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APA Worksheet

Citing and Referencing

True or False

1. ______ You must always credit the source whether you are paraphrasing, directly
quoting, or describing other works. (T)
2. ______ You can copy your own work without plagiarizing. (F)
3. ______ A block quote is a quote that is more than 30 words. (F)
4. ______ You do not need to enclose a block quote in quotation marks. (T)
5. ______ If a quotation appears in mid-sentence, you should wait until the end of the
sentence to cite the source. (F)
6. ______ When paraphrasing material you are required to cite the source. (T)
7. ______ If there is not a page number available for a quote, you do not need to include
anything but the author and date. (F)
8. ______ When adding emphases to a word in a quote you should place the word in
brackets. (F)
9. ______ You do need to include both the name and year in parentheses in subsequent
citations within the paragraph. (T)
10. ______ You should never cite personal communications. (F)

Quoting and Paraphrasing Examples:

Circle any APA violations in each of the examples given below.

1. Nontraditional or adult students are part of one of the fastest growing populations at

postsecondary institutions (Fairchild 2003).

2. delayed enrollment in college, part-time attendance, financial independence, full-time

employment, dependents other than a spouse, single parenthood, or failed to graduate

from high school (Choy, 2002; and Horn, 1996).

3. Nontraditional students are the fastest growing population in higher education but the

attrition rate for these students is around 32% (Allen, 1993) and (Fairchild, 2003, p. 11).
4. Best and Kahn (2006, p. 118) defined descriptive research as concerned with

conditions or relationships that exist, opinions that are held, processes that are going on,

effects that are evident or trends that are developing.

5. Key words used to locate relevant literature included nontraditional students, student

identity, role strain, and adult learners.

6. Cross (1980) stated, The term (nontraditional students) is generally used to describe

adult part-time learners who carry full-time adult responsibilities in addition to their


7. Fairchild (2003) reported on other common traits shared by nontraditional students,

Typically, adults are on campus only for classes or administrative requirements, as

opposed to social or athletic activities (OConnor, 1994), and they navigate college

independently, without an age cohort (Benshoff and Lewis, 1992) (p. 11).

8. The resulting role strain affected student performance and was often a factor in student

attrition. (Polson, 1993; & Scott, Burns, and Cooney, 1996; & Tyler, 1993)

9. Nontraditional students were often classified as a group with poor study skills, poor time

management, deficits in basic general education skills, age-related deficits in cognition,

and poor academic performance (Ely, 1997; Kasworm, 1990; Richardson and King,

1998). Richardson et al. (1998) stated, as a result of their research,

It is clear that adult students are consistently stigmatized in terms of their

capacity to benefit from higher education and that these negative stereotypes are

shared by at least some educators, both as individuals and also corporately

through organizations such as the APA.

(p. 69
10. Richardson and Kings research was focused on disputing the negative images

attributed to nontraditional students.

11. Most students did well in introductory courses designed to improve these skills but

disliked the courses being labeled remedial. (Ely, 1997).

12. The felt student identity is often based on perceptions of what a student should be or the

ideal student image (Kasworm, 2005, p. 10).

13. The student identity was weak or nonexistent as students complained they did not feel

like proper students (p. 325).

14. Maddi, Harvey, Khoshaba, Lu, Persico, and Brow (2006) described hardiness as a

personality characteristic that is a combination of commitment, control and challenge.

Hardy individuals also believe that challenges provide opportunities for growth,

regardless of the outcome (Maddi, Harvey, Khoshaba, Lu, Persico, & Brow, 2006).

Reference List Examples

Circle each of the APA violations in the reference list examples below.

1. Bai, H., Wei, P. (2009-2010). A Multilevel Approach To Assessing The Interaction Effects

On College Student Retention. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory

and Practice, 11(1), 287-301. doi:10.2190/CS.11.2.g

2. Caulfield, J.(2007, September). Walk this way. Builder, 30(11). Retrieved on May 31, 2007


3. Erlich, M., and Grabelsky, J. (2005, November) Standing at a crossroads: the building

trades in the twenty-first century. Labor History, 46(4), 421-445. doi:

4. Fava, G.A., & Tomba, E. (2009, December). Increasing psychological well-being and

resilience by psychotherapeutic methods. Journal of Personality, 77(6) 1903-1934. doi:


5. Pearson, R. W. (2010). Statistics as relationships. In Statistical persuasion (pp. 238, 219).

Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage.

6. Best, J. W., and Kahn, J. V. (2006). Research in Education (10th ed.). Boston: Allyn and

7. Berkove, G. F. (1979). Perceptions of Husband Support by Returning Women Students.

The Family Coordinator, 28 (4), 451-457. Retrieved from

8. Ely, E. (1997, April). The non-traditional student. Paper presented at the American

Association of Community Colleges 77th Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA.

Retrieved from


9. Johnson, G. C. , & Watson, G. (2004). Oh Gawd, How Am I Going to Fit Into This?:

Producing (mature) first-year student identity. Language and Education, 18(6),

474-487. Retrieved from