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N A S A T

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N A S A T-T F-542

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KtRTtANO AFB, N MU(

AERODYNAMICS A N D FLIGHT DYNAMICS


OF TURBOJET AIRCRAFT

Tramport Press, Moscozc; 1967

N A T I O N A L A E R O N A U T I C S A N D SPACE A D M I N I S T R A T I O N W A S H I N G T O N , D. C. SEPTEMBER 1969


TECH LIBRARY KAFB, NM

IllllllllslllllllllllllI

AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT DYNAMICS OF TURBOJET AIRCRAFT

By T. I. Ligum

Translation of "Aerodinamika i Dinamika Poleta

Turboreaktivnykh Samoletov"

Transport Press, Moscow, 1967

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMlN ISTRATION


For sale by the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information
Springfield, Virginia 22151- CFSTl price $3.00
Table o f Contents

Introduction .
vi

Chapter 1 . The P h y s i c a l Basis o f High-speed Aerodynamics .


1
5 1 . V a r i a t i o n s i n t h e Parameters o f A i r w i t h A l t i t u d e .

The Standard Atmosphere .


1
52. C o m p r e s s i b i l i t y o f A i r .
5

53. The Propagation o f Small Disturbences i n A i r

Sound and Sound Waves .


5
54. The Speed o f Sound as a C r i t e r i o n f o r t h e C o m p r e s s i b i l i t y

o f Gases .
7
55. The Mach Number and i t s Value i n F l i g h t Problems .
8
56. F l i g h t Speed. C o r r e c t i o n s t o Instrument Readings N e c e s s i t a t e d

by C o m p r e s s i b i l i t y 9

7. The Character o f t h e Propagation o f Minor P e r t u r b a t i o n s

i n F l i g h t a t Various A l t i t u d e s 11
58. Trans- o r Supersonic Flow. o f A i r Around Bodies .
14
59. Sonic "boom".
15
510. Features o f t h e Formation o f Compression Shock During Flow

Around Various Shapes o f Bodies.


18
911. C r i t i c a l Mach Number. The E f f e c t o f C o m p r e s s i b i l i t y on t h e

Motion o f A i r F l y i n g Around a Wing .


20
912. The Dependence o f t h e Speed o f t h e Gas Flow on t h e Shape

o f t h e Channel. The Lava1 Nozzle .


22
13. Laminar and T u r b u l e n t Flow o f A i r .
22
514. Pressure D i s t r i b u t i o n a t Sub- and S u p e r c r i t i c a l Mach Numbers
24

Chapter I I . Aerodynamic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Wing and A i r c r a f t .

The E f f e c t o f A i r C o m p r e s s i b i l i t y 27
5 1 . The Dependence o f t h e C o e f f i c i e n t c on t h e Angle o f A t t a c k .
27
Y

92. The E f f e c t o f t h e Mach Number on t h e Behavior o f t h e Dependence


c = f(a)
Y

.
30
93. The P e r m i s s i b l e C o e f f i c i e n t c p e r and i t s Dependence on t h e

Mach Number . Y
31
54. Dependence o f t h e C o e f f i c i e n t c on t h e Mach Number f o r F l i g h t
Y

a t a Constant Angle o f A t t a c k .
32
55. The A f f e c t o f t h e Mach Number o f t h e C o e f f i c i e n t cx .
33
56. Wing Wave Drag .
36
57. I n t e r f e r e n c e .
38
58. The A i r c r a f t P o l a r . The E f f e c t o f t h e Landing Gear and Wing
Mechanization on t h e P o l a r .
59. The A f f e c t o f t h e Mach Number on t h e A i r c r a f t P o l a r .
Chapter I l l . Some Features o f Wing C o n s t r u c t i o n .
43
I. Means o f I n c r e a s i n g t h e C r i t i c a l Mach Number .
43

iii

52. Features o f Flow Around Swept Wings . . 49

53, Wing C o n s t r u c t i o n i n T u r b o j e t Passenger A i r ' c r a f t . * 53

54. Drag Propagation Between Separate P a r t s o f A i r c r a f t . 59

Chapter I V . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Power System . . 61

51. T w o - C i r c u i t and Turbofan Engines . . 61

52. Basic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T u r b o j e t Engines . . 66

53. T h r o t t l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 67

4. High-speed C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 69

5. H i g h - A l t i t u d e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 71

56. The E f f e c t o f A i r Temperature on T u r b o j e t Engine T h r u s t . . 72

S7. T h r u s t Horsepower . . 73

98. P o s i t i o n i n g t h e Engines on t h e A i r c r a f t . . 74

Chapter V . Takeoff. . 81

51. Taxiing . . 81

92. Stages o f T a k o f f . . 81

53. Forces A c t i n g on t h e A i r c r a f t D u r i n g t h e T a k e o f f Run and Takeoff 84

54. Length o f Takeoff Run. L i f t - o f f Speed. . 87

55. Methods o f Takeoff. . 88

56. F a i l u r e o f Engine During T a k e o f f . . 90

7. I n f l u e n c e o f Various F a c t o r s on T a k o f f Run Length . . 98

58. Methods o f Improving Takeoff C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 100

Chapter V I . Climbing . . 105

51. Forces A c t i n g on A i r c r a f t . . 105

2. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Yost S u i t a b l e C l i m b i n g Speed . . 107

53. V e l o c i t y Regime o f Climb . . 110

94. Noise Reduction Methods. . 111

S5. Climbing w i t h One Motor Not Operating . . 115

Chapter VI I . H o r i z o n t a l F1 i g h t . . 116

51. Diagram o f Forces A c t i n g on A i r c r a f t . . 116

52. Required T h r u s t f o r H o r i z o n t a l F l i g h t . . 117

53. Two H o r i z o n t a l F l i g h t Regimes . . 120

54. I n f l u e n c e o f E x t e r n a l A i r Temperature on Required T h r u s t . . 121

55. Most Favorable H o r i z o n t a l F1 i g h t Regimes. I n f l u e n c e o f


A1 t i tude and Speed . . 123

$6. D e f i n i t i o n o f Required Q u a n t i t y o f Fuel . . 129

57. F1 i g h t a t the " C e i l ings" . 131

58. P e r m i s s i b l e F l y i n g A l t i t u d e s . I n f l u e n c e o f A i r c r a f t Weight . 133

59. ' Engine F a i l u r e During H o r i z o n t a l F1 i g h t . . 134

510. Minimum P e r m i s s i b l e H o r i z o n t a l F l i g h t Speed. . 136

Chapter VIII. Descent . 138

5 1 . General Statements. Forces A c t i n g on A i r c r a f t

During Descent . . 138

52. Most Favorable Descent Regimes . * 139

53. P r o v i s i o n o f Normal C o n d i t i o n s i n Cabin During

High A l t i t u d e F l y i n g . . 140

54. Emergency Descent .


. 144
Chapter I X . T h e Landing .
. 150
51. Diagrams of Landing Approach .
. 150
52. Flight After Entry into Glide Path.

Selection of Gliding Speed .


. 151
53. Stages in the Landing .
. 154
54. Length of Post-landing Run and Methods

of Shortening it .
. 158
55. Length of Landing Run As a Function of Various

Operational Factors .
. 163
56. Specific Features of Landing Runs o n Dry, Ice o r

Snow Covered Runways .


. 164
57. Landing with Side Wind
. 167
58. T h e "Minimum" Weather for Landings and Takeoffs
. 168
59. Moving into a Second Circle
. 171'
Chapter X. Cornering .
. 173
5 1 . Diagram of Forces Operating During Cornering .
. 173
52. Cornering Parameters .
. 174
Chapter X I . Stability and Controlability of Aircraft
. 177
5 1 . General Concepts o n Aircraft Equilibrium .
. 177
52. Static and Dynamic Stability .
. 178
53. Controllability of an Ai rcraft .
. 181
54. Centering of the A rcraft and Mean Aerodynamic Chord
. 184
55. Aerodynamic Center of Wing and Aircraft.

Neutral Center i ng
. 185
56. Longitudinal Equil brium .
. 188
57. Static Longitudina Overload Stabi 1 i ty .
. 190
58. Diagrams o f Moments .
. 194
59. Static Longitudinal Velocity Stability .
. 195
510. Longitudinal Control labi 1 i ty .
. 197
5 1 1 . Construction of Balancing Curve for Deflection

of Elevator .
. 199
512. Vertical Gusts. Permissible M Number in

Cruising F1 ight ,
. 203
513. Permissible Overloads During a Vertical Maneuver
. 205
514. Behavior of Aircraft a t Large Angles of Attack .
. 206
515. Automatic Angle of Attack and Overload Device .
. 212
516. Lateral Stability .
. 213
517. Transverse Static Stabi 1 i ty
. 214
518. Directional Static Stabi 1 ity .
. 216
519. Lateral Dynamic Stabi 1 i ty .
. 2i6
520. Yaw Damper .
. 218
521. Transverse Control 1 ab i 1 i ty .
. 223
522. Directional Controllability. Reverse Reaction

for Banking .
. 225
923. Involuntary Banking ('lValezhka'l)
. 229

124. I n f l u e n c e o f C o m p r e s s i b i l i t y o f A i r on C o n t r o l

Surface E f f e c t i v e n e s s . . 230

525. Methods o f Decreasing Forces on A i r c r a f t C o n t r o l Levers . . 231

526. Balancing o f t h e A i r c r a f t During T a k e o f f and Landing . 233

Chapter X I I. I n f l u e n c e o f I c i n g on F l y i n g C h a r a c t e r f s t i c s . 236

l. General Statements . . 236

52. Types and Forms o f I c e Deposi t i o n . In t e n s i t y o f

Icing . . 237

S3. I n f l u e n c e o f I c i n g on S t a b i l i t y and C o n t r o l l a b i l i t y

o f A i r c r a f t i n P r e - l a n d i n g Guide Regime . . 239

vi
I NTRODUCTI ON

Jet-powered passenger a i r c r a f t have been adopted and introduced i n t o


g e n e r a l use i n c i v i l a v i a t i o n .
-
/ 3*

The f i r s t t u r b o j e t passenger a i r c r a f t b u i l t i n t h e S o v i e t Union w a s t h e


Tu-104, and t h e first f o r e i g n t u r b o j e t s were t h e De Havilland Comet, t h e
Sud Aviation Caravelle, t h e Boeing-707, t h e Douglas DC-8, t h e Convair 880 and
o t h e r s . These a i r c r a f t have been given t h e name f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n t u r b o j e t
aircraft.

In b u i l d i n g t h e first t u r b o j e t passenger a i r c r a f t , t h e designers attempted


t o achieve long f l i g h t range and t o p e r f e c t t h e high-speed p r o p e r t i e s of t h e
a i r c r a f t , thereby compensating f o r t h e heavy f u e l consumption r e q u i r e d by t h e
j e t engines. The d e s i r e t o c r e a t e new a i r c r a f t capable o f competing w i t h
t h e o l d passenger a i r c r a f t which were equipped with highly economic p i s t o n
engines l e d t o a maximum i n c r e a s e i n t h e l i f t i n g c a p a c i t y , and f l i g h t d i s
t a n c e and speed. The r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e s e q u a l i t i e s became p o s s i b l e only
because of t h e appearance of j e t engines.

Experience i n using a i r c r a f t has shown t h a t t u r b o j e t passenger a i r c r a f t


may be economic n o t only i n terms of long-range f l i g h t , b u t f o r medium- and
even s h o r t - r a n g e f l i g h t as w e l l . As a r e s u l t , second-generation t u r b o j e t
passenger a i r c r a f t have appeared: i n t h e S o v i e t Union t h e r e a r e t h e Tu-124,
t h e Tu-134 and t h e Yak-40, w h i l e abroad t h e r e are- t h e D e Havilland-121
"Tridentf1, t h e Bak-1-11, t h e Boeing-727, t h e DC-9'and o t h e r s . These air
c r a f t a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y s m a l l e r i n dimensions and intended f o r u s e on s h o r t -
range n e t s . The high power and low u n i t load on t h e wing permit f l i g h t s
from a i r f i e l d s having r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t take-off and landing runways.

Turbojet engines surpass p i s t o n engines i n r e l i a b i l i t y . With t h e i r


s h o r t time i n s e r i e s production and u s e , s e r v i c e p e r i o d s o f 2,000 - 3,000
hours between maintenance checks have been e s t a b l i s h e d . This i s an important
f a c t i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e economy of using t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t , because t h e c o s t
of t h e s e engines s u b s t a n t i a l l y exceeds t h a t of p i s t o n engines. In t h e Five
Year Plan f o r t h e development of t h e Russian economy from 1966 t o 1970, t h e
f u r t h e r development of c i v i l a v i a t i o n is a n t i c i p a t e d and t h e volume o f a i r
/4
t r a v e l should i n c r e a s e by a f a c t o r o f 1.8. New passenger a i r c r a f t a r e going
i n t o service i n the a i r l i n e s .

Turbojet passenger a i r c r a f t have f l i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i f f e r from


t h o s e of a i r c r a f t with p i s t o n and turboprop engines i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s .
These f l i g h t f e a t u r e s r e s u l t from t h e unique high-speed and h i g h - a l t i t u d e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e engines, as w e l l as t h e f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e s e
high speeds and a l t i t u d e s .

- ..

* Numbers i n t h e margin i n d i c a t e pagination i n t h e f o r e i g n t e x t .

vii

With t h e appearance o f j e t a v i a t i o n , t h e r e has been a r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e


i n t h e importance of h i g h - v e l o c i t y aerodynamics, i . e . , t h e motion o f bodies
i n air viewed i n terms of t h e e f f e c t of i t s c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y , i . e . , t h e
p r o p e r t i e s t o change d e n s i t y with a change i n p r e s s u r e . . 'The f i r s t t o i n d i c a t e
the n e c e s s i t y of e s t i m a t i n g t h e e f f e c t of air c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y w a s t h e Russian
s c i e n t i s t S.A. Chaplygin, i n h i s work "On G a s Flows" published i n 1902. I t
was he who developed a method f o r t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s o l u t i o n of problems of t h e
motion of gas with allowance made f o r i t s c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y .

The S o v i e t s c i e n t i s t s Academicians S.A. Khristianovich, M.V. Keldysh,


A.A. Dorodnitsyn, Professors V.S. Pyshnov, F . I . Frankl' , I . V . Ostoslavskiy,
B.T. Goroshchenko, Ya.M. S e r e b r i y s k i y , A.P. Mel'nikov and o t h e r s , through
t h e i r s t u d i e s i n t h e f i e l d of h i g h - v e l o c i t y aerodynamics , c o n t r i b u t e d much
which w a s of g r e a t value i n t h e design of high-speed a i r c r a f t .

The S o v i e t turbo j e t passenger a i r c r a f t c r e a t e d by a e r o n a u t i c a l engineers


A.N. Tupolev, S.V. I l u s h i n and A.S. Yakovlev, take t h e i r p l a c e s i n t h e ranks
o f t h e f i r s t - c l a s s aircraft.

The s u c c e s s f u l use of new a v i a t i o n technology by*f l i g h t and engineering


personnel i s unthinkable without a deep understanding of t h e laws of aero
dynamics .
A i r c r a f t aerodynamics, when thought of i n terms of t h e f l i g h t crew, i s
u s u a l l y c a l l e d p r a c t i c a l aerodynamics. The number of problems involved i n
aerodynamics i s q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l . These i n c l u d e s t u d y i n g t h e laws of t h e
motion of a i r and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of a i r flows with bodies moving i n them,
t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of shock waves with various p a r t s o f t h e a i r c r a f t , a i r c r a f t
f l i g h t dynamics as a f f e c t e d by t h e f o r c e s a p p l i e d t o t h e a i r c r a f t (including
aerodynamic f o r c e s ) , and a i r c r a f t s t a b i l i t y and handiness.

I t i s t h e o b j e c t of t h i s book t o examine t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i n terms of


turbo j e t pas s enger a i r c r a f t .

viii

NASA TT F-542

CHAPTER 1

THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF HIGH-SPEED AERODYNAMICS

ABSTRACT. T h i s book p r e s e n t s t h e physical bases of h i g h -


s p e e d aerodynamics, and t h e influence of a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y
on t h e aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of w i n g s and a i r c r a f t .
Primary a t t e n t i o n is turned t o passenger j e t s . T h e following
a r e a s a r e covered: takeoff c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of j e t s and
methods o f Improving them; b e s t c l i m b i n g modes; h o r i z o n t a l
f l l g h t ; t h e d e s c e n t ; t h e landing approach; t u r n s and c o r n e r s ;
c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y ; icing and i t s influence on
f l y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f modern
j e t e n g i nes .

5 1 . Variations i n the Parameters of Air w i t h A l t i t u d e . T h e Standard


Atmosphere

The f l i g h t of a i r c r a f t , l i k e t h a t o f o t h e r f l i g h t v e h i c l e s , i s a f f e c t e d
by t h e condition of t h e atmosphere -- t h e s h e l l of a i r surrounding t h e e a r t h .
-
/5

Therefore, i t i s q u i t e v i t a l t o know the processes occurring i n t h e abnos


phere.

Only the atmosphere's lower boundary, t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i t s e l f , i s


c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d . The upper atmosphere i s more d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h
because t h e d e n s i t y o f air decreases c o n s t a n t l y with a l t i t u d e and even a t an
a l t i t u d e o f .lo0 km i t measures approximately one m i l l i o n t h t h a t on t h e e a r t h ' s
s u r f a c e . Normally, t h e upper l i m i t of t h e atmosphere i s considered t h e
a l t i t u d e a t which t h e air d e n s i t y approaches t h a t of the gases f i l l i n g i n t e r
p l a n e t a r y space.

Data from d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t observations show t h a t t h e atmosphere has


a layered s t r u c t u r e . In 1951 t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Geodesic and Geophysical Union
adopted t h e d i v i s i o n of t h e atmosphere i n t o f i v e b a s i c spheres o r l a y e r s :
t h e troposphere, t h e s t r a t o s p h e r e , t h e mesosphere, t h e thermosphere and t h e
exosphere.

The Troposphere is t h e lcwest l a y e r of t h e atmosphere, which i n t h e middle


l a t i t u d e s extends t o an a l t i t u d e o f 10-12 km, i n t h e t r o p i c s -- t o an a l t i t u d e
o f 16-18 km, and i n t h e p o l a r regions -- t o an a l t i t u d e o f 8-10 km. This
l a y e r i s o f tremendous p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n a v i a t i o n , because a l l t h e most
important phenomena encountered by t h e p i l o t occur b a s i c a l l y i n t h e tropo
sphere. I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e formation of clouds and f o g s , t h e f a l l o f
p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and t h e development of storms occur.
The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of t h e troposphere i s t h e decrease i n
temperature with a r i s e i n a l t i t u d e (averaging 6.5" p e r km of a l t i t u d e ) . The
troposphere i s t h e area of thermal turbulence r e s u l t i n g from t h e unequal
h e a t i n g o f l a y e r s o f air a t t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e and a t v a r i o u s a l t i t u d e s , as
w e l l as t h e dynamic turbulence r e s u l t i n g from t h e f r i c t i o n o f t h e air w i t h
t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e and i t s i n t e n s e v e r t i c a l displacement a t t h e boundaries -
/5
between cold and warm a i r masses of atmospheric f r o n t s .

The troposphere ends i n t h e l a y e r of t h e tropopause. The t h i c k n e s s of


t h e tropopause f l u c t u a t e s from a f e w hundred meters t o s e v e r a l kilometers.
I t i s u s u a l l y a continuous l a y e r which surrounds t h e e a r t h ' s sphere i t s e l f ,
while i t s a l t i t u d e and temperature are f u n c t i o n s of t h e geographic l a t i t u d e ,
t h e time o f y e a r and t h e atmospheric processes developing. Over t h e e q u a t o r
and i t s neighboring a r e a s , t h e tropopause i s l o c a t e d a t an average a l t i t u d e
o f 16-18 km ( I n d i a ) , while i n t h e middle l a t i t u d e s i t i s l o c a t e d a t an
a l t i t u d e of 10-12 km, and i n t h e p o l a r regions i t has an a l t i t u d e of 8-10 km,
while over t h e p o l e i t may drop t o 5-6 km. J e t a i r c r a f t n o m a l l y f l y c l o s e
t o t h e l i m i t of t h e tropopause, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of which i s t h e
e x i s t e n c e o f c y c l i c bumps beneath t h e tropopause i t s e l f .

The s t r a t o s p h e r e i s l o c a t e d above t h e tropopause and extends t o approxi


mately an a l t i t u d e of 35-40 km. Constant temperature with a l t i t u d e is
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i t s lower l a y e r s . The i n s i g n i f i c a n t content of water vapor
i n the s t r a t o s p h e r e r e s u l t s i n t h e lack of clouds from which p r e c i p i t a t i o n
would f a l l . According t o d a t a from p i l o t s who have flown a t a l t i t u d e s o f
12-16 km, i n t h e lower s t r a t o s p h e r e i t i s most f r e q u e n t l y c l o u d l e s s . The a i r
i s s t a b l e and v e r t i c a l motion i s s l i g h t . This a i d s i n smooth f l i g h t . There
i s seldom bumpiness, and only then c l o s e t o t h e tropopause.

The mesosphere runs from t h e upper boundary o f t h e s t r a t o s p h e r e t o an


a l t i t u d e of 80 km.

The thermosphere i s l o c a t e d above t h e mesosphere and extends t o an


a l t i t u d e of 800 km.

The exosphere i s t h e o u t e r l a y e r of the atmosphere, o r t h e d i s s i p a t i v e


l a y e r , and i s l o c a t e d above t h e thermosphere. Gases h e r e a r e so r a r e f i e d and
a t the high temperatures observed t h e r e have such high v e l o c i t i e s t h a t t h e i r
p a r t i c l e s (helium and hydrogen) break away from t h e e a r t h ' s a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e
and move i n t o i n t e r p l a n e t a r y space.

Thus we have a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of a s t r u c t u r e of t h e atmosphere.

Atmospheric conditions a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e various meteorological


elements -- atmosphere p r e s s u r e , temperature, humidity, cloud cover, p r e c i p i
t a t i o n , wind, e t c . The atmosphere may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a v a r i a b l e medium.

As a r e s u l t of unequal h e a t i n g of the a i r masses a t t h e equator and p o l e s ,


flows a r e formed which r e s u l t i n t h e passage o f cold a i r toward t h e equator and
warmer air toward t h e p o l e s . The e f f e c t of t h e e a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n i n t h e
northern hemisphere causes t h e a i r flow t o d e v i a t e t o the r i g h t and move from

2
t h e south t o t h e southwest, while approaching 30 N i t moves t o t h e west.
Therefore, f l i g h t s from west t o e a s t over t h e t e r r i t o r y of t h e USSR a r e -
/7
accompanied by t a i l winds, while east-to-west f l i g h t s encounter head winds.
The s h i f t from w e s t e r l y winds t o e a s t e r l y occurs a t a l t i t u d e s around 20 km.
Whereas p i s t o n a i r c r a f t f l y only i n t h e lower troposphere, j e t a i r c r a f t , i n
c o n t r a s t , f l y i n t h e upper and - - t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t -- i n t h e lower s t r a t o
sphere.

The f u r t h e r development of high-speed a v i a t i o n w i l l i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e


permit us t o f l y a t s u p e r s o n i c speeds corresponding t o Mach = 2.5-3. A t this
p o i n t , f l i g h t s w i l l be i n t h e s t r a t o s p h e r e .

Before t h e p e r f e c t i o n i n g of j e t a i r c r a f t , i t w a s assumed t h a t a t high


a l t i t u d e s t h e f l i g h t s would encounter f a v o r a b l e weather c o n d i t i o n s . However,
i t w a s found t h a t a t a l t i t u d e s of 10,000 - 12,000 m cloud cover and bumpiness
were sometimes encountered. To t h e s e well-known phenomena, t h e r e were added
t h e j e t streams c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l t i t u d e s of 9-12 km.

The j e t streams are t h e broad expanses o f zones of very s t r o n g winds


observed i n t h e upper l a y e r s of t h e troposphere, u s u a l l y a t a l t i t u d e s of
9000 - 12,000 m. Post-war s t u d i e s showed t h a t t h e minimum v e l o c i t y of t h e j e t
stream (along i t s a x i s ) e q u a l l e d approximately 100 km/hr, while t h e maximum
w a s 750 km/hr (over t h e P a c i f i c Ocean). Over t h e USSR, t h e wind speed i n t h e
j e t stream reaches 100 - 200 and sometimes even 350 km/hr, while over t h e
North A t l a n t i c and Northern Europe it reaches 300 - 400, 500 over t h e USA,
and 650 km/hr over Japan. The j e t stream i s comparable t o a g i g a n t i c h i g h l y
o b l a t e channel with a h e i g h t averaging 2-4 km and a width of 500 - 1000 km.
These flows run b a s i c a l l y west-east, b u t i n c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s they may vary
significantly .
F l i g h t speed may be i n c r e a s e d by t h e s e l e c t i v e u s e of j e t stream t a i l
winds, while f l i g h t a g a i n s t t h e head wind should be one o r two km above o r
below t h e a x i s of t h i s stream. A s a r u l e , t h e j e t streams a r e t o be found i n
t h e region where the tropopause i s s i t u a t e d .

In studying a i r c r a f t f l i g h t and determining t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g on a i r c r a f t ,


we may consider t h e a i r as a continuous medium.

A t s e a l e v e l , t h e a i r c o n s i s t s of a mixture of n i t r o g e n (78.08% of t h e
volume of dry a i r ) , oxygen (20.95%) and i n s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s of o t h e r
gases (argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, neon, helium, e t c . ) . The a i r a l s o
contains water vapors.

In t h e troposphere and s t r a t o s p h e r e t h e temperature, p r e s s u r e and


d e n s i t y of the a i r vary w i t h i n r a t h e r broad 1 i . m i t s as a f u n c t i o n o f the geo
g r a p h i c l a t i t u d e of t h e l o c a l e , t h e time of y e a r , t h e time of day and t h e
weather.

In o r d e r t o achieve a common concept o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e


atmosphere (pressure, temperature and d e n s i t y ) , t h e s t a n d a r d atmosphere w a s

I
a r r i v e d a t -- t h e a r b i t r a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n t h e atmosphere, of p r e s s u r e , -
/8
d e n s i t y and temperature f o r d r y , clean a i r ( c o n t a i n i n g n e i t h e r moisture n o r
d u s t ) of a c o n s t a n t composition a p p l i c a b l e f o r engineering. -- p r i m a r i l y
a v i a t i o n -- c a l c u l a t i o n s with r e s p e c t t o t h e i r comparability ( f o r example, i n
c a l c u l a t i n g t h e l i f t and drag and f o r graduating v a r i o u s aerial n a v i g a t i o n
instruments such as altimeters and o t h e r s ) .

I n t h e s t a n d a r d atmosphere, t h e a l t i t u d e i s computed from s e a l e v e l .


Normal conditions a t sea l e v e l are: atmospheric p r e s s u r e p = 760 mm Hg, a i r
0
2 4
d e n s i t y p = 0.125 kG sec /m , temperature t - 15OC ( o r To = 288OK) and
0 -
s p e c i f i c weight of t h e a i r y = 1.225 kG/m
0
3
.
Variations i n a i r p r e s s u r e and d e n s i t y with a l t i t u d e , which proceed i n
accordance with a s p e c i f i c l a w , are c a l c u l a t e d p e r each a l t i t u d e according t o
s p e c i a l formulas. The air temperature i n t h e s t a n d a r d atmosphere up t o an
a l t i t u d e of 11,000 m drops uniformly by 6.5OC p e r 1000 m. Above 11,000 m ,
t h e temperature i s considered c o n s t a n t and equal t o -56.5OC. In f a c t , how
ever, a t t h i s a l t i t u d e it may reach -8OOC. Results of c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e
given i n t h e t a b l e . Below w e p r e s e n t an a b b r e v i a t e d t a b l e of t h e s t a n d a r d
atmosphere.

TABLE 1. STANDARD ATMOSPHERE (SA)

-
A l t i - f Tempera- Mass lelativ Speed
tude ,I t u r e density lens i t y
Ao. 7 of
I
,m (tH) > O C
a)

-7
km/hr
j kG/m3 m 4
II

1000 21.5 854,6 - 1,3476 1,1374 1,096 1242


0 15 760 : 1O332,3 1,225 0,1250 1,oo 1225
1 000 8,5 674 j 9164,Z. 1.11 0,1134 0,9074 1211
2000 2,o 596 8105,4 1,006 0,1027 0,8215 1197
3000, I -4.5 526 7148,O 0,909 0,0927 0,742 1183
4000 I -1 1 462 6284,2 0,819 0,0636 0,6685 0,754 324.7 1168
5 000 -17.5 405 i 5507,O 0,7362 0,0751 0,6007 0,70 . 320,7 1154
6 000 -24,O 354 i 4809,5 0,659 0,0673 0,5383 0,648 316,6 1139
7000 -30,5 308 4185.3 0,589 0,0601 0,4810 0,599 312,4
~ 1125
8000 I -37,O 267 3628,4 0,525 0,0536 0,4285 0,553 30S,2 1110
go00 i -43,5 230 3133.1 0,466 0,0476 0,3805 1094
10000 -50,5 188 2694,O 0,412 0,0421 0,337 1078
11000 i -56,5 i 169,6 2306.1 0,363 0,0371 0,297 1063
12000
13000 *
1 -56,5
-56,5 !
144,6
123.7
1969,5
1682,O
0,310
0,265
0,0317
0,0270
0,253
0,216
1063
1063
14000 ! -56.5 105;6 1436,5 0,226 0,0231 0,185 1063
15000 -56,5 90,l 1226,9 0,193 0,0197 0,155 1063
16 000 -56.5 77,l 1047,8 0,165 0,0166 0,135 1063
17 000 -56.5 65,8 894,8 0,141 0,0144 0,115 1063
18 000 -56,5 56,2 764,2 0,120 0,123 OI09S4 1063
19 ooa -56,5 48 ,O 652,7 0,103 0,0105 0,084 1063
20 000 -56,5 40,9 557,4 0,088 0,009 0,0717 1063

Tr. Note: Commas i n d i c a t e decimal p o i n t s .

5 2. Cmpressibi 1 i t y of A i r

Compressibility i s t h e p r o p e r t y of gases (and f l u i d s ) t o change t h e i r


i n i t i a l volume (and, consequently, d e n s i t y ) under t h e e f f e c t of p r e s s u r e o r a
change i n temperature.

I n s o l v i n g t e c h n i c a l problems, c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i s taken i n t o account i n


those cases when changes i n volume (density) are considerable by comparison
t o t h e i n i t i a l volume ( d e n s i t y ) .

If t h e volume of water w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n p r e s s u r e of 1 a t . with


c o n s t a n t temperature changes an average of only 1/21,000 o f i t s i n i t i a l v a l u e ,
i . e . , only 1/210 of a p e r c e n t , a i r , which has a high c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y , r e q u i r e s
a change i n p r e s s u r e of only one one hundredth t h a t of atmosphere (0.01 a t . )
t o change i t s volume by 1%under normal atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s .

Therefore, a l l gases are considerably more compressible than dropping


liquid. For example, i f t h e p r e s s u r e i n a given m a s s of gas i n c r e a s e s i n
such a way t h a t i t s temperature does n o t vary during t h i s change, t h e volume
of t h e gas decreases. When t h e i n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i s doubled, t h e volume
decreases by 50%. .The change i n volume f o r gas i s e q u a l l y high during heating.

Differences i n c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y of l i q u i d s and gases a r e explained by


t h e i r molecular s t r u c t u r e . In l i q u i d s , t h e i n t e r - m o l e c u l a r d i s t a n c e i s small,
i . e . , t h e molecules a r e r a t h e r dense, which determines t h e small c a p a b i l i t y
l i q u i d s have of compressing. By comparison with l i q u i d s , gases have an
extremely low d e n s i t y . For example, t h e d e n s i t y of water i s 816 times t h a t of
a i r . The low d e n s i t y of a i r and o t h e r gases i s explained by t h e f a c t t h a t i n
gases t h e i n t e r - m o l e c u l a r d i s t a n c e s u b s t a n t i a l l y exceeds t h e dimensions of
t h e molecules themselves. Therefore, when t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e pressure,
t h e volume of t h e gas decreases due t o t h e decreasing d i s t a n c e between
molecules. Thus a r i s e s the e l a s t i c i t y which gas possesses.

I n a v i a t i o n problems, t h e need t o account f o r a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y r e s u l t s


from t h e f a c t t h a t a t high f l i g h t speeds i n a i r , s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n
p r e s s u r e a r i s e which are t h e cause of s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n i t s d e n s i t y .

To e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t of c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y , l e t us examine t h e speed of
sound .
3. T h e Propagation o f Small Disturbances i n Air. Sound and Sound Waves.

The p r o p e r t y of c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e phenomenon
of t h e propagation of sound i n gases. The speed of t h e propagation of sound
p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e i n high-speed aerodynamics. The e f f e c t of c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y
on t h e aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a i r c r a f t i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e degree
t o which t h e f l i g h t speed of t h e a i r c r a f t approaches t h e speed of sound. When
air flows a t speeds g r e a t e r t h a n t h e speed o f sound, q u a l i t a t i v e changes occur /10
i n t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e flow.

The s e n s a t i o n which w e p e r c e i v e as sound i s t h e r e s u l t of t h e e f f e c t , on

our a u d i t o r y apparatus, of t h e o s c i l l a t o r y motion of a i r caused, f o r example,


by t h e motion of some body i n it. The displacement of each p a r t i c l e o f a i r
during i t s v i b r a t i o n i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y small. The p a r t i c l e s v i b r a t e around
t h e i r e q u i l i b r i u m c o n f i g u r a t i o n , which corresponds t o t h e i r i n i t i a l s t a t e .
However, t h e l a b o r a t o r y p r o c e s s i s propagated a v e r y long d i s t a n c e .

The human ear p e r c e i v e s as sound t h o s e d i s t u r b a n c e s which a r e t r a n s m i t t e d


with a frequency from 20 t o 20,000 v i b r a t i o n s p e r second. Those w i t h a
frequency of less than 20 p e r second are c a l l e d i n f r a s o u n d , and t h o s e above
20,000 p e r second a r e c a l l e d ultrasound.

