnM, punjl ttake. or tall atalc .. (1) The nature of internal d.feMe Opll'tl~ {4} Pimrt I\re lIIupport prollldfd by attatk opmi!nt UloeflltioTl~. Mell\\lt~ mURt be laken t(l
Nt up to .trike helleoptal' rotor blade&. Artillery tionA, eGupled with poor road networka and belknptel"1l CAn be ulled to extend tUl:d ('omplement pTEvt!l"!l imlllrgenl ron-C!! from capturing "upplleJ<
Arw aN abitted at thf. lut poNlbla mOft'Mnt, al- rUIfI'6d junrt. turain. (I"U.W a mobility dilwl the fire of grnund fOl'Cell dunTlJt lltabillty optra- and (Xluipment bPlOjlJ,fltlg t" friendly elementt'..
Jowlnl am.1 rocket artll"ry followed by ttltac:k vanta.. for forcM dllned and ttaintd to con- tionA, The ability nf the att../l,ck hellt'o~r to o~r" Dama){f1 to Kupply inlll.lllltionli from attack "nd
htUtoptei to m.aintaln eontlnuou. AN on enemy duct conventional military ~.tionl which ate with M'round fo~ In the junll:le oftw makes ~abotall:e must bv minimized. Airmobilt torce.'1
troope: Ilftir the LZ uatH the .....ultln. tl'OO1)II ('In Army aviation can a.ui.t in redueinr. Army avl&* it the mOlt rapid meanA available for bringing ran pr(Jvide II~Ul'ity in inlernRI d.~iopment aa-
brln, their own or.-nic weapont to be.r on the bon unit. rnlY be niQuirt!d to pro\ld. Ilupport to firepower to bear on the inAur)n!nt!!. POIitlV1! iden* Ril!!.anee oper.\i(mH by pertol'ming ground And
Qlemy, SUPJ)Ot"tin. ftN .hould .,. controlled hy hott CQuntry torca to reinforce Ita. internal lit. tifieatiop of hMtHe targetll iA nne ot the mOAt dlf af'cia! l'econllaiMIUlt'e of ('ritk.) ar,a., by armed
perlO1lnel in the command helicopter, Plannlhl of tank elfort, In advanced Inl\ll'lftru!Y altuatiotl& fit'ult aa well all import../l,nt tasks In intel'na) de. etICOrt of IIUPI)!y cunvoyK, and by conducting .lr~
.ueh fire aupport muat Include A detailed "1M where U.S. t"tJl'ftblil elementa an!: nt!CeMary, avia- tenBe IlAI'jJlta",ce nperaUMIi. The cloae.in, dl.serim mohilt u!'lIlulhl againll'\. inllurgent elementll. Army
tehedille and mllAt he tMl'OUlhly eooNinMtd tion unit. m&1 RUpport botb U.S. and hOlt coun. inatory fl.re IUpport provIded by attaclc beltrO}>- avilltiun unil!\, can qUl('kly lifl darna,. wntrol
amonl all element. part!.dp&tinl in the open- try forces. Separate .viatlon eompanig and blit,. terA il particularly elfeclivE' in tbill type opera- teamll to threatPiled logistical inlullltlonll, thull
tion. Unattended A'I'Ound .leMOn poJiUont!d in or t.&liol\a normally provi"* IUpport to ho.t country tion. .... istinjt in !laVilll( AUj;p!iefl vital to ttl. develop.
within the vicinity of the pl"'OpOM(l Jandlnl' fct'ta with opll'ational control beinl tetained by {IS) Th, imPAct 01 airmobile operatlonll may m('nt ot the host ('ountry,
10ne(l) tan provide infonn.tiOn eonoernini' the ..nlor U,S. o1I\e.l' Involved ln the operaUon. provide important pllychoWaica! warfal'e mate-
enemy aeUvlty 01" the ablence ther.oi; t.huI, tt In aituatioml wbel'e U.S. AdvillOr ualatanetl II rt.l in internal defen"e o~rationl, Airmobile
may not be neceuarY to 11_ prep*rlu,ry ar.. belnl furniabed. Army aviation can provide per- torcell with their model'n, IOphitUcated equip-
ment are e.IIpeciany etr~etlve aa a demonltraUoh 3-3:2. liftrlM Or-ration.
(2) E" rDlIte. WheM'YH poulble, IChtdUled IOnnel and unita for mobile training teams to In.
and/or on-c.all artillery Are and cleM air wpport Itruct, advLM. and train hOlt country foJ'9fl In force. The number and type ot alrcraN: In an all'- The riverine environment oif(;rll Rft eltullent. op.
Mould be planned alon, the ftieht routM ot hell~ aviation and "Iated aetiviti.. Avi.lion IUpport mobile torce art impreaawe wMn they are ma~ portunity to upltaliu on the 1\uperlor mobility
~r unit., Th. . connlntk>n, are planned on for U_s, cornblit fOJUlJ wnductinl internal d&. neullered in Junll:le BreD wMre aitrl'art al'e not prollided by Army aviation unitll, pal'lieularly
likely too.tione .lonl the route from which ~I\k ....Ia~nce opel'aUonA ta normally prollided r-ommonpl&!. Aviation uniu may alllo pl'ollide helieoptera. Aviation uniu can rapidly Introduu
enemy tTOOPI c&QIdiNlCt .tr~th.. fttt at the hell. by orpnle Anny aviation unlta. alllhilUtlN! to the pllyr-homieal opel'atlonl trooJ'HI, fire fl.upport, and ecmbat &eflllee 1I11pport
('opter formationA. Plana muat be JOl'dlnated (2) Alnnoblk! rMOUJ'ee8 &iva commandehl i PSYOPB) effort by transportinl' PSYOPS ~r intn an operational area. The ability ot the heli-
with the appruprlata a ...iation eommander to tM flexlblllty ~ry to meet the wldf I'an .. ot IItlnnel to hamletll lorat.d in remote aNM ot the ('opter to move !!wittJy oller inundated .('fa.!!:, land
promote efl'ectl...eM'Il' of are and ..fety of ft!ahL the inaul'rent thl"Nlt In jun,le .,.41... Alrmobl1~ jUngie. LoudapeaKe'" can be mounted on altuaft on "mall land af.AIl, Dnd pel'form tun white
foreee: may be rapidly tallol'ed Intq eomblned and UBed to di..emlna~ prop,tLKAnda and Inform.- hOV4)ring over al'mUI In whi('h no land is &vaU&blt!.
h. R~, Plana for reeuj)St1y muat include ar. anna task fOl'e .. capable of conductinl ll8mi-lnd&. tion to villarera, 'Lea!'letl can be dlapel'Md from gilles lIupported I'iverine fOfCili a dilltinct advan_
ranpmenta for lup voluMe. ot fuel and ammu* pendent opuationll, The orpntuUon II hutd on Army lir(',..ft !'Iyinl' over the u!"i'et area. tHe over torcell lacking avi/ltion Ilupport, PM
nltlon for aupportinl aviation tOJ'CM. Suppll_ the lnaurpnt tereM optratlnr 1n the .rea, the 11ft l. /ntrrnal DMidopmr."t OptroliMU, 31-75 (Tmlt) provide. detaiu on the ule ot Army
should bfo hNuaht ... fll' forward aa pcnlble of the area over which Aunelliance II W btl main- {1) Army avlatinn unitll. In addition to tur- aviation Aupport in ri lIerine operatioJtlll,
with bl'eakdown beinsr ~plilhed aa far to the tained, and cUreI' factohl, '\leb ... terrain and
rear .. poaaible. As requIted, h.llcopter Ilfta weath." The mobility of the airmobilE' foree. u
should be IIlled to tranapDri water, l'aUona, an"l* tntraated w the mobllUy of the Inaurpnta, an ... ,...... VII. cHIMICAL, IIOlOOICAL ANI> IADIOlOOICAL
munition and other aupp!!. to commltted and hlea It to Initially Ioeata, maintain contact with, (Cia' OORATIONS
other rorwaN elfmtnta. TheM may be the urne and employ combat power "ainat these elulilve J.-.U. GeMral
helicopten that Mr"e used initially in the AMIlult, cal lind bioloirlcal (CB) &itent3 #nd f'lldance tOt
alemente. The: normal ol'J'anlc tranlpOrt&tlon of
..... a. Joint doclrlne toOl' the employment of c.heml planning the employml"nt of tbete apnt./muni.

