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Materials for the

Fertilizer Industry
Section 1 Introduction
Presenter:
Gary Coates, P.Eng.
Nickel Institute
Toronto, Canada
Together with:
Indian Stainless Steel
Development Association
July 29, 2016
For: FACT
Kerala State
India
Materials for the Fertilizer Industry
PROGRAM

Program for today


1) Introduction to Stainless Steels
2) Understanding Corrosion / How to Minimize
3) Fabrication / Welding

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Materials for the Fertilizer Industry
Introduction

What is stainless steel?


Iron + Iron +
< 11% chromium > 11% chromium

Oxide Film (Rust) Passive Oxide Film

Alloy Stainless
Steel Steel

Passive means protective


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Materials for the Fertilizer Industry
Introduction

Types of Stainless Steel (SS)


There are several hundred different types of
stainless steel in 5 families, based on the alloy
content, with different properties.
Corrosion resistance varies widely within a family.
Many different SS alloys from all families are used
in the fertilizer industry, depending on the type of
fertilizer being made.

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Types of Stainless Steel (SS)


Based on metallographic phases
Austenitic 300 and 200 series
Martensitic part of 400 series, hardenable
Ferritic other part of 400 series, not hardenable
PH grades hardenable (600 series)
Duplex 2 phase

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Families of Stainless Steel


300 series austenitic, nickel-containing
- mostly commonly used family, e.g. 304L, 316L
- general good corrosion resistance
- not brittle at low temperature
- good strength at high temperature
- good weldability, formability
- non-magnetic
200 series - austenitic, high manganese, lower
nickel;
- not used much in the fertilizer industry
- non-magnetic

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Families of Stainless Steel


400 series (no or very low nickel content)
2 families, one hardenable, one not hardenable
Hardenable type martensitic - e.g. 410, 420, 440C.
- generally low corrosion resistance
- normally quite soft in the annealed condition, need to
be heat treated to obtain high hardness and high
strength. Low ductility.
- like tool steels, but better corrosion resistance
- used mostly where high hardness is necessary (knives)
- not easily welded
- magnetic

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Families of Stainless Steel


400 series (no or very low nickel content)
2 families, one hardenable, one not hardenable
Non-Hardenable type, ferritic - e.g. 430, 444, 446.
- generally good corrosion resistance
- difficult to weld in heavier section
- brittle at low T, weak at high T
- used only in specialized applications in the fertilizer
industry
- magnetic

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Introduction

Families of Stainless Steel


PH (Precipitation Hardenable) series (moderate nickel
content)
- complex group of materials that harden differently
- most common alloy is 17-4PH
- slightly better corrosion resistance than martensitic
- can not be hardened as high as martensitic
- used only in specialized applications in the fertilizer
industry

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Introduction

Families of Stainless Steel


Duplex (austenitic-ferritic) series (moderate nickel
content)
- duplex = 2 phase; roughly 50% austenite, 50% ferrite.
- most common alloy is 2205.
- good corrosion resistance and wear resistance (range
from low alloyed to high alloyed)
- these are used in the fertilizer industry worldwide.

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Role of Main Alloying Elements in SS


Chromium (Cr) - increases corrosion resistance;
304L has about 18.5% Cr; most of the 200 series alloys
have less than 16% Cr. Some of the 400 series have as
low as 10.5% Cr.
Molybdenum (Mo) - increases corrosion resistance
in many acids (not nitric) and in chloride solutions; 304L
has no Mo, 316L has 2.0% min., 317L has 3.0% min.,
904L has 4.0% min., some have 6.0% min.
Nickel (Ni) promotes austenitic structure, giving
ductility, toughness (cryogenic), weldability; increases
corrosion resistance certain chemicals; gives high
temperature strength.
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Role of Main Alloying Elements in SS


Copper (Cu) - increases corrosion resistance in
certain acids, e.g. sulphuric acid.
Nitrogen (N) - increases corrosion resistance to
chlorides, increased strength; promotes austenitic
structure, replacing some of the nickel.
Carbon (C) gives high temperature strength, but
reduces corrosion resistance of weldments.
Note: use low carbon grades L for corrosion-resisting
applications; H grades (guaranteed min. C level) can
be used for high temperature applications.

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Role of Main Alloying Elements in SS


Titanium (Ti) & Niobium (Nb) 321 and 347 are
similar to 304, but with Ti (321) or Nb (347) which will tie
up the carbon. In the past have been used instead of
304L in corrosive services. Today 321 and 347 are used
primarily for high temperature applications, having good
strength at elevated temperatures.
Silicon (Si) used in some cases for special nitric
acid grades.