By small d i s t u r b a n c e s w e mean s l i g h t changes i n t h e p r e s s u r e and d e n s i t y


o f t h e medium (gas o r l i q u i d ) . Disturbances being propagated i n t h e medium,
such as a i r , a r e c a l l e d waves (due t o t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h i s phenomenon t o
waves on t h e s u r f a c e of w a t e r ) .

The speed of t h e propagation o f t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s i n space ( t h e wave


v e l o c i t y ) i s q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l . The speed of propagation of a sound wave,
i . e . , small changes i n d e n s i t y and p r e s s u r e , i s c a l l e d t h e speed o f sound.
It i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e medium i n which t h e sound is being propagated and
of i t s temperature.

I n high-speed aerodynamics, sound i s considered as waves of p e r t u r b a t i o n s


c r e a t e d i n t h e a i r by a f l y i n g a i r c r a f t .

The speed of sound i n gases i s a function of temperature. The h i g h e r t h e


gas temperature, t h e l e s s compressed i t i s . Heated gas has a high e l a s t i c i t y
and t h e r e f o r e i s more d i f f i c u l t t o compress. Cold a i r i s e a s i l y compressed.
For example, a t a gas temperature T = 0 ( o r t = -273OC), t h e speed of sound
equals zero because under t h e s e conditions t h e gas p a r t i c l e s a r e immobile and
e x e r c i s e only s l i g h t d i s t u r b a n c e s , with t h e r e s u l t t h a t they can c r e a t e no
sound .
The dependence o f t h e speed o f sound i n a i r on temperature may be
determined according t o t h e following approximate formula:

a = 20 JTm/sec.

Within t h e l i m i t s of troposphere, t h e a i r temperature decreases with


a l t i t u d e . Consequently, i n t h e troposphere t h e speed o f sound a l s o decreases
with a l t i t u d e . On t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e under s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s (p = 760 mm
Hg, t = 15 s e c ) , a = 340 m/sec. With an i n c r e a s e i n a l t i t u d e f o r every 250 m , /11
t h e speed of sound decreases by 1 m/sec.

A t a l t i t u d e s above 11,000 m, t h e temperature i s (according t o t h e


s t a n d a r d atmosphere) considered constant and equal t o -56.5OC. Consequently,
the speed of sound a t t h e s e a l t i t u d e s should a l s o be considered constant and
equal t o a = 20 4273 - 56.5 = 296 m/sec (Fig. 1 ) .

6
I

4. T h e S p e e d of Sound as a C r i t e r i o n f o r the
Compress i b i 1 i t y of Gases

I n gas dynamics, f o r t h e speed of sound


t h e r e is t h e well-known formula:

m/sec,
AP

where Ap is t h e change i n p r e s s u r e , Ap i s t h e
change i n gas d e n s i t y which it causes. The more
compressed t h e gas i s , t h e slower t h e speed of
sound, s o t h a t one and t h e same change i n d e n s i t y
ec.
may b e obtained through a s l i g h t change i n
p r e s s u r e . And, i n c o n t r a s t , t h e l e s s t h e com
p r e s s i b i l i t y of t h e medium and t h e g r e a t e r i t s
Figure 1 . The Change i n
tt--. Speed of Sound w i t h
e l a s t i c i t y , t h e g r e a t e r t h e speed o f sound i n
A1 t i t u d e .
t h e same medium. In t h i s c a s e , a s l i g h t change
i n d e n s i t y may be achieved only through a g r e a t
change i n p r e s s u r e . The speed of sound i s taken
i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n any case i n which t h e r e i s an e v a l b a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t of
c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i n any aerodynamic phenomena, because t h e value of t h e speed of
sound c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y of t h e medium. I f t h e medium is
e l a s t i c (compressible), compressions and expansions w i l l vary s u b s t a n t i a l l y
from l a y e r t o l a y e r with t h e speed of sound. I f t h e medium is a b s o l u t e l y
incompressible, i . e . , f o r any i n c r e a s e i n p r e s s u r e t h e volume o r d e n s i t y
remains unchanged, then as can b e seen from t h e formula given above, t h e speed
of sound w i l l be q u i t e high. In such a medium, any d i s t u r b a n c e s a r e propa
gated any d i s t a n c e i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y .

A s was shown above, t h e value of t h e speed of sound v a r i e s i n d i f f e r e n t


gases and, i n a d d i t i o n , it i s a f u n c t i o n of temperature. With an i n c r e a s e i n
a l t i t u d e , temperature and t h e speed of sound decrease. Therefore, t h e e f f e c t
of c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y on t h e f l i g h t of a i r c r a f t a t high a l t i t u d e s should appear
even g r e a t e r . Let us introduce s e v e r a l values f o r the speed o f sound a t
t = 0 C : f o r n i t r o g e n i t is 3 3 7 . 3 , f o r hydrogen it i s 1300, and f o r water i t
i s 1450 m/sec.

For s o l i d b o d i e s , which a r e l e s s compressible than g a s e s , t h e speed of


sound i s s t i l l g r e a t e r . Thus, i n wood t h e speed o f sound i s 2800 m/sec, while
i n s t e e l i t i s 5000 and i n g l a s s i t i s 5600.

An a i r c r a f t i n f l i g h t , r e p e l l i n g a i r on a l l s i d e s , p a r t i a l l y compresses
i t as w e l l . A t low f l i g h t speeds, t h e a i r i n f r o n t of t h e a i r c r a f t succeeds
i n being d i s p l a c e d and adapts i t s e l f t o t h e flow around t h e a i r c r a f t so t h a t
compression i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s case. A t h i g h e r f l i g h t speeds, however,
t h e a i r compression begins t o p l a y a more important r o l e . In t h i s case, t h e r e
f o r e , f o r a s c a l e of f l i g h t speed w e must use a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c speed which may /12
s e r v e a s a c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y of t h e medium. Such a speed is
t h e speed of sound, inasmuch as i t i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e temperature and

p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e gas.

5. T h e Mach Number and i t s Value i n F l i g h t Problems

The r a t i o of t h e f l i g h t ( o r flow) speed t o t h e speed of sound i s c a l l e d


t h e Mach number:

Let us assume t h a t t h e t r u e f l i g h t speed ( s e e 6 of t h i s Chapter) o f an


a i r c r a f t at an a l t i t u d e o f 10,000 m i s 920 km/hr (255 m/sec). Then t h e Mach
255 -
number M = - - 0.85, where a = 300 m/sec. I n o t h e r words, t h e f l i g h t speed
300
i s 85% of t h e speed of sound a t t h i s given a l t i t u d e .

Thus, i n comparing t h e speed of t h e motion of t h e body i n t h e a i r with


t h e speed of sound under t h e same c o n d i t i o n s , w e may determine t h e e f f e c t of
a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y on t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e flow around t h e body. The Mach
number i s t h e index of t h e air c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y . The g r e a t e r t h e Mach number,
t h e g r e a t e r t h e a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y should be during f l i g h t .

To monitor t h e Mach number i n f l i g h t , an instrument -- the Mach i n d i c a t o r


(Machmeter) -- i s u s u a l l y s e t up on t h e p i l o t ' s instrument panel. In high-
speed f l i g h t , e s p e c i a l l y when maneuvers a r e b e i n g performed which r e s u l t i n
a l o s s of a l t i t u d e , t h e reading on t h i s instrument must be followed, and t h e
p i l o t must not exceed t h e Mach number which t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s permit f o r t h e
given a i r c r a f t . I f f l i g h t speed remains c o n s t a n t as a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e s , t h e
Mach number w i l l i n c r e a s e due t o t h e decrease i n t h e speed of sound.

F a i l u r e t o monitor t h e Mach number i n j e t a i r c r a f t would r e s u l t i n grave


t r o u b l e because knowing t h e i n d i c a t e d speed ( s e e 6 of t h i s Chapter) and even
t h e t r u e speed does n o t g i v e t h e p i l o t a f u l l understanding of t h e f l i g h t Mach
number a t any s p e c i f i c a l t i t u d e . For example, i f t h e a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g a t an
i n d i c a t e d speed of 500 km/hr a t an a l t i t u d e of 12,000 m, t h e t r u e speed w i l l
be around 930 km/hr while t h e speed of sound i s 1063 km/hr, s o t h a t under
t h e s e given f l i g h t conditions t h e Mach number = 0.875. I f , however, t h e
a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g with an i n d i c a t e d speed of 500 km/hr a t an a l t i t u d e of
1000 m, the t r u e speed i s only 525 km/hr, while t h e Mach number = 0.43.

I n t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t , a change i n t h e Mach number may be represented i n


t h e following way. A f t e r t a k e o f f and r e t r a c t i o n of t h e landing gear and
wing f l a p s , t h e a i r c r a f t p i c k s up speed u n t i l i t achieves an i n d i c a t e d speed
of 500 - 600 km/hr and starts climbing. S t a r t i n g a t an a l t i t u d e of around
1000 m, t h e Machmeter shows a Mach number of M = 0.5 - 0.55. As t h e a i r c r a f t
climbs, the t r u e speed w i l l i n c r e a s e , t h e speed of sound w i l l decrease, and /13
-
t h e Mach number i n c r e a s e . When t h e a i r c r a f t reaches an a l t i t u d e of 8-9 km,
t h e Mach number reaches a v a l u e of 0.63 - 0.66 (depending on t h e a c t u a l
temperature a t t h a t a l t i t u d e ) . A t a l t i t u d e s of 10-12 km, during a c c e l e r a t i o n
t h e Mach number i n c r e a s e s t o 0.80 - 0.85. A t high a l t i t u d e s t h e Mach number

w i l l b e g r e a t e r when t h e same t r u e speeds are maintained. Turbojet a i r c r a f t ,


l i k e many o t h e r high-speed a i r c r a f t , have a l i m i t t o t h e i r Mach number because
of conditions o f s t a b i l i t y and handiness (more w i l l b e s a i d concerning t h e
s e l e c t i o n of t h e Mach number i n Chapters 7 and 11). Therefore ( e s p e c i a l l y a t
high a l t i t u d e s ) , i t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o monitor f l i g h t simply with r e s p e c t t o
speed; t h e Mach i n d i c a t o r m u s t a l s o be observed.

5 6 . F1 i g h t Speed. Corrections t o Instrument Readings Necessitated by


Compressibility

Aircraft speed i n d i c a t o r s measure d i r e c t l y n o t only t h e speeds, b u t t h e


2
v e l o c i t y head q = pV /2. The a c t u a l f l i g h t speed i s n o t t h e same a s t h i s
speed, which i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e instrument, because t h e a i r - p r e s s u r e s e n s o r
i n d i c a t e s the e f f e c t of p e r t u r b a t i o n s c r e a t e d by t h e aircraft and t h e a i r
compressibility. In a d d i t i o n , t h e v a l u e of the a c t u a l f l i g h t speed depends
on i n s t r u m e n t a l c o r r e c t i o n s .

Therefore, t o e l i m i n a t e t h e above-mentioned e r r o r s i n t h e instrument


r e a d i n g s , t h e following c o r r e c t i o n s a r e introduced: aerodynamic, which
accounts f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n the l o c a l p r e s s u r e s ( a t t h e p o i n t where t h e
a i r - p r e s s u r e s e n s o r i s located) from p r e s s u r e s i n t h e undisturbed i n c i d e n t
flow, c o r r e c t i o n s f o r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y , and instrument c o r r e c t i o n s * .

The speed which would be shown on an i d e a l ( i . e . , e r r o r - f r e e ) speed


i n d i c a t o r i s c a l l e d t h e i n d i c a t e d speed V The speed which i s read from t h e
i'
instrument (read from t h e wide n e e d l e ) , does not as a r u l e equal t h e i n d i c a t e d
speed. Therefore, a s p e c i a l name has been c r e a t e d f o r i t -- instrument speed
'inst'
The t r u e a i r speed i s t h e speed of t h e a i r c r a f t ' s motion r e l a t i v e t o t h e
a i r (and i s read from t h e t h i n arrow on t h e i n s t r u m e n t ) .

The KUS11200 combined speed i n d i c a t o r , which j e t a i r c r a f t f l y i n g a t


Mach speeds up t o 0 . 9 a r e equipped w i t h , shows t h e instrument speed and t h e
t r u e a i r speed. During l o w - a l t i t u d e f l i g h t (where t h e a i r d e n s i t y i s c l o s e
t o t h a t of t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e , equal t o 0.125 kG - sec2/m4), t h e instrument
and t r u e a i r speeds agree and both arrows on t h e instrument move t o g e t h e r ,
being superimposed. With an i n c r e a s e i n a l t i t u d e , t h e t r u e a i r speed
s u r p a s s e s the instrument speed and t h e arrows diverge, forming a "fork." /14
Knowing t h e true a i r speed and wind speed, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e
ground speed, i . e . , t h e speed of t h e a i r c r a f t ' s displacement r e l a t i v e t o t h e
e a r t h . In f l y i n g and aerodynamic computations, both t h e i n d i c a t e d and
instrument speeds are used. And what i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between them? To
switch from instrument speed t o i n d i c a t e d speed, we must introduce an aero
dynamic c o r r e c t i o n and a c o r r e c t i o n f o r a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y :

* M.G.Kotik, e t a l . , F l i g h t T e s t i n g o f A i r c r a f t , Mashinostroyeniye, 1965


(Available i n NASA t r a n s l a t i o n ) .

'ins t = vi + 6Va + 6Vcomp = vi + 6Va,


g

where Vi = i n d i c a t e d speed,
6V = aerodynamic c o r r e c t i o n ,
a
= correction f o r compressibility, and
"comp
Vi = i n d i c a t e d ground speed.
g
For high-speed a i r c r a f t , an e s s e n t i a l c o r r e c t i o n i s t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r
a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y , whose value may range from 10 t o 100 lan/hr. The e f f e c t
of a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s the speed i n d i c a t o r reading, s o t h a t 6Vcomp
i s always negative (Fig. 2 ) .

400 600 800 lo00 1200 1.~70 Vi , km/hr


&i
Figure 2. Nomogram f o r Determining t h e Correction f o r
Air Compressibility

The aerodynamic c o r r e c t i o n may reach values from 5 t o 25 km/hr and may b e - /15
e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r negative. Whereas t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i s
i d e n t i c a l f o r a l l a i r c r a f t , the aerodynamic c o r r e c t i o n i s b a s i c a l l y a f u n c t i o n
of t h e type of a i r c r a f t o r , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p o s i t i o n and f e a t u r e s of

10

t h e engine. Therefore, each a i r c r a f t h a s i t s own graph o f aerodynamic


corrections.

The i n d i c a t e d speed w i t h t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i s c a l l e d t h e
i n d i c a t e d ground speed: V. = Vi + 6 V A t sea l e v e l , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f a i r
1 comp *
g
temperature, vi = vi. According t o t h e nomogram i n Figure 3 , w e may f i n d t h e
.E
f l i g h t Mach number b e i n g given t h e v a l u e of Vi , and t h e n determine t h e t r u e
g
f l i g h t speed: V = aM. For example, we m u s t determine t h e true speed and
t
f l i g h t Mach number f o r t h e a i r c r a f t i f a t an a l t i t u d e o f 10,000 m y Vinst
-

= 500 km/hr. = -10 km/hr, we f i n d :


Taking t h e aerodynamic c o r r e c t i o n 6 V
a
Vi = 490 km/hr. For t h i s speed, according t o t h e nomogram (Figure 2 ) , w e
g
o b t a i n GVcomp = -23 km/hr. Then l e t us determine t h e i n d i c a t e d speed Vi =

'ins t
- 10 - 2 3 = 500 -33 = 467 km/hr. The t r u e f l i g h t speed may b e found from
t h e following e x p r e s s i o n :

V.
- 467
V = - - -= 810 km/hr,
1
0.58
t &

where f o r H = 10,000 m, A = 0.337, a dT = 0.58 ( s e e t h e t a b l e f o r t h e / 16


-
s t a n d a r d atmosphere). Or, f o r speed V = 490 km/hr, according t o t h e nomo
i
g
gram (Fig,. 3 ) , w e o b t a i n a Mach number of 0.75. Knowing t h e speed of sound a t
H = 10,000 m and t h e f l i g h t Mach number, i t is easy to. determine t h e t r u e
speed: Vt = aM = 300 -
0.75 -
3.6 = 810 km/hr.

The accepted v a l u e 6Va = -10 km/hr i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of modern high-


speed a i r c r a f t w i t h i n t h e range o f t h e i r i n d i c a t e d speeds o f 220 - 600 km/hr.
Later we w i l l determine t h e c.orrection f o r a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i n each
c o n c r e t e case according t o t h e nomogram i n Figure 2 , while we w i l l assume
t h a t t h e aerodynamic c o r r e c t i o n i s 6 V = -10 km/hr.
a
5 7. T h e Character o f t h e Propagation o f Minor P e r t u r b a t i o n s i n F l i g h t
a t Various A1 ti t u d e s

I n an example of a i r c r a f t f l i g h t , l e t us examine t h e manner i n which


s l i g h t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n d e n s i t y and p r e s s u r e , i . e . , minor p e r t u r b a t i o n s , w i l l
b e propagated i n t h e a i r flow. 'The a i r c r a f t , being t h e s o u r c e of t h e per
t u r b a t i o n s , has an e f f e c t on t h e a i r p a r t i c l e s l o c a t e d i n f r o n t of i t and
p e r t u r b a t i o n s a r e s e n t forward from one p a r t i c l e t o t h e n e x t a t t h e speed of
sound.

L e t us f i r s t t a k e an a i r c r a f t f l y i n g a t below t h e speed o f sound (Fig. 4a).

11

Figure 3. Nomogram f o r Determining t h e Mach Number

-- -/ I
I

'.--
_ .

'\
\
\

Figure 4. Propagation C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r Sound Waves

12
When t h e a i r c r a f t passes through p o i n t A t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n s c r e a t e d by it
a t t h a t given moment, propagating along a sphere a t t h e speed of sound, over
t a k e the aircraft. A f t e r a s h o r t t i m e , t h e Mach wave reaches p o i n t B y while
during t h i s t i m e t h e a i r c r a f t has succeeded only i n progressing t o p o i n t C;
t h u s , i t s f l i g h t speed is below t h e speed o f sound. Passing through p o i n t D,
it again c r e a t e s p e r t u r b a t i o n s which w i l l be propagated with t h e speed of
sound and i n a s h o r t while reach p o i n t E . The a i r c r a f t , however, during t h i s
time w i l l n o t have reached p o i n t E b u t w i l l be located between p o i n t s C and
E. Thus, t h e a i r c r a f t remains c o n s t a n t l y w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e c r e a t e d by i t s
sound wave. I f , however, t h e a i r c r a f t f l i e s a t t h e speed of sound (Fig. 4b) ,
then p o i n t B i s reached simultaneously by both t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e sound
waves, i . e . , t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n s c r e a t e d by it a t p o i n t s A, C and D.

Thus, i n f r o n t of t h e a i r c r a f t t h e r e a r e always Mach waves which,


becoming superimposed upon each o t h e r , f o n a dense s e c t i o n o f a i r c a l l e d t h e
compression shock o r shock wave.

If t h e a i r c r a f t f l i e s above t h e speed o f sound, it moves ahead of t h e


s p h e r i c a l waves i t has c r e a t e d (Fig. 4c). The a i r c r a f t w i l l reach p o i n t C
a t t h e moment when t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n i t c r e a t e d a t p o i n t A has reached only
p o i n t B y while t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n c r e a t e d a t p o i n t D has reached p o i n t E . Thus,
behind an a i r c r a f t f l y i n g a t s u p e r s o n i c speed a Mach cone i s formed which
c o n s i s t s of an i n f i n i t e number of Mach waves propagated along t h e sphere a t
t h e speed of sound. However, t h e air mass w i t h i n t h e Mach cone i s d i s p l a c e d
/ 17
r e l a t i v e t o t h e e a r t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t ' s speed. The g r e a t e r t h e a i r c r a f t ' s
speed, t h e s h a r p e r t h e angle a t t h e t i p of the Mach cone. This angle i s
determined according t o t h e formula (Fig. 4c):

1
sin 4 = -
M '

If t h e Mach number i s 1, then $ = go", while t h e f u l l angle is 180" (normal


shock); f o r M = 2 , s i n 9 = 0 . 5 and t h e angle $ = 30" ( f u l l angle 6 0 ) .

Compression shocks a r e both normal and oblique. A normal compression


shock i s one whose s u r f a c e i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i n c i d e n t
flow, i . e . , which forms an angle B = 90" w i t h i t (Fig. Sa). Oblique shocks
a r e those whose s u r f a c e forms an a c u t e angle of f3 < 90" w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n
of t h e i n c i d e n t flow (Fig. 5b).

The g r e a t e s t speed l o s s e s and i n c r e a s e s i n p r e s s u r e a r e observed when


t h e flow passes through a normal compression shock. The braking of t h e flow
on t h i s shock i s s o s u b s t a n t i a l t h a t behind the shock the flow v e l o c i t y must /18
be below t h e speed of sound (by a s much as i t was above t h e speed of sound
i n f r o n t of t h e shock).

I n an oblique shock t h e l o s s e s are l e s s than with a normal shock,


s p e c i f i c a l l y , p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l i t t l e t h e more t h e shock w a s i n c l i n e d i n t h e
d i r e c t i o n o f t h e flow, i . e . , t h e l e s s t h e angle B . The i n t e n s i t y of an
oblique shock i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than a normal shock. If t h e angle B

13

i s c l o s e t o 9Qo, then behind t h e oblique shock t h e speed of t h e flow i s


subsonic, while somewhat g r e a t e r than t h a t which would be obtained i f t h e
shock were normal.

Streams p a s s i n g
through an oblique shock
change t h e d i r e c t i o n o f
t h e i r motion, d e v i a t i n g .
from t h e i r i n i t i a l
d i r e c t i o n . During flow
around a wing o r f u s e l a g e
with a speed exceeding t h e
speed o f sound, an oblique
shock developes i n f r o n t
of t h e wing o r f u s e l a g e .
oblique compress i g n
A i r c r a f t intended
f o r t r a n s - and super
s o n i c speeds must have
i aerodynamic shapes which
perturbation f do n o t g e n e r a t e normal
y- boundary compression shocks. The
forward edge of t h e wing
on s u p e r s o n i c a i r c r a f t
Figure 5. Formation of Normal ( a ) and O b l i q u e
must b e k n i f e - l i k e , and
( b ) Compress i on Shocks.
t h e wing i t s e l f must be
quite thin.

5 8. Trans- o r Supersonic Flow o f Air Around Bodies

In t h e case of low-velocity flow around b o d i e s , t h e flow is deformed a t


a s u b s t a n t i a l d i s t a n c e from t h e body and a i r p a r t i c l e s , i n breaking away, flow - /19
smoothly around i t (Fig. 6a) . When t h i s o c c u r s , t h e p r e s s u r e c l o s e t o t h e
body v a r i e s i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y , which permits us
t o consider a i r d e n s i t y as constant. As a
MC 1 r e s u l t of t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p r e s s u r e s under
and over t h e wing, l e f t i s c r e a t e d .

I n t h e case of s o n i c o r s u p e r s o n i c flow
I Mach around a body, l o c a l a i r p r e s s u r e and d e n s i t y
v a r i a t i o n s a r i s e which, propagating a t t h e
speed of sound, form a s o n i c o r s u p e r s o n i c
shock wave i n f r o n t of t h e body.

This occurs because t h e speed of t h e a i r


p a r t i c l e s c l o s e t o t h e body suddenly v a r i e s
i n both amount and d i r e c t i o n . When t h i s
occurs, t h e flow i n a s e n s e "encounters" an
Figure 6 . Subsonic ( a ) and o b s t a c l e which, depending on t h e s i t u a t i o n ,
Supersonic ( b ) Flow Around may be t h e body i t s e l f o r an " a i r cushion" i n
a Wing P r o f i l e . f r o n t of i t and form a compression shock

14

(shock wave). A t t h i s compression shock t h e r e i s an uneven change i n t h e


b a s i c parameters c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e conditions of t h e a i r , i . e . , speed V,
p r e s s u r e p , d e n s i t y p and temperature T. Shock waves may b e formed e i t h e r
i n f r o n t of t h e p r o f i l e o r c l o s e t o i t s t r a i l i n g p o r t i o n . P r e c i s e c a l c u l a
t i o n s and measurements have shown t h a t t h e thickness of t h e shock waves - o r
compression shocks i s n e g l i g i b l y small and has an o r d e r of length o f t h e free
path of the molecules, i . e . , 10-4 - 10-5 mm (0.0001 - 0.00001 mm).

9. Sonic I'booml'

Supersonic f l i g h t i s accompanied by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o n i c %boom.

This phenomenon i s t h e r e s u l t of t h e formation o f a system of compression


shocks and expansion waves i n f r o n t of t h e nose o f a f u s e l a g e , t h e cabin, o r
where t h e wing and t a i l assembly j o i n t h e f u s e l a g e . * The most powerful shock
waves a r e formed by t h e a i r c r a f t ' s nose and wing, which during f l i g h t are t h e
f i r s t t o encounter t h e a i r p a r t i c l e s , and t h e t a i l assembly. These shock
waves are l a b e l e d bow and t a i l shock waves , r e s p e c t i v e l y (Fig. 7a). I n t e r i
mediate shock waves e i t h e r c a t c h up with t h e bow shock and merge with i t o r /20

f a l l behind and merge w i t h t h e t a i l shock.

Behind t h e bow shock, t h e a i r p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e s unevenly, becoming g r e a t


e r than atmospheric p r e s s u r e , and then decreases smoothly and becomes even l e s s
than atmospheric, a f t e r which i t again i n c r e a s e s unevenly u n t i l i t i s
p r a c t i c a l l y atmospheric again a t t h e t a i l wave.

The sudden p r e s s u r e drop i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e a i r around i t i n a


d i r e c t i o n perpendicular t o t h e wave s u r f a c e . Persons on t h e ground f e e l t h i s
drop as a s t r o n g Ifboom." Sometimes a second Yboom" i s heard -- t h i s i s the
r e s u l t of t h e s u c c e s s i v e e f f e c t s o f b o t h t h e bow and t a i l shock waves.

Figure 7. A i r Pressure Changes during a "boom" i n


t h e Vertical Plane b e l o w t h e A i r c r a f t ( a ) , and t h e
I n t e r c e p t i o n of t h e Conic Shock Wave w i t h t h e E a r t h ' s
Surface ( b ) .
. .

* A. D. Mironov, Supersonic "Floc" i n Aircraft. Voyenizdat, 1964.

15

Repeated observations have e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e two s u c c e s s i v e s o n i c


booms are d i s t i n c t l y heard only when t h e r e i s more than 1/8th o f a second
between them.

The longer t h e a i r c r a f t , t h e longer t h e time i n t e r v a l between t h e


occurrence of t h e bow wave and t h e t a i l wave. Therefore, two "booms" are
d i s t i n c t l y heard i n t h e c a s e o f an a i r c r a f t with a long f u s e l a g e . And, i n
c o n t r a s t , an only vaguely s e p a r a t e d "boom" i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t has
small dimensions o r i s f l y i n g a t a r e l a t i v e l y low a l t i t u d e .

If t h e a i r c r a f t f l i e s a t a constant s u p e r s o n i c speed, t h e " b 0 0 m " i s


heard simultaneously a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s on t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . If t h e s e
p o i n t s were t o be j o i n e d by a l i n e , we would o b t a i n a hyperbola forming as
a r e s u l t of t h e i n t e r c e p t i o n of t h e conic shock wave with t h e p l a n e o f t h e
e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e (Fig. 7 b ) . One hyperbola corresponds t o t h e bow wave, and
t h e o t h e r -- t o t h e t a i l wave. The l i n e s of simultaneous a u d i b i l i t y of t h e
"boom" a r e d i s p l a c e d along t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e , following behind t h e a i r
c r a f t and forming unusual t r a i l s . A t t h e same time, d i r e c t l y below t h e a i r
craft. t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l l y louder Itboom," which a t t e n u a t e s as a f u n c t i o n
/21
of d i s t a n c e and under c e r t a i n circumstances it i s completely i n a u d i b l e . The
ground observer who h e a r s t h e 'tboom" from an a i r c r a f t f l y i n g , l e t us s a y , a t
an a l t i t u d e of 15 km with a speed twice t h a t o f sound w i l l not observe t h e
a i r c r a f t above him; a t an a l t i t u d e of 15 km, i t takes sound approximately
50 s e c t o reach t h e ground a t an average speed o f 320 m/sec, while during
t h i s time t h e aircraft w i l l have covered approximately 30 km.

To g e t an i d e a of t h e e f f e c t of a p r e s s u r e d r o on b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e s ,
l e t us p o i n t out t h a t t h e overpressure Ap = 10 kG/m3 c r e a t e s a s h o r t - l i f t
load o f 20 kG on a door with an area of 2 m 2 , f o r example. A f i g h t e r with a
f u s e l a g e length of 15 m a t Mach 1 . 5 and H = 6000 m c r e a t e s Ap = 11 kG/m2. A
heavy, delta-winged s u p e r s o n i c a i r c r a f t weighing 70 t o n s w i l l , f l y i n g a t an
a l t i t u d e of 20 km and a t Mach 2 c r e a t e Ap = 5 kG/m2, and a t low a l t i t u d e s
(5-8 km) a drop may reach 12-18 kG/m2. I t i s a known f a c t t h a t i n t h e i r
design, b u i l d i n g s are planned f o r t h e s o - c a l l e d wind load, which corresponds
t o t h e f o r c e of t h e p r e s s u r e o f a i r moving a t a speed of 40 m/sec, i . e . ,
g r e a t e r than 140 km/hr. This type wind w i l l c r e a t e an overpressure o f 100 kg
on 1 m2 of wall s u r f a c e . The p r e s s u r e i n t h e "boomT' a t p e r m i s s i b l e f l i g h t
a l t i t u d e s i s 1/5th o r 1 / 6 t h t h a t of t h e design allowance f o r wind load.

The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e e f f e c t of p r e s s u r e drops i n shock waves during


"booms" are given i n Table 2. For example, on a w a l l with an a r e a o f 1 2 m2
during an overpressure o f 50-150 kG/m2, t h e r e i s a s h o r t - l i v e d load o f 600
1800 kG. Under t h e e f f e c t of such a load, wooden s t r u c t u r e s may c o l l a p s e .
Therefore, a i r c r a f t are forbidden t o a c c e l e r a t e t o s u p e r s o n i c v e l o c i t i e s below
9-10 km o v e r populated areas. In t h e opinion of f o r e i g n s p e c i a l i s t s , a s o n i c
"boom" with an i n t e n s i t y of 5 kG/m2 i s t h e most which can b e t o l e r a t e d
harmlessly . Therefore, f u t u r e s u p e r s o n i c j e t a i r c r a f t with heavy f l i g h t
weights (140 - 170 tons) w i l l have t o f l y a t a l t i t u d e s of 18-24 km i n o r d e r
t o minimize t h e e f f e c t of p r e s s u r e drops. In t h i s case, they w i l l have t o
climb t o a l t i t u d e s of 9-10 km a t subsonic l i g h t regimes (Mach number = 0.9 - / 22
0.92), while beyond t h a t at up t o scheduled f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a t Mach M = 1.0

16

1.2, and only at t h i s a l t i t u d e w i l l they be a b l e t o a c c e l e r a t e t o supersonic


c r u i s i n g speed.

TABLE 2

P res su re Drop, kG/m2 Relative Loudness and Resultant Destruction

0.5 - 1.5 Distant b l a s t


1.5 - 5 Close b l a s t o r thunder
5 - 15 Very c l o s e , loud t h u n d e r (window g l a s s r a t t l e s
and s h a t t e r s )
15 - 50 Large window panes s h a t t e r
50 - 150 L i g h t structures collapse

The sound of t h e s o n i c boom i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e , Mach


number, a i r c r a f t ' s angle of a t t a c k , f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y , atmospheric p r e s s u r e
a t sea l e v e l and a t t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e , and wind d i r e c t i o n with r e s p e c t t o
a l t i t u d e . For example, t h e ttboom't from an a i r c r a f t f l y i n g a t an a l t i t u d e of
15 km and a t Mach 2 (V = 2120 km/hr) i s heard t o a d i s t a n c e of 40 km from t h e
a i r c r a f t ' s p a t h , while a t an a l t i t u d e of 11 km i t i s heard only t o a d i s t a n c e
of 33 km. During f l i g h t a t an a l t i t u d e of 1.5 km a t Mach 1.25, t h e "boom"
i s heard only w i t h i n a b e l t 8 km wide.

A t a i l wind may d i s p l a c e t h e shock wave, r e s u l t i n g i n d i s p l a c e o f t h e


a u d i b i l i t y zone. The climbing and descent speeds and t h e angle of i n c l i n a t i o n
0 o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y have s i g n i f i c a n t effects on t h e s i z e of t h e a u d i b i l i t y
zone and t h e loudness of t h e "boom." F o r example, i n gaining a l t i t u d e a t an
angle of 0 = 15' a t H = 5 km, t h e t'boom't i s heard on t h e ground a t M > 1 . 2 .
In descending from an a l t i t u d e o f 10-11 km a t an angle 0 = - l o " , t h e "boom"
reaches t h e .ground only a t M = 1.03.

In conclusion, l e t us dwell on t h e e f f e c t of t h e shock wave c r e a t e d by


a s u p e r s o n i c a i r c r a f t on a passenger a i r c r a f t i n f l i g h t . A s has already been
s a i d , t h e p r e s s u r e drop during a compression shock i s 5-18 kG/m2. If f o r t h e
mean value we s e l e c t 10 kG/mZ, i t amounts t o l e s s than 0.1% of t h e a i r
p r e s s u r e a t ground l e v e l (p = 10,332 kG/m2 = 1 a t . ) . The v e l o c i t y head f o r
a j e t passenger a i r c r a f t f l y i n g st a speed o f 850 km/hr and a t an a l t i t u d e
of 10 km i s approximately 1200kG/m2, i . e . , more than 100 times t h e p r e s s u r e
drop i n t h e "boom." Consequently, such a drop has e s s e n t i a l l y no e f f e c t on
an a i r c r a f t i n f l i g h t . However, t h e r e may be a c e r t a i n e f f e c t on t h e a i r
c r a f t ' s behavior as c r e a t e d by t h e accompanying j e t from t h e a i r c r a f t f l y i n g
by; t h i s e f f e c t i s comparable t o t h a t of a s l i g h t g u s t ( a s i n g l e g u s t o f
"bumpy a i r " ) , d i r e c t e d along t h e propagating l i n e of t h e shock wave. As a
r e s u l t , t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l experience s l i g h t bumpiness.