..."
~Jl-4J ~JI-41

tions Is contained in FM 3-10, General policy 8Rentll. dclivery means include mortan, artillery, junl{le and color will II'Overn their ulle. For eJ:am- Hunliil'ht del'rl~8l!e the docay rate of biolowical
M'uldance ill conteined In FM 101-40. bombM and aircraft rockets and spray tanks. Riot pie, IImoke "treamer rifle M'rl'nadell projected flM'entK lind therl'furl'. thelle condition" are {'on.
/1. Doctrinal M'uldance in chemical. bioloil'lcal, cuntrol allt'!nts are alau dillperlled by dispensers. above the JUllM'le CMllflpy may not be visible to ducivl' to the effective employment nf biological
and nuclear defense is contained in FM 21-40, fo'M 3-10 and TC 3-16 contain details on employ- M'round tr(IO))M, but they can be ulleful lIiil'nalll to flM'enlll. AreM ('ovcral{e ot biol0il'ic.1 aR't'nt.. dill-
while FM 21-41 provides the soldier with proce- ment o( these aa'ents. air obllerVefM and tu Mpecially located M'round ob- Memillated below the junRle canopy ill reduced be-
dures for individual defenlle measures ail'ainst c. /And Mincll. VX-filled and HD-fllled land serverll. caUKe of wind Kpeed. BioloRical agents produce
these allt'!nts and weapons. mines can be uaed effectively, when authorized by b. SmokeacreenM and curtains produced by me- delayed ('lllIualties and therefore, a detailed plan
t. Employment o( C8 agent/munition systems appropriate commanders, to mine and boobytrap chanical I'eneratorl!, smoke pots, shells, rockets, of emplo;.oment iM required 110 that their effects
in junil'le terrain will not differ siRnificantly (rom trails ulled by the enemy or leadina' into (rlendly or aerial bombll may be ulled to limit air and are coordinated with t.&ctical operations. See FM
techniques employed in other typea o( terrain. de(enslve positionll. The mint!lll need to be pro. Rround obllervation when the vegetation and tree ,'1-10 for dodrinal M'uidance on the employment of
However, because such (actors as met.eoroloRkal tected trom rUlt and (uzell and detonators must top canopy are not dense enough to I'ive conceal- alltijlenmnnel biol0M'ical aRents.
conditions, ierraln, and veretatlon do Influence be protected (rom mollture and mildew. Care ment. Smoke sprayed (rom airplane .. moke tanks c. Anliplont Agf'nt,. There are a number o( bi-
the behavior and effeclivenesa o( C8 arents, these mUlll be taken that trip wirea are not (ouled by will M'enerally be ineffective in junM'le operations oloil'ical ajlel1t. which can be effective in the jun-
(actors must be taken in consideration (or junl'le rapid I'rowth o( junl'le (oliaa"e. because o( turbulent air current.. above the jun- Rle al{ainst plants, shrubs and trees and aa'ainat
ierrain. FM 8--10 and TM 8--240 discull mlcrome- d. Tozic Chemical Age'ltll. Artillery projectilee Rle canopy which rapidly dispefllell the smoke. the (ood and industrial croPIL produced by them,
teoroloa'ical (actors in detail. Thus, In reneral, and aerial bombl! with delay (uzes are the mOlt Smoke curtainll produced by artillery and mortar RioloM'ical open,tionll for destroying food lIuppliea
the key to predldillil' the behavior and effective- effective meanll o( deliverinl' toxic chemical Ahellll can be emploYed effectively by Ifl'ound in an area may require concurrent plannlna' (or
ness o( G8 al'ents il! II correct micrometeor_ agenta in the jungle. Artillery projectile. burat- troopl! in the atta<'k. Enemy individual bunkefll Mubailltence .id and fur the protection of (riendly
010a'ic81 (oreC8St. ing more than 40 (eet in the air reault in 10l1li o( and illolated IItronM' point" can have their villion troop lIupp]iell.
the al'l'nt; the averal'e 10M o( chemical arent obMured by the Ulle o( He and White Phollphn.
when delay fuzea are not used is about 25 per- roUM (WP) Ifl'enadell prior to allllauit. WP may
3-34. Chemkal Ate"" have an incendi.ry effect plus a caMualty and de-
3-37. Chemical Antlplant Age""
cent. Aerial spray o( chemical apnts VX and HD
a. Lethal Clumicnl AgM'!S, Nerve agents GB il not very effective due to the juna'ie canopy. moraJizinil' effect which may be desirable. Certain chemicals poSlellll an offensive potential
and VX and blister ail'ent HD are the current an- e. Troop Sa/N.II. When toxic chemlcsl apnt. e. Flame i9 a valuable weapon to be ulled in for destroyina' or seriously Iimitina' the produc.
tlperlOnnel chemical al'ents considered (or em- are employed in jungle, (riendly troop safety Is junRle operations. Flame weaponll are employed tion uf Cropll and for detoJiatina' veretation. The
ployment in chemical operations. Tht!llle ail'enta an Important conllideration not only al'ainst con_ principally in the reduction o( (ortifled posltlnn" chemical compounds ulled are either plant a'rowth
may be delivered on target by such delivery taminated terrain but al'alnst downwind vapor and to counter mass attacks. Flame weapons may rea'ulatorK that modify the normal a'rowth pat.
meanM as mortars, artillery, rockets, missiles, hazards. (Chemical munition requirement. can be be ulled to produce casualtiell and provide close-in tern of plantl! or defoliant. that kill or damare
bombs, or aircraft spray tanks. (ound in FM 8--10.) battle illumination, and they may allO be used (or the plants. Defoliant. can be uled to axpoN
(]) Nerve agent GB is employed as a non- f. Ineapocitating OM Riot Control Agem.. Doc- the incendiary effecta (i.e., burninil', the natural il'round operations, installationl, materieL and
persistent vapor to cause casualtit!lll upon Inhala- trinal I'ulclance (or the employment o( Ineapaci- concealment and camouflue afforded by the vep- personnel to observation; to mark tarpta, poel
tion, or to harass enemy troops. tatinl' uenta and riot control aaenta can be (ound tation). Flamethrowefll and fire bombs delivered tionll, and t.&ctical coordinatina' and controllln_;
(2) Nerve aa'ent VX is ulled to contaminate in FM 8--10. by t.&ctlcal air are effective methodl o( employing and to clear and keep open fleld!! of ftre around
troops, terrain and materiel and Is extremely e(- (1) Incapacitatina' apnt BZ can be em- flame in thill type o( terrain. Artillery, mortafll, de(enllive po.itionll. i>elltruction o( natural vere
(ective In junl'le when used al'alnst troops who ployed aa'ainat enemy troops when It III militarily and rocket. are effoctive methods o( employina' tatiol1 may expose camounaRed activities. Preaent
are not wearinl' complete protective dothlna' and or politically Imprudent to employ toxic chemical incendiaries. Flame field expedients (i.e., flame de(oliant aRentll disseminated by aircraft spray
equipment. agenta. Jandmine!l, flame (ougasse, flame llIumlnatoral, require 4 week!! or lonrer to be effective aaainat
(3) BUster arent HD is used to contaminate (2) Riot control arenta may be used In coun- prepared locally (rom empty (uel dTums or other tropical vea'etation. Tactical operational plannln,
trooPB, terrain and materiel. It Is extremely ef- ter-I'uerrilla operationa, in controllina' rebellioua containers filled with thickened (uel, can be u!led must allow (or this delay (actor. See TM 8--215
(ective in the junl'le when used al'alnat troops prilOnera o( war, and In subclulna' Tiotln, civil- defenaively al'ainst infiltraUna' or attacklnl' for technical data on chemical apnts, and TC
who are not wearina' complete protective clothln, ians. See TC 8--16 (or details On employment, enemy (orCM (or warnlnil' effect, c...ualty .ffect, 3-lfi tor inlonnation on employment ot defoll-
and equipment. Meteorolo,lcal conditions In tile g. CS PO"UUT. CS powder due to Ita IncruMd and (or battlefield illumination. (See FM 20-83.) anti! and herbicide!!.
juna'la are (avorable (or tbe production and perslatance over a period o( !leveral months Is a
maintenanee of a hll'h vapor concentration o( iood arent to use In renderln, enemy ".plder
tIIle apnt and droplets o( HD on (oliap and tile :h16. 1IIo1oti1ca1 A_h 3-31. N",clear WMpant IHectI
holea," trenchee, and tunnela uninhabitable
ITOUnd present a relatively persistent huard to where time or capability doea not permit deatruc- a. General. Bloloa'ieal arents are microor,an- The effects o( nuclear explOlions will not be .1,.
troopaln the area. tion o( theae enemy poaitiona. ilms that are effective aa'ainst men, animala and niflcantly affected by the denae jun,le vqetation.
(4) See FM 3-10 and TM 8--240 (or detalla plante. 81010a'ical aa'ent. can be u!led effectively The blut effect will create con.lderable tree blow
on the employment o( chemical aaenta and the ef- in the juna'ie to produce c...ualtlt!lll In troops or to down and mlllHe effects. Tree blow down may lie-
(ecta of weather and terrain on the behavior o(
3-35, Smob and .lame WMpGft. cau!le the deltruction o( crope, without the mas- verely restrict movement and may Inc ...... or de-
chemical agent.. a.. Smoke may be used for .ll'I1alina', (or mark_ sive deatructlv. effects o( nuclear or hia'h explo- creue neldl o( fire. Durin, the dry ...... n, ftNa
b. NOftutlaal Claemiea.l Agnes. The curNnt In- Ina' tarrets and (or provldlnl' Imokeaereens, cur- sive weapons. See TM 3-216 (or technical data o( may be started In dry bruah and ftammablt .up.-
capacltatinl' &rent la BZ while the family o( riot talna, and obscurina' amoke. Colored smoke 1Te- biolo,ieal agent.. pliea by the thermal effecta . .Iun.... terrain ...tIl
control agenta (RCA) Includt!lll ca, CS1, CS2, CN, nadea and ahellil are useful (or .Imallnl' or b. Aft.tipl!l'rlon'lel Agent... Natural junl'l. condl- not lil'niflcantly altar the initial nuclear Iffecta.
CN1, OM and CMl. AI with the lethal chemical markina' pl,lrpoaea. LlmltatloM on vllibllIty In tile tionll auch ... hll'h humldib and diffused, tinted The Intenllty o( radiation (rom ndlololrieal