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Introduction

300 Series Austenitic Stainless Steels


304 and 304L are the most commonly produced
SS grades in the world.
303 is similar to 304, but is more easily
machined. However the high sulphur content
means lower corrosion resistance than 304 in
some environments. Used in round bar form for
fasteners, pump shafts.
It is essentially non-weldable.
316L is the 2nd most common SS grade used
industrially.
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Introduction

300 Series Austenitic Stainless Steels


Grade Cr Ni Mo N C(max) Other
304 18.5 8.5 0.05 0.08
304L 18.5 8.5 0.06 0.03
321 18 10 - 0.04 0.08 Ti = 5xC
316L 17 10.5 2.2 0.06 0.03
317L 18 11.5 3.2 0.06 0.03
904L 20 25 4.2 0.02 0.02 Cu
6%Mo* 19-20 18-24 6.2 0.20 0.02 Cu

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6Mo Austenitic Stainless Steels


A family of previously proprietary stainless steels,
all with about 6% min. Mo.
Trade Name UNS Nbr Cr Ni Mo N Other
254 SMO S31254 20 18 6.2 0.20 Cu
AL6XN N08367 21 25 6.4 0.22
25-6Mo N08926 20 25 6.3 0.20 Cu
1925HMo
4565 S34565 24 17 4.2 0.5 Mn

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300 Series Austenitic Stainless Steels


While 316L is more corrosion resistant than 304L
in most chemical environments, there are some
chemicals, e.g. nitric acid, where 304L is more
corrosion resistant than 316L.
At one time, 304-type materials were the lowest
corrosion resistant available that were non-
magnetic. Today, some low Cr 200 series are
found by mistake on the market these alloys
may have considerably lower corrosion
resistance than 304L.
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Duplex Stainless Steels


Used in some fertilizer plants where:
One particular form of corrosion occurs on 304L
or 316L, chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC).
For coastal plants, this is often CUI (Corrosion
Under Insulation)
Where higher strength than 304L or 316L, used in
pump shafts.
Where wear resistance, especially to slightly
abrasive and corrosive chemicals.
Need special care in welding and fabrication.
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Duplex Stainless Steels


A complete family:
Lean (low alloyed) duplex (2101, 2304).
Standard duplex (2205)
Superduplex (2507, Z100)
Hyperduplex

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Duplex Stainless Steels

UNS Min. Yield Min. Tensile Min.


Strength Strength Elongation
MPa MPa %
2205 450 690 25
S32750 550 795 15

316/316L 210 515 40


S31254 300 650 35

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Corrosion-Resisting Nickel Alloys


Different families of nickel alloys
Nickel alloy families Nickel alloy families
containing chromium without chromium
Ni-Cr-Fe (e.g. Alloy 800) CP Nickel (e.g. Alloy 200)
Ni-Cr-Mo-Fe (e.g. Alloy 825) Ni-Cu (e.g. Alloy 400)
Ni-Cr (e.g. Alloy 600) Ni-Mo (e.g. Alloy B-2)
Ni-Cr-Mo (e.g. 625, C-type)

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Corrosion-Resisting Nickel Alloys


Alloy % Cr % Mo % Ni %Fe Other
800 21 - 32 45
825 20 3.0 40 33 Cu
600 15.5 - 75 8
C-276 16 16 57 5 W, Co, V
B-2 0.5 28 68 1
400 - - 65 1 Bal. Cu
200 - - 99.3 0.2
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Welds
300 series welds:
- for corrosion applications, generally use the L
grade welding rods.
- most 300 grade welds are slightly magnetic (as
are castings); there is a magnetic phase (ferrite)
in austenitic weld metal (2-12% ferrite typical);
- the presence of ferrite is generally beneficial for
ensuring high quality welds, but can cause the
weld to be less corrosion resistant in a few
environments, e.g. in certain parts of the urea
plant. Also can be a problem at cryogenic
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Welds
Base metal 1 Base metal 2 Filler metal Comments
304L 304L 308L Limit ferrite in certain appl.
304L C-steel 309L
316L 316L 316L Limit ferrite in certain appl.
317L 317L 317L In high chloride appl., use
904L or higher
904L 904L 904L or In high chloride appl., use
ENiCrMo-3 ENiCrMo-3
2205 2205 2209 matching filler metal, but
has 4% more Ni than base
6Mo 6Mo ENiCrMo-3 Does not exist a matching
or -10 etc. filler metal.
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???QUESTIONS???

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