17

10. Features of t h e Formation of Compression Shock during F l m Around


Various Shapes o f Bodies

Let us now look a t t h e f e a t u r e s of t h e formation of compression shocks


f i r s t with t h e example of flow around t h e a i r i n l e t o f a j e t engine during
s u p e r s o n i c f l i g h t , and t h e n l e t us consider flow around t h e p r o f i l e .

The e x i s t e n c e of a normal shock at t h e i n t a k e t o t h e d i f f u s e r leads t o


s u b s t a n t i a l l o s s e s of t o t a l p r e s s u r e ( k i n e t i c energy) o f t h e air e n t e r i n g
t h e compressor and t h e combustion chamber.

During d e c e l e r a t i o n i n t h e d i f f u s e r , t h e s u p e r s o n i c flow i s transformed


as i t passes through t h e normal compression shock. When t h i s occurs, one
p a r t of t h e k i n e t i c energy of t h e a i r is used f o r i t s compression, while t h e -
/23
o t h e r i s transformed i n t o h e a t ( l o s t energy). However, during f l i g h t of
t h e Mach number M < 1 . 5 , l o s s e s a t t h e shock a r e small. A s a r u l e , t h e r e f o r e ,
f o r such f l i g h t speeds i n t a k e devices a r e used on subsonic a i r c r a f t .

A t f l i g h t g r e a t e r t h a n 1 . 5 Mach, however, l o s s e s a t t h e normal shock


become g r e a t e r . To e l i m i n a t e t h i s , t h e process o f a i r d e c e l e r a t i o n i n t h e
i n t a k e device i s achieved through t h e c r e a t i o n of systems o f o b l i q u e shocks
which terminate i n a weak normal shock. Because o v e r a l l energy l o s s e s i n
a system of o b l i q u e shocks are l e s s than i n one normal shock, t h e p r e s s u r e a t
t h e end of t h e d e c e l e r a t i o n w i l l r e t a i n a high v a l u e . Thus, t h e normal shock
is divided i n t o a s e r i e s o f oblique shocks. S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h i s i s achieved
through s e t t i n g up i n the d i f f u s e r a s p e c i a l s p i k e i n t h e shape of s e v e r a l
cones whose t i p s a r e d i r e c t e d according t o f l i g h t (Fig. 8 a ) .

When f l i g h t speed i s decreased, t h e angles o f i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e oblique


shocks i n c r e a s e ( t h e angle B tends toward 9 0 ' ; see Figure 5 ) . A s speed i s
i n c r e a s e d , t h e r e v e r s e occurs, and t h e s e angles decrease. This h i n d e r s t h e
operation of t h e i n p u t device inasmuch as t h e f r o n t f o r a l l t h e shocks w i l l
n o t pass through t h e i n p u t edge of t h e cone (Fig. 8b). Therefore, sometimes
t h e s p i k e i s a d j u s t a b l e , s o t h a t i n t h e event of changes i n speed, i t s
p o s i t i o n can b e v a r i e d a x i a l l y , thereby h e l p i n g t h e shock t o pass through t h e
leading edge of the a i r i n t a k e a t a l l f l i g h t speeds.

On t h e wing p r o f i l e , t h e formation of compression shocks OCCUTS even


s u b s t a n t i a l l y below t h e speed of sound. As soon as t h e flow speed o f t h e
convergent stream exceeds t h e speed of sound somewhere on t h e p r o f i l e , Mach
waves appear which, i n accumulating, form a shock. I t must be noted t h a t
t h i s shock wave i s formed first on t h e upper p r o f i l e s u r f a c e c l o s e t o some
p o i n t corresponding t o t h e maximum of t h e l o c a l speed and t h e minimum
p r e s s u r e on t h e p r o f i l e . As soon as t h e speed of t h e flow s u r p a s s e s t h e speed
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of sound, a shock wave forms on t h e lower p r o f i l e s u r f a c e as w e l l (Fig. 9 ) .

1. A t p o i n t C t h e p o i n t of l e a s t p r e s s u r e on t h e p r o f i l e , t h e speed o f
t h e motion of t h e a i r has a t t a i n e d t h e l o c a l speed of sound (Fig. 9 a ) . The
Mach waves move from t h e source of t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n toward p o i n t C and,
running i n t o each o t h e r , form a weak normal compression shock.

18

F i g u r e 8. Formation of Compression Shocks a t t h e Intake t o


t h e Diffuser of a Turbojet E n g i n e a t Supersonic F l i g h t Speeds:
a - l i n e drawing o f i n p u t device w i t h cone: O A , BA -- oblique
compression shocks, AK -- normal compression shock; b -
operational c o n f i g u r a t i o n of supersonic d i f f u s e r d u r i n g f l i g h t
speed below i t s design speed.

Figure 9. The Formation of Compression Shocks a t Various


Streamline Flows.

2. As t h e speed of sound i n c r e a s e s somewhat ( a t V2 > Vl), t h e speed


of t h e flow around t h e p r o f i l e i n c r e a s e s (Fig. 9b). Behind p o i n t C y t h e
speed of t h e flow becomes g r e a t e r than t h e speed of sound. A s e c t i o n
appears where t h e flow moves a t s u p e r s o n i c v e l o c i t y , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e
formation of an oblique shock.

19

3. A t a speed o f V3 (V3 < a ) , regions o f s o n i c and s u p e r s o n i c flow a l s o


form on t h e bottom of t h e p r o f i l e , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e formation o f compression
shocks (Fig. 9 c ) .

4. A t a speed o f V4 c l o s e t o t h e speed of sound, t h e compression shocks


are d i s p l a c e d toward t h e t r a i l i n g edge, thereby i n c r e a s i n g t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e
p r o f i l e which encounters s u p e r s o n i c flow p a s t i t (Fig. 9d).

5. When v e l o c i t y V5 becomes somewhat g r e a t e r t h a n t h e speed o f sound, a


bow wave forms i n f r o n t of t h e p r o f i l e and a t a i l wave forms behind i t (Fig.
9e).

During flow around a b l u n t e d body, t h e compression shock forms a t a


/ 25
s l i g h t d i s t a n c e from i t s forward s e c t i o n and assumes a c u r v i l i n e a r form
(Fig. l o a ) . A t i t s forward edge, t h e shock i s normal -- h e r e i t i s perpen
d i c u l a r t o t h e i n c i d e n t flow. Depending on t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e body, t h e
angles of i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e shock decrease. During s u p e r s o n i c flow around
a knife-edged body such as a wedge with a l a r g e open angle (Fig. l o b ) , t h e
shock i s formed a l s o a t a s l i g h t d i s t a n c e from t h e bow p o i n t and a l s o has a
c u r v i l i n e a r form. If t h e open angle o f t h e wedge i s small enough, t h e
compression shock " s e a t s i t s e l f " on t h e s h a r p edges (Fig. 1Oc).

Figure 10. T h e Formation of Compression Shocks a t I d e n t i c a l


Flow V e l o c i t i e s : a - i n f r o n t of a b l u n t e d body, b and c -
i n f r o n t of knife-edged bodies.

1 1 . C r i t i c a l Mach Number. The E f f e c t of Compressibility on t h e


Motion o f Air F l y i n g Around a Wing

The c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y of t h e a i r begins t o m a n i f e s t i t s e l f g r a d u a l l y as
speed i s increased. Up t o a Mach number o f 0.4, t h e e f f e c t of c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y
on t h e aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e wing i s only s l i g h t and may i n
practPce b e ignored. With a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n speed, t h i s e f f e c t becomes
more and more n o t i c e a b l e and can no longer b e ignored. S t a r t i n g a t f l i g h t
speeds of 600 - 700 km/hr and above, drag i n c r e a s e s s h a r p l y because o f
c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y . This occurs due t o t h e f a c t t h a t l o c a l speeds of t h e motion
of t h e a i r o v e r t h e wing and a t p o i n t s where t h e wing a t t a c h e s t o t h e f u s e l a g e
s u b s t a n t i a l l y surpass t h e f l i g h t speed. In flowing around t h e convex s u r f a c e
of the wing, f o r example, t h e air streams are compressed and t h e i r

20
c r o s s - s e c t i o n decreases. However, because t h e span across t h e stream m u s t
remain c o n s t a n t , t h e speed i n i t i s increased. A t any s u f f i c i e n t l y high f l i g h t
speed, t h e l o c a l air speed a t any p o i n t on t h e wing o r o t h e r p o i n t on t h e
s t r u c t u r e comes t o equal t h e l o c a l speed of sound (Fig. 11).

Lava1 nozzle

/ Profile
local=a

Figure 1 1 . T h e Formation o f t h e Local Speed of Sound i n


Flow around a P r o f i l e .

The f l i g h t speed a t which t h e l o c a l speed of sound w i l l appear anywhere


on t h e wing i s c a l l e d t h e c r i t i c a l f l i g h t speed Vcr, while i t s corresponding
Mach number i s c a l l e d t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number Mcr. Higher values f o r t h e
/ 26
l o c a l speeds a r e observed on t h e upper a i r f o i l p r o f i l e . A s t h e speed of t h e
i n c i d e n t flow o r t h e f l i g h t speed i n c r e a s e s , t h e l o c a l speed reaches the speed
of sound f a s t e s t a t t h i s p o i n t .

Let us examine t h e a i r stream surrounding t h e p r o f i l e (Fig. 11). Let


us s e l e c t two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c r o s s - s e c t i o n s of t h i s stream: t h e l a r g e one I
and t h e small one 11. The l o c a l a i r speeds i n s e c t i o n I1 w i l l be g r e a t e r than
t h e l o c a l speeds i n s e c t i o n I as a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e areas of
t h e s e s e c t i o n s . If we i n c r e a s e t h e speed of t h e i n c i d e n t unperturbed flow,
t h e l o c a l speeds i n c r e a s e i n both s e c t i o n s , b u t i n s e c t i o n I1 it i s g r e a t e r
than i n s e c t i o n I . This is explained by t h e f a c t t h a t as a r e s u l t of t h e
i n c r e a s e i n speed t h e r e i s a drop i n d e n s i t y which i s more i n t e n s e t h e f a s t e r
the speed of t h e stream. To r e t a i n t h e s t e a d i n e s s of t h e mass flow weight
r a t e o f a i r along the stream, t h e speed i n s e c t i o n I1 must i n c r e a s e addition
a l l y i n o r d e r t o compensate f o r t h e g r e a t d e n s i t y drop i n t h i s s e c t i o n . A t
t h e t h r e s h o l d , t h e l o c a l speed of t h e flow of a i r i n s e c t i o n I1 may come t o
equal t h e l o c a l speed of sound.

From t h i s i t follows t h a t during f l i g h t with speed Vcr, t h e l o c a l speed


o f sound i s achieved a t t h e narrowest p o i n t o f t h e stream. I t has been
e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h a t a t t h i s i n s t a n t t h e c r i t i c a l p r e s s u r e drop
forms between s e c t i o n I and I1 which i s equal t o pII : pI = 0.528.

I t i s w e l l known t h a t i f t h e speed of sound i s achieved a t t h e narrowest


p a r t of t h e stream, t h e speed i n c r e a s e s and becomes s u p e r s o n i c i f t h e stream
continues broadening. Therefore, a f u l l y s u p e r s o n i c zone o f flow i s formed
down w i t h p o r t i o n of t h e p r o f i l e s u r f a c e during f l i g h t with M > Mcr.

21

The g r e a t e r t h e f l i g h t speed, t h e g r e a t e r t h e zone of s u p e r s o n i c speed w i l l


be. However, f a r behind t h e p r o f i l e t h e speed must b e t h e same a s t h e f l i g h t
speed. Therefore, a t some poHnt on t h e p r o f i l e t h e r e must develop d e c e l e r a t i o n
of t h e a i r from s u p e r s o n i c t o subsonic speed. Such d e c e l e r a t i o n , as
experience has shown, occurs only with t h e formation of a compression shock.

12. T h e Dependence o f t h e S p e e d o f t h e Gas Flow on t h e Shape o f t h e


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Channel. T h e Laval Nozzle

A means f o r o b t a i n i n g s u p e r s o n i c speeds i n t h e motion o f t h e gas w a s .


developed by t h e engineer Laval (Switzerland) during h i s work i n t h e 1880's
on improving a steam t u r b i n e he had invented. Laval o b t a i n e d a s u p e r s o n i c
flow of vapor as i t flowed from a s p e c i a l n o z z l e .

This nozzle, subsequently c a l l e d t h e Laval Nozzle (Fig. l l ) , i s a t u b e


which i s f i r s t compressed and then expanded. The narrowest s e c t i o n of t h e
tube i s c a l l e d t h e c r i t i c a l s e c t i o n . If a vapor o r gas i s run through such
a nozzle a t a s l i g h t p r e s s u r e drop i n which t h e speed o f t h e flow i n t h e
c r i t i c a l s e c t i o n becomes subsonic, i n t h e expanded p o r t i o n o f t h e n o z z l e t h e
speed w i l l drop; i n t h i s c a s e t h e Laval Nozzle o p e r a t e s as a t y p i c a l Venturi
tube. However, i f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p r e s s u r e s a t t h e i n p u t t o t h e n o z z l e and
a t i t s o u t p u t a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t , i n t h e c r i t i c a l s e c t i o n t h e speed of
t h e flow becomes equal t o t h e l o c a l speed of sound. In t h i s c a s e , beyond t h e
c r i t i c a l s e c t i o n , i . e . , i n t h e broadened p o r t i o n of t h e n o z z l e , t h e speed o f
t h e flow does n o t decrease b u t , on t h e c o n t r a r y , i n c r e a s e s . Thus, it was
observed t h a t i n sub- and s u p e r s o n i c flows, t h e dependence of t h e speed of
t h e flow of gases on t h e shape of t h e channel i s d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e .

Subsonic flow accelerates i n t h e compression channel and d e c e l e r a t e s i n


t h e expansion p o r t i o n . In c o n t r a s t , however, s u p e r s o n i c flow l o s e s i t s
speed i n t h e compression s e c t i o n , while i t i n c r e a s e s i t i n t h e expansion
section

Therefore, i n Figure 11 we s e e t h e appearance o f s u p e r s o n i c speed a f t e r


t h e stream has passed through t h e narrow s e c t i o n ( p o i n t K ) .

However, s u p e r s o n i c speed does n o t i n c r e a s e along t h e e n t i r e length o f


t h e nozzle; a t some p o i n t i t must d e c e l e s a t e t o subsonic speed. And h e r e i n
l i e s t h e cause f o r t h e formation of t h e compression shock.

13. Laminar and Turbulent Flow o f Air

Under t h e e f f e c t of i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n due t o t h e v i s c o s i t y of a i r and


t h e roughness of t h e s u r f a c e of t h e body around which t h e flow moves, t h e
speed of air a t t h i s s u r f a c e becomes equal t o zero. Depending on t h e d i s t a n c e
from t h e s u r f a c e , t h e speed o f t h e flow i n c r e a s e s and reaches t h e speed of
f r e e flow. The l a y e r of a i r i n which t h e r e i s a change i n speed from zero
t o the speed of f r e e flow i s c a l l e d t h e boundary l a y e r .

I t i s w e l l known t h a t t h e flow of a i r i n t h e boundary l a y e r may be


laminar ( s t r a t i f i e d ) when t h e gas flows without being mixed i n t h e neighboring

22
l a y e r s and t u r b u l e n t when t h e r e i s random mixing of gas p a r t i c l e s throughout
t h e volume o f t h e flow. The boundary l a y e r a l s o e n t a i l s phenomena such as -
/28
b u r b l i n g (flow s e p a r a t i o n ) , t h e formation of s u r f a c e f r i c t i o n drag, aero
dynamic h e a t i n g , e t c .

The i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e boundary l a y e r and t h e compression shocks r e s u l t s


i n t h e following. If t h e flow i n t h e boundary l a y e r i s laminar (Fig. 1 2 ) ,
an oblique compression shock developes
d i r e c t l y on t h e a i r f o i l p r o f i l e . Behind t h e
shock t h e r e i s s e p a r a t i o n and turbulence of
t h e boundary l a y e r ; i n t h e t u r b u l e n t region
a normal shock developes. I n g e n e r a l , t h e
o b l i q u e and normal shocks are combined. When
t h e r e is an oblique shock, t h e i n t e n s i t y of
t h e normal shock w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s
because t h e flow approaches i t , having already
a t t e n u a t e d i t s speed somewhat i n t h e oblique
shock, with t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e drag
d e c r e a s e s , Therefore, 1,aminarized a i r f o i l s ,
i . e . , a i r f o i l s with very smooth s u r f a c e s , a r e
Figure 12. Compression s u i t a b l e i n t h a t they o f f e r t h e l e a s t s u r f a c e
Shocks on the Profi le: 1 - f r i c t i o n drag and wave drag a t s u p e r c r i t i c a l
Supersoni c Zones ; 2 - Com- f l i g h t Mach numbers.
pression Shocks; 3 - S u b -
son i c Zones. A f t e r t h e normal compression shock t h e r e
begins t h e s o - c a l l e d wave flow s e p a r a t i o n ,
which i s accompa.nied by a decrease i n t h e l o c a l a i r speed. This i n t u r n
r e s u l t s i n a s h a r p drop i n t h e a i r f o i l l i f t .

During t u r b u l e n t flow around an a i r f o i l t h e r e i s no oblique shock and


only one normal shock. The appearance of l o c a l shocks on t h e a i r f o i l
i n s t i t u t e s t h e s o - c a l l e d shock s t a l l . P a r t of t h e k i n e t i c energy i n t h e shock
i s transformed i n t o h e a t which i s then i r r e v e r s i b l y propagated.

A t high f l i g h t speeds, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e compression shock a r e


a f u n c t i o n of t h e n a t u r e of t h e boundary l a y e r . Experience has shown t h a t
flow i n a boundary l a y e r i s u s u a l l y laminar over a c e r t a i n p o r t i o n and then
switches t o t u r b u l e n t .

The p o s i t i o n of t h e t r a n s f e r p o i n t s o f laminar boundary flow t o turbu


l e n t depend on t h e shape of t h e p r o f i l e , j.ts t h i c k n e s s , roughness, e t c . The
s u r f a c e of a body i n laminar flow experiences l e s s f r i c t i o n and less aero
dynamic h e a t i n g a t high speeds than does one i n a t u r b u l e n t l a y e r .

The s t a t e of t h e boundary l a y e r i s r e f l e c t e d n o t only i n t h e wing drag,


b u t i n i t s l i f t i n g c a p a c i t y as w e l l . I n t h e boundary l a y e r a flow s e p a r a t i o n
arises which determines t h e c r i t i c a l angle of a t t a c k and i t s corresponding
maximum l i f t ratio.

23

14. Pressure Distri-bution a t Sub- and S u p e r c r i t i c a l Mach Numbers /29


P r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n along a wing p r o f i l e under flow conditions i s shown
i n Figure 13. The arrows r e p r e s e n t t h e values o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e
l o c a l and atmospheric p r e s s u r e s
at each p a i n t on t h e p r o f i l e .
b ) y c The p o s i t i v e overpressure
(atmospheric p r e s s u r e l e s s
-1 I- than l o c a l ) i s i n d i c a t e d by
arrows p o i n t i n g toward t h e
contour, whereas n e g a t i v e
p r e s s u r e o r r a r e f a c t i o n (atmos
p h e r i c p r e s s u r e g r e a t e r than
l o c a l ) is shown by arrows p o i n t
t i
O P \ ed away from t h e contour.

Figure 13. Diagram of t h e Pressure To determine and compute


D i s t r i b u t i o n s along the A i r f o i 1 Pro- t h e f o r c e of t h e evacuation on
f i l e : a - v e c t o r a l ; b - expressed by those points of the p r o f i l e a t
t h e pressure c o e f f i c i e n t ( 1 - upper which p r e s s u r e measurements
w i n g s u r f a c e , 2 - lower s u r f a c e ) . were taken, t h e p r o f i l e chord
f o r a l i n e p a r a l l e l t o the chord
i s p r o j e c t e d , then t h e measured v a l u e s f o r t h e p r e s s u r e a r e p l o t t e d a t a
s e l e c t e d s c a l e from p o i n t s s p e c i f i e d along t h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e chord:
p o s i t i v e overpressure i s u s u a l l y p l o t t e d below and evacuation i s p l o t t e d above.
The p o i n t s thus obtained then merge i n a smooth curve.

In diagrams used i n aerodynamics, normally t h e p r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s


(Fig. 13b), which r e p r e s e n t t h e r a t i o of t h e o v e r p r e s s u r e a t any given p o i n t
on t h e p r o f i l e t o t h e v e l o c i t y head o f t h e t u r b u l e n t flow are p l o t t e d a t
p o i n t s on t h e p r o f i l e r a t h e r than t h e o v e r p r e s s u r e , as f o l l o w s :

Pover - P l o c a l - P a t .
p=-
9 v2

where pl0 - i s t h e a b s o l u t e p r e s s u r e a t a given p o i n t ;


cal
Pat.
- i s t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e i n t h e unperturbed flow, i . e . , t h e
atmospheric p r e s s u r e a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s ;
9 - i s t h e v e l o c i t y head i n t h e unperturbed flow, determined
by t h e f l i g h t speed and a l t i t u d e .

From t h e above it follows t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t characterizes /30


-
t h e degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ( i n u n i t s of t h e v e l o c i t y head) o f t h e l o c a l
p r e s s u r e a t any p o i n t on t h e upper and lower p r o f i l e s u r f a c e s from t h e s t a t i c
p r e s s u r e i n t h e unperturbed flow. The c o e f f i c i e n t w i l l be negative i f t h e
l o c a l p r e s s u r e on t h e g r o f i l e i s below atmospheric p r e s s u r e . Consequently,
a n e g a t i v e v a l u e f o r p corresponds t o t h e presence on t h e p r o f i l e of r a r e
f a c t i o n , where a p o s i t i v e value i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e .

24
..- . , , . .. . . .. . . . . . -. . . ~ ~

I
~~ ~

A t small Mach numbers, t h e diagram f o r t h e p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r each


angle of a t t a c k has i t s own constant form because t h e a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y has
no e f f e c t on t h e n a t u r e of the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s on t h e
upper and lower s u r f a c e s . A t high Mach numbers (0.6 and g r e a t e r ) , t h e r e i s
an i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a r e f a c t i o n i n which g r e a t e r r a r e f a c t i o n arises t o a
g r e a t e r degree. This i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a r e f a c t i o n i s explained by t h e e f f e c t
of c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y -- d e n s i t y decreases as speed i n c r e a s e s . Consequently ,
t o maintain t h e constancy of t h e speed flow r a t e around t h e p r o f i l e , it must
i n c r e a s e f u r t h e r , which i n t u r n causes a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a r e f a c t i o n .
A t p o r t i o n s of t h e p r o f i l e where t h e flow around it has i t s g r e a t e s t speed,
i . e . , where r a r e f a c t i o n i s g r e a t e s t , t h e a f f e c t o f c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y w i l l a l s o
be greater.

To f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e t h e speed o f t h e i n c i d e n t flow (above Mcr), the rare


f a c t i o n on t h e leading edge of t h e a i r f o i l p r o f i l e decreases while i t i n c r e a s e s
s h a r p l y a t t h e t r a i l i n g edge, s o t h a t h e r e t h e flow becomes s u p e r s o n i c and
there is additional rarefaction.

The r e s u l t a n t zone of s u p e r s o n i c speed culminates i n a compression shock


behind which t h e l o c a l speeds become subsonic. Such a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t h e
change o f t h e l o c a l speeds f o r flow around an a i r f o i l p r o f i l e q u a l i t a t i v e l y
changes t h e s i t u a t i o n with r e s p e c t t o p r e s s u r e r a r e f a c t i o n along t h e p r o f i l e
as compared t o s u b c r i t i c a l flow.

From Figure 14 it i s c l e a r t h a t a t t h a t p o i n t on the p r o f i l e where t h e


compression shock formed t h e r e
A d d i t i o n a l ra're f ac t i on i s a sharp and i r r e g u l a r
p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e ( i . e . , de
c r e a s e of r a r e f a c t i o n ) . A t
Mach numbers g r e a t e r than
c r i t i c a l , the increase i n
p r e s s u r e i n t h e leading p o r t i o n
of t h e p r o f i l e and an i n c r e a s e
i n r a r e f a c t i o n i n t h e trai l i n g
p o r t i o n leads t o a s u b s t a n t i a l
i n c r e a s e i n t h e drag co
e f f i c i e n t . Shocks a r e normally
manifested on t h e upper t h e n
lower s u r f a c e i n modern pro-
f i l e s a t p o s i t i v e angles of

Figure 14. Pressure D i s t r i b u t i o n Along


attack.

t h e P r o f i l e f o r Mach Numbers Below


(broken l i n e ) and Above ( s o l i d l i n e )
Let us look a t t h e p i c t u r e

t h e C r i t i c a l Mach Number M c r .
of p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n along

t h e chord of a symmetrical
p r o f i l e a t a given angle of a t t a c k f o r various Mach numbers (Fig. 1 5 ) . I f a t
small Mach numbers t h e values of t h e p r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t p a r e small, then
with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e speed of t h e i n c i d e n t flow t h e r a r e f a c t i o n on t h e
upper p r o f i l e contour i n c r e a s e s and t h e curve of t h e p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n
i s d i s p l a c e d upward. When l o c a l s u p e r s o n i c zones and compression shocks are

25

formed on t h e p r o f i l e , i . e . , f o r Mach numbers g r e a t e r than c r i t i c a l , t h e r e


is a zone of flow with V > a. "his zone i s enclosed by t h e normal com
p r e s s i o n shock. me formation o f t h e shock causes a decrease i n t h e rare
f a c t i o n on t h e upper p r o f i l e . When t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n t h e Mach
number, t h e r e g i o n of s u p e r s o n i c speeds broaden and t h e shock g r a d u a l l y i s
d i s p l a c e d t o t h e rear. Decreasing t h e r a r e f a c t i o n becomes much more
s i g n i f i c a n t . The subsequent i n c r e a s e i n t h e Mach number r e s u l t s i n t h e shock
being formed on t h e lower s u r f a c e as w e l l , where t h e r a r e f a c t i o n becomes
g r e a t e r . With even h i g h e r values f o r t h e Mach number, both shocks reach t h e
t r a i l i n g edge and t h e e n t i r e p r o f i l e i s surrounded by a s u p e r s o n i c flow.

wave j

Figure 15. Representative P i c t u r e of the Pressure D i s


t r i b u t i o n o n a Symmetrical P r o f i l e ( s o l i d l i n e -- upper
s u r f a c e , broken l i n e -- lower s u r f a c e ) .

Examination of t h e p i c t u r e of p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n gives proof of t h e


f a c t t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e Mach number s u b s t a n t i a l l y changes both t h e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e curves of p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h e moment
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e wing.

26
I

CHAPTER I I

AERODYNAMI C CHARACTER1 STI CS OF THE W l NG AND AI RCRAFT.


THE EFFECT OF A I R C O M P R E S S I B I L I T Y .

5 1. T h e Dependence of t h e C o e f f i c i e n t c on t h e A n g l e o f Attack
Y
The dependence o f t h e l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t c on t h e a n g l e o f a t t a c k a i s
Y
an important aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e wing and t h e a i r c r a f t . The
shape of t h e wing ( f o r a s p e c i f i c number of p r o f i l e s ) i n planform has a
s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e change of t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c f o r
Y
t h e a i r f o i l a t h i g h angles of a t t a c k a f t e r t h e l o c a l flow s t a r t s t o b r e a k
away. Turbojet passenger a i r c r a f t have swept wings, and i t i s t h e s e which
we s h a l l d i s c u s s .

Figure 16 shows a graph f o r t h e change of t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c as a


Y
f u n c t i o n of t h e angle a of t h e a i r f o i l w i t h t h e sweep angle x = 35".
According t o t h i s graph we may e v a l u a t e t h e l i f t i n g a b i l i t y of t h e a i r f o i l
and determine t h e angles of a t t a c k a t which f l i g h t occurs. Depending on t h e
f l i g h t speed and a l t i t u d e f o r v a r i o u s f l i g h t w e i g h t s , t h e r e q u i r e d v a l u e s of
c are determined f o r h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t .
Y
The performace of an a i r c r a f t a t h i g h angles of a t t a c k , t h e causes f o r
flow s e p a r a t i o n ( b u r b l e ) and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a l s o determined and
e x p l a i n e d by t h e dependence o f c on a.
Y
A t h i g h angles of a t t a c k b u r b l i n g begins which d i s t o r t s t h e p i c t u r e
of t h e flow and i n t r o d u c e s a c e r t a i n decrease in t h e mean v a l u e o f t h e
expansion above t h e a i r f o i l , t h e increa.se i n c slows down, and beyond a
Y
/33
c e r t a i n angle of a t t a c k c a l l e d t h e c r i t i c a l angle of a t t a c k , t h e r e i s no
longer an i n c r e a s e , b u t r a t h e r a d e c r e a s e i n c .
Y
A t h i g h Mach numbers ( f l i g h t c r u i s i n g s p e e d s ) , a n a l y s i s of t h e dependents
c = f (a) must b e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h allowance made f o r t h e a f f e c t of compress
Y
i b i l i t y , which changes t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o a c e r t a i n degree.

I n swept a i r f o i l s , v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e
Y
angle of a t t a c k have t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As can b e s e e n from Figure
16, a t angles o f a t t a c k from -1" t o 10 - 1'2" ( f o r small Mach numbers),
there is a linear characteristic of increase i n c .
Y
However, a t angles o f
a t t a c k g r e a t e r t h a n 10 - 12" t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y i s e l i m i n a t e d between t h e
increase i n t h e angle of a t t a c k and t h e i n c r e a s e i n c i n addition,
Y'
t h e i n c r e a s e i n c slows down. This i s
Y
due t o t h e o n s e t o f b u r b l i n g . A t
angles o f a t t a c k from 17 t o 20", t h e
l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t reaches i t s maximum
of c The change i n t h e dependents
y ma'
of c = f (a) a t t h i s p o r t i o n is a
Y
f u n c t i o n of t h e shape o f t h e leading
edge o f t h e a i r f o i l . The wings i n
passenger a i r c r a f t have a b l u n t e d
leading edge, s o t h a t t h e change i n c
Y
i n t h e zone c i s smooth.
Y m a
Swept wings (as compared t o normal
wings) have lower values f o r t h e
c o e f f i c i e n t c due t o t h e flow around
Y
t h e wing a t a v e l o c i t y Vef, which by
c r e a t i n g l i f t becomes a component of
t h e speed V ( s e e Figure 3 3 ) . When
POS
t h e speed o f the flow around t h e wing
does not correspond t o t h e f l i g h t speed,
t h e r e a r i s e s a l a t e r a l displacement of
t h e a i r p a r t i c l e s i n t h e boundary l a y e r
which, f o r t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n s of t h e
wing, i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e e f f e c t which
i s obtained when t h e boundary l a y e r i s
Figure 16. Graphs f o r t h e blown away o r drawn off ( s e e Chapter V,
C o e f f i c i e n t c f o r a Swept 8). The s e p a r a t i o n of a i r p a r t i c l e s
Y from t h e upper s u r f a c e i s p r o t r a c t e d
A i r f o i l a t Small Mach
Numbers ( 1 - w i n g w i t h t o very s u b s t a n t i a l angles of a t t a c k ,
geometric t w i s t o f 3 " , 2 and b e f o r e they are reached t h e r e i s a
w i thout geomet r i c steady increase i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c
Y
t w i s t j a n d the C o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the wing.
c f o r the A i r c r a f t as a
X
Because of t h e g r e a t i n c l i n a t i o n of
Function of the Angle of
t h e curve c = f ( a ) t o the h o r i z o n t a l
Attack. Y
a x i s i n swept wings (as compared t o
normal wings), t h e i n c r e a s e i n c as
Y
the angle of a t t a c k i s i n c r e a s e d by l o i t i s l e s s than t h a t f o r a normal
wing, i . e . , l e s s than the g r a d i e n t of t h e i n c r e a s e f o r t h e l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t .
This a l s o determines t h e lower l i f t i n g a b i l i t y of swept wings as compared
t o normal s t r a i g h t wings.

For swept wings, w i t h i n t h e range of angles o f a t t a c k -1.0" - (10-12)"

28

( l i n e a r flow of t h e r e l a t i o n c = f (a) on each degree of i n c r e a s e a) t h e


Y
c o e f f i c i e n t c i n c r e a s e s by approximately 0.09 - 0.11.
Y
The angle of a t t a c k a t which t h e decreased growth of c i s encountered
Y
and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v i b r a t i o n s i n a i r c r a f t a r e observed i s c a l l e d t h e
p e r m i s s i b l e angle of a t t a c k aper, while t h e l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t corresponding
t o it i s c (Figure 1 7 ) . The v i b r a t i o n i n t h e a i r c r a f t begins a f t e r t h e
Y Per
b u r b l i n g begins at t h e wing t i p s and the vortex flow s t r i k e s t h e t a i l
assembly. On t h e curve (Figure 17) r e f l e c t i n g t h e t o t a l change i n c f o r
Y
t h e wing as a f u n c t i o n of a, t h e angle
/34
of a t t a c k corresponding t o t h e onset
of v i b r a t i o n i s determined through t h e
s t a r t of l o c a l flow s e p a r a t i o n a t t h e
wing t i p ( i n t h e f i g u r e , t h i s c o r r e s
ponds t o t h e p o i n t where Curve 2 begins
. I
I
I
I
t o d e v i a t e from t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e ) . When
C
Y m a
i s reached by t h e wing t i p s , i n
s p i t e of t h e subsequent s h a r p decrease
i n c a t these t i p s , c f o r t h e e n t i r e
Y Y
I wing begins t o i n c r e a s e as t h e angle of
I
a t t a c k does, although slower than
a t t h e beginning of s e p a r a t i o n . The
i n c r e a s e i n c takes p l a c e due t o t h e
Y
s e p a r a t i o n - f r e e flow a t t h e c e n t r a l
p o r t i o n of t h e wing which occurs a t
high angles of a t t a c k . For high Mach
numbers , t h e c r i t i c a l angle of a t t a c k
Figure 17. The C o e f f i c i e n t c may reach 3 0 - 3 5 ' .
Y
f o r Various P a r t s o f a Swept
Wing as a Function o f the
The a i r c r a f t s moving i n t o the
v i b r a t i o n zone i n d i c a t e s t h a t low
Angle o f Attack: 1 - c e n t r a l
speeds have been a t t a i n e d , and i n t h i s
portion; 2 - w i n g t i p ; 3 -
w i n g a s a whole.
case t h e v i b r a t i o n i s a warning f o r t h e
pilot.