...... ...."
PM JI-*5
HAal~1

JlJitf'llt~ and rlldimW'tive falhmt may bf' reduced by "TfI~. It IIhOlild be noted that thl:' pr()tf!1Ctiv~ mallk wrItten in lhl' nall ...e lanj(ualle to factlltate- toor- flltl'rna~1' route pl!lB ill lIet up toO the- main roads,
f'xtrl'mpl:-- hNIVY vE'1l~t..tjatl 1\11 !'!om~ ()f the l'UITti. 11M impl'mH~Rblf' pnllt'rtlvt' t'l.)thinp; arc barely dm~tloH nn the Ilrotlnd. Any information that nn or lIedlOI1M f,{ tbem. milY IX' ~,to!(l!d when major
d[',~ will iw r .. l!l.lllf'll 11)' the j\JnJl'It' CBn()l'Y, Rul'Hle. lnlt'T/l.ble in jllnp;I{' t"rrAllI Hnd rllmAtl', timita. be lilled to ('orred e';illtinK mnpII should be for- rt-pairll fire Tl!!quired.
qll{'nt raiJl~ m!l.Y wll~h the!!!' partlci. 1.0 tbl' lionll on Villinl1 imp"lIed h.'" tht mtlllk >mbin.d wardf'd til U", IlPprl)priate he.dquRrten fer
llNhmd, lind CUllc.pntTaW thl:'m in water rolled!on with IH'T!Wnal diM'nmfnrt AA a rt'llult ot wgrinl( jlrflJTljlt dilllM!mination. EI1in!t!r rf(!onnaiMence 3-441. lllve, Croa,I"I
ATt'lI.K Adinn'l TeQ.uiNd af indivulu.hI !tnd unib: trw prOt('{'I:\'e t'quipm{,llt mil",,, rle<;'realle individual to lIupplement map dllLa llli of prime imporlancf.
1/, In larlfe seale }UlliJ:. operationl, when time
ill r/tdiolnakflily contaminAt>d aT~a AT!;> (,01;. cfficieney jlml p~nt a morale problem, PN'i'f'r The enllineel'll .~hould ebtain informatiOn on the
tained In FM 3-12. FM 21-40. and FM il-4L and eqUipment are Available, ~tatld.rd river
tralllinSl III IIf'CUl<ary and romm.nden mullt ron_ !ollowhw: (Engillet>T re<onnaUlllanee lloolltd be
crOlUlInJ( proeetiure-Jl, bridSlin/C', and IItrelm Cf'08I1-
!'!idf'r tht' deneAlle in unit ef'!'eetiWflpu .nd the accomplil!hed .11 outlined in FM &-SO and FM
inJl expedient. de-scribed In FM 81-60 Rre IIpp!i-
~-36)'
drt'1lIIe in the tl'mpo fir flJH'ratlOnl! c.u1It'd by the
cable', In IImlll1 M:ale- operationa, or &II t\fld ex:pe-
wearinSf or CRn Ilrn~tivc equipment. In addl. 4. i.oeation and rondition of roads. trails, ral1-
3-39. on.n.. Agoin.t CII Attock
tiM). l!pt'rlaJ jJrecautionll mUll! be tak.n to m.ln- wa,va. And bride!>.
dif'ntll, roP*' IIUli!'eI)SIOn britt,. lind &Ulpenllion
Rf>ler to }o~M 21-,10 fm' Iiuidanet> on unit p~ b. Locations for pouibw road. alrt\eld and fs- ...hjt' mflthl;(h~, s" dellCribed, in FM 3!-12 .and TM:
tain unit C'RR defensive equlpmpnt in u!l.ble cot\-> !l-2JO. m.y be useful,
dUrPlIi to be llsed Ililainat CBR attack and to FM dibon bel"aul!! of the rapid mlldf"W, rot, and t'IlAt dUty construction, .nd wnatrurtion materiala.
h. The junite provide!> excellent t"oneealment
21-41 for individual actiunA aJj'81ffil.t CDR ha:- 01 the!'e itcmll in junglp ar II. f', High w.ter level of rlVN'1l and IItreamt.

d, Condition fJ1 bank!! at dver and stream for riftr Cl'ouin, t)pen.tiol'lll In ml}llt inaiancell.
CTOMlng'llltea, The lack q{ K'lrul l'!\ilti nirt3 On both banb IX t"bar_
S..lIon Vllt EHOINlE.S t.. Location nf w.ter IOllr(e1l for drinitinlf.
at"teriaUc of junlle river crouinl opf!rtitlon&.
!aunderinif, "lid bath 1ft,. Troop!! and h.. nd-earrled rnatei.l can he broua:ht
3-40. o.neral b. _,'pre/at Rt.quirl'ml!"l~, For divilional engi. ,. Cr~ntry trafficability dAta tor wheem! up to almost any d_ired aite without. .addlHon.l
Combat engilleer Ilupport is alllX"atea On the buill lleer unitJI. pl.1I11 mUllt be made for the inClusion .nd armored vehldes, road conatl'lJction, How.ver. when aelfcUnlf the
of anticipated enlflneer work AI> dl'termined by of additional demolition equipment. eICploaivel. u, Soil trllffleabllity, !lite, the cUrnatic conditionll of the area illICit ..
the fadorll of METT, Combat enllineeNl an Uled banglilor~ tnrpedoll, gRloJine driwn portable aewa h.. Location of actual and potential obetadlll annulIl rainfan and t\oodlna: conditionll muat be
most effectively and efficiently in junlrk opera- and bla.deJI, all of whkh art' l't:quiHd In the remov~ and barrier. c.refully analyzed, rta.ht\oodll Are ehar.cterllltic
llofUI w~n IULIllfned a direct aupport mi'l50n. al Of IUle tree", rullnel deatruttion. eonatruc~ or moat junlfle area., even in the dry MalOn. If
however, independent unit actions orten Nq'l1ir. lion of bellpad!! anti IAndinlt fllCilltiel. and ft'mov- _ ....... c _ Mavy equipment ill to ba uNd, road con.trudlon
the attachment of enainMr unlta, To enhance
IIptI of mOlleffie'nt In tar... lleale iun." opera.
al of denle vegetation, Additionally, eombet M!rv~
ice IUpport unitl muat be informed by the force a. There an; n'l1maroua facto ... that compUeate
ruad oonatrucUon In th~ jllnl"le, The huvy r.aln.
.....
Nlquired and lIOiI trameablllty mu.t be cOMldw

tions exterudve enltineer IIUpport wll1 h# required. enSf~neer of ally speda' requirements for enlineer ~, H.uy lift heliropwrs tan be ueed to tr.na.
In np&rly all junSlm .reu, road. art! Tt'lati~ly eqUIpment and suppHea tor the olteratlon, In de- fall ImpoHll a drain.... problem of major GOn
port atandard bridie eomponenta or bridlf! tim-
undeveloped or nonnlatent Theile 6Tt' ulluaUy term.ining, the equipment and luppli.. needed. ctrn" Whene"r pouibie, low l1'Ound should bit ber. to &it. l'flqulrinl brldlrina or br[~ ,.patr
narrow 'nd windln, And incapable of .uppartlnlt wnalderAtion must be l"ivetl to the> rapid disinte- avoided in layin, Gut. road. WMn it fs impoui.
JIlultslned military traffic. All' .upport beromea
more Important Major tad. perforwd by engi
neerl'l 'rtI the oonatnlrtjon and malntanance of
.....
ll1'ation And deterioration of mawrfel in Jun.-le
,
ble to bYPUlllow. ,wampy around. it may be nero
HUry to ton.ttuet pontoon brldau or loni' Hr-
tionll of corduroy road, It i. adviuble to cut the
and _110 .t the lite to erou ptHOnnel .nd equip-
ment by .,rUft until brldlrini' baa been inata,l1ed.