In t h e zone of high angles o f a t t a c k , t h e r e i s a smooth change i n c


Y'
especially close to its maximum. As a r e s u l t of t h i s , i n t h e s h i f t t o
s u p e r c r i t i c a l angles of a t t a c k , swept wings have l e s s o f a tendency
toward a u t o r o t a t i o n than do s t r a i g h t wings. I n g e n e r a l , t h e swept wings
on t r a n s p o r t a i r c r a f t have l e s s of a tendency toward s p i n .

29
Because of geometric t w i s t , t h e running value of t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c f o r
Y
t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c angles of attack during t a k e o f f , climb, h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t ,
e t c . , decreases. As can b e seen from Figure 16, f o r t h e same angle of attack
al, t h e wing's l i f t without geometric twist i s b e t t e r , and c > c This i s
Y2 Yl'
why f l i g h t i n aircraft with wings having geometric twist i s performed a t
g r e a t e r angles o f a t t a c k t h a n with wings without t h i s t w i s t .

2. T h e E f f e c t of t h e Mach Number on t h e Behavior of the Dependence c = f(c1)


Y
A i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y a f g e c t s t h e dependence o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c on t h e
Y
a n g l e o f a t t a c k . Because of c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e f l i g h t Mach
number of more than 0 . 4 - 0.5 i s accompanied by a q u a l i t a t i v e change i n t h e
c h a r a c t e r of flow around t h e wing, because t h e speed o f t h e flow on t h e wing
i n c r e a s e s , as a r e s u l t o f which f o r one and t h e same angle of a t t a c k t h e -
/3 6
c o e f f i c i e n t c increases , i . e . , t h e r e i s an improvement i n t h e l i f t i n g
Y
c a p a b i l i t y of t h e wing. This i s c l e a r from Figure 18 ( i n which, f o r example
purposes, t h e angle c1 = 4.5" has been s e l e c t e d ) . The angle of a t t a c k a t which
v i b r a t i o n begins decreases with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e Mach number, because t h e
v i b r a t i o n and t h e flow s e p a r a t i o n begins sooner t h a n a t low Mach numbers.
Therefore, t h e value c a l s o decreases
y vib
with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e Mach number. For
example, a t M = 0.65, t h e c o e f f i c i e n t
C = 0.99, while a t M = 0.85 i t w i l l
y vib
equal 0.52 (Figure 19). In a d d i t i o n ,
C a l s o decreases s h a r p l y . If from
Y
M = 0.65 t h e c o e f f i c i e n t cy v i b d i f f e r s
s l i g h t l y from c then a t M = 0.85
y m a '
t h e value c w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l l y
y vib
less than c F l i g h t accompanied by
y max'
v i b r a t i o n u s u a l l y precedes t h e onset of
i n s t a b i l i t y i n t h e a i r c r a f t with r e s p e c t
t o overload, while a t c e r t a i n values
g r e a t e r than c t h e v i b r a t i o n s can l e a d
Y'
IJil iI !5 t o s t a l l i n g a t c e r t a i n Mach numbers.
~~ d l !I !I 1 cf Therefore t h e v a l u e c a t which v i b r a t i o n
0 $54222i&79[ Y
per begins i s v i t a l f o r f l i g h t purposes.
Figure 18. The Affect of t h e
I f f o r M = 0 . 4 - 0 . 5 t h e angle of
Mach Number on the Dependence
a t t a c k f o r t h e o n s e t of v i b r a t i o n (see
c = f ( a ) : - - - wind- t u n n e l
Y Figure 19) equals 12-13', then f o r M =
tests; - f 1 i g h t tests. = 0 . 8 - 0.9 i t decreases t o 5-7', and
C a l s o d e c r e a s e s . This i s e s p e c i a l l y
y vib
dangerous a t high Mach numbers because a t
t h e same time as t h e onset of v i b r a t i o n s , s t a l l i n g may s e t i n .

30

Figure 19. T h e Dependence of a v i b and c on t h e


y vib
Mach Number.

In t h e event t h a t t h e s h i f t t o h i g h e r c i s n o t accompanied by t h e
Y
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v i b r a t i o n (of i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s of t h e wing) , t o forewarn

t h e p i l o t t h a t t h i s s h i f t has occurred, s p e c i a l tubulence s e n s o r s a r e

a t t a c h e d t o t h e wings. They t r a p t h e l o c a l flow s e p a r a t i o n s on t h e wing and

t r a n s m i t t h e v i b r a t i o n t o t h e c o n t r o l wheel. This, f o r example, i s what was

done on t h e B r i t i s h t u r b o j e t Comet, on which t h e sensors a r e s e t symmetrically

on t h e leading edge of t h e c e n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e wing (Figure 20). On t h e

p i l o t ' s instrument panel t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l


instrument which s i g n a l s t h e p i l o t ahead of
time (before c has been reached) t h a t t h e
y vib
a i r c r a f t i s s h i f t i n g toward t h i s regime (see
Chapter X I , 15).

3. The Permissible C o e f f i c i e n t c and


Y Per
i t s Dependence on the Mach Number

F l i g h t s a f e t y i s achieved i n t u r b o j e t
a i r c r a f t a t high a l t i t u d e s and Mach numbers
through r e s t r i c t i n g the i n c r e a s e i n t h e l i f t
c o e f f i c i e n t by t h e determined p e r m i s s i b l e
values of c This i s necessary t o -
/37
Figure 20. Positioning o f Y per'
maintain l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y i n t h e a i r
Sensors on the Wing of the
c r a f t . Horizontal f l i g h t must be performed
Comet A i r c r a f t . a t an a l t i t u d e and speed i n which t h e value
C does not exceed c f o r a normal
y hor Y Per
i z e d v e r t i c a l wind s e p a r a t i o n . The v a l u e c i s s e l e c t e d such t h a t i t i s
Y per
always somewhat l e s s than c o r matches i t (Figure 18). From Figure 2 1
y vib
i t can be seen t h a t , f o r example, f o r a Mach number of 0.65 t h e c o e f f i c i e n t
C = 0.86, f o r M = 0.80 i t equals 0.635, etc. The less t h e degree of
Y Per

31
sweep of t h e a i r f o i l , t h e g r e a t e r t h e value
C Careful s e l e c t i o n of t h e p r o f i l e s
Y per'
permits improving t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r flow
around t h e wing and y i e l d s h i g h e r values of
C
Y Per'
Such s e l e c t i o n of p r o f i l e s i s e s p e c i a l l y
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of second-generation turbo-
j e t aircraft.
of v i b r a t i o n
-1 L - 1 . I

24'' 43 o,b 0,s 0,s 0.7 o.a H With high values f o r t h e Mach number,
the coefficient c decreases t o almost
Y Per
h a l f i t s v a l u e , and a t M = 0.85 it reaches
Figure 21. The C o e f f i c i e n t
as low as 0.54. I n t h e zone of small Mach
C as a Function of t h e numbers (up t o 0 . 4 6 ) , a v a l u e of c --
Y Per
Mach Number (angle of sweep Y Per
= 1 . 1 2 - 1 . 2 is used, which permits d e t e r
x = 35"): -.-.-.-
first

mination of t h e lowest p e r m i s s i b l e speed

generation a i r c r a f t ; _-----
second-gene rat i on a i r c r a f t . f o r an a i r c r a f t with smooth wings (wing
flaps retracted).

Further, i n examining h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t and t h e s t a b i l i t y and handiness


of t h e a i r c r a f t , we s h a l l r e t u r n t o c and, i n a d d i t i o n , we s h a l l consider
Y Per
c1
Per
and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Val es .
4. Dependence of the C o e f f i c ent c on t h e Mach Number f o r F l i g h t a t a
Y
Cons tan t Ang le of A t tack

In examining t h e e f f e c t of a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y on t h e l i f t i n g p r o p e r t i e s
of t h e a i r f o i l i n 2 , we noted t h a t f o r a constant ( f l i g h t value) angle of
a t t a c k , each Mach number i s matched by a s p e c i f i c v a l u e of c .
Y
A s can b e seen from Figure 22 ( t h e curve f o r a = 4 . 5 " ) , the c o e f f i c i e n t
c i n c r e a s e s c o n s t a n t l y up t o a value of M = 0.83, and then decreases. The
Y
reason f o r such a change i n c i s due t o t h e e f f e c t of a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y
Y
on t h e p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n along t h e p r o f i l e ( s e e Figure 9 ) . Even with a
Mach number of 0 . 4 i n t h e v e i n flowing over t h e p r o f i l e , increase i n
v e l o c i t y i s accompanied by a marked decrease i n a i r d e n s i t y , which leads t o
/ 38
an a d d i t i o n a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e expansion above t h e upper s u r f a c e ( 10 of
Chapter I ) . On the lower s u r f a c e , t h e a f f e c t of a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y or
t h e s e Mach numbers has a l e s s e r e f f e c t , s o t h a t i n i t i a l l y t h e r e i s an
increase i n the c o e f f i c i e n t c During t h e formation of a compression
Y'
shock, t h e l i f t i n g c a p a b i l i t y of t h e a i r f o i l d e c r e a s e s . Shock-induction
s e p a r a t i o n leads t o a decrease i n expansion on t h e upper p o r t i o n of t h e
a i r f o i l p r o f i l e , and c decreases. A t a given Mach number, when t h e r e i s a
Y
shock on the lower s u r f a c e as w e l l , i t begins moving back, a t f i r s t slowly

32

and then r a t h e r rapi-dly. As a


r e s u l t , on t h e lower s u r f a c e t h e
expansion zone w i l l i n c r e a s e as
t h e r e s u l t of which t h e l i f t and,
consequently, c as w e l l w i l l
Y
0: - 2 O
s t a r t t o decrease. Later, as a
given Mach number, t h e shock on
3 I t h e upper s u r f a c e w i l l a l s o s t a r t
03 1 . 1 I I I I t o move back f a s t e r and f a s t e r ,
0.4 0.3 48 47 48 49 fl which w i l l e n t a i l an i n c r e a s e i n
t h e expansion zone and t h e
c o e f f i c i e n t c - ~ . The values of
Figure 22. T h e E f f e c t of Air Compressi- Y
t h e Mach number a t which we
b i l i t y on t h e C o e f f i c i e n t c a t a
Y observe t h e i n i t i a l i n c r e a s e i n
Constant A n g l e of Attack: 1,2 - s w e p t c-- and i t s subsequent drop and
w i n g w i t h geometric t w i s t ; 3 - non- Y
renewed i n c r e a s e (ffspoon'')
swept w i n g .
depend on t h e angle o f a t t a c k
fo; t h e p r o f i l e and t h e a i r f o i l
as a whole. A s can be seen from Figure 22, f o r s m a l l e r angles of a t t a c k
(2-3O), t h e flow c i s smoother with r e s p e c t t o t h e Mach number and t h e
Y
'lspoonlt i s only s l i g h t l y expressed.

This f e a t u r e of the change i n c with r e s p e c t t o t h e Mach number - - t h e


Y
'lspoonll - - explains t h e " i n v e r s e r e a c t i o n " of an a i r c r a f t ( i n banking) t o
d e c l i n a t i o n i n the c o n t r o l wheel (Chapter X I , 22).

5. The Affect of t h e Mach Number on the C o e f f i c i e n t cx

Let us analyze t h e formula f o r drag

where S i s the wing a r e a .

I f the angle of a t t a c k ct i s maintained c o n s t a n t , a t small Mach numbers


drag w i l l vary p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t o the square of t h e speed, w h i l e t h e drag
/ 39
c o e f f i c i e n t c a t t h e s e Mach numbers w i l l be p r a c t i c a l l y independent of speed
X
and w i l l vary only with r e s p e c t t o the angle o f a t t a c k . As we can s e e from
Figure 16, f o r ct = 6-8O t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c = 0.038 - 0.05 ( a t small a l t i t u d e s
X
and speeds). However, t h e dependence of cx on only t h e angle of a t t a c k i s
observed a t speeds a t which t h e e f f e c t of a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y may b e ignored.
With an i n c r e a s e i n f l i g h t speed, however, when c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y does s t a r t
t o have an e f f e c t , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t cx i n c r e a s e s , and more s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e
f a s t e r t h e shock s t a l l on t h e p r o f i l e developes. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e

33
development of t h e shock s t a l l and t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t cx may b e
considered from Figure 23. Under Mach = 0.7, t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c is p r a c t i c a l l y
X
changeless. After t h e

i f l i g h t (flow) Mach number


exceeds i t s c r i t i c a l

I v a l u e , l o c a l compression
shocks b e g i n forming on
t h e wing, wave drag
appears, and a s h a r p
i n c r e a s e i n t h e curve c
X

1I b e g i n s . This makes i t
c l e a r t h a t the g r e a t e r
t h e a i r f o i l angle of
attack (or the g r e a t e r
t h e f l i g h t c ) , t h e lower
Y
the c r i t i c a l value f o r t h e
Mach number. With an
i n c r e a s e i n t h e Mach
Figure 23. Dependence of t h e C o e f f i c i e n t cX number, t h e compression
on t h e Mach Number f o r a S w e p t Wing. shocks a r e d i s p l a c e d
toward t h e t r a i l i n g edge
and become more powerful.
A t Mach = 1.1 - 1.15, a normal shock appears i n f r o n t and shocks appu par on
both t h e top and bottom of the t r a i l i n g p o r t i o n of t h e p r o f i l e .

I t must b e noted t h a t an understanding of t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number, as


r e l a t e d t o t h e appearance of t h e l o c a l speed of sound a t any p o i n t on a swept
wing, has less of a p r a c t i c a l value than i t does f o r a s t r a i g h t wing. In
g e n e r a l , the appearance of the l o c a l speed of sound on s t r a i g h t and swept
wings does not immediately have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e aerodynamic
p r o p e r t i e s , and w i l l not be n o t i c e d by t h e p i l o t .

The c r i t i c a l Mach number f o r a swept wing and t h e a i r c r a f t as a whole /40


i s u s u a l l y r e l a t e d t o changes i n the t o t a l aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h i s
i s understood t o mean t h a t f l i g h t Mach number a t which t h e p i l o t becomes aware
of t h e e f f e c t of a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y on the handling q u a l i t i e s of h i s a i r
c r a f t , i . e . , changes i n t h e s t a b i l i t y and handiness. The c r i t i c a l Mach number
as determined from t h e s e conditions i s M = 0.82 - 0.88. A t such a Mach
cr
number, a i r c r a f t i n s t a b i l i t y i n terms of speed developes ( t h e spoonrt on t h e
balance curve) and t h e r e v e r s e r e a c t i o n ( i n terms of banking) t o d e c l i n a t i o n
of t h e rudder a l s o appears.

In f l i g h t p r a c t i c e , concepts a r e used such as t h e s o - c a l l e d l i m i t i n g Mach


number, which the p i l o t m u s t know a b s o l u t e l y . I t is u s u a l l y equal t o 0.86
0.9. This Mach number can reasonably s a f e l y be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e c r i t i c a l
Mach numbers d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r .

I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t i n aerodynamic c a l c u l a t i o n s , the c r i t i c a l

34
Mach number i s sometimes taken t o b e a f l i g h t Mach number whose i n c r e a s e by
0.01 l e a d s t o a 1%increase i n t h e a i r c r a f t ' s c o e f f i c i e n t cx. .According t o
t h e l a t e s t formulas, t h e Mach number M = 0.78 - 0.80 f o r c r u i s i n g v a l u e s
cr
c = 0.25
Y
-
0.30. For c
Y
= 0.35 - 0 . 5 a t c e i l i n g a l t i t u d e s , depending on t h e
t a k e o f f weight t h e v a l u e Mcr d e c r e a s e s 0.70 - 0.74.

As w a s s t a t e d above, when t h e Mach number i s i n c r e a s e d above Mcr, a large


s u p e r s o n i c zone of flow appears on t h e p r o f i l e , t h e compression shock i s moved
back and expansion i n t h e t a i l p o r t i o n of t h e p r o f i l e i s i n c r e a s e d and
i n i t i a t e s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c F o r non-swept wings, f o r example,
X'
t h i s phenomenon occurs a t Mach numbers 0 . 0 4 = 0 . 1 below Mcr.

For a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n t h e Mach number above t h e c r i t i c a l v a l u e , t h e


c o e f f i c i e n t c i n c r e a s e s as a r e s u l t of t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e l o c a l speeds on
X
t h e lower p r o f i l e s u r f a c e , where a compression shock i s a l s o formed. A more
i n t e n s e i n c r e a s e i n c i n non-swept wings occurs i n t h e range o f Mach numbers
X
from M to M = 1; with a s h i f t beyond M = 1, however, t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c
cr x
u s u a l l y decreases. For swept wings, t h e ma-ximun v a l u e of c corresponds t o
X
t h e Mach number M = 1.1 - 1.15.
I t i s known t h a t wing drag i s compcunded from t h e p r o f i l e drag
t h e induced drag Qi; t h e formation of compression shocks on t h e wing2! :lis
t h e wave drag t o these. With r e s p e c t t o t h i s , t h e i n v e r t e d form o f %he
formu1.a f o r t h e drag c o e f f i c i e n t w i l l b e t h e f o l l o w i n g :

c = c + c + cxw'
x xp xi

where c, i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of p r o f i l e drag f o r zero lift, and i s cornpiled


xp from .the drag of t h e a i r F r i c t i o n on t h e wing s u r f a c e and t h e
drag caused by .the d i f f e r e n c e between a i r p r e s s u r e s on t h e leading
and t r a i l i n g p o r t i o n s of %he wing. The p r o f i l e drag f o r t h e wing
/41
a t small Mach numbers can b e s t b e e s t a b l i s h e d from f r i c t i o n whose
v a l u e i s only s l i g h t l y dependent on t h e angle of a t t a c k * ; a t high
angles of a t t a c k t h e s e p a r a t i o n drag i s added t o t h e f r i c t i o n drag
and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t i n c r e a s e s s h a r p l y : c = c -!- c
xp x fric x pres'
c i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of induced drag, which i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e
xi
wing l i f t ; i t i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s q u a r e of t h e l i f t
c o e f f i c i e n t and i n v e r s e l y proportional. t o t h e wing a s p e c t r a t i o :
1

CL
l2
c
xi
= 2 (here X =
~TX
-S
- wing a s p e c t r a t i o , 1 - span, and S - Wing a r e a ) ;
.__
* A. P . Mel'nikov. High-speed Aerodynamics (Aerodinamika b o l t s h i k h s k o r o s t e y ) ,
Voyeni z d a t , 1961.

35
c i s t h e wave drag c o e f f i c i e n t .
xw
Induced and wave drag a r e by n a t u r e p r e s s u r e drags. When wave drag
developes, t h e c o e f f i c i e n t cx i n c r e a s e s 3-6 times f o r s t r a i g h t wings and 40
70% f o r swept wings as compared t o i t s v a l u e s f o r slow speeds.

Thus, t h e o n s e t of compression shocks leads t o an i n t e n s e i n c r e a s e i n t h e


c o e f f i c i e n t cx because wave drag is added t o t h e normal p r o f i l e drag and
induced drag.

6. Wing Wave Drag

I t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e f l i g h t speed above
c r i t i c a l leads t o t h e appearance of a new, a d d i t i o n a l form of drag c a l l e d
p r o f i l e wave drag.

To explain t h e n a t u r e of t h i s drag, l e t us once more examine the p i c t u r e


of t h e p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n along the upper wing s u r f a c e f o r subsonic flow a t
sub- and s u p e r c r i t i c a l f l i g h t speeds (Figure 14 and 24). A s can be s e e n ,
i n Figure 24 one s e c t i o n
of t h e expansion v e c t o r s
s o r t of "draw" t h e pro- -
/42
f i l e forward, while t h e

- '+cr
-
-
Y
VZ v
cr
o t h e r draws i t back. To
e v a l u a t e what would happen
-L
--4

-d -
x=-
t o t h e wing under t h e
a f f e c t o f t h e s e "pulling"

f o r c e s , a l l expansion
v e c t o r s must be pro-
F i g u r e 24. Examples o f Wave Drag.
i ected i n the d i r e c t i o n
of f l i g h t . When t h i s i s
done we s e e t h a t a t sub-
c r i t i c a l speeds t h e f o r c e s "pulling" forward a r e n e g l i g i b l y l e s s than those
"pulling" back (Figure 24a). With an i n c r e a s e t o s u p e r c r i t i c a l speeds, t h e
p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n p i c t u r e changes (Figure 24b), as a r e s u l t of which t h e
f o r c e s "pulling" the p r o f i l e forward decrease (expansion becomes l e s s a t t h e
bow of t h e p r o f i l e ) while t h e f o r c e s "pulling" back i n c r e a s e (because expansion
on the t r a i l i n g s l o p e of t h e p r o f i l e i n c r e a s e s by an a b s o l u t e v a l u e ) . From
t h e f i g u r e i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r o j e c t i o n s of t h e v e c t o r s
of the "pulling" f o r c e s d i r e c t e d t o t h e r e a r i n c r e a s e s , causing an i n c r e a s e
i n drag. However, because t h e e x t e n t of t h e s u p e r s o n i c zones over and under
t h e wing i n c r e a s e s as f l i g h t speed i n c r e a s e s , t h e r e i s an even g r e a t e r
displacement of t h e l a r g e s t expansion toward t h e rear and t h e t r a i l i n g edge.
The f o r c e s "pulling" t h e p r o f i l e forward i n c r e a s e a t t h e same time t h e p r e s s u r e
on the leading edge of t h e p r o f i l e i n c r e a s e s . To sum up, t h e wing drag
continues t o i n c r e a s e . Thus, t h e wave drag i s by n a t u r e a p r e s s u r e drag
because i t i s dependent on t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e i n f r o n t
of t h e wing and behind i t .

Therefore, i n aerodynamics wave drag has come t o mean t h e a d d i t i o n a l drag

36

111 I -

caused by an i n c r e a s e i n the p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r o n t of t h e wing and


behind i t when t h e r e a r e supersonic zones of flow and compression shocks on t h e
airf o i 1 p r o f i l e " .

This drag i s c a l l e d t h e wave drag because t h e process of t h e development


of s u p e r s o n i c zones of flow is accompanied by t h e development of shock waves
o r compression shocks.

From t h e e n e r g e t i c viewpoint, wave r e s i s t a n c e i s t h e r e s u l t of t h e


d e c e l e r a t i o n of a i r flows on t h e compression shocks. When t h i s occurs, t h e
k i n e t i c energy of t h e flow i s i r r e v e r s i b l y consumed i n h e a t i n g t h e a i r i n t h e
shock .
As can b e seen from Figure 25b, i n t h e range o f c r u i s i n g f l i g h t Mach
numbers, the v a l u e of t h e wave drag c = 0.004 - 0.012 o r f o r t h e mean value
xw
c = 0.025, i t w i l l equal 25 - 50% ( f o r a i r c r a f t ) .
X
A t s u p e r s o n i c f l i g h t speeds (Mach z 1 - 1 . 2 , Figure 25a), a i r d e c e l e r a t i o n
on t h e bow a d t a i l compression shocks decreases because t h e angles of
i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e s e shocks decrease, which means t h a t t h e wave drag i t s e l f
decreases.

A t s u p e r c r i t i c a l Mach numbers, a i r c r a f t drag i n c r e a s e s i n t e n s e l y because


i t i s a f u n c t i o n of both cx and V 2 . From t h e same f i g u r e we s e e t h a t a t a
constant angle of a t t a c k , t h e drag f o r c e below M = 0.5 i n c r e a s e s as a parabola,&
while beyond t h i s Mach number t h i s l u l l does n o t hold, and t h e curve d e v i a t e s
from t h e square p a r a b o l a , which i s the r e s u l t of t h e e f f e c t of c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y
and the development of compression shock.

Figure 25. Dependence of t h e C o e f f i c i e n t cx on the Mach


Number ( a ) a n d the E f f e c t of t h e Relative P r o f i l e Thick
ness on Ac f o r the Wing ( b ) .
xw

* A. P . Mel'nikov. High-speed Aerodymamics (Aerodinamika b o l ' s h i k h skorostey) ,


Voyenizdat, 1961.

37

I
9 7. Interference

The i n c r e a s e i n . a i r c r a f t f l i g h t speeds has l e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e


importance o f i n t e r f e r e n c e , i. e . , t h e combined e f f e c t of v a r i o u s p a r t s of
t h e a i r c r a f t such as t h e wing and t h e f u s e l a g e . Usually i n t e r f e r e n c e leads
t o an s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n drag, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e zone of t r a n s o n i c
f l i g h t speeds.

I t has been experimentally e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t " p o s i t i v e " i n t e r f e r e n c e can


be achieved. This i s t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e which a i d s in. decreasing t h e a d d i t i o n a l
drag r e s u l t i n g from t h e p o i n t s where t h e v a r i o u s a i r c r a f t components are
joined. Turbojet passenger a i r c r a f t are b a s i c a l l y low-wing a i r c r a f t . When
t h e wing and f u s e l a g e are j o i n e d i n t h i s way, t h e u s e of f a i r i n g s h e l p s t o
smooth t h e j u n c t i o n p o i n t of the wing and f u s e l a g e t o a c e r t a i n degree.
P o s i t i o n i n g the engines i n t h e b a s e of t h e wing ( s e e Chapter I V , 8) as w a s
done on t h e Tu-1.04, Tu-124 and Comet a i r c r a f t c r e a t e s an e j e c t o r e f f e c t -- an
" a c t i v e f a i r i n g " -- a t t h e j u n c t i o n p o i n t f o r o p e r a t i n g engines. *

Another way of decreasing t h e drag i s using t h e " r u l e of area," which


i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e f o r subsonic a i r c r a f t .

With r e s p e c t t o t h i s r u l e , drag i n f l i g h t v e h i c l e s proves t o be minimal


when t h e law of v a r i a t i o n s i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n s with r e s p e c t t o l e n g t h c o r r e s
ponds t o the l a w of v a r i a t i o n s i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n s with r e s p e c t t o t h e l e n g t h
G a body of r e v o l u t i o n of l e a s t drag. I t i s w e l l known t h a t drag from t h e
combination of t h e wing and f u s e l a g e (and o t h e r p a r t s of t h e f l i g h t v e h i c l e )
will be t h e same as e q u i v a l e n t drag, i . e . , drag having t h e same l a w f o r
v a r i a t i o n s i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n with r e s p e c t t o length of a body of r e v o l u t i o n .
Therefore vinimal drag may be achieved through decreasing t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n
of t h e f u s e l a g e ('ssqueezingtt), a t t h e p o i n t where i t j o i n s t h e wing, by a
value equal t o t h e area of t h e corresponding wing c r o s s - s e c t i o n s (Figure 26)

O r i g i n a l body, "r

f cr

Figure 26. Examples of t h e Use of t h e "Area Law": a -


"fuselage - w i n g " combination without a1 lowance f o r
t h e area law; b and c - the same combination w i t h
allowance f o r t h e "area law."

i--
* S.M. Yeger. Designing Passenger J e t A i r c r a f t (Proyektirovaniye p a s s a z h i r
skikh reaktivnyk'n samoletov) . Mashinostroyeniye, 1964.

38

The "area l a w " i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e j u n c t i o n of engine n a c e l l e s ,


e x t e r n a l l y suspended f u e l t a n k s and o t h e r a i r c r a f t components. Thus, f o r
example, on t h e Tu-104 and Tu-124 a i r c r a f t having wings with a r e l a t i v e l y
high wing a s p e c t r a t i o , t h e wing and f u s e l a g e i n t e r f e r e n c e i s somewhat
decreased by t h e s u b s t a n t i a l d i s t a n c e of the wing t i p s from t h e f u s e l a g e ;
as a r e s u l t , i n s t e a d of thickening t h e f u s e l a g e behind t h e wing, drop-shaped
n a c e l l e s a r e i n s t a l l e d on t h e wing. This y i e l d s a smoother change i n t h e
volume of t h e a i r c r a f t along i t s length without modifying t h e f u s e l a g e .

On t h e Convair 990, t h e r e are f o u r n a c e l l e s which a r e used t o c a r r y f u e l .


A s a r e s u l t t h i s a i r c r a f t has achieved a maximum c r u i s i n g Mach number of
0.91.

I t is f e l t t h a t allowance f o r t h e "area law!' i n designing a i r c r a f t can


improve t h e i r f l i g h t q u a l i t i e s by 20-25%. I n some c a s e s , however, observance
of t h i s law has proven u n s u i t a b l e due t o complications and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n
designing t h e f u s e l a g e which have r e s u l t e d i n t h e need f o r curvature of i t s
power p l a n t s .

5 8. T h e A i r c r a f t Polar. The E f f e c t of t h e Landing Gear and W i n g


Mechanization on t h e Polar

The p o l a r of an a i r c r a f t s e r v e s i n e v a l u a t i n g the a i r c r a f t ' s aerodynamics.


I t o f f e r s a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e values of the c o e f f i c i e n t s c and
Y
& a t various angles of a t t a c k , as w e l l as i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r v a r i a t i o n s when
X
t h e s e angles change.

Figure 27'shows t h e p o l a r s of one a i r c r a f t obtained as t h e r e s u l t o f wind / 45


t u n n e l t e s t i n g and r e f i n e d with r e s p e c t t o d a t a from f l i g h t t e s t i n g . Let us
determine t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c angles of attack and t h e i r corresponding aero
dynamic parameters. The p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e p o l a r a with t h e axis
of t h e a b s c i s s a i s determined by t h e z e r o - l i f t angle of a t t a c k a0 = 1' and
i t s corresponding c o e f f i c i e n t c = 0.018 ( f o r a r e l a t i v e a i r f o i l p r o f i l e
xo
thickness of c= 10 - 1 2 % ) ; f o r c= 1 2 - 15% t h e c o e f f i c i e n t cxo= 0.021
0.023. The small value f o r cxo i s obtained through t h e c r e a t i o n of a well
s t r e a m l i n e d shape f o r t h e a i r c r a f t with a small c e n t e r s e c t i o n f o r t h e
f u s e l a g e and engine n a c e l l e s .

The aerodynamic t e s t s as t o t h e degree of refinement i n t h e a i r c r a f t i s


i t s e f f i c i e n c y . Modern a i r c r a f t have a maximum e f f i c i e n c y of K = 15 - 18 a t
t h e optimum angle of a t t a c k of 5-7" and Mach numbers of M < 0 . 5 . An a i r
c r a f t ' s l i f t drag r a t i o i n c r e a s e with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e angle of a t t a c k from /46
cio t o t h e optimal c1 because a t t h i s p o i n t c i n c r e a s e s f a s t e r than cx.
opt' Y
S t a r t i n g with an angle of 5-7", t h e c o e f f i c i e n t cx i n c r e a s e s more r a p i d l y
(due to t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e induced drag) and t h e r e f o r e t h e performance drops.
Later i t w i l l b e shown t h a t ci i s t h e d i v i s i o n p o i n t between two f l i g h t
opt

39

regimes: t h e f i r s t and t h e
second. For t h e p o l a r a ( s e e
Figure 27), a = 7O a t c =
opt Y
0.55, w h i l e K = 17.2.

When t h e landing g e a r i s
lowered, t h e p o l a r moves t o
t h e r i g h t ( p o l a r b i n Figure
27) because t h e c o e f f i c i e n t
c increases t o the value
X
After t h e landing g e a r
lg'
i s r e t r a c t e d , t h e w e l l doors
a r e normally c l o s e d s o t h a t
AC = 0.015 - 0.020 and t h e
x 1g
l i f t i n g a b i l i t y of t h e wing
does not change. As a r e s u l t
t h e s e t t i n g f o r t h e angle of
a t t a c k f o r p o l a r b remains
t h e same as f o r p o l a r a. The
maximum performance f o r an
a i r c r a f t with landing g e a r
extended decreases i n our case
t o 12, while a increases t o
8.5O. opt

Figure 27. A i r c r a f t P o l a r s : a - landing When t h e landing g e a r and


g e a r and w i n g f l a p s withdrawn; b - landing wing f l a p s are extended ( i n
g e a r down; c - landing g e a r and w i n g f l a p s 1anding c o n f i g u r a t i o n ) t h e
extended i n landing c o n f i g u r a t i o n . p o l a r moves t o t h e r i g h t and
upward ( p o l a r c i n Figure 27),
and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t ci n c r e a s e s throughout t h e range o f angles of a t t a c k , t h e
Y
z e r o - l i f t angle of a t t a c k becomes n e g a t i v e (a0 = - 6 O ) , and t h e maximum p e r
formance of the a i r c r a f t decreases as a r e s u l t of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t
c i n c r e a s e s t o a g r e a t e r degree than t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c
X
. Y
When t h e wing f l a p s are i n t h e t a k e o f f c o n f i g u r a t i o n , t h e maximum p e r
formance (landing g e a r down) decreases t o 10-12 (Figure 65).

I n g l i d i n g toward t h e landing with landing g e a r and wing f l a p s down i n


t h e landing c o n f i g u r a t i o n , t h e performance decreases t o 7-8. Extending t h e
a i r brake moves t h e graph of t h e p o l a r t o t h e r i g h t , as t h e r e s u l t of which
t h e performance decreases s u b s t a n t i a l l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n g l i d i n g a t angles
o f attack of 2-3', a t which t h e landing run i s made. Displacing t h e hinged
f l a p s p o i l e r s causes a s h a r p e r drop i n t h e a i r c r a f t performance (see Figure
107).