roIIdl and traill And the coMtrurtlon ot airfteld1, riaitt nf way milch wider than nannal 30 the sun
landinlt JOnell and .upportln, fariUtiea. Conltruc- S-<42, ~i... C.II dry out the roIId bed, The enlarpd rlaht of - . -Supply
tion operatioM in the jun,~ art! utrmaely vul- B.....aU$4! ot the inaceeuibility of jun'" arue, way alao provide& room for the conatrucUon of W.ter aoumll are UlluaUy .bundant. but apecial
nerable to enemy activity, Unit .ecurity mUllt be llynd.rd mRpa may be eearte and tboae that are diteh.. n~ry to keep the .u~rade dr.tned. trealm.,\t ia rflquin:d for purltkation, See p&ra~
eAtabUllhed at 'WorklliU!!I and often Int.ntr)' units LAr~ dltehe& ronstructed with /lCr.a.pera mAY be Kfaph $-7d, for health haurdll and methoda of
available fl'll!luent!y may be inaccur.te n.c:ept for
mUl'lt be Allocard to provide nGeeJ!d.t)' le!:urlty. the loc.tlon or couUin .., prlnelpal rivera, buUt- neceuary to dratn Inundated areu near roadll en,lneer and Individual water hutment.
up areu and primarY road lIets. The numeroUi and alrfieldlL TM', 5-812 and 5-380. provide dew
minor swamplI, IltrMfIUI, Inletl and laroona are tslkN:.I: inform..tlon on drainaae. lite Hledion and
3-41. ...."n ..... COlIstrllction of roadll. :-46. MI,.. Warfare
Ileldom indltated and i!ontoun. It .hown, are teI-
4. Gnentl, 1n planning for tbe uUlh:aUon of dum prerillely ICC'Un.te, Tull neb .hown an h. The enlineen need heav)' construction All the junKie Itself 18. .n a"ectlve oblt.aeJe
enaiMlft' unlta in junrle operations. consideration often be depended on. betatllll/il traditional routell flquipment, and IpetlaJiaed de.rinl equipment eg:a,inat vehirlea. antitank mina and other antlv&-
I I~n to the tapabillti .. and equipment of tbe Art ran'!)' ..Itend In the jUngle. naUvt' tOwnll and mUllt be ptueured fOr .upportinl enlineer unita hid~ obetacletl are normally oont\ned to roadll,
dMajoMl tiI,lneen or the fotct .nd the tIOUlble ...iIIa l . fntquently hAn native nama dHfltrtlnt or inatallationll, A particularly .... Iuable piece of traili. And occa.ional patehell of c::ktared around.
"lQuinment for .dditlonal enl1DMr 3'11pport by from thOM printed on mapt and locations th.~ equipment for ritarln, JunrJe aN!U ill the tree When authorlMd by appropT\a. ~mand-e:u.
nondtlljslonal en,ineer unlta. Dependin.- on the often Annotated pbotomoe.kI. suppltmentsI pie. doseI'. Thill V1lhle1e, equipped .....itb a clearln, antJper.onnel min. cen ba .rectlvel), empklyed
t",. and magnitude of the> miMlon, e>nlrinear com- toma~, and other lar~ seak graphics delliped blade aheart trHIII. IItumpa. and brUflb at iround to delay. .top. and canall.. the Inemy and to
hat WylIo", (COJ'pI:), liab! tlQulpment eompa- to <ver i~lble &MIIU may att'l1rttaly lceate t.vel and then pilea: the t"ut mawrial lntc wind- ..rve &Ii warning d.vlca. the loliatlcal .upport
nlu, Jand durfna campania or aeveral of Ule minor nrampa. .trea:ma. inleu. and a.oona when rOWII, It wa... ftI a cleared area clean, lmootb. and ror mme warfare ill vel')' difficult. s..FlI.1Q....8,2
teams or the 'TOE ~Mrlee, lIuch u the "W.n the map ~rap I. of relatJvmy fl.t terrain. The' f,... of Iltump holea ~ with 8uftkient ft __tron lind &.-S1 for additional infOf'ml.uon on the ear
DrUllnR'" ot' "FONIfItrT' Teal1lll, may be rtIQulred. nam. or town. and vUlQU on pietomaPl .... to prtlVllnt eroaron. [f the road net .....111 permit. an ptoym~nt and removal of miMI and booby trap',