40

9. T h e E f f e c t of t h e Mach Number on t h e A i r c r a f t P o l a r

For each f l i g h t Mach number w e may c o n s t r u c t a p o l a r by determining f o r


t h i s value c and c with an allowance made f o r t h e e f f e c t o f c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y
X Y
and thereby o b t a i n t h e p o l a r n e t (Figure 2 8 a ) . E a r l i e r it w a s e s t a b l i s h e d
t h a t a t s u b c r i t i c a l f l i g h t speeds t h e wing c o e f f i c i e n t cx i s almost i n v a r i a b l e ,
while t h e l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t c i n c r e a s e s s t a r t i n g a t M = 0.5 - 0.6. Therefore,
Y
with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e Mach number t o M t h e p o l a r i s p u l l e d forward
cr
because of t h e i n c r e a s e i n cy and i n t h e region of high angles of a t t a c k i s
simultaneously s h i f t e d t o t h e r i g h t due t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n cx as a r e s u l t of
an i n c r e a s e i n t h e induced drag. This i s c l e a r l y shown i n p o l a r s f o r Mach
numbers 0.8 and 0.84 (wing with c= 12 - 15%).

As i s w e l l known, aerodynamic performance


/ 47

A t s u p e r - c r i t i c a l f l i g h t speeds a t which t h e wave drag i n c r e a s e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y ,


f o r a s p e c i f i c Makh number t h e Dolar moves t o t h e r i g h t and i n c r e a s e s t h e
s h i f t t o t h a t s i d e ( i n Figure 2ia, t h i s corresponds i o Mach number of M = 0.84)
as a r e s u l t o f a decrease
in c I f , however, t h e
Y
K Mach number i s s o g r e a t
t h a t t h e r e i s wave drag
!J a t almost every angle of
a t t a c k , t h i s Mach number
!6 - / / ( f o r any c ) has an
Y
i n c r e a s e d value o f cx and
-
i$
t h e p o l a r proves t o be
iz only s h i f t e d t o t h e r i g h t
( i n Figure 28a, t h e p o l a r
70 - f o r t h e Mach number 0.9).
This b e a r s witness t o t h e
decrease i n t h e maximum
performance of t h e a i r
c r a f t , as can be seen i n
Figure 28. A i r c r a f t Polars and Dependence
t h e f i g u r e , i n which a r e
o f Aerodynamics Performance K on Mach
given t h e tangents t o t h e
numbers . p o l a r s and t h e angles f o r
performance O 2 > O1.

I n arranging t h e p o l a r n e t , we may c o n s t r u c t a graph f o r t h e dependence


o f performance on c f o r v a r i o u s Mach numbers (Figure 28b). Usually maximum
Y
performance i s o b t a i n e d f o r v a l u e s of c which a r e 20-30% g r e a t e r than t h e
Y

41

v a l u e f o r c i n h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t . If a t M < 0.5 t h e m a x i m u m performance


Y
K = 15-17, then a t M = 0.8 it w i l l equal approximately 12-14.5. As can b e
seen from Figure 29, f o r Mach numbers M = 0 . 8 - 0.84, Kmax = 12-14 and only
a t high Mach numbers does i t decrease t o
11-12. High aerodynamic performance i n
an a i r c r a f t has a f a v o r a b l e e f f e c t on t h e
volume o f f u e l consumed p e r kilometer.
---_
The a f f e c t o f wing sweep i s t h a t with/48

an i n c r e a s e i n t h e angle of sweep, t h e
aerodynamic performance decreases a t low
f l i g h t speeds and i n c r e a s e s a t high
47 48 n f l i g h t speeds. The parameters f o r
second-generation a i r c r a f t wings a t
c r u i s i n g Mach numbers of M = 0.8 - 0.85
Figure 29. Maximum Aerodynamic
have been s e l e c t e d such t h a t K = 13-14
Performance as a Function of
i s achieved (Figure 29).
Mach Number: ----- f i r s t -
generation a i r c r a f t ; ~

I t i s w e l l known t h a t f o r each Mach


various second-generation ai r-
number, a high-speed a i r c r a f t has i t s
craft. own r e l a t i o n between t h e c o e f f i c i e n t cx
and c
Y
. If f o r v a r i o u s Mach numbers we
i n t r o d u c e i n t o the p o l a r network values of c f o r h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t ( f o r
Y
s p e c i f i c weight and a l t i t u d e ) and then j o i n t h e s e p o i n t s , we o b t a i n t h e p o l a r
f o r h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t regimes ( t h e dot- and dash l i n e i n Figure 28a), which
e s t a b l i s h e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c
x cy t h e Mach number and t h e h o r i z o n t a l
f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . I t i s c l e a r from t h e p i c t u r e t h a t t h i s p o l a r i n t e r s e c t s a l l
t h e working p o l a r s f o r Mach numbers from 0.5 t o 0.84. The h i g h e r t h e Mach
number, t h e lower t h e c a t which t h i s i n t e r s e c t i o n occurs. In o t h e r words,
Y
t h e h i g h e r t h e f l i g h t Mach number, t h e lower t h e v a l u e of c r e q u i r e d f o r
horizontal f l i g h t . Y

42

CHAPTER I l l

SOME FEATURES OF W I N G C O N S T R U C T I O N

I. Means of Increasing t h e C r i t i c a l Mach Number

The i n c r e a s e i n drag a s t h e Mach number Mcr i s r a i s e d i s an unusual b a r r


i e r which makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o achieve high f l i g h t speeds. Therefore, t e s t s
have been run on aerodynamic shapes of a i r c r a f t a t which t h e shock s t a l l would
begin a t t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e f l i g h t Mach number and would be maintained a s
long as p o s s i b l e smoothly, i . e . , s o t h a t means of i n c r e a s i n g t h e c r i t i c a l Mach
number f o r t h e p r o f i l e could be achieved.

The c r i t i c a l Mach number f o r t h e p r o f i l e may be detemhined according t o


t h e following empirical formula:
M =1-0.71/c-3.2cc,
- -15 ,
CT

where c is t h e r e l a t i v e t h i c k n e s s of t h e p r o f i l e ;
c i s t h e l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e angle o f a t t a c k under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
Y
Let us b e a r i n mind t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c parameters f o r t h e a i r f o i l
p r o f i l e a r e (Figure 30):

r e l a t i v e thickness a - t h e r a t i o of t h e maximum p r o f i l e t h i c k n e s s cmax


t o t h e chord b ;

t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e maximum p r o f i l e t h i c k n e s s zc%- t h e relative distance


of t h e maximum p r o f i l e t h i c k n e s s x from t h e nose t o t h e chord b;
C

t h e r e l a t i v e p r o f i l e c u r v a t u r e % - t h e r a t i o of maximum buckle f t o t h e
chord b ;

t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e p r o f i l e nose t o t h e p-
o i n t o f maximum p r o f i l e curv
ature x expressed i n u n i t s of t h e chord b , - x f % .
j
Let us examine t h e e f f e c t of each of t h e s e parameters on t h e M number.
cr
The e f f e c t of c. The p r o f i l e t h i c k n e s s has a d i s t i n c t e f f e c t on t h e v a l u e
o f t h e d r a g . The g r e a t e r i t i s , t h e g r e a t e r t h e degree t o which t h e a i r stream
surrounding t h e p r o f i l e i s compressed, and consequently t h e sooner t h e shock
s t a l l w i l l occur a t lower Mach numbers. In c o n t r a s t , decreasing t h e p r o f i l e
t h i c k n e s s d i s p l a c e s t h e moment when t h e shock s t a l l occurs t o a h i g h e r Mach
number. Figure 31 g i v e s a c l e a r example of t h e degree t o which t h e t h i n n e s s
of t h e p r o f i l e r e s u l t s i n a g r e a t e r c r i t i c a l Mach number M
cr

43

4'

Figure 30. Geometric Parameters and Shapes of an Air


f o i 1 Profi le: a - p r o f i le w i t h p o s i t i v e c u r v a t u r e ; b-
symmetrical prof i le; c -
"inverted" prof i le w i t h nega
t.ive c u r v a t u r e (Douglas DC-8).

A i r c r a f t wings c a r r y f u e l , with t h e
r e s u l t t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e p r o f i l e thickness
i s 10 t o 15%. This i s necessary t o o b t a i n
s u f f i c i e n t volume and maintain wing
strength.

As an example, l e t us determine t h e /50 -

--
c r i t i c a l Mach number f o r p r o f i l e s with
r e l a t i v e t h i c k n e s s e s of 10 and 15% i f
= 0.3. Calculations show t h a t f o r
3
c = lo%, Mcr = 1 - 0 . 7 4' c - 3.2Fc
1.5 -

Y
= 1 - 0 . 7 m - 3.2.0.1 - 0 . 3 =~ 0.722,
~ ~
Figure 31. T h e E f f e c t of Air- while f o r c= 15% M = 1 - 0 . 7 m

cr

f o i 1 P r o f i l e Thickness on t h e
C o e f f i c i e n t c f o r Various Mach
- 3.2'0.15 : 0.3l.' = 0.651. As w e can

numbers.
X see from t h i s example, t h e lower t h e
r e l a t i v e p r o f i l e thickness, t h e g r e a t e r
t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number.

When t h e r e i s a change i n t h e angle of a t t a c k , and consequently t h e v a l u e


c ( f o r example, l e t us t a k e
Y
c Y
= 0 . 4 and c
= l o % ) , we o b t a i n a d i f f e r e n t
v a l u e f o r t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number M:Mcr = 1 - 0 . 7 m - 3.2 ' 0.10 - -
0.4 1.5
= 0.691. Thus, an i n c r e a s e i n t h e Mach number ( c ) has l e d t o a decrease i n
Y
from 0.722 t o 0.691. This i s explained by the f a c t t h a t as t h e angle o f
a t t a c k i n c r e a s e s , t h e upper a i r stream i s compressed s t r o n g e r by t h e p r o f i l e .

The straight-away s e c t i o n s i n t h e stream decrease more i n t e n s e l y , as a

r e s u l t t h e v e l o c i t y i n c r e a s e s more s h a r p l y , and t h e speed of sound i s

a t t a i n e d a t a lower Mach f l i g h t number. This i s why an i n c r e a s e i n t h e f l i g h t

a l t i t u d e (an i n c r e a s e i n c ) decreases t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number.

Y
Second-generation a i r c r a f t have a i r f o i l p r o f i l e s from c = 10-12%, which
makes i t p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e c r u i s i n g Mach f l i g h t number t o 0.8 - 0.85

44
without a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n drag. Usually t h e optimum c r u i s i n g f l i g h t
speed corresponds t o Mcr o r less.

The e f f e c t of a p o s i t i v e maximum thickness and t h e r e l a t i v e p r o f i l e


curvature. I t has been experimentally e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t with i d e n t i c a l
wing t h i c k n e s s e s , t h e p r o f i l e which has a h i g h e r c r i t i c a l Mach number Mcr is
the
- one i n which t h e maximum t h i c k n e s s i s c l o s e r t o t h e c e n t e r , . i . e . , f o r
x = 35-50%. This i s explained by t h e f a c t t h a t with such a v a l u e f o r Fc,
C
t h e r e i s a smoother p r o f i l e contour, and consequently a smoother change i n
p r e s s u r e and v e l o c i t y along i t (Figure 32).

A decrease i n t h e p r o f i l e
curvature has a favorable e f f e c t
on t h e aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
a t high f l i g h t speeds. A
symmetrical p r o f i l e (Figure 30,b),
i n which T = 0 , o t h e r conditions
being t h e same, as a h i g h e r
c r i t i c a l Mach number. However, i n
such p r o f i l e s t h e v a l u e s f o r c
Y max
a r e small (by comparison with
asymmetric p r o f i l e s ) , s o t h a t t h e i r
u s e on t r a n s p o r t a i r c r a f t i s
Figure 32. E f f e c t of t h e Position of t h e
d i f f i c u l t . Recent y e a r s have shown
Maximum A i rfoi 1 P r o f i l e Thickness on t h e
a broader u s e of t h e s o - c a l l e d
C r i t i c a l Mach Number M c r : a - p r o f i l e
"inverted" p r o f i l e , i e. , a .
without r a r e f a c t i o n peak; b - p r o f i l e p r o f i l e having n e g a t i v e c u r v a t u r e
w i t h r a r e f a c t i o n peak. (Figure 3 0 , c ) . These p r o f i l e s ,
u s u a l l y used i n t h e b a s i c s e c t i o n
of t h e a i r f o i l , s a t i s f a c t o r i l y
s o l v e t h e problem of t h e h i g h l y complex i n t e r f e r e n c e between t h e wing and t h e
f u s e l a g e , c r e a t i n g smooth flow. The p h y s i c a l n a t u r e of t h e e f f e c t of r e l a t i v e
c u r v a t u r e on t h e v a l u e M i s the same as the e f f e c t of t h e t h i c k n e s s .
cr
Decreasing t h e maximum p r o f i l e t h i c k n e s s , s h i f t i n g i t t o t h e middle of
/51
t h e chord, and decreasing the p r o f i l e curvature a l l i n c r e a s e t h e v a l u e of
t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number by a t o t a l of 0.02 - 0.06.

The e f f e c t of wing sweep. The optimum e f f e c t i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e c r i t i c a l


Mach number i s achieved through t h e use of swept wings.

As wing sweep i n c r e a s e s t o 3S0, t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number i n c r e a s e s by


0.07 - 0 . 0 8 as compared with t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number f o r a s t r a i g h t wing o r
profile. Let us s e e how t h i s i s achieved.

The l i f t of t h e wing and t h e t a i l assembly is determined by t h e v a l u e of


t h e aerodynamic f o r c e of the p r e s s u r e s a r i s i n g as a r e s u l t of changes i n t h e
l o c a l flow v e l o c i t i e s induced by t h e e x t e r n a l contours of t h e p r o f i l e across
t h e e n t i r e wingspan o r t a i l span.

45

L e t us expand t h e f l i g h t speed V over two components: one, perpen-


POS
d i c u l a r t o t h e leading edge* of t h e wing -- Vef, and t h e o t h e r d i r e c t e d along
the leading edge o f t h e wing -- VI (Figure 33,a). The component Vef (effective
speed) determines t h e v a l u e of t h e l o c a l speeds and expansions along t h e pro
f i l e , and consequently t h e value of t h e l i f t as w e l l . The component V1 i s
n o t involved i n t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e aerodynamic p r e s s u r e f o r c e s . I t does have
an e f f e c t on t h e boundary l a y e r and, consequently, on t h e flow s e p a r a t i o n .
I n conjunction w i t h t h e fact t h a t Vef i s always lower t h a n Vpos, t h e l o c a l
speed of sound w i l l be achieved l a t e r and, consequently, t h e c r i t i c a l Mach
number w i l l be g r e a t e r . The shock s t a l l on t h e p r o f i l e w i l l s e t i n a t a
h i g h e r f l i g h t speed. This means t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number i n swept wings
w i l l always b e g r e a t e r t h a n i n s t r a i g h t wings o r t h e p r o f i l e .

The c r i t i c a l Mach number f o r a swept wing, w i t h allowance made f o r t h e


e f f e c t of flow c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on t h e p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n along t h e span, -
/52
may be determined from t h e formula:

2
M
crX
=
*cr.prof 1 + cos x J

where x i s t h e angle of sweep f o r t h e wing.

F o r wings having a sweep of 35' (cos 35' = 0.821, t h e formula assumes t h e


following form:
M c r X - 3 ~ =0 ' * ' Mcr.prof
.
For example, f o r a r e l a t i v e p r o f i l e
t h i c k n e s s of lo%, we o b t a i n a Mach number McrX.350 = 0.795. We must b e a r i n
mind t h a t t h e e m p i r i c a l formula f o r determining t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number
o f f e r s an e r r o r of 1 5 2 0 % .

Along i t s span, t h e a i r c r a f t wing has changing values r e l a t i v e t o t h e


t h i c k n e s s . Therefore, t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number a l s o has v a r i o u s v a l u e s .

The e f f e c t of wing sweep, by i n c r e a s i n g t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number, i s


decreased a t t h e p o i n t where t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n of t h e wing j o i n s t h e
f u s e l a g e . Here t h e wing i s s u b j e c t e d n o t t o oblique a i r f l o w ( r e s u l t i n g from
decomposition of t h e i n c i d e n t flow i n t o two components), b u t t o s t r a i g h t a i r
flow. The c r i t i c a l Mach number i s i n c r e a s e d through i n c r e a s i n g t h e sweep of
t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of t h e wing along t h e leading edge. Thus, i f t h e angle
x = 30-3S0, i n t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n of t h e wing i t reaches 40-45', i . e . , t h e
wing i s given a "crescent" shape i n planform. The Tu-104 and Tu-124 a i r -
/ 53
craft have a s l i g h t l y expressed "crescent" shape.

.- .
. . -. . .. - .... ....

* S t r i c t l y speaking, Vef is perpendicular t o t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r l i n e MN,


and t h e component V1 i s d i r e c t e d along t h i s l i n e , because t h e wing i s
looked upon as t a p e r i n g . Our allowance has been made f o r s i m p l i c i t y i n
exp 1anati on.

46

shock

k
c)
1 V m

Figure 33. Development of F l i g h t Speed on Swept Wing


and P o s s i b l e P o s i t i o n s of the Leading Wing d g e Relative
t o t h e Mach Cone: 1 - subsonic leading edge -- w i n g
located w i t h i n cone (subsonic f l o w ) ; I I - s o n i c leading
edge (flow a t t h e speed o f sound); I I I - supersonic
leading edge ( s u p e r s o n i c f l o w ) .

The c r i t i c a l Mach number f o r t h e wing i n passenger a i r c r a f t i s below


u n i t y . For c l a r i t y i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , we w i l l show t h a t f o r a wing with
t h i n p r o f i l e s (F = 4-6%) , a t an angle x = 55-60" t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number,
determined according t o t h e formula a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d , may be g r e a t e r than
u n i t y . However, f o r an i s o l a t e d p r o f i l e , as has already been noted, t h i s i s
imp os s i b l e .

The shock s t a l l i n a swept wing occurs l a t e r , and n o t simultaneously


throughout t h e wingspan, and l e s s i n t e n s e l y than on a s t r a i g h t wing; i n
a d d i t i o n , i t does n o t l e a d t o a s h a r p change i n the t o t a l aerodynamic
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e a i r c r a f t .

A t various p o i n t s on t h e wing, t h e shock s t a l l developes i n d i f f e r e n t


ways. Recent s t u d i e s have shown t h a t i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e wing t h e shock
s t a l l begins l a t e r than a t t h e t i p s , but because of t h i s i n c r e a s e s more
i n t e n s e l y . As a r e s u l t , t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t of t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of t h e
wing i s f e l t n o t s o much i n t h e s e n s e of a decrease i n t h e c r i t i c a l Mach
numbe.r as a more r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n t h e wave drag than a t t h e wing t i p s ,
although i t starts t o i n c r e a s e sooner on t h e t i p s .

There i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s wave drag i n a swept wing than i n a s t r a i g h t


one, which may be c l a r i f i e d t h u s l y .

47
L e t us assume t h a t l o c a l compression shocks a r i s i n g i n p r o f i l e s from
which t h e wing i s shaped s t a r t a t t h e l i n e MN (Figure 33,b). I n each p r o f i l e ,
t h e l o c a l shock w i l l b e normal, whil'e f o r t h e whole,wing t h e t o t a l shock,
a l s o l o c a t e d along t h e l i n e MN, w i l l b e o b l i q u e (with r e s p e c t t o t h e i n c i d e n t
flow). As has already been s t a t e d , t h e shock s t a l l developes more weakly when
t h e r e i s an oblique shock.

The shock f r o n t i s l o c a t e d along t h e l e a d i n g edge of a swept wing a t t h e


i n s t a n t when Vef becomes equal t o t h e l o c a l speed of sound. On a wing with a
sweep angle x = 3S0, t h i s occurs a t a f l i g h t Mach number e q u a l t o 1.22. Let
us show t h i s .

As can b e seen from Figure 33,a, t h e speed Vef = V cos 35O. L e t us


POS
equate it t o t h e speed of sound: a = V
POS
cos 3S0, i . e . , a = 0.821 V
pos '
then -
V
M = E =
a V 0.821 -
- 1.22. Thus, a wing with x = 35O may be used a l s o f o r
POS
s l i g h t s a t low s u p e r s o n i c speeds.

As can b e seen from Figure 33,c, a Mach cone forms a t t h e t i p of t h e


angle forming t h e leading wing edge when a swept wing encounters s u p e r s o n i c
flow. This Mach cone assumes t h e form of an o b l i q u e compression shock. If
t h e leading wing edges l i e w i t h i n t h e Mach cone, they a r e c a l l e d subsonic.
With r e s p e c t t o t h e degree t o which t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e Mach cone approaches
t h e leading edge, t h e wave drag r a t i o i n c r e a s e s and reaches it h i g h e s t value
/ 54
a t t h e i n s t a n t when t h e l e a d i n g edges meet t h e cone s u r f a c e . When t h e r e i s
a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n t h e speed, t h e leading edges o f t h e wing go beyond t h e
boundary of t h e Mach cone, a f t e r which t h e s u r f a c e s of t h e Mach cone move
away from t h e edges. In t h i s case, t h e leading edges a r e c a l l e d supersonic.

Passenger a i r c r a f t designed i n r e c e n t y e a r s have an optimum angle


x = 20-35' and a mean r e l a t i v e thickness of 10-12%. The u s e of a g r e a t e r
sweep angle ( p a r t i c u l a r l y one equal t o 45O) i s i n a d v i s a b l e i n terms o f a
weight-drag r a t i o f o r t h e wing because of t h e onset o f torque and, a d d i t i o n a l l y ,
because of poorer t a k e o f f and landing conditions caused by a lower value f o r

Use of a wing with a 35' sweep r e s u l t s i n a 10-25% drop i n wave drag f o r


f l i g h t s a t M = 0.80 - 0.85, which s u b s t a n t i a l l y decreases t h e o v e r a l l drag.
A t t h e same time it becomes p o s s i b l e t o maintain t h e l i f t - d r a g r a t i o f o r t h e
a i r c r a f t w i t h i n l i m i t s of 13-15. The effect o f t h e sweep angle on t h e
c o e f f i c i e n t c i s given i n Figure 34.
X

I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e parameters a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , t h e wing a s p e c t r a t i o X
a l s o has a determining e f f e c t on t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number. A s u b s t a n t i a l
i n c r e a s e i n t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number r e s u l t s f o r A = 1 - 1.5. In wings with
small aspect r a t i o s ( A = 1 . 5 - 2 . 5 ) , t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number i s g r e a t e r than
i n wings with high aspect r a t i o s ( A = 5-8). This i s explained b a s i c a l l y by
t h e s o - c a l l e d end e f f e c t .

48

f ' ~-without flow


/

Figure 34. T h e E f f e c t of t h e Figure 35. T h e E f f e c t of Airflow Past


Sweep A n g l e on t h e Dependence t h e W'ing T i p s on Pressure D i s t r i b u t i o n
cx = f(M). over t h e Upper Surface.

During f l i g h t , p r e s s u r e below t h e wing i s g r e a t e r t h a n above it. There


f o r e , t h e r e i s an overflow of a i r a t t h e wingtip from t h e region of g r e a t e r
p r e s s u r e toward t h a t of l e s s e r p r e s s u r e , i . e . , a c e r t a i n p r e s s u r e balance
takes p l a c e , thanks t o which t h e m a x i m u m r a r e f a c t i o n over t h e wing decreases
(Figure 3 5 ) . The i n f l u e n c e of t h e end e f f e c t i s s u b s t a n t i a l only c l o s e t o the /55
wingtip. If t h e wing aspect r a t i o is decreased, t h e r e l a t i v e length of t h e s e
s e c t i o n s i n c r e a s e s and t h e end e f f e c t i s spread over a l a r g e s e c t i o n of t h e
wing.

F o r passenger a i r c r a f t a t an angle x = 3 S 0 , t h e optimum X = 6-8; t h e r e


f o r e t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number i n t h i s case undergoes no change.

2. Features of Flow Around S w e p t Wings

I n t h e preceding s e c t i o n , which examined t h e development of t h e speed


we s i m p l i f i e d t h e p i c t u r e of t h e flow around a swept wing. Actually,
",os
however, t h i s p i c t u r e assumes a complex s p a t i a l scheme. Let us spend some
time d i s c u s s i n g t h e v a r i o u s b a s i c moments. To t h i s end, l e t us examine a i r
streams flowing around t h e middle and end p o r t i o n s of t h e wing (Figure 36).
As a r e s u l t of t h e s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e flow of t h e stream as we approach
t h e c e n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e wing, i t becomes wider. A s a r e s u l t of t h e
c o n s t a n t a i r consumption along t h e stream, t h i s leads t o a decrease i n speed
i n t h e c e n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e p r o f i l e , and consequently t o a decrease i n t h e
r a r e f a c t i o n over t h e r i s i n g p a r t of t h e p r o f i l e i n t h e middle of t h e wing.
On t h e descending p a r t t h e r e i s a c o n s t r i c t i o n of t h e stream and a consequent
r i s e i n speed and i n c r e a s e i n r a r e f a c t i o n . Thus, i n t h e middle s e c t i o n of
t h e wing t h e r a r e f a c t i o n s d e c r e a s e on t h e r i s i n g s e c t i o n of t h e p r o f i l e , while
they i n c r e a s e on t h e descending s e c t i o n .

A t t h e t i p s of swept wings, t h e p i c t u r e i s reversed. Here t h e streams


approaching t h e wing a r e f i r s t c o n s t r i c t e d , which leads t o an i n c r e a s e i n
v e l o c i t 5 e s on t h e r i s i n g p r o f i l e s e c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , r a r e f a c t i o n s on t h e

49
--

leading p r o f i l e s e c t i o n s i n c r e a s e . As t h e p r o f i l e descends, t h e stream s t a r t s


broadening, which leads t o a decrease i n v e l o c i t i e s and r a r e f a c t i o n .

r chords
Figure 3 6 . Representative Character Figure 37. Representative P i c t u r e of
f o r t h e F l o w o f Air Streams i n the Pressure D i s t r i b u t i o n a t Various
Middle and a t t h e Ends o f a S w e p t Wing. Sections along t h e Win.g: 1 - a t t h e
t i p s ; 2 - i n t h e middle of t h e semi-
span; 3 - i n the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n .

Figure 37 shows t h a t at: the c e n t e r s e c t i o n s of t h e wing, t h e maximum /56


r a r e f a c t i o n i s d i s p l a c e d t o the rear, whereas a t t h e t i p s e c t i o n s , i n
c o n t r a s t , t h e g r e a t e s t r a r e f a c t i o n i s found a t t h e leading p a r t of t h e pro
f i l e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e v a l u e of t h e r a r e f a c t i o n peak i s h i g h e r a t t h e t i p s
than i n t h e c e n t e r and base s e c t i o n s . Therefore, t h e t i p s e c t i o n s o f t h e
wing a r e more loaded (have g r e a t e r l i f t ) than due t h e b a s e s e c t i o n s .

The observed f e a t u r e o f p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n along t h e chord of t h e wing


Leads a l s o t o another d i s t r i b u t i o n of load along t h e span ( i n c o n t r a s t t o
s t r a i g h t wings).

Figure 38 shows t h e load d i s t r i b u t i o n along t h e span of swept and


IC,ljec s t r a i g h t wings, as w e l l as
changes i n t h e maximum values
of the coefficient c
y s e c max
sec f o r v a r i o u s wing s e c tions*.
I

- . -. The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e
j f l a t wing I c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r t h e change.I

in c i n s t r a i g h t and
y s e c max
swept wings i s explained i n
t h e following manner. The
Figure 38. Diagram of Load D i s t r i b u t i o n overflow of air p a s t t h e wing
Along t h e Span of a Swept and a S t r a i g h t t i p from t h e lower t o t h e
Wing: -..-geometric t w i s t ; -.-
aero- upper s u r f a c e i n a s t r a i g h t
dynamic t w i s t ; -f l a t w i n g . wing has an e f f e c t only on a
* Pashkovskiy, I . M . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of S t a b i l i t y and C o n t r o l l a b i l i t y i n High-
Speed A i r c r a f t (Osobennosti us t o y c h i v o s t i i upravlyayemos ti skoros tnogo
samoleta) . Voyenizdat. 1961

50
small s e c t i o n , as a r e s u l t of which t h e value c i s i d e n t i c a l almost
y s e c max
everywhere on t h e span and only toward t h e wing t i p s does it s t a r t t o decrease.
I n swept wings, however, t h e decrease i n c from t h e base t o t h e t i p
y sec max
i s r e l a t e d n o t only t o t h e overflow of a i r p a s t t h e t i p b u t a l s o with t h e
nonsimultaneous i n c r e a s e i n t h e flow s e p a r a t i o n along t h e span. This
s e p a r a t i o n i s h i g h l y dependent on t h e a i r overflow i n t h e boundary l a y e r due t o
t h e component V1 ( s e e Figure 3 3 , a ) . Therefore, t h e end s e c t i o n s of the swept
wing undergo s e p a r a t i o n b e f o r e a l l t h e o t h e r s , i . e . , they a r e t h e f i r s t t o
/57
a t t a i n t h e values c
y s e c max'
As can b e seen from t h e f i g u r e , t h e end s e c t i o n s of the swept wing
achieve c f a s t e r than do t h e s e c t i o n s of t h e c e n t e r and b a s e
y s e c max
p o r t i o n s of t h e wing. In s t r a i g h t wings, on t h e o t h e r hand, cy
max i s
reached e a r l i e r i n t h e c e n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e wing.

Therefore, with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e angle of attack t h e flow s e p a r a t i o n


reaches t h e end s e c t i o n s of t h e swept wing and t h e c e n t e r s e c t i o n s of t h e
s t r a i g h t wing sooner. In a d d i t i o n , t h e o v e r a l l end flow s e p a r a t i o n on t h e
swept wing f a c i l i t a t e s t h e speed V which causes t h e boundary l a y e r t o move
1'
Coward t h e wing t i p and causes i t t o thicken. The boundary l a y e r seems t o be
i n a sense sucked from t h e c e n t e r s e c t i o n and b u i l t up a t t h e ends of the
wing. The "swelling" o f t h e boundary l a y e r and the premature s e p a r a t i o n
a t the wing t i p s is one of the b a s i c drawbacks o f swept wings.

The end flow s e p a r a t i o n leads t o t h e development of t h e p i t c h i n g moment,


which a f f e c t s t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t a d v e r s e l y ,
e s p e c i a l l y a t slow f l i g h t speeds. Flow s e p a r a t i o n i n t h e a i l e r o n zone leads
t o a drop i n t h e l a t e r i a l handiness.

Along with end flow s e p a r a t i o n , a t low f l i g h t speeds ( g r e a t e r than t h e


angle of a t t a c k ) , such a s e p a r a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e a l s o a t high speeds a t low
angles o f a t t a c k , which i s explained by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of compression shocks
with t h e boundary l a y e r during f l i g h t a t high a l t i t u d e s . A s i n well known,
a t high a l t i t u d e s f l i g h t i s performed a t high angles o f a t t a c k ( t o o b t a i n
t h e necessary v a l u e f o r c ) . With an i n c r e a s e i n t h e angle of a t t a c k , t h e
Y hf
v a l u e f o r t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number decreases. When t h e angle c1 i n c r e a s e s due
t o v e r t i c a l g u s t s , compression shocks may form e a r l i e r (because t h e c r i t i c a l
Mach number i s low), which a i d s i n t h e development of flow s e p a r a t i o n . In
a l l t h e s e cases , during s e p a r a t i o n t h e r e i s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v i b r a t i o n , and
i n some cases t h e r e i s even p i t c h i n g down.

R e d i s t r i b u t i o n of load along the span of a swept ( i n c o n t r a s t t o a


s t r a i g h t ) wing always leads t o a displacement o f t h e e q u i v a l e n t aerodynamic
f o r c e of t h e wing backward o r forward along t h e chord, and t h e r e f o r e i s
accompanied by a change i n i t s l o n g i t u d i n a l moment.

As can be seen from Figure 39, when t h e wing i s swept, each s e c t i o n i s

51

I
d i s p l a c e d r e l a t i v e t o each o t h e r i n such a way t h a t i n t o t o t h e p o i n t s of
a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g aerodynamic f o r c e s f o r t h e s e s e c t i o n s form a
/58
l i n e which i s i n c l i n e d along t h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e a x i s o f t h e wing ( t h e
a x i s oz) by angle x. The d i s t a n c e from t h e a x i s oz t o t h e p o i n t s of
a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e aerodynamic f o r c e s f o r t h e s e
s e c t i o n s d i f f e r according t o span. I n s t r a i g h t
wings, on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e p o i n t s of a p p l i
c a t i o n of t h e i n c r e a s i n g aerodynamic f o r c e s
f o r t h e s e c t i o n s l i e p r a c t i c a l l y on a s t r a i g h t
l i n e p a r a l l e l t o t h e a x i s , i.e. , they a r e
e q u i d i s t a n t from t h e l a t e r i a l a x i s of t h e wing
i n a l l s e c t i o n s a c r o s s t h e span. This f e a t u r e
f o r t h e load d i s t r i b u t i o n along t h e span i n
swept wings changes s u b s t a n t i a l l y e i t h e r with
F i g u r e 39. Example of t h e a change i n t h e angle of attack o r a change i n

E f f e c t of Load D i s t r i b u t i o n t h e Mach number.

Along t h e Span on t h e

Longitudinal Moment of a From Figure 40 we s e e t h a t an i n c r e a s e

S w e p t Wing. i n IY, leads t o a g r e a t e r load on t h e c e n t r a l

s e c t i o n o f t h e swept wing and a l i g h t e n i n g


o f i t s end s e c t i o n s . In t h i s c a s e , t h e
p r e s s u r e c e n t e r f o r t h e wing s h i f t s forward along t h e chord, which c r e a t e s
a tendency taward p i t c h i n g . The onset of p i t c h i n g corresponds t o t h e moment
of t h e onset of s e p a r a t i o n , which s t a r t s a t t h a t s e c t i o n of t h e wing where
t h e a i l e r o n a r e located.

I f t h e r e i s a change i n t h e Mach number and a remains c o n s t a n t , t h e r e i s


a l s o a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of load along t h e span. This i s accompanied by an
unequal development of shock s t a l l on t h e wing i n t h e process o f reaching and
s u r p a s s i n g c r i t i c a l speed. As we can s e e from Figure 40, an i n c r e a s e i n t h e
f l i g h t speed up t o c r i t i c a l leads f i r s t t o a c e r t a i n loading o f t h e end
s e c t i o n s o f t h e swept wing. Then, w i t h t h e development o f t h e shock s t a l l
a t a Mach number somewhat g r e a t e r than MCr, t h e end s e c t i o n s s t a r t l o s i n g
t h e i r load. The i n i t i a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e loading o f t h e end s e c t i o n leads t o
t h e development of a s l i g h t diving moment , i . e . , t o a change i n t h e longi
t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y * . Subsequent changes i n t h e load d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e brought
about through t h e propagation of t h e shock s t a l l along t h e upper wing s u r f a c e
t o t h e base and middle s e c t i o n s of t h e c a n t i l e v e r s , as w e l l as t h e development
of t h e s t a l l on t h e lower wing s u r f a c e . A l l t h i s leads t o a c e r t a i n d i s
placement o f t h e wing p r e s s u r e c e n t e r (P.c.) forward along t h e chord and t h e
appearance of a p i t c h i n g moment a t Mach numbers g r e a t e r than c r i t i c a l , b u t
less than u n i t y ( s o n i c s p e e d s ) .

D i s t i n c t changes i n t h e load d i s t r i b u t i o n along t h e span of a swept


wing may a l s o l e a d t o i t s f l e x i b l e deformation (buckling and t w i s t i n g ) . In
t h e event of deformation, t h e l o c a l angles of a t t a c k a t various p o i n t s along
-

* Pashkovskiy, I . M . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S t a b i l i t y and C o n t r o l l a b i l i t y i n High-


Speed A i r c r a f t (Osobennosti us t o y c h i v o s t i i upravlyayemosti skorostnogo
samoleta). Voyenizdat. 1961

52

t h e wing change d i s s i m i l a r l y , because t h e degree of t h e s e changes i s a


f u n c t i o n of t h e aerodynamic f o r c e s a c t i n g on t h e wing. These l a t t e r , i n t u r n ,
are f u n c t i o n s of t h e angle of a t t a c k , f l i g h t speed and Mach number.

iv /View along w i n g

Figure 40. Change i n t h e Load Figure 41. Decrease i n A n g l e of Attack

D i s t r i b u t i o n Along t h e Span o f f o r Bend i n a Swept Wing: a - non

a S w e p t Wing as a Function of deformed f l e x u r a l a x i s ; b - f l e x u r a l

the A n g l e o f Attack and t h e a x i s o f cranked w i n g .

Mach Number.

I n t h e event of buckling o f a swept wing (Figure 41) r e l a t i v e t o t h e 0-0


a x i s , t h e p o i n t s 1 ani 3 , lying c l o s e t o t h i s a x i s , w i l l have l e s s of a
v e r t i c a l displacement than p o i n t s 2 and 4. A s a r e s u l t of t h i s , t h e chords
1 - 2 and 3-4 a r e turned r e l a t i v e t o t h e f l e x u r a l axis by a c e r t a i n a n g l e , and
/ 59
t h e e n t i r e wing t u r n s t o t h e s i d e o f t h e decrease i n t h e angle of a t t a c k .
Thus, f o r a wing with normal sweep, i n t h e event of t w i s t i n g induced by
aerodynamic loads d i r e c t e d upward from below, t h e r e is always a decrease i n
t h e angle o f a t t a c k of t h e wing s e c t i o n the c l o s e r t h i s given s e c t i o n i s t o
the end of t h e wing. This a l s o aggravates p i t c h i n g , i n t h a t t h e end s e c t i o n s
have s m a l l e r angles of a t t a c k and, consequently, lower values f o r cy s e c '
This f a c t , along with t h e forward displacement of the p r e s s u r e c e n t e r as t h e
angle of a t t a c k and speed i n c r e a s e , may a l s o l e a d t o a i r c r a f t i n s t a b i l i t i e s
w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c range of Mach numbers.

5 3. Wing Construction i n Turbojet Passenger A i r c r a f t

I n designing a i r c r a f t f o r c r u i s i n g Mach numbers of 0 . 8 - 0.85, s t r i c t


a t t e n t i o n m u s t be given t o t h e s e l e c t i o n of wing parameters. W e are a l r e a d y
familiar with c e r t a i n parameters, and now w e s h a l l continue our examination.

I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t f o r subsonic passenger a i r c r a f t , t h e optimum

53

parameters a r e an angle of x = 35' and a wing a s p e c t r a t i o of A = 6 - 8 . With


such values f o r A , f l i g h t d i s t a n c e i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d .

Narrowing t h e wing i n planform IT = bbas i s decided through t h e s e l e c t i o n / 60


end
of conditions y i e l d i n g b e s t s t a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f
l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y , s o as t o e l i m i n a t e s e p a r a t i o n flows a t t h e wing t i p s .
For a 35' sweep, t h e optimal s e l e c t i o n i s TI = 3 . 5 - 4.5*.

The remaining wing parameters are s e l e c t e d from c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e


optimal l i f t p r o p e r t i e s f o r t h e wing.

I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e dependence of t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c (as


Y
w e l l as t h e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l moment m Z , Figure 140) on t h e
angle a proceeds l i n e a r l y t o avib, a t which p o i n t t h e r e are l o c a l flow
s e p a r a t i o n s on t h e wing and t h i s r e l a t i o n i s no longer v a l i d . This leads t o
t h e f a c t t h a t a t high angles of a t t a c k t h e r e i s a decrease i n l o n g i t u d i n a l
s t a b i l i t y ( i n Figure 140, t h i s corresponds t o t h e s o - c a l l e d !'balance p o i n t " ) .
The d i s r u p t i o n i n l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y i s q u i t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of swept
wings. I t i s troublesome n o t only i n t h a t i t a f f e c t s t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l
s t a b i l i t y of t h e aircraft a d v e r s e l y , b u t i n a d d i t i o n t h e flow s e p a r a t i o n from
the wing t i p s decreases t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e a i l e r o n s and asymmetric
s e p a r a t i o n may r e s u l t i n p i t c h i n g down.

Therefore, i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e aerodynamic arrangement of t h e swept wings


i n passenger a i r c r a f t , maximum c r u i s i n g f l i g h t speeds and minimum landing
speeds a r e achieved through holding t h e development of t h e flow s e p a r a t i o n
t o t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e angles of a t t a c k and t h e h i g h e s t Mach numbers. The
following means a r e used t o achieve t h i s .

1. The aerodynamic t w i s t of t h e wing -- t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e wing


design from v a r i o u s p r o f i l e t y p e s , t h e p r o f i l e s o f f e r i n g t h e lowest l i f t being
a t t h e base of t h e wing, while those with t h e g r e a t e s t l i f t a r e a t t h e t i p s .
This r e s u l t s from t h e change c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r c with r e s p e c t t o t h e
y s e c max
wing dimensions (Figure 38). The s e l e c t i o n of p r o f i l e s with g r e a t e r l i f t f o r
t h e wing t i p s (with T = 2 . 5 - 3% and g r e a t e r ) w i t h t h e r e v e r s e p o s i t i o n i n g
of maximum thickness ( y = 35 - 50%) permits a c e r t a i n i n c r e a s e i n c
C y s e c max
a t t h e wing t i p s and, at t h e same time, i n c r e a s i n g t h e angle of a t t a c k and
thereby achieving c
y sec m a '
Symmetrical p r o f i l e s (sometimes with s l i g h t curvature) o r p r o f i l e s with
n e g a t i v e c u r v a t u r e - - "inverted" p r o f i l e s -- a r e p o s i t i o n e d a t t h e base of
t h e wing

The DC-8, Convair 880, t h e Boeing-707 and t h e VC-10 have "inverted"


.

* Yeger, S.M. Design of Passenger J e t A i r c r a f t (Proyektirovaniye p a s s a z h i r


skikh reaktivnykh samelotov) .
Mashinostroyeniye. 1964.

54
p r o f i l e s i n t h e c e n t e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e wing. This has n o t hindered t h e o v e r a l l
lift of t h e wing and has made i t p o s s i b l e t o use p r o f i l e s with 7 = 12-15%
without a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n cx a t high f l i g h t Mach numbers.

2. Geometrical t w i s t i s t h e gradual s p i r a l e f f e c t ( p o s i t i o n i n g a t a
/ 61
s m a l l e r angle) of t h e wing t i p s and middle wing s e c t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o t h e b a s e
a t an angle of 2-5O ( f o r example, i f t h e angle i s + 3 O a t t h e wing base, while
it i s -1" a t t h e wing t i p , t h e t w i s t angle equals -4'). This changes t h e
l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n along t h e span toward t h e s i d e of g r e a t e r load f o r t h e wing
b a s e and unloading f o r t h e wing t i p s . During f l i g h t , t h i s type wing may
achieve h i g h e r angles of a t t a c k ( c a l c u l a t e d with r e s p e c t t o t h e chord of t h e
b a s e p r o f i l e ) b e f o r e t h e wing t i p s reach s e p a r a t i o n . Figure 16 shows t h a t t h e
geometrical t w i s t has an affect on t h e extension of t h e r e l a t i o n c = f ( a ) ,
moving i t t o t h e r i g h t . Y

Having e s t a b l i s h e d t h e geometric t w i s t , we m u s t t a k e i n t o account t h e


bending and warping of t h e wing, as shown i n Figure 41, s o as t o not o b t a i n
negative l i f t a t the t i p s .

I t w a s noted e a r l i e r t h a t with geometric t w i s t , t h e r e q u i r e d c is


Y 1g
achieved a t a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f l i g h t angle of a t t a c k .

3 . P o s i t i o n i n g aerodynamic b a f f l e s 16-20 cm high (an average of 2-4%


of t h e l o c a l wing chord, Figure 42) on t h e upper wing s u r f a c e . The b a f f l e s
s e p a r a t e t h e wing i n t o p o r t i o n s and h i n d e r t h e overflow of a i r i n t h e boundary
l a y e r along t h e wing span, r e s u l t i n g i n a decrease i n t h e thickness of t h e
boundary l a y e r i n the t i p s e c t i o n s . This leads t o an i n c r e a s e i n the l o c a l
values f o r c i n t h e end s e c t i o n s (by comparison t o a wing without
y s e c mqx
b a f f l e s ) , and consequently aids i n holding o f f t h e onset o f flow s e p a r a t i o n
i n t h e s e s e c t i o n s u n t i l t h e high angles of a t t a c k .

Figure 42, Arrangement o f Aerodynamic Baffles on Upper Wing Surface:


1 - l i n e of 1 / 4 chord; 2 - p o i n t of onset of flow s e p a r a t i o n and
burbling; 3 - a i l e r o n ; 4 - b a f f l e ; 5 - a i r stream (enlarged s c a l e ) ;
6 , - v o r t i c e s s e p a r a t i n g from w i n g w i t h b a f f l e s ; 7 - p o s s i b l e b a f f l e
shape.

In t h e wing s e c t i o n c l o s e s t t o t h e f u s e l a g e (between t h e b a f f l e s and t h e

55

--
f u s e l a g e ) t h e r e i s a t h i c k e n i n g of theqboundary l a y e r and a d e c r e a s e i n
C Lateral flows arise w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of only one s e c t i o n ,
y sec m a '
v o r t i c e s form a t t h e b a f f l e s , and t h e boundary l a y e r flows o f f w i t h t h e s e . -
/ 62

Thus, because of t h e l a t e r a l overflow of air i n t h e boundary l a y e r when


t h e wing i s equipped with b a f f l e s , t h e i n i t i a l flow s e p a r a t i o n on t h e wing
s e c t i o n between t h e b a f f l e s and t h e f u s e l a g e i s maintained and s e p a r a t i o n
from t h e o u t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e b a f f l e s and t h e wing t i p s i s f o r e s t a l l e d .
Because the tendency toward s e p a r a t i o n of t h e boundary l a y e r weakens, t h e r e
i s an improvement i n t h e l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n along t h e wing span. The
s e p a r a t i o n zone i s d i s p l a c e d toward the middle s e c t i o n s and, i n some i n d i
v i d u a l cases, even toward t h e base of t h e wing. Aerodynamic b a f f l e s have
been i n s t a l l e d on t h e wings of t h e Tu-104, Tu-124, Tu-134 and C a r a v e l l e
aircraft .
A similar e f f e c t is c r e a t e d by t h e pylons which support t h e engines on
such a i r c r a f t as t h e Boeing-707, t h e Douglas DC-8 and t h e Convair 880 ( s e e
Figure 65). However, pylons behave b a s i c a l l y l i k e b a f f l e s on t h e lower
wing s u r f a c e , where t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s cross c u r r e n t i n t h e boundary
l a y e r . Only t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e pylon which captures t h e upper wing s u r f a c e
a t i t s nose has an e f f e c t on t h e wing.

The 11-62 has swept wings with s o - c a l l e d "notches" i n t h e leading edge


(Figure 4 3 ) . The "notch" forms a constant vortex cord on t h e wing s u r f a c e
which acts i n t h e same manner as an aerodynamic b a f f l e , i n c r e a s i n g t h e b u i l d
up o f t h e boundary l a y e r behind i t s e l f with t h e r e s u l t t h a t i t does not
overflow t o t h e wing t i p .

There are o f course o t h e r means f o r t i g h t e n i n g s e p a r a t i o n s from t h e wing


a t low speeds, and they w i l l be discussed i n Chapter V, 8.

The Boeing-707, t h e DC-8 and o t h e r a i r c r a f t t i g h t e n t h e flow through t h e


use of vortex g e n e r a t o r s . Their b a s i c purpose is t h e c r e a t i o n of a system of -
/63
v o r t i c e s f o r a c t i v a t i n g the boundary l a y e r (Figure 44).

F i g u r e 43. Positioning o f "Notches" on t h e Leading


Edge o f a Swept Wing.

56
I

d i r e c t i o n of
vortex rotation

Figure 44. P o s i t i o n i n g o f F l o w Vortex Generators


on t h e Wing o f t h e Boeing-707 (h = 10-12 cm,
01 = I S " , 1 = 15-30 cm, D = 40-60 cm).

The p r i n c i p l e behind t h e a c t i o n of v o r t e x generators i s based on t h e


f a c t t h a t a system o f v o r t i c e s having a p a r a l l e l i n f l u e n c e on t h e boundary
l a y e r flowing around t h e wing s u r f a c e a t t h e upper l i m i t causes an i n c r e a s e d
mixing of t h e boundary l a y e r with t h e o u t e r flow. A i r p a r t i c l e s c a r r i e d from
t h e o u t e r flow by the v o r t e x d i s p l a c e t h e p a r t i c l e s i n t h e boundary l a y e r and,
through mixing with them, a r e entrapped i n t h e o u t e r l a y e r . There is i n t e n s i
f i c a t i o n o f t h e boundary l a y e r which r e s t r i c t s i t s breaking away from t h e
compression shock. I n those i n s t a n c e s where break away n e v e r t h e l e s s occurs,
t h e vortex system e x c i t e d by t h e v o r t e x g e n e r a t o r s c r e a t e s i n intermixing
e f f e c t i n t h e s e p a r a t e d flow as w e l l , as a r e s u l t of which t h e flow
s e p a r a t i o n region i s l o c a l i z e d and t h e boundaxy l a y e r again "adheres" t o t h e
wing surface*.

S e t t i n g up v o r t e x g e n e r a t o r s has succeeded i n f o r e s t a l l i n g t h e development


of flow s e p a r a t i o n a t high angles of a t t a c k and f l i g h t speeds (an i n c r e a s e i n
t h e c r i t i c a l Mach number t o 0 . 0 2 - 0.07). Aileron e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c r e a s e d
because t h e vortex g e n e r a t o r s i n h i b i t s e p a r a t i o n of t h e boundary l a y e r along
t h e r u p t u r e l i n e of t h e upper wing s u r f a c e when t h e a i l e r o n i s down. Vortex
g e n e r a t o r s s e t i n t h e b a s e s e c t i o n of t h e wing (Boeing-707) decrease l i f t a t
high angles of a t t a c k through flow s e p a r a t i o n .

In a d d i t i o n , on t h e Comet-4c t h e r e are t h e s o - c a l l e d s e n s o r s ( s p e c i a l
p l a t e s , Figure 20) which break up t h e flow a t t h e base s e c t i o n of t h e wing
a t high angles o f attack and by s o doing decrease t h e p i t c h i n g moment.

I n summary, t h e measures described (including t h o s e l a i d o u t i n Chapter / 64


V, 8) make it p o s s i b l e t o design a i r c r a f t wings with t h e shape shown i n
Figure 45. I t must be noted t h a t i f along t h e 1 / 4 chord l i n e t h e angle
x = 3S0, then along t h e leading edge t h e sweep may b e somewhat g r e a t e r ( i n t h e
. _- ~

* Yeger, Design of Passenger Jet Aircraft (Proyektirovaniye p a s s a c h i r


S.M.
skikh reaktivnykh samelotov) .
Mashinostroyeniye. 1964.

57

lll I I

f i g u r e t h i s corresponds t o an angle o f x = 41* i n t h e b a s e s e c t i o n o f t h e wing


and x = 38' i n t h e o u t e r wing s e c t i o n ) .

Figure 45. Schematic Diagram of A i r c r a f t Wing:


1 - inside s p o i l e r ; 2 - i n s i d e f l a p ; 3 - outside
spoiler; 4 o u t s i d e f l a p ; 5 - i n s i d e ai l e r o n ;
-
6 outside a i l e r o n ; 7 - f l e t t n e r trim tabs; 8 -
intermediate r i b s ; 9 - landing g e a r pod; 10 -
secondary c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s ; 1 1 - t i p r i b s ; 1 2 -
s p a r a x e s ; 13 - w i n g s t u m p j o i n t ; 1 4 - w i n g
joint,axis.

Tables 3-5 p r e s e n t t h e values o f parameters ( i n percentage) f o r t h e


following v a r i a t i o n s i n wing aerodynamic arrangement :

a) f o r a wing without geometric t w i s t ( c r u i s i n g Mach number Mcruise -


L

= 0.75 - 0.78, $vib = + l o ) :

TABLE 3
- - .~ .- . .. - .. ...

Section C X
C

I
A t wing stump j o i n t 15* 35 1.0 20

A t wing j o i n t axis 13 35 3.3

A t tip rib 12 37 2.5 50


25

* R e l a t i v e t h i c k n e s s along flow.

58

b) f o r a wing with geometric twist (engines i n t a i l s e c t i o n of f u s e l a g e , /65


c r u i s i n g Mach number M
c r u i se
= 0.8 - 0.82, and 4
vib
= +lo, vib = -1'30'): otip
TABLE 4

-- - .-. .
..-.
.

S e c t i on
-- . . -
-
C X
1 - - -
-f - - -
- . ..

-. --
C- Xf .

[
. - . - . - - -.. .. -

A t wing stump j o i n t
A t wing j o i n t axis
A t tip rib
9.75*
13
11.0
::
35
;::
2.2
30
35
35

* R e l a t i v e thickness along flow.

c r u i s i n g Mach number Mcruise = 0.82 - 0.85, +,


c) f o r wing with geometric t w i s t (engines i n t a i l s e c t i o n of f u s e l a g e ,
ase vib = + 3 0 J 'inter. r i b
-
= o", = -1"):
'tip vib

TABLE 5

Secti o n

A t wing stump j o i n t 12 56 -0.7 30


Intermediate 40
A t tip rib

4. Drag Propagation Between S e p a r a t e P a r t s o f A i r c r a f t

T o t a l a i r c r a f t drag i s known t o be t h e composite of drag i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l


s e c t i o n s . F o r various f l i g h t speeds (Mach numbers) diverging drag propagations
r e s u l t between t h e s e p a r t s mainly due t o t h e onset of wave drag a t t h e
r e s p e c t i v e Mach numbers. I n subsonic a i r c r a f t , around h a l f o f t h e t o t a l drag
i s c r e a t e d by t h e wing. Table 6 shows r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v a l u e s Acx f o r t h e b a s i c
a i r c r a f t components with t h e engines s e t i n t h e t a i l s e c t i o n of t h e f u s e l a g e
( t h e d a t a p e r t a i n t o h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t a t a Mach number of M = 0.8, a t which
c f o r t h e e n t i r e a i r c r a f t equals 0.0305, while c = 0 . 4 ) .
X Y
I t should be noted t h a t t h e p o r t i o n of wave drag f o r M = 0 . 8 a t c = 0 . 4
Y
(corresponding roughly t o t h e high angle of attack c1 5.5') i s approximately
20% (Actail = 0.006). Having t h e landing g e a r down (Acx = 0.015 - 0.020) a t
low f l i g h t speeds c r e a t e s approximately h a l f of t h e e n t i r e a i r c r a f t drag.

59

I
TABLE 6

Averaged
In % of for
A i r craf t compon ent total remaining
aircraft aircraft
(%I
Wing
0.015 49.5 45-50

Elevator u n i t
0.001.7 5.57 5- 6

Rudder-fin u n i t
0.001 3.28 3- 4

Fus e 1age
0.008 26.2 25-30

Landing g e a r pods
0.00116 3.8 3- 5

Side engine pods


0.0027 8.83 8- 10

Center engine i n t a k e
0.001 3.28

Entire aircraft
c =O. 0305 100 100

60

CHAPTER I V

CHARACTER1 STI CS OF THE POWER SYSTEM

J e t engines and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t u r b o j e t engines g e n e r a t e high i n - f l i g h t


/ 66
t h r u s t and, consequently, high t h r u s t horsepower (30,000 - 60,000 hp)
necessary f o r p r o p e l l i n g a i r c r a f t weighing 40 - 160 tons a t a speed o f 850
900 km/hr.

P i s t o n and turboprop engines u s e up a l l o r almost a l l t h e energy from t h e


f u e l i n r o t a t i n g t h e p r o p e l l e r . I t i s t h e p r o p e l l e r which, driven i n i t s
r o t a t i o n by t h e engine, c r e a t e s t h e t h r u s t . Therefore t h e p r o p e l l e r i s c a l l e d
t h e prime mover of t h e a i r c r a f t . The power system f o r p i s t o n and turboprop
engines comprises b o t h t h e engine and t h e prime mover, which c r e a t e t h e t h r u s t .

In t h e o p e r a t i o n of a j e t engine, however, t h e t h r u s t i s achieved in


d i r e c t l y as t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of a l l the f o r c e s a c t i n g on t h e s u r f a c e of t h e
engine components. The j e t engine o r g a n i c a l l y combines w i t h i n i t s e l f t h e
engine i n the normal .concept of t h e word and t h e prime mover.

During t e s t - s t a n d o p e r a t i o n of modern t u r b o j e t engines , t h e p r e s s u r e a t


t h e compressor exhaust equals 5-10 atm o r more.

The gas temperature a t t h e combustion chamber exhaust i s 1 , O O - 1,200"


abs. The power generated by t h e gas t u r b i n e i s 60,000 - 90,000 hp f o r engines
with a t h r u s t from 5,000 t o 10,000 kG.

As i t e x i s t s from t h e t u r b i n e , t h e g a s s t i l l has a high amount of h e a t


energy, i t s p r e s s u r e i s g r e a t e r than atmospheric, and i t s temperature equals
800 - 1,000" abs. Through t h e process of expansion, t h e thermal energy of
t h e gas a t the- exhaust nozzle is transformed i n t o k i n e t i c energy, and as a
r e s u l t of the high speed of t h e g a s exhaust, t h e exhaust t h r u s t i s generated.

5 1. Two-Ci rcui t a n d Turbofan Engines


1 67

Attempts by a e r o n a u t i c a l engineers t o i n c r e a s e engine t h r u s t and decrease


f u e l consumption l e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e t w o - c i r c u i t and turbofan engines
(Figure 46). Fuel consumption i n p a r t i c u l a r decreased by 1 5 2 0 %by comparison
with consumption i n normal t u r b o j e t engines.

The t w o - c i r c u i t (turbofan) engine i s a gas t u r b i n e engine i n which t h e


excess t u r b i n e horsepower, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e turboprop engine, i s t r a n s m i t t e d
t o a compressor o r f a n enclosed i n t h e c i r c u l a r cowling.

The t w o - c i r c u i t t u r b o j e t engine may assume one of s e v e r a l s t r u c t u r a l


designs (Figure 46a and b ) which are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e e x i s t e n c e of an

61

a d d i t i o n a l a i r c i r c u i t through which, a f t e r compression, p a r t o f t h e a i r which


has been sucked i n i s fed t o t h e combustion chamber and t u r b i n e bypass d i r e c t l y
t o t h e o u t l e t , thereby i n c r e a s i n g t h e m a s s and decreasing t h e speed o f t h e
j e t s tream.

Two-contour engines i n which t h e volume of a i r passing through t h e


supplementary c i r c u i t i s r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t while t h e degree of compression of
t h i s air i s small a r e u s u a l l y c a l l e d turbofan engines. A t p r e s e n t t h e r e are
i n use t w o - c i r c u i t engines of t h i s type and turbofan engines, which are derived/68
through t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of a f a n i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e normal t u r b o j e t engine
(Figure 46c and d ) . The expediency of c r e a t i n g turbofan engines based on
s e r i e s t u r b o j e t engines f o r c i v i l i a n a i r c r a f t i s j u s t i f i e d through t h e i r
g r e a t economy and high r e l i a b i l i t y during use.

Figure 46. Various Types of Two-Circuit and Turbofan


Engines: a - normal scheme (Rolls Royce "Conway" engine) ;
b - t w o - c i r c u i t engine w i t h a i r displacement from o u t e r
contour w i t h gases from t h e inner contour (Rolls Royce
JT8D "Spey"); c - turbofan scheme w i t h forward fan
(Pratt-Whi tney JT3D) ; d - turbofan with r e a r fan (General
E l e c t r i c CJ-805-23).

When a t u r b o j e t engine i s being designed s t r i c t l y along t h e t w o - c i r c u i t


p l a n , optimal parameters a r e obtained i f t h e design and the parameters of t h e
turbofan engine a r e t o a g r e a t degree determined and l i m i t e d by t h e parameters
of t h e i n i t i a l t u r b o j e t engine.

Figure 47 shows a s i m p l i f i e d schematic of a t w o - c i r c u i t engine. Atmos


p h e r i c a i r e n t e r s t h e a i r scoop through t h e two l a y e r s of blades which form
t h e fan B. From t h i s f a n , which i s i n e f f e c t a low-pressure compressor, t h e
a i r moves on i n two s e p a r a t e p a t h s . One p a r t of the a i r moves along t h e o u t e r
body of t h e b a s i c engine contour through t h e second contour C , while the o t h e r
p a r t moves through t h e high-pressure compressor D. From t h e r e i t moves through
the combustion chamber E , i n t o which f u e l i s i n j e c t e d through f e e d l i n e F and,

62

f i n a l l y , a f t e r expanding, passes through t h e high-pressure t u r b i n e K and low-


p r e s s u r e t u r b i n e H. Then t h e high-temperature gas e x i t s through t h e exhaust
nozzle, which surrounds t h e o u t e r r i n g nozzle with a cold c u r r e n t of a i r .

Figure 47. Simplified Schematic Diagram o f


t h e Operation of a Two-Circuit J e t Engine.

The a i r which has been speeded up through t h e fan of a turbofan engine


i s exhausted with a slower speed than i n t h e normal t u r b o j e t engine o r t h e
normal t w o - c i r c u i t engine. The slower t h e speed o f t h e flow behind t h e engine,
t h e lower t h e energy l o s s e s w i l l be and t h e g r e a t e r t h e engine's e f f i c i e n c y .

From j e t - e n g i n e theory we know t h a t t h e o v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y ( o v e r a l l Q


f a c t o r ) f o r t h e power system of any a i r c r a f t i s determined as t h e product of
the two b a s i c f i g u r e s : t h a t of t h e i n t e r n a l ( e f f e c t i v e ) and exhaust ( f l i g h t )
factors.

The e f f e c t i v e Q-factor i n c r e a s e s with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e a i r p r e s s u r e i n


~
the engine and with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e gas temperature.

This leads t o a s u b s t a n t i a l decrease i n t h e s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption.


Because only p a r t of the a i r passes through t h e t u r b i n e i n a two-system turbo
j e t engine, the t u r b i n e blades may be s h o r t e r than i n a t u r b o j e t engine with
t h e same o v e r a l l f u e l consumption. F o r i d e n t i c a l b l a d e s a f e t y f a c t o r s , t h i s i n /69
t u r n permits a 100 - 150 temperature i n c r e a s e i n t h e g a s i n f r o n t of t h e
t u r b i n e , which gives a decided advantage over t h e t u r b o j e t engine i n terms of
f u e l economy. This i s one of t h e reasons t h a t t h e t w o - c i r c u i t and turbofan
engines have lower s p e c i f i c f u e l consumptions.

For p r o p u l s i v e f l i g h t e f f i c i e n c y , from t h e theory of j e t engines we a r e


familiar with t h e following formula:

2
?f=-
w '
'fv'

where W i s t h e speed of t h e j e t s t r e a m ; and


V i s t h e f l i g h t speed.

63
When t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e speed of t h e j e t s t r e a m and t h e f l i g h t
speed i s decreased, i . e . , when t h e r e i s l e s s of an unused p o r t i o n of t h e
k i n e t i c energy, t h e p r o p u l s i v e e f f i c i e n c y i n c r e a s e s and reaches i t s maximum
v a l u e (11 - 1) a t a f l i g h t speed equal t o t h e speed o f t h e exhaust j e t s t r e a m .
f -
When t h i s i s t r u e , t h e unused p o r t i o n of t h e k i n e t i c energy i s zero. A c l e a r
example i s t h e turboprop engine, i n which t h e speed a t which t h e a i r i s t h r u s t
back by t h e b l a d e i s c l o s e t o t h e f l i g h t speed. However, i n turboprop a i r
c r a f t t h e f l i g h t e f f i c i e n c y drops as t h e f l i g h t speed i n c r e a s e s due t o a drop
i n t h e blade e f f i c i e n c y , and reaches low values a t high s u b s o n i c speeds.

In t w o - c i r c u i t and turbofan engines, t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e a r e a o f


high e f f i c i e n c y , which t h e turboprop engine has a t low f l i g h t speeds, up t o
high subsonic speeds a t which t h e f l i g h t e f f i c i e n c y i s s t i l l t o o low.

To achieve t h i s , i n t w o - c i r c u i t and turbofan engines t h e r e i s a second


c i r c u i t from which g r e a t masses of a i r flow a t speeds c l o s e t o t h e f l i g h t
speed, which a i d s i n achieving a high f l i g h t e f f i c i e n c y as w e l l as a low
s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption. The s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption f o r a t w o - c i r c u i t j e t
engine and a t u r b o f a n engine i s 0.52 = 0.65 kG fuel/kG t h r u s t -
hr for H = 0
and V = 0 and 0.75 - 0.85 kG fuel/kG t h r u s t -
h r f o r H = 10-11 km a t V = 750
880 km/hr.

I n designing t w o - c i r c u i t engines, t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e two c h i e f v a r i a b l e s


i s v i t a l : t h e forward o r r e a r p o s i t i o n i n g of t h e f a n and t h e r a t i o o f t h e mass
flow of cold a i r p a s s i n g through c i r c u i t C t o t h e mass flow of h o t a i r passing
through c i r c u i t D, t h e s o - c a l l e d t w o - c i r c u i t l e v e l m = G C/G D whose v a l u e may
be from 0.23 t o 3.5.

The t w o - c i r c u i t l e v e l i s a v i t a l engine parameter and determines i t s


e f f i c i e n c y , weight and t h r u s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The g r e a t e r t h e l e v e l m , t h e
/ 70
lower the s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption; however, t h i s e n t a i l s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e
engine dimensions and weight. A t p r e s e n t the optimum degree i s m = 0.6 - 0.7
f o r c i v i l i a n a i r c r a f t a t a f l i g h t Mach number of 0 . 8 - 0 . 9 .

F i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n (Boeing-707-420, and Douglas DC-8) and second-generation


(Vickers VC-10 and o t h e r s ) t r a n s p o r t a i r c r a f t a r e equipped with t h e Rolls
Royce Conway t w o - c i r c u i t engine i n which m = 0.7 - 0.8. The engine t h r u s t
f o r t h e Conway-509 i s 10,200 kG, while t h e s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption a t top
conditions i s 0.725 kG/kG - hr.

Even g r e a t e r economy may be obtained through mixing flows o f high


p r e s s u r e ( a f t e r t h e t u r b i n e ) and low p r e s s u r e ( a f t e r t h e f a n ) ( i n t h e JT8D
engine) o r a f t e r t h e f i r s t compressor s t a g e ( t h e Spey engine) i n t h e exhaust
nozzle. When t h i s i s done, a r e l a t i v e l y low speed of flow i s achieved and
t h e r e i s a correspondingly high e f f i c i e n c y . The combination of high thermo
dynamic and t h r u s t e f f y c i e n c i e s has a l s o made it p o s s i b l e t o c r e a t e engines
with low s p e c i f i c f u e l consumptions. As an example, Table 7 p r e s e n t s some
d a t a on t h e JT8D and Spey engines.

64
TABLE 7

-
Flight
conditions
-_
1 Engine
type 1 Thrust
kG
Specific
Icon?LYffm.
kGj&e%r
I 1
v*km/hr

Takeoff I JT8D
flspeyf I I
6350
5150
0,585
0,611 I_ X 1 0
0
Maxi"
(climbin?) I JTSD
"Speyfl I '%I 7iI' I I 0

Cruising
I l ~ ~ 1
~ ~
2140
1680
y l I
l
0,838
0.77 1 7500
7600 I 730
870

T r . Note: Commas i n d i c a t e decimal p o i n t s

There are t h r e e JT8D engines on t h e Boeing-727 and two on t h e DC-9, and


t h e r e a r e two Spey engines on t h e Bak-1-11-200 and t h r e e on t h e Trident a i r
c r a f t . S o v i e t t w o - c i r c u i t engines were f i r s t i n s t a l l e d on t h e Tu-124.

Replacing normal t u r b o j e t engines with t w o - c i r c u i t engines o f f e r s an


i n c r e a s e i n payload and a decrease i n t h e s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption and t h e
noise level.