..... ......
PM :11-2$

3-47. Nwwlr Wacpons tat'llra! nperl,tiUJlII. J<!ngineer work creW&, munle.vonll equipment ill adverBely .. I'f'ed.ed by ('atiun". When a unit )11 expectinK vl/lU/i1 lIian"'l
mjuipped with Il8l'utine ell,\(inr portable NlW1l .nd tropiral rlimaUr (ondltiom" Malnumanre will have at a givell time, delllgn ....d ohMrvera ran be
'I'M obJIbJ'les rl:'sultill.ll from the dfe('lll of nu
dt!tnolillnnM. AU! airlift4!d by helicopter to the reo to be l>erformNl on a continuous ba.aill to prevent placed in treeM, high A'foulld, or other vantage
df'IU weJ\]l(ln~ in junille t.erTfiln mHY be! eaflier 00
bypaHH th.lI to (lVercnlIlf'. ln taCtiNI.i !lituation,
I'i\(,,,,junale flreft b.nd T&l)pel to tbe lIite. TileII(' (orrollion lind funll'u)!: /lTowth, l)oin1ll.
creWK make the il'litial dearanee of tre,," .nd un e. SQlmd Commimica/iollil.
tht" time lind enginecr el'fort required to t'rOfJ!I tree
derbru1l:h with th(' MAWR and demolitionll iowt'rt'd l-SO. Impioy....nt (1)> Den!le Vegetation tetldll to muffle rounda.
blowdown ,IIrea" ma.y be eJ:cefll!.ivf!. AlteTni!.te
to them trom the heJlcopter. Follow_on enll'ineerll, and baltle nOillL'll further reHlrict lhe ulle of Mound
routt-II fd movement mUllt be plannMi fOT, and pre- Junjtle operaU(Jnll plare additional demandl on C"<)mmunieatiIHul.
equipped with lectlOnallled airmobile enKlneer
pllred .11 flfI(1n .Il 1I(llllliblp to provide meanl! for the retl.ourrel of communiration units and perlon.
equijlment, are air-Ufted to the junil'le c1earinA' (2. All f)f!f!lotlntl"1 mllllt undertltatld the ailf-
t'l'Il'llinuinl{ mflvemellt de~Plte nuclear attack. nel; tartical and IIIA'nal ul1it/l may requIre aUIf- m.11I u-t al)d mUHt be trained to pall" on .lIl1iK-
with thllir equipment .nd t'xp.nd the landinA'
mentation of algnal Pffflflnnel and equipment u, nalfJ ri'Ceivcd. To increaHt' ranSC't', lIoumhl whldt
tone Or "irlltrtp In are(lrdanre with the t&CUesl
3-48, AddhionQI Conlld.rat60ns acrllmpliah the rommand and rontrol functions. contrail: with normal jungle baekground noil4!ll
1)lso.
Re-Aidea pMv!d!njt normal '-"Ural rommunkll. IIhould be empluyeU 1f(lr example whisuin, or
Il. T,tt.r!4 CffflritlQ (J,H'ratiQfu. In tholle jun.\l'le If. f)l'lIlrudj().tt of TlIl1tt~!1J IJnd Bunhy,. When tilln! networkll, ahrnal unib may have to oper.te metalhr noL'I@II). ConverMely, when dOH to the
ar.:lus which p11rmlt encmy forces to operate with
rel.tiv~ impunity. requirement will uiat to
provide tactic-al forc-e.~ with a IIpeeialized I.nd
personnel .rt.
ene-my tunnels .nd bu.nkerl ue located, el\Ji'ineer
eharRmi with their destruction OT
thl'" denial t)f tht'ir future UMf' by the enemy, ThifJ
long diltance Tlldlo Mia. Army alrrraft will have
w be uHd in many InlltanC"i!ll til provide a radio t>ntlmy. !\(lunda whieh blend with normal jun.le
noilleR e.n be uaed to ilX'reue M!('urlty. In either
relay eapablHt)' lUI well p ual.Un, in wire 1l\Y- (:~, !\(l~Jnd lIijfnall'l Hhiluid be tested prwr to use
dearing eQI!bility to lev.,1 dtmae velretathHl iH IlCromp"lfthe11 hy rollarminil' lhe tunnelll or bun-
which may fterve all adive or potiential lIIJletu
jmr operationl. tn determine their range and reliability.
kerA with "urfsee cf.tering ('hUIlES, (lr by plse.
riel fur Pllcm.Y p4H'llnnel, equ~pment. fJuppllea \ng and Jetonatinjt uplll~!v6ft, inside \he tunnel.
a. WiN' COnlmunil"l1tinnll.
IIlId other underKround in&t.lI.tionR, or to clear S-SI .......... of 1M J ..... E _.... (I) Tbe beavy rain .nd hip hUmidity of tha
or by filllnil' the tunnela with CS '),8tala and
~ throul'h th~ areu for linea of rom seann. the entrancet\. B. Mu.ht9trr C<>mmwnicclimtr, trvpie8 reduC'e the range (about 2{J ~nt) .nd
munl~atlon. To mMt thia rtQu!Ttment. eonaideu- (1) The .peed fif aurface me:I:MqeNl il HV- reliability of wire rommunicationa. Wire layin,
Hol'l should be givel'l to tlwo attach~nt of a ape- e. CaMtnu:b'tm fit Artdlertf Padt in Swamptt erly limited by jungle terr..in &nd veretation, The in tbe jungle J'equir@a mont time and tluitable
claliJlNI enginef'r lJnd dearing rompany (TOE Afflle. lack of roads reatrit"tt full use of motor vehitlea. wiN! laYing rouie. 8,1'e limited. The inc:realled
6-81T). to whkh tree doura are or.\l'anlc. TrH (1) (;,nera!. En,inee:r units, aupportina op- ..nd foot mfIfIMllJ[er! will have considerable diffi- W~r and ronf'@alm.nt make It eui.,. for tb.
dozer& are capable of f.mnJ tnea up to 4R incheJl ".bone In lIwampy aF*U tonat't'ud. all~weather rulti. with land naviraUon and natural obala flIemy 1,0 int.rcept or interrupt wire communica
in diameter in matter of minutes, firll\,\( BurfltCel! tor the: Ule of artillery 6P*ratlng elM, The u&e of air meaaenpr. oWe,. all .ttrar~ tiontl .Ild to .mbWlh maintenance crtWe. WI,.
b, Engil$ur l,.iwf Ckaring Compa'/l-~. The mill_ in awampy areal!. Tht!T"e ar. two enmpiea IU rol~ tl .... alternative, but one that i. limited by availa- laid by .iT 0""top of the jungle canopy je ex~
aton of tbe en.i~r iand clearin.\l" company 1&: Iowa: bility of airrraft, scareity of good landing areu, iftmely dlffkult to maintain and recover.
(l) To <':Mar eKr..ntlVe dense vqNtion in (a} WoOden pad. ThIM type II of local de. weather wnditiona, And the f.ct that air .etMty (2) Wire URed should be in aood (londltion
ermal.,..... for the pu~ of denyfn.\l' their u.~ alln .nd m&nut&etufi'i. They a,. lC..ided and aida tbe enemy in locatinr friendly troop ....eu. and Inltalled in treee or from po1811. Spllctl
by the enemy u bun ot operaUon. &upply buM, ranp from 20 feet in dlamet.r for towed 10ltmm it} Tht' reliability and IIPMd of fluriace mea- ahould be al'ttully mad. W avoid ,Ipal loun
ma"..halllnj' areu, ambuah sit., and conr and howituFI to 80 fnt by 80 feet oblong oct.pna 8en~rl can be Improved by employlnr tbem in when wet, Mar,Ina1 clrcuila can be ImPtOY\kI by
coneMlmant, for eelf.propelled 176mm and 8-inth run . (See pairll and by .1ee1ln8' meuen,el'1l who aN c:om Ilyln, two pain of IInM per drl'ult and by l.Ialna
(2) To cleAr denM ~ii*latlon trom .reaa ad- FMI1-I!i.i petent and relOul'alfu] Indlvlduall, thorou,hly tao rtpe.t.ra or t.eleph9nt amplYifyln, devleee. Speed
jacent to triendly Inllallation tor tbe purpcM of (b) Ddt p0tform. Th* delta platform la mlliar with the environment and who art well of lu1n, and IeeUrlty can be Increued by UH of
improvlnj' imltallation lecurlty by provldin. ob- a hexaQ'tlnai platform ludate 22 teet acroee and trained in the UM of map Ind ct'Imp&ll. DePfnd. _!reraft. See FM Zt-20 tor fl@ld wire and l'able
aerv.tlon and Baldi of ft"" al'ld to reduce proba. il made of aluminum tubin, c<lvered with a walk Inll' on the availability ttt aireraft and landin, t,eeludQuM,
bility of ambUlh aton, land HnM of <:ommunlca- in8' area of aluminum ehaln link feneln,. SI,: 20. area. ai r m(llMngerR ('an provide tut and reliable RGI& CetuI",.,.icatiON.
tlone. foot le8'111 nlend trom the platform at 1& de..,.ee eervlc(l, (I) Redlo 'QV811 aN abtorMd by the damp
e, Co",tf'1lCtW'lt. Of H.U<podlItKd Air S~,.i"... En an8'les. b. ViI'IW COJllmtmiCGtimu. and deruwt WI,.tI.tlon. and it 11: not unusual for
aineer unlt& I>I"pnl<.: to or eupportln,. ainnobile (2) Dew VoIj!', Then pad. or platfOrmt InI1 (1) Vi.ual mu.n. of rommunlutwD i. ,.. th. nm,. uf a eet opI'I"atad: in the jvn,le to be .!"e-
unit&, to", required to COl'I&truct hellpada and air. aklo be uHd for command poets. troop .helter.. atrleted by the lenlie' vqetaUon, Commandera duced br 10 to 81 ~nt of the normal ran,..
ItriPI In remote aruJI ot the: jun,le in IUpport ot lirat aid ltations or heliport.a, wIll rarely bue YlII.IHII contact with all eletnentl (it AbIorptlon w.. are eoJnpounded hI' the pater

_.00_
R.pid. rellablt eommunieaUona aN! _nUal In
_ . IX. COMMUNICATIONS

&i&ed. FOI' thie ruson a rommander muat 11....


tommunkat1oJUI high priority in bia pianni~ and
membel'1l 01 their unit. Certain .tandard colora of
emoke or ftan sipals ha~ Ihnited uae beeallM
they bMnd in with VQetation (1'Ntl\) or oft'er I;t.
tie contTut with fo, or hue (while),
(2) The elfedlvensu of vi.ual rommuniea-
tiona an be Improved by enaurln. that each indl~
.~b.rll' nol. ~ and lnRabllity of Ute iO-
~pht:re t)'l)kal or the tropi-.. WelPt and ~
t\rImlUon dr. the UH of man J)ICt ,.dto..
whU. tIM lar,. fthlw1ar mMlltad: ... ha... ltm~
ltfd moblUt7 beeaUN of tha aeareftr of road&. The
jun.... envinmrrHmt atreet.. dHrvant m- of
Junrlt operationiL Command and control. AN! luperviakJn. All available mUM of communJea. radio propaption in tbt foUowl.'OI' manner:
vidual undenlanda the me&nin8' of the aitnal and
tiona are UMd in jungle optraUona. Atthw"h
IUpport:, rMUPply, evacuation and 1"'tUPIo)'lMnt puMI It ou to othen In bla vicinitY. Cai1lful .... (eI:) The fT'O\Uld ".... ( . . t b7 ~
an aU dependent on etft.lve ecmmunlcatlona, wire 1& nonnaJJy the mo.t dependable. a lIuk! tom- lec:t:ioft of c:okn (flvch IU red or yellow) whteh r hl.ch frequtuey AF ami:nt ..t.) b qulcld7
The importante of ..tabUllhln8' and maint.aintn" bat situation may Jimit ita uM.. nteeMltatln, NU- contrut wIth the b&ekeround color of the junJle abtorbld and ~ Umited to ... &han one
&nee on other meaM of eommuntuUQn, All tOm-
nJiabie eommunicatlona un not be oveNfPPful.. 1m...... t1M elfacti.... ranee of vtaual communi-

.....
mUe.
.....
(/I) 1)lrKt wave or IintHlf-IlJ,Ilht pf'(lp&a~ prnblllm.ll, Equipment that III el:JKlI'Ied to dampneu matlon on prov..n l\eld ~xptdienb and optimum both lIignltl uni~ and the orpnlc communicationll
Uon ill (NNluently blQCktKl by vea-etAtlon or ter~ will dry out raater 11 It III kept aperaUn,Il, but tnquencief<. Thill ll'! ell~i.!1y true ill the calle nt platoonflllnd .ertlOnl'l at uctkal unit.!.
r.in, 8elecllon of lIuitAble 1IlteK for thi.ll type ot ullera nf thi" tl'chnique mUll keep in mind th .. Ahort and mMlum ranl{e AM r.did oommunlea h. Spp()itll 'CO!w'df'r(!ti{Jn~. Special communica
transml"ion i~ cnmpllclil.tfld by dimcultie.ll In mak- dTecbo or ovt'rheatinjI when the equipment III tiollll. tion ... ('olllllderllUoDII IIpplklible to J'iverine opera
ina reconllai""allC(" and the tact. that the belt .iteR operlil.ted contlnljULl~ly. neteriorAti(ln "f battierle" f. lIIo1ated lIi,lln.1 .Itell (Qpeelally multtchlnn*' tionll influde:
may 10M! inaccellfllihle and vulnerable to enemy AC- CRn be reduced by IIturinl in rool and dry flltorQ"e. radio) are both elllliflnti",l and vI.l!nerable in jungle (I) Empha!li" on communicatinns lIupport
tion, pre{ernbly refriKer.ted. Iltabillty opcratiflnA. Dill' ~ weather and lerrain (or tactleal unita operatin,ll in a wi-de arell"
(t) Sky wnt propagation ill Ilubject to theN' lIitt'PI mllY be n'l('hed only during certain (2) A w-eater requirement for Ilignal .UI
Mah .tmOftpherk noifle and unstable ionollpheriC' 3-52, Comrn","icarioM 11'1 OtfftNnt period.. Thill requlrl!ll that eAch "Itie b(! JIIClf-aulI- mentfltlon (nt tile-tical unit e-ommunicationll re-
conditiona, Further. Ilky waVi! antennae uaually Jungl. Areal tAining And e-npab\e of llelfdefenlle, MUte-ell.
teke mon~ time \0 inlltall and uqutre fairly lar[lt!: (I. Greater ulle ot airoorne e-(lmmlnd poata. aer- (3) 1..(',", tellanre on wIre communicatlonll
The eommullicatinn problemll encountert!d in a
cltared areal whLeh may not be eMy to find in the jungle environment are generally applicable W i.! retrRnllmillll!on and "Iteraft in lIupport of tac- and more on radio, with emphallifll on lhe Uiltl of
Jlmaie, aU thtet! or the major jun.le artall of the world, tie-al operationll requiri! an eff'ee-tlve air-ground the Ilsrht man-park lleiB at the lowcr tadiC'al unit
12) In a JunKie l!nvironment, etTteUve radio ("ommunicati(ln:lll aystem. levelll,
The mOl'lt lIitnil\cant variatioM amoq t.hM!
rommunicatioM involve tIM! duil'1land loc.Uon of three artat involve at.ml1llpheri~ noiu l.v.la, fr~ (4) EXlenalvll' Ulle ot multichannel radio, in~
anlennM, AnUlnnu should be clear of the junale
eanopy. an _ntid condition when deaUtijf with
1iM-ot-ai,nt Hta, Specl.1 purpou antennae
q.uency predkl!on. and radio proplpUon chane-
leriAtieJl, lnfll'rtrulUon on these matte,. on an ar...
3-54. Comrnwnicotkm. In
Opwatto..
Jvn." livtH'i,..
dudinJt the paa8ible UM' o( tt>rminal& below brl
Ilade \evel.
(5) Knowled"e of !Unal C'Ommunk-ation or
bui. can be obtained from USASTftATCOM
(which may be tuue lUmIl or Improvll'M!d 6tid e]{- a. G6Ifrfl/. C.ommunicatlnnll In jungle riverine pniutlon, proeedurea and equipment, to lndudf'
(ATTN: SCCCE-4, Fort Huachuca, Arirona,
pedlentl:) can rrutly inc~ t.M taftit' and ,.\i~ 8'i6l3). Within each major jUtijfle aNa thett! may operationa require certain chan,llY in normal doc- qualitl:catlfln and thol'(lu"h familiarization with
ability of radkt eommunkatioM in the junrte 'be a wiM variation tn type& of terrain .nd vep. trine and procedurM. TheM chanpa a~ not druw tlh!pboard inlltalled equipm,nt provided tor em
Other tethniquu whieh may bit applitid: tic. but do involve .~l.nted appJieatiott ot bule barked Arm,. units,
tation. Limitttio1\lll &H . .nerally NVf:.Nl:lt in up..
(4) UN OW (mol"1le code) mode rtf opera. principiell to a uniqlre environmi!nt. fn pnerill. is; InereMf'd m;liinif'n.n~ end w&terproot-
land fort'lllt areu; communkaUona in the ..vanna
tion on AM tot. when feu,hle, jungle riverine operationa will place .ddition.} Ifill requlremf'nll for all oommunkatiOM equip..
are eonaiderably MIller and l'naJ' approach nor~
(b) UN lon,-wirll ant4:nnu ot 14 wave deman(Ja nn the wmmunleatlona ruourcy rtf ment.
mal. while in &Wamp1 antM mobllity beeomM a
ien~ or lTuler hllte&d of whip or rod aNn-
major problem It I\'lay beeome eat,..mely diff\cult
""". (e) IneNlMe power, Tni, i. ulluaJly rtf
to nnd nrm around position. for hetvlu commun~ _ X. INI1WG1NCI
icatlOO.ll equipment.
only muainal vatu. u power mu..t be incf'9aMd
many times to obte:ln .aBaht incNfIUe In tan.., HS._I ot information un weather alld terrain, and thfItr
(4) Whip anttnJUI.I when UMd. .Irould bit eiT~ on both trif'ndly and \lMmy eoul"Ml of ac~
_ . eon.-......... I. J ..... Stability The basic principlell of combat Int4:lIlpnee and
lion. ia pnrequildte to th' Initiation of an oper-
.Urhtly tilted away from di.tant mUon. to im-
prove .ley wlVe proparatlon, F41"".
CommunlcaUona aupport: In jururle .tab1l1iy oper.
other in~lligence operationll Are applicable In
jungle operatinn&. However, certain upeeta of in~ ation in thl'un,lt.
(l,T"..",.",
(~) Carefully HIed frequendel to avoid aUorw hu tht followlnl' charlod.rlstlCl; t4lllipnce will rect'ift increued emphull beeau_
(1) luna" teJorllin il analyzed In terma of
Interference and atmoepherlc nruM. of the unusual C'harafteri.licti nf the junale I/lnvl~
(I) When f_lhle, U" Ilnrle aldebtnd Mlta
Inatead of conventional AN' radlOll u they pro-
4. LlmltatioDa on the nnrmal UH of wire ud
FN' tldlo requ!1. a fH&tl:r dependdce on multi,..
ronment. Suce-If!a&ful oPf'l'lliolUl in junal' .,....
will dtpend on the detelled knowledp nf tbt: ter-
the Ave mmta". MpecW; k,y terrain, ot.rYatlon
and nelda rtf fire, ~over lind tont!'l!alment, obllt..
vide more operatinr channelfll and a betUlr power_ channel VHF radio. indlldJnl' tha j)QMibla IlM of rain and climatology u well all its effects on per. des. and avenue uf apPl'Oal!h. ThHoe Mpeeta aNI
to-weiaht ratio. termlnala below brl,adt level. fIIonnel. equipment and luppliel. natural and man- dillCuMed In paravaph. 6-Zt and 8-2.8 thl'oup
(11) U . . around or urlal ~antrnjMlon made fellurell, and activitiell. Rouah terrain cOu. S-lI2.
b. Tadlcal unJte enppel in .tabl:llty II'peratlon.
.taUona to extend the ranre of tactical radio Nta. have an IncreMed need for communlcaUonl, IIJ' pled with denae veptation will impoMl limlta- (2) Geodatlc and map cOVera.. of mOllt Jun-
(1) 8M: FM 24-18 FM 24-2), and F'M dally at the lower leva1&.. Thla requinmllmt, eou- tlonfll on colleetlon f'fforU. Coll.etion plannlna ,Ie areall III nth"" limited ht My.ta.e and aceu-
31-73 fOr information on other Reld upedlentli, pled with t2w lowered performanc. ot l&etleal mUllt be d,lalled In ordf'r to Inllure adequ.te ;:ov- rlUlY. Thill create.. a requirement tor matet de-
t.ecluliques. and .pedatantlil'lnu, tldlo "te In. t.he junrle. may ntICeNitate aiq(l1Mtftw. erare ot the area: of operatlonll. In junale opera- tail In the collection and .nalyda of blttaln infor.
f,lItJi1ttmantfJ. latll;m of C<lmmunkatiou r..aun:'M.. lione !ncreaaed emp}laal:e: ill plae-ed on rapid di3- mAtion and IncNla.aM the mlrnitude of the effort
The iuntlll environment, complk:ate.
(J) c. Adyiaory and civic Kt.km effort. may be fM!:minaUon ot intsllipnce, Intellipncf' on spe- required, lunrl. operation. a,. Influenced to
m&inl.enance. uJ)4IClAlly at tIM! Operator hlvel, The hampu4!d by the hl1llt count.ry'a obaolete communi.
cific junllle aN!a ill df'rivecl from area and country lar... deane by tM v.riaU.oM of 11011 ttal'lnbllity
combination of hiih l.emparature and humidity eationa equipment whoM performanoo ma,. hi:
IItudlea j!,upplt'men~ with operat.lnnal intelli and tIw "ptaUon of the area. Thea topovaphll!
cau" a quk:k deterioration ot communication. onlY mar-,naL
pncl' collected ~ally, factoh aNI particularly Important when c01\l19r
equipment Wire and cable at\t o:poMd to tM Inr the crun-eol.lnt". movmneni of dt.mounted
damqi~ elTect. of WM.ther, tul'lpa and wildlife, 4, Sipal unit. may become tnvoJvtid in nhabll* tnlOpt or meeruanlsed unitt, .lId whm ~ttn,
ma1nteMnoe and eonatruction of the a t
_ . AnoIyoK 01 tho " ' - 01 Oponoliof..
and bIltterltl run down. even In awrap. itati~ landin,/drop mn... tor alrmobUe/airborne opera..
{2} ThoroUlJh and tr.quent operator m&lntl: eoufltry'a eomtnunlutiona fKiliti-. The analYll1a of a junKie area rtf operation. in- hona and artillery ftrinr ~Uona. lunrle opera..
n&nce ia etMnt!&l. Air eenditlonina 1& hlrhly tf* e. ClOIIe ~Uon with loc:aJ mlHtary eom~ IIOlvu the urn. conel"'raUona .. doa tn. anal,. tiOn. require that all unite: cuntlnuouab collect
teeuve a.a11\111t temper.tUN:, humidity and du.t f!;unieatlone ~nMl can provide UNtul Il'\for~ tlil of any other a,... of operlltlona. Tha collection ~.phic intormation, Awl r.coftnaiuaDCe