As has already been s t a t e d , t u r b o f a n engines have t h e fans placed e i t h e r


forward or behind. When t h e f a n i s placed behind, as w a s done by General
E l e c t r i c (Figure 46d), t h e design o f t h e forward p a r t of the engine d i f f e r s
i n no way from a normal t u r b o j e t engine: t h e compressor, t h e combustion
chamber and t h e g a s t u r b i n e a r e i d e n t i c a l . However, with t u r b o f a n engines,
a f t e r t h e gases have passed through t h e main t u r b i n e they run i n t o one more,
t h e s o - c a l l e d fan t u r b i n e , which i s mechanically t i e d i n t o t h e main t u r b i n e .
/71
The b l a d e t i p s i n t h e f a n t u r b i n e f u n c t i o n as they would i n a normal f a n and,
i n t h e annular gap between t h e n o z z l e and t h e a d d i t i o n a l t u r b i n e , they t h r u s t
back a s t r o n g flow of a i r running p a r a l l e l t o t h e b a s i c g a s j e t .

The American Convair 990A has f o u r CJ-805-23B turbofan engines ( b u i l t by


General E l e c t r i c ) with t h e r e a r f a n , each g e n e r a t i n g a t h r u s t of 7,300 kG.
The same engines a r e used on t h e French Caravelle-XA i n replacement f o r t h e
o b s o l e t e Avon t u r b o j e t engines.

The P r a t t and Whitney JT3D engine, with m = 1.5, has t h e f a n p o s i t i o n e d


forward. This t y p e of engine i s used on t h e Boeing-720B and DC-8. Table 8
o f f e r s some d a t a on t h e JT3D engine.

Thus, u s e of t w o - c i r c u i t and f a n engines makes i t p o s s i b l e t o c r e a t e


a i r c r a f t with optimal f l i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r various purposes. The
i n c r e a s e d t h r u s t makes i t p o s s i b l e t o decrease t h e t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e f o r any
s p e c i f i c a i r c r a f t weight o r , i n maintaining t h e t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e , i t becomes
p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e payload o r t h e f u e l r e s e r v e .

65

TABLE 8

Takeoff . . . . .. 8160 0,538 0 0


Aaximum
(climbing).
Cruising
* --
. - '1
7400
1700
0,515
0,79
0
9100
0
865
'
1
Tr. Note: Commas i n d i c a t e decimal p o i n t s .

9 2. Basic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Turbojet E n g i n e s

In examining t h e f l i g h t conditions f o r t u r b o j e t passenger a i r c r a f t we


must know t h e following b a s i c engine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : t h r u s t , s p e c i f i c t h r u s t ,
s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption, s p e c i f i c weight and maximum-power a l t i t u d e .

Thrust i n t u r b o j e t engines is determined i n accordance with t h e following


formula :

p = - G s e c (W - V) kG,
g

where i s t h e per-second r a t e of a i r f l o w through t h e engine,


Gsec
(kG/sec) ;
g = 9.81 m/sec2 is t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n ;
W i s the speed of t h e r a t e of gas flow from t h e exhaust
nozzle (m/sec) ;
V i s t h e a i r c r a f t f l i g h t speed (m/sec) .
Turbojet engines designed i n the last two decades have Gsec = 18 - 260
/72
kG/sec, which corresponds t o a t h r u s t of from 800 - 900 t o 10,000 - 13,000 kG,
W = 550 - 600 m/sec ( s t a n d - s t i l l o p e r a t i o n ) , while i n f l i g h t i t reaches high
values. Two-circuit engines have a discharge v e l o c i t y of 520 - 550 m/sec,
whereas t u r b o f a n engines have only 350 - 370 m/sec.

S p e c i f i c t h r u s t -- t h i s is t h e t h r u s t obtained from 1 kG of a i r passing


through t h e engine per-second:

----W - V kG
' s pe f g kG/sec *

S p e c i f i c t h r u s t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e economy of an engine. I n modern turbo


j e t engines , = 40 - 70 kG/kG/sec. S p e c i f i c t h r u s t depends s t r o n g l y on
'spef
t h e compressor k f f i c i e n c y and t u r b i n e e f f i c i e n c y , as w e l l as t h e degree t o

66

which t h e air has been pre-heated. I t determines t h e r e l a t i v e dimensions and


weight of t h e engine: t h e g r e a t e r t h e s p e c i f i c t h r u s t , t h e lower t h e engine
dimensions and weight f o r a given t h r u s t .

S p e c i f i c f u e l consumption -- t h i s i s t h e r e l a t i v e hourly f u e l consumed i n


generating engine t h r u s t :

c = -G
P P
t *
kG fuel/kG - thrust - hr,

where G t i s t h e hourly f u e l consumption (kG f u e l / h r ) .

The s p e c i f i c consumption i n d i c a t e how many kG of f u e l have been expended


i n c r e a t i n g 1 kG of t h r u s t i n an hour, and a l s o , c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e engine
e f f i c i e n c y . The lower t h e c t h e more e f f i c i e n t t h e engine and t h e g r e a t e r
P'
t h e a i r c r a f t f l i g h t range and duration.

S p e c i f i c weight of the engine i s t h e r a t i o of the dry weight of t h e engine


t o its thrust:

In modern t u r b o j e t engines, = 0.19 - 0.35 kG/kG t h r u s t . For example,


gtj
f o r the 5-58 engine, t h e v a l u e of t h e s p e c i f i c weight i s g = 0.25 kG/kG
tj
t h r u s t . This means t h a t f o r a t h r u s t o f 13,600 kG, the engine weight i s
G = 3,400 kG. A s can b e seen from t h e s e f i g u r e s , t u r b o j e t engines do n o t
tj
overload t h e a i r c r a f t by v i r t u e of t h e i r weight. Whereas t h e weight of t h e
power system f o r a piston-engine a i r c r a f t may sometimes amount t o 2 2 - 25% of
t h e takeoff weight, f o r t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t t h i s value equals only 10 - 1 2 % .

3. Throttle Characteristics

Depending on how i t i s used and on i t s r a t e d s e r v i c e l i f e , each engine


has s e v e r a l b a s i c modes of o p e r a t i o n which d i f f e r by t h e number of rpm's, t h e /73

temperature regimes, e t c . Usually t h e following o p e r a t i o n conditions a r e
d i s t i n g u i s h e d : t a k e o f f , nominal, c r u i s i n g , and i d l i n g .

P r a c t i c e i n a i r c r a f t and engine u s e has r e s u l t e d i n t h e need f o r an


a d d i t i o n a l condition which, f o r t h e Tu-104 f o r example,has come t o be c a l l e d
t h e "extreme" condition. As can be seen from t h e very name i t s e l f , t h i s i s
used i n only c e r t a i n c a s e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e event of f a i l u r e of one of
the engines. In t h i s event, because of t h e engine f o r c i n g with r e s p e c t t o
t h e temperature of t h e supply of a d d i t i o n a l f u e l and t h e i n c r e a s e d r e v o l u t i o n s ,
t h e t h r u s t i n c r e a s e s by 8 t o 10%by comparison t o t a k e o f f . However, t h i s
emergency condition p u t s an overload on t h e engine which i n t u r n means t h a t
t h e engine must be overhauled f a s t e r than normally.

67

The t a k e o f f c o n d i t i o n corresponds t o t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e number of


rpm's and t h e m a x i m u m t h r u s t . Under t h i s c o n d i t i o n , t h e engine components are
s u b j e c t e d t o t h e g r e a t e s t mechanical and thermal s t r e s s e s , as a r e s u l t o f which
t h e i r p e r i o d of continuous u s e i s l i m i t e d and normally does n o t exceed 5 - 10
minutes. Takeoff c o n d i t i o n s are a p p l i e d t o decrease t h e t a k e o f f run through
i n c r e a s i n g t h e h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t speed, decreasing t h e a i r c r a f t a c c e l e r a t i o n
t i m e and a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e breaking clouds i n g a i n i n g a l t i t u d e .

The normal r a t i n g corresponds t o somewhat decreased (by 3-8%) r o t a t i o n


with r e s p e c t t o t h e takeoff r a t i n g . The t h r u s t i s approximately 90% of t h e
t a k e o f f t h r u s t . The o p e r a t i o n time a t a normal r a t i n g i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y longer:
i t i s used i n gaining a l t i t u d e and f o r n e a r - c e i l i n g f l i g h t . During such
o p e r a t i o n t h e engine components are s u b j e c t e d t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y l i g h t e r loads.

Cruising performance d i f f e r s from t h e two preceding conditions through


decreased rpm's (by 10-15%) and t h r u s t (by 25-50%) as opposed t o maximum.

The i d l i n g p e r i o d corresponds t o t h e lowest number o f rpm's a t which t h e


engine can o p e r a t e s t a b l y . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e t h r u s t
and t h e r e f o r e i t i s used i n landing runs, dropping from high a l t i t u d e s , e t c .
The amount o f t h r u s t i s 300-600 kG a t low f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s and 150-300 kG a t
a l t i t u d e s of 8,000 - 10,000 m.

The c h a r a c t e r of t h e change i n engine t h r u s t with r e s p e c t t o rpm's i s


shown i n Figure 48, from which we can s e e t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of
rpm's causes an i n c r e a s e i n t h r u s t .
A t low rpm's, t h e amount o f a i r
p a s s i n g through t h e engine i s
a l s o low and as a consequence, t h e
f u e l consumption, too, i s low. The
amount o f gases formed i s small
and develop a n e g l i g i b l e exhaust
v e l o c i t y , so t h a t t h e t h r u s t
g e n e r a t e d by t h e engines with t h i s
v a l u e o f rpm's i s low, u s u a l l y
300 - 600 kG. An i n c r e a s e i n t h e
P-
t - --
0 - - -- - - r p m ' s leads t o a s h a r p i n c r e a s e
f&q 1
i n t h e a i r exhaust, t h e f u e l
d e l i v e r y i n c r e a s e s , t h e temperature
o f gases i n f r o n t of t h e t u r b i n e
i n c r e a s e s and, as a r e s u l t --
t h r u s t i n c r e a s e s . The h i g h e s t
t h r u s t may be obtained a t t h e
maximum p e r m i s s i b l e rpm's , i . e . ,
during t a k e o f f o r emergency con
ditions.
n , rpm(%)
Figure 48. Engine T h r u s t , S p e c i f i c Thrust Figure 48 a l s o shows t h e /74
and S p e c i f i c Fuel Consumption a s Functions of t h e s p e c i f i c f u e l
of t h e rpm's. n = n consumption on t h e number of rpm's.
t-o take o f f ' The change i n cp i s a f u n c t i o n o f

68

t h e degree of compression o f t h e air i n t h e combusion chamber. The more h i g h l y


compressed the a i r i s , t h e more f u l l y t h e h e a t is used during t h e process of
f u e l consumption and t h e lower t h e s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption w i l l be. P r e
compression of t h e air depends b a s i c a l l y on t h e compressor (engine rpm's) and
on t h e f l i g h t speed. Therefore, when t h e rpm's a r e i n c r e a s e d , t h e s p e c i f i c
f u e l consumption decreases. During normal and t a k e o f f c o n d i t i o n s , t h e s p e c i f i c
consumption i s c l o s e t o minimum.

Engine u s e during c r u i s i n g rpm conditions y i e l d optimum economy.

5 4. High-speed Characteristics

The high-speed c h a r a c t e r i st i c s of t u r b o j e t engines a r e t h e dependence of


t h e engine t h r u s t , s p e c i f i c t h r u s t and s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption on f l i g h t
speed a t a given a l t i t u d e f o r a s e l e c t e d r u l e of c o n t r o l .

Let us examine t h e high-speed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r c o n s t a n t rpm, gas


temperature i n f r o n t of t h e t u r b i n e and f l i g h t a l t i t u d e (Figures 49 and 50).
Normally t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are examined f o r a nominal number o f rpm's.
bs e c
From t h e formula P = - (W - V) we can s e e t h a t t h e exhaust t h r u s t w i l l /75
g
be g r e a t e r , t h e g r e a t e r t h e amount of a i r which passes through t h e engine p e r
second and t h e g r e a t e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e g a s exhaust speed and t h e
f l i g h t speed. I n i n c r e a s i n g t h e f l i g h t speed from 0 t o 700 - 800 W h r , t h r u s t
de creas e s somewhat , becaus e
i n c r e a s e s more s lowly
Gsec
than t h e d i f f e r e n c e W -V drops.
With an a d d i t i o n a l i n c r e a s e i n
speed, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e
i n c r e a s e i n a i r exhaust begins
t o surpass t h e decrease i n t h e
d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e speeds
W and V.

This is explained by t h e
c h a r a c t e r of t h e change i n
t h r u s t with r e s p e c t t o speed.
When t h e f l i g h t speed i s
i n c r e a s e d from 0 t o 700 - 800
km/hr, t h r u s t decreases by no
0,Z 0.3 0.4 0,5 OP Q7 0,8 0.0 fl
more than 10-15%. This per
m i t s us t o consider t h e
avai l a b l e t h r u s t generated by
Figure 49. E n g i n e Thrust as a Function of
a subsonic t u r b o j e t engine t o
Mach Number ( f l i g h t speed) f o r Various b e p r a c t i c a l l y independent of
A1 t i t u d e s (standard c o n d i t i o n s , t h e broken f l i g h t speed.
1 i n e representing a temperature 10" above
standard) .
T-0 = Take-off.
W -
The s p e c i f i c t h r u s t (Pspef - - ) drops as t h e speed i n c r e a s e s , because
g
t h e d i f f e r e n c e between speeds (W -V) decreases (Figure 50a).

The s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption i n c r e a s e s with h i n c r e a s e i n f l i g h t speed


(Figure 50b). When t h e r e i s a change i n t h e f l i g h t speed from zero t o 750
850 km/hr, t h e s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption i n c r e a s e s by 15-30%. Thus, i f f o r
V = 0 t h e consumption i s cp = 0.89 kG/kG -h r , then a t a speed of 850 km/hr i t
w i l l i n c r e a s e t o 1.15 ( f o r t h e RD-3M engine). For t h e JTSD turbofan engine,
f o r V = 0 , t h e consumption i s c = 0.61, whereas f o r a speed o f 880 km/hr i t /76
-
i s 0.781 kG/kG - h r (at ~ F I a l t i f u d e of 11 km).

1st ,

Figure 5 0 . Change i n S p e c i f i c Fuel Consumption


( b ) and S p e c i f i c Thrust ( a ) w i t h Respect t o
F1 i g h t Speed.

P,kG" kG on the ground, which i s


increased t o 7,200 kG
through t h r u s t augmentation
by afterburning. I n f l i g h t
5000 a t a l t i t u d e , t h e drop i n
0 0 7 I t h r u s t i s compensated by
I I
3000 ~. v e l o c i t y head. During

70

5. High-Altitude Characteristics

The dependence of t h r u s t , s p e c i f i c t h r u s t and s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption


on f l i g h t a l t i t u d e f o r a c o n s t a n t number of engine rpm's and c o n s t a n t f l i g h t
/ 77
speed i s c a l l e d t h e h i g h - a l t i t u d e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .

The t h r u s t o f a t u r b o j e t engine decreases s h a r p l y with an i n c r e a s e i n


f l i g h t a l t i t u d e because t h r u s t i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e weight r a t e of
a i r f l o w , while t h e r a t e decreases with a l t i t u d e due t o a drop i n a i r d e n s i t y .
The decrease i n t h r u s t with a l t i t u d e occurs i n s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
s p e c i f i c t h r u s t , i . e . , t h e t h r u s t c r e a t e d by each kilogram of a i r passing
through t h e engine, i n c r e a s e s by approximately h a l f again as much as compared
t o t h e ground l e v e l .

Up t o an a l t i t u d e of 11,000 meters, because of precompression i n t h e


compressor, t h e weight r a t e of a i r f l o w decreases more slowly than t h e air
d e n s i t y , whereas above 11,000 meters, where t h e temperature remains c o n s t a n t ,
i t drops more r a p i d l y . The change i n engine t h r u s t with a l t i t u d e may b e
c a l c u l a t e d with r e s e c t t o the following formula: f o r a l t i t u d e s up t o 11,000
meters: P = P * f o r a l t i t u d e s g r e a t e r than 11,000 meters: PH = 1.44
A g a 7 ;
H O
A * Po (here PH i s t h e t h r u s t a t a l t i t u d e ; P is t h e ground engine t h r u s t ) ;
0
PH
A = - is t h e r a t i o of d e n s i t i e s ( A < 1 ) .

If we t a k e P
0
as loo%, then a t an a l t i t u d e of 10,000 meters the t h r u s t
i s approximately 45-50% of t h e ground t h r u s t , while a t an a l t i t u d e of 20,000
meters i t i s only 10%. This comments on t h e lack of maximum-power a l t i t u d e
i n t u r b o j e t engines. However, modified t u r b o j e t engines developing a ground
t h r u s t of 10,000 - 13,000 kG have high f l i g h t speeds a t a l t i t u d e s of 10,000
12,000 meters.

Figure 52 shows t h e v a r i a t i o n i n engine t h r u s t i n terms o f a l t i t u d e f o r


various rpm's. I t should b e noted t h a t above t h e maximum-power a l t i t u d e
boundary t h e power of p i s t o n engines drops more r a p i d l y than does t h e t h r u s t
of j e t engines.

Up t o an a l t i t u d e of 11,000 meters t h e s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption c


P
decreases, a f t e r which i t holds c o n s t a n t (Figure 53). The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e i n
/78
t h e drop i n c (and t h e i n c r e a s e i n s p e c i f i c t h r u s t ) l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t
P
with a drop i n t h e temperature of t h e surrounding a i r t h e degree of com
p r e s s i o n i n the compressor and t h e degree of precompression a r e i n c r e a s e d .

The hourly f u e l consumption, which i s equal t o t h e product o f c P ,


P
decreases with an i n c r e a s e i n f l i g h t a l t i t u d e by approximately t h e same
i n t e n s i t y as does t h e a i r consumption and t h r u s t .

The hourly f u e l consumption a t an a l t i t u d e of 11,000 meters i s l e s s t h a n


one h a l f t h e ground consumption f o r t h e same engine rpm conditions.

71

I
I I

5 io H,iKm

Figure 52. Variation i n E n g i n e Figure 53. Dependence o f S p e c i f i c


Thrust i n Terms o f F l i g h t A l t i t u d e Fuel Consumption on F l i g h t A l t i t u d e .
(Mach = 0 . 7 5 ) .

Thus, t h e s e engines a r e more e f f e c t i v e i n operation a t high a l t i t u d e s .

5 6. The Effect o f Air Temperature on Turbojet Engine Thrust

Air temperature, l i k e a l t i t u d e ( p r e s s u r e ) , has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on


t h r u s t and s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption.

During t e s t - s t a n d t r i a l runs of the engine t h e measured t h r u s t i s


reduced t o standard conditions, i . e . , t h e s o - c a l l e d reduced t h r u s t i s d e t e r
mined f o r p = 760 mm Hg and t = 15C. Depending on t h e c o n t r o l system, the
e f f e c t of temperature changes on t h r u s t i s manifested i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Thus,
f o r example, f o r t u r b o j e t engine with o p e r a t i o n a l rpm's of 4,000 - 5,000, a
one-percent temperature i n c r e a s e decreases t h r u s t by approximately 2%. For
two-circuit and turbofan engines with 6,700 - 11,000 rpm, a one-percent
temperature change v a r i e s t h e t h r u s t by 1 - 1.5%. For example, t h e t h r u s t
i n a t u r b o j e t engine equals 7,000 kG f o r t = 15OC and p = 760 mm Hg. A
temperature i n c r e a s e of up t o t = 25C has occurred. Let us determine t h e
v a r i a t i o n i n engine t h r u s t . To do s o , l e t us express t h e temperature change
i n a percentage r a t i o : T = t " C + 273" = 15" + 273" = 288O; T = 25" + 273" =
1 2
= 298"; 298 : 288 = 1.03, i . e . , the temperature increased by 3 % . Consequently,
t h r u s t decreased by 6 % , amounting t o 420 kG.

Thus, f o r t = 25"C, the engine w i l l generate around 6,600 kG of t h r u s t .


If the temperature i n c r e a s e s t o 35"C, the t h r u s t decreases by 13.6%, i . e . ,
the engine w i l l generate only about 6,000 kG of t h r u s t .

When the a i r temperature i n c r e a s e s , t h r u s t i n c r e a s e s , This comes about


because of t h e c o n t r o l system on the fuel-supply arrangement i n t u r b o j e t
engines, which i n c r e a s e s the f u e l supply when temperature drops. An i n c r e a s e
i n t h r u s t u s u a l l y occurs when t h e temperature decreases t o + 3 - -15"C,

72
I- II

depending on t h e engine c o n d i t i o n s and t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e f u e l pump and


regul a t or.

L e t us determine t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h r u s t f o r a temperature of -15OC i f


f o r t = 15OC t h r u s t P = 7,000 kG: T 1 -- 288OC, T2 = 258C and 288 : 258 = 1.115,
i . e . , t h e temperature i n c r e a s e s by 11.5%, consequently, t h e t h r u s t i n c r e a s e s
/ 79

1
by 2 3 % , amounting t o 1,600 kG (Figure 54).

To maintain t h e s e engine
P,M- 8600 kG t h r u s t v a l u e s a t high a l t i t u d e s ,
water i n j e c t i o n i n t o t h e compressor
8000 t rbojet i s used.

Figure 55 shows t h e change i n


7000 t h r u s t i n a JT3D turbofan engine
with and without water i n j e c t i o n .
A s can b e seen from t h e figure,
6000 --- "ZEY'L -- --- - water i n j e c t i o n a i d s i n maintaining
t h e c a l c u l a t e d takeoff t h r u s t up
I I
t o and i n t a k e temperature of +3SoC.
While t h i s h o l d s , t h e high-tempera
ture flight characteristics for
t h e a i r c r a f t change n e g l i g i b l y . I n
Figure 54. E f f e c t o f External Air
t h e case of t h e "Spey" engine, water
Temperature on Thrust of Turbojet injection aids i n f o r e s t a l l i n g a
Engines . drop i n i t s t h r u s t a t temperatures
g r e a t e r than 2OoC.

5' 7. Thrust Horsepower / 80


-
Thrust horsepower i s t h e
a v a i l a b l e engine power:

where V i s t h e f l i g h t speed i n
m/sec.
Figure 5 5 . Test-Stand Thrust i n t h e JT3D
Turbofan E n g i n e and t h e I'Spey'' - type Two- Let us determine t h e t h r u s t
C i r c u i t Turbojet E n g i n e as a Function o f horsepower f o r t h e engines of
the A m b i e n t A i r Temperature. an a i r c r a f t f l y i n g a t an a l t i
tude o f 10,000 meters and a
speed of 900 km/hr, if t h e a v a i l a b l e engine t h r u s t is 6,000 kG:

However, a t f l i g h t w i t h t h e maximum speed o f 1,000 km/hr a t an a l t i t u d e


of 6,000 m and with an a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t o f 9,000 kG, t h e t h r u s t horsepower i s

73
The t h r u s t horsepower i n c r e a s e s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t o t h e speed.
When r a c i n g t h e engines on t h e ground without t h e a i r c r a f t ' s moving, N = 0,
because t h e r e i s no work being done, i . e . , PV = 0. A change i n t h e a v a i l a b l e
horsepower with r e s p e c t t o a l t i t u d e (rpm's being constant) i s shown i n Figure
56.

In contrast t o piston aircraft, i n


which t h e a v a i l a b l e horsepower decreases
with an i n c r e a s e i n speed above maximum
32000 - due t o a drop i n t h e p r o p e l l e r e f f i c i e n c y ,
i n j e t a i r c r a f t i t i n c r e a s e s with an
i n c r e a s e i n f l i g h t speed. Therefore,
r a p i d f l i g h t speeds may b e obtained only
i n a i r c r a f t with t u r b o j e t engines o r
o t h e r types of j e t engines.

Like t h r u s t , t h e a v a i l a b l e horse
power is a f u n c t i o n of t h e engine rpm's:
- .
t h e g r e a t e r t h e number of engine rpm's
( f o r a s p e c i f i c a l t i t u d e and f l i g h t
speed), t h e higher the available horse-
Figure 5 6 . Thrust Horsepower as power.
a Function o f Mach Number f o r
Various F l i g h t A l t i t u d e s ( c o n s t a n t
rpm's). 8. P o s i t i o n i n g the Engines on t h e
A i rcraft
/ 81

The absence of p r o p e l l e r s , t h e r e l a t i v e l y low weight f o r high s t r e s s , and


t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y with r e s p e c t t o design and s e r v i c i n g make i t p o s s i b l e t o
i n s t a l l t u r b o j e t and turbofan engines i n such a way t h a t t h e i r optimal opera
t i o n a l conditions and those of t h e a i r c r a f t a r e achieved.

A t p r e s e n t , f i r s t - and second-generation t u r b o j e t passenger a i r c r a f t have


t h e i r engines mounted on t h e wing, on pylons below t h e wing, o r i n t h e t a i l
s e c t i o n of the f u s e l a g e .

Engine I n s t a l l a t i o n i n wings. When t h e engines are i n s t a l l e d i n t h e wing


(between t h e upper and lower p l a n k i n g s ) , t h e t o t a l drag i s reduced. I n
p r a c t i c e , however, the engine i s f a s t e n e d t o t h e f u s e l a g e ( i n double-engine
a i r c r a f t ) , while t h e a i r duct extends along t h e chord i n t h e wing. This leads
t o a decrease i n t h r u s t as a r e s u l t of a p r e s s u r e l o s s i n t h e d u c t , b u t i n
c o n t r a s t an advantage i s t h e almost " c l e a r " wing (without secondary s t r u c t u r e s )
which r e s u l t s . Engines arranged i n t h i s manner ( c l o s e t o t h e a i r c r a f t a x i s ) ,
if one of them f a i l s t h i s c r e a t e s only a s l i g h t t u r n i n g moment.

Of t h e disadvantages which r e s u l t from t h i s arrangement, l e t us p o i n t


o u t t h e f a c t t h a t i t becomes impossible t o make u s e o f t h e t h r u s t r e v e r s a l

74
due t o t h e h e a t e f f e c t s of t h e gas j e t on t h e f u s e l a g e ( f o r a double-engine
a i r c r a f t ) and t h e p a r t i a l use of t h r u s t r e v e r s a l ( f o r a four-engine arrangement)
(see Chapter I X ) . The stream of exhaust gases c r e a t e s s u b s t a n t i a l n o i s e i n t h e
t a i l s e c t i o n of t h e f u s e l a g e and causes discomfort t o t h e passengers s e a t e d i n
t h e r e a r . On t h e Tu-104 and t h e Tu-124 (Figure 57) , t h e engines a r e l o c a t e d
i n t h e base of t h e wing, so t h a t t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f the engine pod is hidden
behind t h e wing. In t h e De Havilland Comet, however, t h e engines a r e f u l l y
hidden i n the wing (Figure 58). The e n g i n e ' s small s i z e makes it p o s s i b l e t o
design i t s pods with q u i t e small maximum c r o s s - s e c t i o n s .

Figure 57. The Tu-124.

Figure 58. T h e Comet

Engines l o c a t e d a t the base of t h e wing c r e a t e p o s i t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e a t


t h e most complex aerodynamic p o i n t - - t h e j o i n t between t h e low-hung wing and
t h e f u s e l a g e . The e f f e c t of t h e j e t s t r e a m causes the formation of an " a c t i v e / 82
f a i r i n g " h e r e , i . e . , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e "regeneration" o f t h e surrounding flow.
This leads t o a decrease i n drag f o r t h e a i r c r a f t as a whole*.

However, t h i s engine arrangement r e q u i r e s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e r e l a t i v e


thickness of the a i r f o i l p r o f i l e , which causes a decrease i n t h e a i r c r a f t ' s
__ __ . --- - . .

* Yeger, S .M. Design of Passenger J e t A i r c r a f t (Proyektirovaniye p a s s a c h i r


s k i k h reaktivnykh samelotov) .
Mashinostroyeniye. 1964.

75
high-speed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The angle a t which t h e engines a r e i n s t a l l e d
r e l a t i v e t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l axis i s 3-So i n t h i s arrangement. This i n c l i n a
t i o n i s necessary t o guarantee t h a t t h e engine exhaust flow does not h i t t h e
elevator unit. In planform, t h e engines are turned outward by an angle of
2-4', i n o r d e r t h a t t h e exhaust gas j e t have less of an e f f e c t on t h e f u s e l a g e .

P o s i t i o n i n g t h e engines on pylons beneath t h e wings. This is done on t h e


American J e t s t h e Boeing-707 and 720, t h e Douglas DC-8 (Figure 5 9 ) , and t h e
Convair 880 and 990. Even t h e newly c r e a t e d Boeing-737 shows a r e t u r n t o t h e
pylon arrangement.

In t h i s s e t u p , t h e
p o s i t i o n i n g of t h e engines
i n c r e a s e s a i r c r a f t drag
s l i g h t l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y due
t o negative i n t e r f e r e n c e
from t h e wing and pylons.
However, t h e s h o r t length
of t h e e n g i n e ' s i n t a k e duct
when t h e a i r admission i s
we1 1 designed minimi zes
t h r u s t l o s s e s and thereby
improve t h e a i r c r a f t ' s
t a k e o f f performance.

Suspending t h e engine
from a t h i n swept wing
Figure 59. A i r c r a f t w i t h Pylon Suspension substantially lightens the
of E n g i n e s . wing and decreases i t s
s t r u c t u r a l weight. How
ever, such a suspension r e q u i r e s i n c r e a s e d reinforcement of t h e engine and
i t s pylon (due t o g r e a t e r i n e r t i a l loads during a i r c r a f t maneuvering) and as
a r e s u l t t h e wing weight i s n e g l i g i b l y decreased. A i r c r a f t with pylon s u s
pension of engines should be used only on concrete runways which have
s u b s t a n t i a l l y c l e a n e r s u r f a c e s , because t h e engines a r e only 40-70 cm above / 83
-
t h e ground. If f o r e i g n m a t t e r i s drawn i n t o t h e i n t a k e d u c t , t h e engine
compressor may f a i l . Although p o s i t i o n i n g t h e engines t o t h e s i d e of t h e
f u s e l a g e makes i t p o s s i b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y u s e t h r u s t r e v e r s a l from a l l f o u r
engines, the f a i l u r e of t h e o u t s i d e engine c r e a t e s a s u b s t a n t i a l t u r n i n g
moment, which g r e a t l y impedes handling t h e a i r c r a f t . This moment, a c t i n g i n
t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e , causes an i n t e n s e r o l l i n g motion around t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l
a x i s , which (with allowance made f o r t h e a i r c r a f t ' s s u b s t a n t i a l moment o f
i n e r t i a r e l a t i v e t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s ) leads t o an emergency s i t u a t i o n .

The b a s i c advantage of pylon engine suspension i s t h e decreased n o i s e


w i t h i n t h e passengers' compartment.

P o s i t i o n i n g of engines i n the f u s e l a g e t a i l s e c t i o n . This arrangement


was f i r s t used i n the French Caravelle passenger a i r c r a f t (Figure 60). The
following a i r c r a f t have a l s o been designed along t h e s e l i n e s : t h e 11-62, t h e

76

- .. ..... ..
I I , ,

Tu-134, t h e DC-9, t h e BAC-1 11, t h e Boeing-727, t h e De Havilland D H . 1 2 1


T r i d e n t and t h e Vickers VC-10 (Figure 6 1 ) .

Such an engine
arrangement y i e l d s t h e
I f c l e a r wing" and o f f e r s
maximum mechanization of
t h e wing.

J e t passenger a i r l i n e s
w i t h such engine arrange
ments have s e v e r a l ad
vantages. The b a s i c
advantage i s t h e i r
i n c r e a s e d ,aerodynamic
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n
creased comfort w i t h i n t h e
passenger cabin (decreased
n o i s e l e v e l ) . The absence
of engine pods on t h e wing
Figure 60. T h e C a r a v e l l e .
r e s u l t s i n n e .g, a t i v e i n t e r -
f e r e n c e being a f a c t o r only
a t the j u n c t u r e of the wing and f u s e l a g e . I n a d d i t i o n , conditions a r e c r e a t e d
f o r designing a wing with an i n c r e a s e d c r i t i c a l Mach number and a more
e f f e c t i v e mechanical h i g h - l i f t device on t h e wing. The lack of secondary
s t r u c t u r e s on t h e wing improves t h e wing's l i f t , which i n t u r n permits a drop
i n t h e wing a r e a .

_ e .

Figure 61. T h e Vickers VC-10 ( a ) and t h e


De Havilland DH.121 (b).

77

Conditions are a l s o c r e a t e d f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e engine a i r scoops a t /84


high angles of a t t a c k as a r e s u l t of downwash, which i n a sense " c o r r e c t s " t h e
-
flow toward t h e s i d e engine. During g u s t s , t h e e n t r a n c e angle of t h e a i r f l o w
i n t o t h e a i r scopp decreases almost t o h a l f t h e a i r f o i l angle o f a t t a c k , i . e . , /85
when t h e a i r f o i l angle of attack changes by 4 O , f o r example, t h e d i r e c t i o n of
-
the a i r f l o w around t h e a i r scoop varies by approximately. 2 O . The a i r w i l l
e n t e r the engine a t less of an angle, which s u b s t a n t i a l l y decreases t h e p r e s s u r e
l o s s a t t h e i n t a k e . When t h e engine is i n s t a l l e d i n t h e wing o r suspended from
a pylon, however, t h e e n t r a n c e angle corresponds t o t h e angle o f attack at
which t h e a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g . Here t h e a i r c i r c u l a t i o n around t h e wing
i n c r e a s e s t h e flow i n t a k e angle. A s is well known, t h i s causes a d d i t i o n a l
losses. *

One of t h e s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s arrangement i s t h e T-shaped


t a i l assembly with i t s a d j u s t a b l e s t a b i l i z e r . The e l e v a t o r assembly, l o c a t e d
on t h e upper s e c t i o n of t h e v e r t i c a l f i n , is f r e e from t h e d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t
of sound-waves c r e a t e d by t h e sound f i e l d s of t h e engine exhaust (Figure 62).
This, t o o , has a s p e c i f i c e f f e c t i n decreasing v i b r a t i o n .

datum l i n e
Figure 62. Diagram of the E f f e c t of Eng.ine Exhaust
J e t s on the S t a b i l i z e r and V e r t i c a l F i n .

The aerodynamic advantage of t h e T-shaped t a i l assembly i s t h a t t h e flow


bpyond the wing and i t s r e s u l t a n t s e p a r a t i o n s have l i t t l e e f f e c t on i t during
horizontal f l i g h t .