.....
~31-1J
'M :111-4.

and ,",rull phutography ~lin provjde valuable- ter. Il'} Intl"llillenn' plllnninif hi Ii ~ontinuoU!l:
lIjlt!nee wHl allllume Kreuter importan~t' when e R",'flllIl!IIK,{'HI(t' ami ,...!rn"iUlltUt'. Recon-
rAm inrormllU0I1: however, when the del!ired .n~ pf(l~ and the IntelllKence Omcer muat bt! ready friendly unlta Mort' {1p~'ratinlf In junglt' grehll eon- IlniMnn.-e gnd 1<ur,,'Iillnur'e in junJl'le operaUonOl
formalinn {'an out bt obtained by air mean,"" to provide Mil eiltimate ror tlw next operation and tiauouOl lo I)OpulatMl gre&ll. lIrt' dillt:UlVWU in PHrunlphlllS~& throut:h 1S-7.
xwund t'olle'CtiOl) lillendes *uch aA diBmounted pa- to revil!e the current elllimatt! to meet chan,lnlt
lmll'tnftY be employed \0 obtain the necesury ter- oper.tional conditiona. He actompUa~ thia by S.r:tlon XL MtUTARY poua
rain information. <,ol\t!nually updatinll' the intelllgenee requir ....
h, Wf'l1tAer, Periool'l of rainfall CAn Ul!uaUy be mentA, by evaluatina and pr~parinM' the eollection
$-sa. GeMrO:I minu. per battalion t/l.lllt fMl't' eM invoti.ICa-
!U,jU/l.d
plan, by IDUance of Iil'uidance. or<k!rs, .nd re- Combat ftupport and combat aervic:e support futu::- titln of aime lind the t'VfU'llllti.m of pthwner" of
Ilredirled with Ac(,uracy. The frequency and '101+
lionft ~uch l$Il thv collec:tion and evnt'U.tlon of pri.. wltr,
ume of rainfall muat bt! evaluated with re:Mpect to fjU~tll to information collection apncitHI and
ih e1'f('t't on operathmfl; e.Il . a heavy volume of lhrotq(h Ii continuoul check on the productivity of ()neN. of war alld tiviliall ll\ternee~; the control
rain may prohibit the u" of wheeled Or trac'ked the collection a,enciell. of indlviduala, refui(eft\, and the tivlUan popu- 3-60. Functionol Support Activit...
vf't'llciefl in the area and may impoH rel!iricUona
on the movement of foot troopa, For further .+
lib! on wellther in the jungle areas, flee parall't'aph
(2) (JOU?ctiOfl, All of the lUIuaJ aourcet of In
/ormntion are ....ailable in jult.ICle operations, Na.
tiven and t'ivi!i.,\& who live on the frinjWl of the
lace: the invefltigatinn of crimj;l; Uai!l.on and coor-
dination with other law enfortemtnt agentlea;
phyaieal iU!(!urity of indallationll and movement;
Millt.tlry pobre arc pMrti!:ulafY ~uited for f:!mploy.
Inent in the lolll,winif lallkK;
n. Halldt1H.q Prt~O'U'ff! of War nFt! Civil1fHf Ift-
6-2(, junlfle are pos.51ble lI!Ourcelll of ,nformation. 'They !lnd trame mntro! are routinely rejl,'lIrtk-d 1\)0 IIOf' tlTn!'!'II. In jUflJl'It' olleralion!! the handlinv of
mlhl be able to provide information on the ttr~ mal to military poli~e milJ.lliom! in aupp:ort of any prtl<\lfililT!\ uf Wllr nna t'jvlliull internees ...1lI be In
rain, enemy moWnH'Inta and diapoalt;lona, and Ib- type of comMt openUon5, An anah'lIia of each of 1l{'I'nraalU'I' with prinl'lplt'~ IIlld prOC'f'dllrea con.
:&-57. Opwotfon, KllltirAI &upport .!Ivallable W the enemy_ All nvall thl'Jle fu ~tion,", to determlne itl! l"X'rtint'nO! In lalllt'd In .~M 19->Ill or MJ1Hi/l.!lIlgnltkance ia the
5, Jtlttolli"rnu C~z.,., The lI'eneraJ doctriM, llble Ml'nciel will 'be ut.iHf.l!d to collect informa> \he junKle envirollment, the exiatj;lncj;l lind extent fMt thd thv evftculltion "f ('aptured personnel
methoda, and proctdurfl8 for collection planninll'. lion in Ctlmronance with their capabilitiM-. Patrola of any "pedal l)f'(Iblf!1'nll or cOllllideration. in~ (rllm All unit If'veb. l'llll be mUff:! jlraetitally ac-
('ollecting. procealling end diaeeminatlng, and and uther amall unit adiortl'l are axtenaively em YOlved, the amount of military poli~e rellOuree8 rHmpliJihed by the UM! r aif tr.nlll)(lri.a\lon, The
ulllin.IC intem~ni'e are coveroo in FM :W-~6, The ployed to hx:ate enemy unitll. These patrols are t'eq\llred for inteltration in a combined arma Ilr- POlential ot limiled {~(Imbat reK()l11'U1I at the taak
tllCCf!M of jun,ll'lt: combat operationlll may tMpend O'ften the brat apney for the collection of infor- pnization, and the tapability and eft'ecUvefJe611 of 'm'(1~ If:!vel call beHt be enhanf'ed by mliitary po-
on accura~ and limely intelliienef' which I. rap. mation ('QnCf!'rnini the terram and the enemy, military poilu platoo. and M!llarate squad ele- lice HUP1U)rt pt!rHtlOnel ill prOfeAAinK, irtIArdlnl'.
idly diueminawd to Utf' UAer level. The activltifAl Lontt-ranie re-connalnance patrols and ambuah menta for providing necegary aupport dUrinit' jun- and eva .... uliting l'el)tured perKolltlet The elfectl\'e"
connedf'd with InteJll~nee operation,", follow a p&trolll are employed t& a mu.:h veater extent in II'le operationa mWlt bf determined &.II a part of n9111 or Much lYllt! support ill patent parUclllarly in
four-atep cycle oriented on the tomrrat;der'a mla' jun,ll'le operationA .nd aN! a lJood means for (Olw the normnl planninlf !Wquli:"nre before each OpeTll_ thOle situations ... hue captured pereonntl mutt
Aion. Sped ..1 eonllideratkona for Intelligence prod+ lectlnllinformatlon. Beeau" radio ill normally ell tlGn. Standard lIupporl prnc!i:"durell ror each type 00 held In the immediate ar1!& of operations ler-
uchon in elllch J'ltep of t.he cyde dgrini Junlle sentia' for communieation in junl1e operationa. tuk forte organtution, e,If" brix:nde Dr lnIttlllion, owrniaht periooR while awaitintr evacuation
Qper.t.iona are di3(uued belo.... radio intercept clin be utilized effectively &II a col- may t"(IQuire modllkahnn in a junli'!e environ_ me.atlA.
{I) Colkoctjon plinnti'ltg, ,M In conventional lection means, e"en to lower comba~ tchelona. ment. ('.fiMlderation n1 extended diatanee8 be- b. Tro.61t C(mlml. The volume of trad\c move*
op<eraUonA, the objectJ\tf towarda whkh intellltr {:H pratealing. The 8equenCu In proeeulng tween unilfl, the dlverllities of mifllliorut, l!e-para~ mentft durlrtir Jungle operation.! ... 11l be siplft
ence activitiel iA diretted will bt! the commander'a intormtion inlh intelli,rent:e d~ndll upon the Hon from parent diviftjon, lIerufity need" of 10ifiH. cantLy redueed due lu thl" limited roa,d net prohl~
de~ermination of hi. Intelliff1\t:e TequlN!menta. nature and the urgency of the Information. Alw tlt:al inlluUationl! and lineft of rommuniutlon re
quirln~ Ii greater dB(entraliutilln 01 the tontrol
bllion ot
individual vehide movement, lnc~
The rommander'A intelligene.l reqll~nmfnb an thou.h recordin, of information is usually the delivery of personnel and materiel by air, and
thoe.e facti! whieh he needI to know coneemlDi tint step, thertl are many hatanle in junlle of military pollee aupport, an inereaHd reliance conatant threat of eMmy I!.ctlvdy. Accordin,q,
the weather, (.eonain, and the enel'l'lY in OMfr to combat when recordln, may occur aimultaneouiay upon ai.KI"Ii1t aupport, and the tMgradation of Otmande fnr military polit:e baffic control txupt
allCfiNlafully execute hili &.llilianed miuion, 'J"heIJe With evaluation and inwrpretatkm or even "ter. FM radio rommunietl.tlons. all IOfil.ll!1l('e lind add I,() in Mupport bliae nreaa are proportionately de-
intellilJence ~quirementa I1Infra11y ean be dl Thla: ia Mpedally t.rue ()f inlormatloo coneerning the requiremente Ilf tlw military police- !lUpport creaaed &II compared to the atMUnt normally H-
vi.d~ into t~ brOf.O clIotqoriea---nl*ntilil elt}. enemy tarpta. A time la, !n the prott!!lfling of In- orpnlu.tion and prtx:euureH natldeu to nUl(ment '1ulred by brigade opel.Uonll in morf:! conven_
ments of information (EEl) Mond 4ther intelll- formatlon may mean diaalpaUon of the tarret. the tp'k forre lind itt: various support adivlt.i... tional combat opeut!OIl.l. As In atabllity oper
rence requiremente (OlR). (") DiuemiMtimi OM we. The timely cH... tinnll, tramc control technlquea muat be modifted
(<<) EMenUal Elementl of Information It aemmat!on or Avanable In~llI~nee and lte lmtnfl_ to rednce unnecesury elCpoIlIN! to l60Iated tttemy
d.t\n.d .. those critical items of information ,.. diate UR 1ft of vital importance 1n junllk opera~ In mort' roflY*ntional oper"tiona military potiet attack by JIIub5tltulinr tramc eK'Uru for traffic
,ardin, the enemy and hia environment, need- tiona. In ord.r to &t:compUah this it may be neeu operate in relatively IM!eUN! rear area with wjde control points and motor patrols whereV\H' poul*
ed by the commander by a part!eul&t time, to re- auy to ~t.abuh and maintain additional H'O- freedom of mOVM'lenl and Mfdy for df'ployment ble, There wtll normally be a oopr number of
tau 'WIth other auilabit Information and lJrt,al munltAtlon mean! to expedite tM diauml1llltion in amall numbers or even .. indivldllal&. These detllM and el'(lllainif altes that will raqllire tratlk
II~ in order to ... i,t him In reaehina a loai~ of In~lI,enCf!. 'Thla would 1.0 Hrve to upedite control. In addition, prellcribed dilltancu and In-
condit!OM do not exillt in junile operationl; eon-
eal declalon. Any fntmY eaPAbiUty or characterla- the J1:JlQrtina of information, lMIqu"ntly, operational methoda mlJ11t 'be adjusted tervalll between vehicular elemell!.l In m..ard: col.
tie of the anaa whkh la a I'OYfrninlil' factor In the umnll muat be morE! rlgldly malllUJned to Mute
,f). COtiKterillittliUgenc:e. Counterlntelu.ette4! in to fU a l1ew and cotllltsnUy chanrini Iltuation
eommandilr'a det:lalon on the cholet of a COli'" of with the l!:hltl of ,",Upport emphallia from one the ambnsh threat to convllya and to prevent
IICtlon wm bt an EEt Junile opratwne eona.lat. of meanl to dlllCt'ive the daml\P to the limiU!d road net. See FM 31-22 (or
enemy. deny the enemy informaUon, &nd detect fundional area to another. rllr in.Uance, organiu.
(b) other Int:alli,ence Jit.equinl'lMnta are tional fral[tnootation down to ,",quad and team further detallA of tran.!portation lOCurlty.
datlned command and other Mff requirement.
&.II and elI:poIe, or neutrallae. the etHlm,. eaplon.....
aubvenion and ..botare effort. Counterintel- level may be net_ltated, e,Il,. OM military poliee e. Ph'V6icc.l Srcurilv and POfIukl.Uetl AKd R ..
which do not qualify IIa EEl,
.....
'Mll-U

4CIII"Ct". ConITOt, Mll;ny (If the' teebniq\lel e'm- v.IIllle m lIut'h crltiul ball4l aN$!! U alrl\eld~, mu-
ploytld (01" mutr()l !>( the civil populace:, throu5fh ultil,nR storaJ(!! areml, and other "'"111)1'1)' dumll!!.
liai!lOn Ilnd rombh~l opcrllUolll1 witb civil law Soo }<'M 11/:-:m for taPflbllitiell and advant.qv!l fit
l1'nrorceml'flt ew.:irut, art' routine military police ,'fI,rlOUII m~1lII of phY4klli r.ecurU.v.
function/!. in to stability operation fl,lthouJI'b tbey
are not .... ncrRlly referred to or ihou5fhl of HI thiN d. CnminalltuflliiRfltto'lt. The Investigation of
terminololl'Y Enforcemellt of eurl~l'I: cbeckpoint .:nmiulIJ IIodivili(!1I while u~ually initiaW by duty
operll;tiurll> to include idl'ntifleati<1I'I of individual.!! mIlitary p<,li('~ nortnally mUllt tM' acoompl!/lh...d by
and vcrll\clltiun or mfl,nif~ts aJl'ainst nrjf't'leA; s.cae<Htetl rrimina' Invelltilfaton. InCIdent TfI,tPII
"l'Qf'(>hf'it of indiViduals, motnr veilid_. boab!:, experiellred durin51' brigade and battalion IIUh!
bulldln,.R ,ltnd arbaR; jlH!illlre of evJdfnce and con operationll twd criminal !nveIltJ ..atlve flUpf\/1. ~
traband; and the euaduct of raid., are .11 routine quired will depend upon area ~llIe of operation.,
artivities. of normal military police operaUons in tb~ liutnber and di!!trlbution of lhe civil popula~.
t~ ltupport ot the romm",nder, The major dilfer- and the lanJ(1JaJ(t! barrit"r involved. Th~n! III no
enen in tbe appllcation of tb... technique/! in rule.of.thumb meaHU'N!ment which wiU conlltltute
juni~ o~rations I" on the 8Ca~ !n wblth the), are lfuidanee tor the appropTis.te deployment oJ su('h
employtld to support the tniMlon of the talk force aperialisu to batta!ion.lli"r:ed unit 81n~ tha provl-
commander, Under ideal tonditiona wheNin a weI! "ifln of Iwt'h lIupport I" alway" tompllcated by the
orunia.ed, efflelent civil poUte force Is .Iready In utelKied dhltant~. bflween lIupponln .. baus and
uiatentf'. military police lIupport reqult'flrlente In areM of operations in tl"lthtl"r jumrle or fltllblllty
the bua areu or the rommander rna)' be IImlW operatiomi. However, with greater reliance upon
to manninll chtK:kpolntl, lI8CUrity of RTound linea Iwailability of airlift into th. afOOlI of operation.
of communication., and Installation lecurity, In f\<!I!l'!ible it ia mort! practical to hold thia limited
the lat.tu function lIentry duJl' unib! will have ",!lOur=, on ~all in th~ ne.rellt hue area,