The engine pods form h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e s which i n c r e a s e t h e a i r c r a f t ' s


l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y , i n view of which t h e a i r c r a f t ' s l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c progress l i n e a r l y up t o high angles of a t t a c k .

A t the p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e s and t h e
e l e v a t o r f o r t h e T-shaped arrangement a t high f l i g h t speeds, t h e i n c r e a s e i n
drag drops as compared t o t h e normal arrangement. This i s an example of so-
c a l l e d p o s i t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e , and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e v e r t i c a l t a i l
surface increases.

The engine pods have a h o r i z o n t a l pylon. The angle a t which t h e pod i s


s e t r e l a t i v e t o t h e a x i s of t h e f u s e l a g e v a r i e s from zero t o + 2 O , while i n
t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e t h e pods may b e turned o u t from t h e f u s e l a g e by an angle
of 2-4" (Figure 62).
.- - .- -- - .--.-- -- .

* Yeger, S .M. Design of Passenger J e t A i r c r a f t (Proyektirovaniye p a s s a c h i r


.
skikh reaktivnykh samelotov) Mashinos t r o y e n i y e . 1964.

78
When t h e pod a x i s i s h i g h e r than t h e s t r u c t u r a l a x i s of t h e f u s e l a g e and
consequently h i g h e r than t h e a i r c r a f t ' s c e n t e r of g r a v i t y , a n e g a t i v e p i t c h i n g
moment i s c r e a t e d from t h e engine t h r u s t .

Moving t h e engines t o t h e t a i l s e c t i o n of t h e f u s e l a g e c r e a t e s t h e / 86
following o p e r a t i o n a l advantages. As can be seen from Figure 6 3 , only a s l i g h ' t
p o r t i o n of t h e a i r f l o w t h r u s t back by t h e nose wheels i s covered by t h e engine.
The j e t s from t h e main wheels a r e covered by t h e wing b o t h during t a k e o f f and
landing. This decreases t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t f o r e i g n m a t t e r w i l l e n t e r t h e
engines o f f the runway. Ground maintenance of t h e engine is made s i m p l e r
through t h e e a s e w i t h which t h e pods can b e reached.

Figure 6 3 . Diagram o f the E f f e c t o f Airstream


Thrown Back from t h e Landi ng Gear Wheels : a -
engines mounted i n wing; b - engines i n tail
s e c t i o n o f f u s e l a g e ; c - engines on pylons.

When t h e engines a r e suspended from pylons, as was s t a t e d above, t h e r e i s


no need f o r long a i r scoops. However, when t h e engines a r e mounted i n t h e
wing, as w a s done i n t h e Tu-104 and Tu-124 and t h e Comet, t h e length of t h e
a i r i n t a k e i s 4-5 m e t e r s , as a r e s u l t of which l o s s e s i n a i r p r e s s u r e a t the
i n t a k e decrease engine t h r u s t by 3 - 6 % . Moving t h e engines t o t h e t a i l ,
however, decreases l o s s e s a t t h e i n t a k e and t h e t h r u s t drop i s only 1 - 2 % ,
which improves t h e a i r c r a f t ' s t a k e o f f performance.

In conclusion i t should be noted t h a t i n s p i t e of t h e numerous advantages


derived from i n s t a l l i n g t h e engines i n t h e t a i l s e c t i o n o f t h e f u s e l a g e , t h i s
arrangement a l s o has i t s drawbacks. Thus, f o r example, t h e engine performance
decreases a t high angles of s i d e s l i p . The diving moment from engine t h r u s t
i n c r e a s e s both t h e speed of r a i s i n g t h e landing g e a r nose wheels s t r u t during
t h e takeoff run and t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e c o n t r o l wheel. The need a r i s e s
f o r an a d j u s t a b l e s t a b i l i z e r . There i s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e weight of t h e
rudder u n i t , which supports t h e e l e v a t o r u n i t . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a i r c r a f t

79

becomes h e a v i e r as a r e s u l t of t h e reinforcement f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e
f u s e l a g e t a i l s e c t i o n due t o t h e a d d i t i o n a l m a s s and i n e r t i a l loads from t h e
engines as w e l l as t h e need t o i n c r e a s e reinforcement f o r t h e engines t o /87
prevent i t s breakaway during emergency landing. During charging and f u e l i n g -
up, t h e a i r c r a f t c e n t e r of g r a v i t y i s s h i f t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y f a r t h e r forward,
which makes t a k e o f f h a r d e r , and during f l i g h t r e q u i r e s p r e c i s e f u n c t i o n i n g of
t h e automatic equipment which c o n t r o l s t h e f u e l output.

Grouping t h e engines t o g e t h e r i n t h e t a i l s e c t i o n of t h e f u s e l a g e
f a c i l i t a t e s using them f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e boundary l a y e r ( s e e Chapter I V )
and, f i n a l l y , with t h e power p l a n t arranged i n t h i s manner, t h e d i s t a n c e
from the engines t o t h e ground i s determined only by t h e a i r c r a f t ' s landing
c o n f i g u r a t i o n and the h e i g h t o f the landing gear. This makes i t p o s s i b l e t o
decrease t h e landing g e a r h e i g h t and r e t a i n t h e p e r m i s s i b l e d i s t a n c e from
t h e ground t o t h e edges of t h e a i r scoops.

80
CHAPTER V

TAKE0 FF

1. Taxiing

A i r c r a f t with engines i n t h e t a i l s e c t i o n o f t h e f u s e l a g e o r i n t h e wing


(along t h e s i d e s of t h e f u s e l a g e ) have s a t i s f a c t o r y t a x i i n g p r o p e r t i e s . The
small t h r u s t arm has no adverse e f f e c t s on t h e a i r c r a f t ' s maneuvering pro
p e r t i e s . In f a c t , a l l modern j e t a i r c r a f t have a p e d a l - c o n t r o l l e d leading
strut, which makes i t easy t o perform t u r n s and maintain d i r e c t i o n during
take o f f runs and landing runs.

The angle of r o t a t i o n of the leading strut i s 35-45", w h i l e during take


o f f runs and landing runs (with f l a p s down) i t i s decreased t o 5-6". The
t a x i i n g speed along the ground, during t u r n s and c l o s e t o o b s t a c l e s reaches
no more than 10 km/hr, while i n c l e a r and s t r a i g h t runway s e c t i o n s , i t is
no more than 50 km/hr.

Landing gears with nose wheels o f f e r good runway s t a b i l i t y during t a x i i n g


on runways and taxiways. Turns a r e manipulated through t h e use of the leading
s t r u t s , a s w e l l as the c r e a t i o n of asymmetrical t h r u s t and p a r t i a l braking,
of t h e r i g h t o r l e f t landing gear t r o l l e y wheel. Turning an a i r c r a f t 180"
r e q u i r e s a runway 50-60 meters wide, depending on t h e width o f t h e landing
g e a r wheels. T u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t can a l s o t a x i over wet grass cover and over
unsmoothed snow cover a t an a i r f i e l d . The f o u r t o s i x wheels on each main
strut of t h e landing g e a r causes an even d i s t r i b u t i o n of load over t h e a i r
f i e l d s u r f a c e , and reduced p r e s s u r e i n t h e pneumatic wheels (up t o 4.5 - 6
kG/cm2) i n c r e a s e s a b i l i t y t o t r a v e l over d i r t a i r f i e l d s . Modern a i r c r a f t
using concrete landing s t r i p s maintain a t i r e p r e s s u r e of 6.5 - 9 . 5 kG/cm2.

One drawback i n the use o f a i r c r a f t on d i r t a i r f i e l d s i s t h e damage t o


the s u r f a c e caused by t h e wheels during t a x i i n g , t a k e o f f and landing, t h e
-
/88

formation of r u t s , and the g r e a t amount. of d u s t thrown up from t h e exhaust


of the j e t engines, which reduces v i s i b i l i t y on t h e landing s t r i p f o r p i l o t s
of a i r c r a f t approaching f o r a landing.

5 2. Stages of Takeoff

Takeoff i s t h e a i r c r a f t ' s motion from t h e moment of s t a r t i n g u n t i l i t


reaches an a l t i t u d e of 10.7 meters* and has a t t a i n e d a s a f e f l i g h t speed.
. .

* This i s t h e p r e s e n t l y accepted a l t i t u d e f o r complete t a k e o f f according


t o t h e ICAO and norms f o r f l i g h t worthiness f o r c i v i l a i r c r a f t i n t h e
USSR.

81

The d i s t a n c e covered by t h e a i r c r a f t from t h e moment o f s t a r t i n g u n t i l


t h e a l t i t u d e of 10.7 meters has been reached i s c a l l e d t h e t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e .

Aircraft t a k e o f f (Figure 64) c o n s i s t s of two s t a g e s : a) t a x i i n g u n t i l t h e


speed o f l i f t - o f f and l i f t - o f f i t s e l f , b) a c c e l e r a t i o n from t h e l i f t - o f f speed
t o a safe speed, w i t h simultaneous climbing.

Figure 64. Diagram of A i r c r a f t Takeoff and t h e Calculated


Takeoff T r a j e c t o r y According t o t h e I C A O : 1 - beginning o f
run; 2 - takeoff run; 3 - a c c e l e r a t i o n and climbing; 4 -
p o i n t of a i r c r a f t l i f t - o f f ; 5 - takeoff d i s t a n c e ; 6 -
climbing t r a j e c t o r y f o r 100% e n g i n e t h r u s t ; 7 - l e n g t h of
calculated takeoff t ra j ec t o r y ; 8 - permissible inclina
t i o n s i n t r a j e c t o r y f o r extended takeoff d u e t o e n g i n e
f a i l u r e ; 9 - a c t u a l t r a j e c t o r y of extended t a k e o f f .

Immediately a f t e r l i f t - o f f , t h e a i r c r a f t ' s high t h r u s t - w e i g h t r a t i o


permits i t t o g a i n a l t i t u d e and a c c e l e r a t e up t o i t s r a t e of climb along an
inclined trajectory. In t h i s case, t h e gain i n a l t i t u d e i s c u r v i l i n e a r ,
because i t s angle of i n c l i n a t i o n c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s e s .

The holding a f t e r l i f t - o f f , which i s used i n t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f p i s t o n


a i r c r a f t p r i o r t o beginning g a i n i n g a l t i t u d e , i s n o t a p p l i e d i n t u r b o j e t
aircraft.

The take-off run up t o l i f t - o f f speed. A s a r u l e , t a k e o f f is performed


w i t h f l a p d e f l e c t i o n , from t h e b r a k e s when t h e t a k e o f f regime f o r t h e engines
/89 -
i s used. To t h i s end, t h e engines are f i r s t p u t i n t o t a k e o f f rpm's and t h e n
t h e brakes are slowly r e l e a s e d . Figure 65 shows a graph of t h e c o e f f i c i e n t
c as a f u n c t i o n of t h e angle of a t t a c k and t h e a i r c r a f t p o l a r f o r t a k e o f f
& s i t i o n of t h e wing f l a p s and s l a t s . An a i r c r a f t having t r i p l e - s l o t t e d f l a p s
(high v a l u e f o r c ) was used as an example.
y 1-0

82
A t t h e beginning of t h e take- /90
o f f r u n , d i r e c t i o n i s maintained by
t h e brakes and d i r e c t i n g t h e nose
wheel, and a t a speed of 150-170
km/hr, when t h e rudder becomes
e f f e c t i v e , i t i s maintained through
t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e
rudder t o t h e s i d e as r e q u i r e d .
When t h e p r o p e r t a k e o f f a n g l e of
a t t a c k (9-10") i s maintained, l i f t -
o f f of t h e a i r c r a f t from t h e
ground occurs without a d d i t i o n a l
movement of t h e c o n t r o l wheel when
l i f t - o f f speed i s a t t a i n e d . With
a l i f t - o f f a n g l e o f a t t a c k of 9-10",
the t a i l section of the fuselage
must be s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r o f f t h e
runway and a s p e c i f i c s u b - c r i t i c a l
angle of a t t a c k must b e maintained.
If the p i l o t unintentionally
i n c r e a s e s t h e angle of a t t a c k t o
11-12", c o n t a c t of t h e t a i l
p o r t i o n of t h e f u s e l a g e with t h e
c o n c r e t e must be avoided.

An improperly chosen angle of


a t t a c k during l i f t - o f f may e i t h e r
extend t h e l e n g t h of t h e t a k e o f f
r u n , o r , on t h e c o n t r a r y , l e a d t o
premature l i f t - o f f a t a low speed.
Thus, i f t h e p i l o t achieves l i f t -
Figure 65. T h e D e p e n d e n c e of c on c1
Y o f f a t a lower angle of a t t a c k
and t h e P o l a r s of an A i r c r a f t having ( f o r example, w i t h M = 6" i n s t e a d
T r i p l e - S l o t t e d W i n g Flaps and S l a t s : o f 9-10">, i . e . , below c
a - p o l a r f o r a i r c r a f t w i t h landing y 1-0'
which corresponds t o a high speed,
g e a r down and w i n g f l a p s d e f l e c t e d a t
t h e length of t h e t a k e o f f run
2 5 " ; b - t h e same ai r c r a f t w i t h
increases. In calculating t h e
allowance made f o r t h e e f f e c t of
a i r c r a f t 1 - i f t - o f f during t a k e o f f ,
s c r e e n i n g by t h e e a r t h during t h e
t h e v a l u e s normally accepted a r e
takeoff run ( K = 1.6 : 0.134 = 1 2 ) .
Note: T-0 = Take Off c1 = 8-11" and cy l-o = 1 . 3 - 1 . 7

(depending on t h e design and


arrangement o f t h e f l a p s ) . For t h e example shown i n Figure 65, w e have c1 =
1-0
= 11" and c = 1.6.
y 1-0

A c c e l e r a t i o n from t h e l i f t - o f f speed t o a safe speed w i t h simultaneous


climbing. P i l o t i n g an a i r c r a f t during t h i s s t a g e of f l i g h t i n v o l v e s t h e
following. A f t e r l i f t - o f f , maintaining t h e t a k e o f f a n g l e , t h e a i r c r a f t
smoothly s h i f t s i n t o g a i n i n g a l t i t u d e w i t h a subsequent d e c r e a s e i n t h e angle

83
of a t t a c k . The main wheels a r e braked, t h e time f o r complete braking averaging
0.2 - 0 . 3 s e c . To decrease drag a g a i n s t t h e a i r c r a f t during climbing ( a f t e r
l i f t - o f f ) , t h e landing g e a r must be r e t r a c t e d without delay. The a i r c r a f t ' s
h y d r a u l i c system r e t r a c t s t h e landing g e a r , with opening and c l o s i n g o f t h e
main landing g e a r doors, i n 5-15 s e c . The landing g e a r i s r e t r a c t e d a t a
speed of 20-30 km/hr above t h e l i f t - o f f speed, and a t a h e i g h t n o t below
5-7 meters. During t h e process of r e t r a c t i o n , t h e a i r c r a f t ' s speed i n c r e a s e s .
After t h e landing g e a r i s r e t r a c t e d , t h e f l a p s are i n t u r n r e t r a c t e d a t a
h e i g h t not l e s s t h a n 50-80 meters, and t h e a i r c r a f t a c c e l e r a t e s t o a speed
f o r g a i n i n g a l t i t u d e . The p i l o t must f l y t h e a i r c r a f t during t h i s i n t e r v a l
i n such a way t h a t b e f o r e t h e f l a p s a r e r e t r a c t e d , t h e speed does not exceed
t h e p e r m i s s i b l e with r e s p e c t t o s t a b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s . The time r e q u i r e d f o r
r e t r a c t i n g f l a p s d e f l e c t e d a t a t a k e o f f angle i s 8-12 s e c . As t h e f l a p s a r e
r e t r a c t e d , a p i t c h i n g moment i s c r e a t e d , s o t h a t p r e s s i n g f o r c e s a r e c r e a t e d
on t h e c o n t r o l 'wheel which a r e e a s i l y r e l i e v e d by t h e e l e v a t o r t r i m t a b s .
This i s a case i n which t h e e l e c t r i c a l c o n t r o l of t h e e l e v a t o r t r i m t a b s i s
convenient t o use. A f t e r t h e f l a p s a r e r e t r a c t e d , t h e engine rpm's decrease
t o normal and t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t i o n up t o t h e climbing c r u i s i n g
speed o r t o t h e f l i g h t speed along a r e c t a n g u l a r r o o t .

3. Forces Acting on t h e A i r c r a f t During t h e Takeoff Run and Takeoff /91


Let us examine t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t during t h e takeoff run
(Figure 66). The t o t a l f o r c e of t h e engine t h r u s t a c t s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of
t h e a i r c r a f t motion. The o v e r a l l f o r c e of wheel f r i c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e ground
F = F + F and t h e a i r c r a f t drag Q a c t a g a i n s t t h e a i r c r a f t ' s motion,
1 2
braking i t . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the f o r c e s P -Q - F = R is called the
acc
a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r c e . The following f o r c e s a c t p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e t r a j e c t o r y
of motion: l i f t f o r c e Y , f o r c e N of t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e ground on t h e landing
g e a r wheels, and t h e f o r c e of weight G. The f o r c e Racc communicates t o t h e
aircraft the acceleration

where m i s t h e a i r c r a f t mass.

The g r e a t e r t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r c e and t h e lower t h e a i r c r a f t weight,


the h i g h e r t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n w i l l be. If i n s t e a d o f Racc we s u b s t i t u t e i t s
v a l u e i n t o t h e formula, we o b t a i n

j,=9.81 ( -$-+).
As t h e landing g e a r wheels r o l l along t h e ground, f r i c t i o n f o r c e s a r i s e
whose v a l u e i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e condition of t h e runway (type o f s u r f a c e ) and

84
.. - - ., . .. ....-... .-,.., ...,, ,.. , , I , I I ,111 111.11 1.1111 11.11 I I1

t h e degree o f deformation i n t h e t i r e s . The amount of t h e f o r c e of f r i c t i o n


i s determined as t h e product of t h e loads on t h e wheels on t h e f r i c t i o n
coefficient f.

a) moment o f f r i c t i o n f o r c e
+--l

F i g u r e 6 6 . Diagram of Forces Acting on t h e A i r c r a f t

During Takeoff Run ( a ) and A f t e r L i f t - o f f During

C 1 i m b i ng ( b ) .

During t h e t a k e o f f run, t h e a i r c r a f t wing begins c r e a t i n g a l i f t i n g f o r c e


which r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e s and removes t h e l o a d from t h e landing g e a r wheels.
The v a l u e of t h e f r i c t i o n f o r c e f o r each moment may b e determined according
t o t h e following formula: F = f (G - Y ) . The f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( o r
c o e f f i c i e n t of adhesion) f o r dry c o n c r e t e i s f = 0.03 - 0 . 0 4 , and f o r w e t
c o n c r e t e i t is 0.05; f o r dry ground cover and f o r a c l e a r e d snow cover i t i s
0.07; f o r a w e t g r a s s s u r f a c e it i s 0.10.

The v a l u e P/G i s t h e a i r c r a f t t h r u s t - w e i g h t r a t i o during t a k e o f f . The


g r e a t e r t h e t h n i s t - w e i g h t r a t i o , t h e g r e a t e r t h e t a k e o f f run a c c e l e r a t i o n and
/91
t h e s h o r t e r t h e l e n g t h of t h e t a k e o f f run. I n c r e a s i n g t h e t h r u s t - w e i g h t r a t i o
i s an e f f e c t i v e means of improving t a k e o f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For example, when
t h e Conway 550 d o u b l e - c i r c u i t engines w i t h t h e i r 7,500 k G t h r u s t were
i n s t a l l e d on t h e Boeing-707, t h e t h r u s t - w e i g h t r a t i o i n c r e a s e d from 0.2 t o 0.26.
A g r e a t e r t h r u s t - w e i g h t r a t i o i s enjoyed by a i r c r a f t w i t h two engines (0.28
0.33 kG t h r u s t / k g w e i g h t ) , and t h e l e a s t is t h a t of a i r c r a f t with f o u r engines
(0.22 - 0.26 kG t h r u s t / k g w e i g h t ) .

A s can b e s e e n from t h e formula above, t h e maximum a c c e l e r a t i o n i s during


t h e f i r s t s t a g e of t h e t a k e o f f run ( t h e a i r c r a f t drag f o r c e i s low).

With an i n c r e a s e i n speed t h e t h r u s t of j e t engines d e c r e a s e s , although


during t h e t a k e o f f run i t may b e considered c o n s t a n t . By comparison w i t h
p i s t o n e n g i n e s , t h e t h r u s t of j e t engines d u r i n g t a k e o f f decreases l e s s
s i g n i f i c a n t l y and a t t h e end of t h e t a k e o f f run amounts t o 87 - 92% of t h e
s t a t i c thrust P . The drag f o r c e during t h e t a k e o f f run i n c r e a s e s from 0 t o
Ql-0
( a i r c r a f t grag a t t h e i n s t a n t of l i f t - o f f ) . A t l i f t - o f f , Y = G , s o
t h a t t h e f r i c t i o n f o r c e w i l l equal zero.

Thus, a t t h e end of t h e t a k e o f f p o r t i o n , when t h e a i r c r a f t s e p a r a t e s


from t h e ground, t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r c e ( r e s e r v e t h r u s t ) equals t h e d i f f e r e n c e
between t h e t o t a l engine t h r u s t and t h e a i r c r a f t drag: Racc = P -Q.

85

A i r c r a f t drag a t t h e i n s t a n t of l i f t - o f f (1-0) may be determined according


t o formula:

where c
X
i s t h e drag c o e f f i c i e n t f o r an a i r c r a f t w i t h landing g e a r down and
f l a p s extended i n takeoff p o s i t i o n a t an angle of a t t a c k a t t h e
i n s t a n t of l i f t - o f f .

For example, f o r an a i r c r a f t with a t a k e o f f weight of 76 tons and a wing


area of S = 180 m2, t h e t h r u s t during t a k e o f f c o n f i g u r a t i o n f o r a l i f t - o f f
speed of 300 km/hr (83.3 m/sec) i s approximately 17,000 kG. If we assume
that at lift-off c = 0.07 - 0.075, then
x 1-0

Q1-o= C.po PS V 83 3 2
0.071 *0.125*180- I
-5500
- kG,
2

Then t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r c e R = 17,000 -5,500 = 11,500 kG. The mean


acc
a c c e l e r a t i o n a t t h i s i n s t a n t w i l l be

The lower t h e v a l u e c (due t o t h e p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n of t h e f l a p and


x 1-0
s l a t systems), t h e lower Ql-o w i l l b e and t h e g r e a t e r t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r c e
w i l l be f o r the same assumed engi?e t h r u s t . For example, f o r an a i r c r a f t with
a low takeoff weight (two e n g i n e s ) , during t h e t a k e o f f run below t h e l i f t - o f f
speed Racc = 9,000 -5,800 kG, while t h e mean a c c e l e r a t i o n j x = 2.5 - 2 . 0 m/sec2J93 -
I n such an a i r c r a f t , t h e t a k e o f f time decreases.

During the climbing p o r t i o n of f l i g h t , under t h e e f f e c t of t h e f o r c e


(Figure 66) t h e r e w i l l be a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n f l i g h t speed. For t h i s
Race
case we may w r i t e the following equation of motion

Race = P - Q - G sin 0 = mj,

where G s i n 0 i s t h e a i r c r a f t component weight a c t i n g along t h e l i n e of


flight;
m i s t h e a i r c r a f t mass.

Decreasing t h e t o t a l engine t h r u s t with an i n c r e a s e i n f l i g h t speed does


n o t decrease the v a l u e of t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r c e , because as a r e s u l t o f a
decrease i n t h e angle of a t t a c k , t h e induced drag f o r t h e a i r c r a f t d e c r e a s e s .
This allows an i n c r e a s e i n t h e speed during t h e t a k e o f f run p o r t i o n (achieving
t h e r e q u i r e d climbing speed o r f l i g h t speed along a r e c t a n g u l a r r o o t ) .

86
The l e n g t h of t h e climbing p o r t i o n with a c c e l e r a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e
s p e c i f i c load, thrust-weight r a t i o , and o t h e r parameters.

The component G s i n 0 i n i t i a l l y has a low v a l u e , because t h e angle of


i n c l i n a t i o n of the t r a j e c t o r y during climbing i s small (0 = 6 - l o o ; s i n 0 =
= 0.105 - 0.175).

4. Length of Takeoff Run. Lift-off Speed

The length of t h e a i r c r a f t takeoff run i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e l i f t - o f f


speed and a c c e l e r a t i o n :
L = v21-o
ace
2 j x ave '
where jx ave i s the average a c c e l e r a t i o n value.

The l i f t - o f f speed i s determined according t o formula:

/-G
S
~ km/hr ,
cYl-O.

G i s t h e u n i t load p e r 1 m2 of wing area.


where -
S
The g r e a t e s t u n i t load i s i n four-engined a i r c r a f t ( t h e Super Vickers
VC-10, 570 kG/m2; DC-8-3C, 560 kG/m2) and somewhat lower i n two-engined
a i r c r a f t (BAC-111-200, 370 k G / m 2 , t h e Caravelle-XB, 350 kG/m2) ; f o r t h r e e
engined a i r c r a f t ( t h e Boeing-727 and t h e De Havilland Trident-1E) i t i s 450
kG/m2.

For an average c = 1.6 ( t r i p l e - s l o t f l a p s and s l a t s ) , t h e l i f t - o f f


y 1-0
speed f o r G/S = 450 - 500 kG/m2 i s 220 - 240 km/hr. For an average a c c e l e r a t i o n
of j x = 2 m/sec2, t h e length of t h e t a k e o f f - r u n i s 1 , 1 0 0 - 1,300 m .

A s has already been noted, t h e swept wing has a lower v a l u e f o r t h e


/94
coefficient c then does t h e s t r a i g h t wing. This r e s u l t s i n a lower v a l u e
Y Inax
for c A l l i n a l l , t h i s leads t o a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n Vlm0, and
y 1-0'
consequently i n the length of t h e t a k e o f f run. Therefore, t h e f l a p s and s l a t s
a r e used t o i n c r e a s e cy m a ' Deflecting them t o t h e i r maximum angle a t take
o f f may, of course, s u b s t a n t i a l l y decrease t h e l i f t - o f f speed, b u t i n t h i s
event t h e r e i s a l s o an i n c r e a s e i n drag, a decrease i n a c c e l e r a t i o n and, lastly,
an i n c r e a s e i n t h e length of t h e t a k e o f f run. This r e q u i r e s s e l e c t i o n of t h e
optimum angle of i n c l i n a t i o n f o r t h e f l a p s , a t which c i n c r e a s e s and,
Y

87

consequently, s o does c while t h e a i r c r a f t drag i n c r e a s e s n e g l i g i b l y .


y 1-0'
Designers are s t r i v i n g t o achieve b o t h t h e g r e a t e s t v a l u e f o r cy 1-0 and high
aerodynamic performance i n a i r c r a f t . If during t a k e o f f t h e a i r c r a f t has a
f i n e n e s s r a t i o of 14-15, t h i s makes i t p o s s i b l e t o s o l v e many problems such
as, f o r example, achieving t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t a k e o f f i n t h e event o f t h e
f a i l u r e of an engine, decreasing n o i s e i n t h e area through a s h a r p e r climbing
t r a j e c t o r y , t h e s e l e c t i o n of engines with optimal t h r u s t values f o r a given
a i r c r a f t , e t c . C a l c u l a t i o n s and f l i g h t t e s t s have shown t h a t t h e optimum
angle of d e f l e c t i o n f o r f l a p s during t a k e o f f i s 10-25". This angle y i e l d s
t h e optimum r a t i o between c and cx, which leads t o a marked decrease i n
y 1-0
t h e length of t h e t a k e o f f run. We must once more t a k e n o t e t h a t cy l-o i s
s e l e c t e d from t h e c o n d i t i o n of a s u f f i c i e n t r e s e r v e with r e s p e c t t o t h e angle
of attack p r i o r t o l i f t - o f f ( c ) , s o as t o e l i m i n a t e s i d e s l i p . According
Y m a
t o norms of a i r w o r t h i n e s s , t h e a i r c r a f t l i f t - o f f speed must b e no l e s s than
20% g r e a t e r than t h e brakeaway speed ( s e e how i t is determined i n Chapter X I ,
5 14).

5. Methods of Takeoff

E a r l i e r w e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a c c e l e r a t i o n during t h e t a k e o f f run and


consequently t h e length of the t a k e o f f run a r e f u n c t i o n s of t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n
t h e a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t and t h e o v e r a l l a i r c r a f t drag. The engine t h r u s t during
the t a k e o f f run up t o t h e l i f t - o f f speed of 220-240 km/hr v a r i e s i n s i g n i f i
c a n t l y (by 6-8%). The o v e r a l l a i r c r a f t drag during t h i s p o r t i o n o f t a k e o f f
i s t h e sum of t h e aerodynamic drag (which i n c r e a s e s as t h e angle of a t t a c k
i n c r e a s e s ) and t h e f r i c t i o n f o r c e of t h e wheels (on t h e runway s u r f a c e ) , which
.decreases as a r e s u l t of a l e s s e n i n g of t h e load on t h e wheels then i n c r e a s e
i n wing l i f t . Therefore, t h e p i l o t must s e l e c t an angle a ( d i f f e r e n t f o r each
a i r c r a f t ) a t which t h e t o t a l drag w i l l be minimal and, consequently, t h e t a k e
o f f run w i l l be s h o r t e s t . Due t o t h e lack of a i r f l o w o f t h e s l i p s t r e a m from
the p r o p e l l e r s , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e p i t c h c o n t r o l a t t h e beginning o f t h e
takeoff run i s below t h a t of a prop-driven a i r c r a f t . The r e q u i r e d l o n g i t u d i
n a l moment f o r l i f t - o f f o f the nose wheel i s c r e a t e d by t h e e l e v a t o r only a t
a r a t h e r high speed, c l o s e t o t h e take-off speed. A s a r e s u l t of t h i s , t h e
g r e a t e r p a r t of the take-off run f o r a t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t i s achieved i n stand- - /95
ing configuration. The angle of attack during t h e t a k e o f f run i s a f u n c t i o n
of t h e angle I$ of t h e wing s e t t i n g ; i f , f o r example, t h e s e t t i n g angle I$ = l o ,
then c1 = 1" a l s o . However, t h e wings of modern a i r c r a f t have geometric t w i s t
(Chapter 11, l ) , which c r e a t e s an angle c1 which v a r i e s along t h i s span. I n
the graph shown i n Figure 65, t h e v a l u e c corresponds t o t h e average f o r
y t-0
a t a k e o f f run of c1 = 1 - 3".

By t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l p o s i t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t ( t h e angle of t h e a i r c r a f t ' s
l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s ) , i . e . , t h e angle of a t t a c k , t h e p i l o t may c o n t r o l i n
achieving a speed a t which the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e e l e v a t o r i s s u f f i c i e n t
t o i n i t i a t e l i f t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t ' s nose ( f r o n t landing g e a r s t r u t ) . Often

88

I -
I
- .I ---

t h i s speed i s s e l e c t e d from t h e condition of achieving rudder e f f i c i e n c y i n


o r d e r t o prevent t h e a i r c r a f t from turning on t h e main landing g e a r struts
with nose r a i s e d i n t h e event of engine f a i l u r e during t h e t a k e o f f run. I n
t h i s event, t h e rudder should p a r r y t h e t u r n i n g moment from t h e asymmetric
t h r u s t o f the o p e r a t i n g engines. Usually, a f t e r l i f t - o f f of t h e f r o n t s t r u t ,
t h e a i r c r a f t tends t o p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c r e a s e t h e p i t c h angle under t h e
e f f e c t of t h e i n c r e a s i n g wing l i f t . Therefore, i n i t i a l l y t h e c o n t r o l wheel i s
brought back toward o n e s e l f , and then commensurably moved away, i n an attempt
t o maintain t h e a i r c r a f t a t an angle of a t t a c k of 3 - 4 O . The length of t h e
takeoff run i s a f u n c t i o n b a s i c a l l y of t h e a c c u r a t e s e t t i n g of t h e angle of
a t t a c k . During t h e t a k e o f f run, minor d e v i a t i o n s from t h e optimum a, a t
which drag i s minimal, do n o t l e a d t o a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e length of
takeoff run.

There are two ways of p u t t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t i n t o t h e t a k e o f f angle of


a t t a c k . The f i r s t c o n s i s t s of t h e nose strut's l i f t i n g o f f a t t h e i n s t a n t
when e l e v a t o r e f f i c i e n c y i s achieved. The a i r c r a f t achieves an angle o f
at%ack of 3-4" and t h e r e s t of t h e run t a k e s p l a c e on t h e main landing g e a r s .
Smoothly operating t h e e l e v a t o r , t h e p i l o t maintains t h e angle of a t t a c k
during t h e t a k e o f f run and a t t h e i n s t a n t of l i f t - o f f he c r e a t e s t h e takeoff
angle of a t t a c k .

In the second way, which has only r e c e n t l y gained acceptance, t h e e n t i r e


takeoff run i s performed i n t h e s t a n d i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n , and when a speed c l o s e
t o t h e l i f t - o f f speed (Vl-o - 15 - 20 km/hr) i s achieved, t h e c o n t r o l wheel
i s smoothly b u t vigorously p u l l e d toward oneself ( i n 4-5 s e c ) , by which
motion t h e p i l o t l i f t s t h e f r o n t strut o f f and, without maintaining t h e a i r
c r a f t i n a two-point c o n f i g u r a t i o n , p u t s i t i n t o t h e t a k e o f f angle of a t t a c k .
Separation occurs p r a c t i c a l l y from t h r e e p o i n t s without any p e r c e p t i b l e over
load during t h e process of r o t a t i n g the a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o t h e l a t e r a l
a x i s and i n c r e a s i n g t h e p i t c h i n g angle. In t h i s way t h e p i l o t maintains
complete c o n t r o l of t h e t a k e o f f r u n , t h e speed and t h e o p e r a t i o n of the
engines. Usually during t h e t a k e o f f run, t h e n a v i g a t o r s t a t e s t h e a i r c r a f t
speed over the intercom a t each 10 km/hr, s t a r t i n g a t a speed of 150 km/hr,
while t h e p i l o t d i r e c t s a l l h i s a t t e n t i o n s t r a i g h t ahead. A c o n t r o l l a b l e
leading s t r u t s i m p l i f i e s maintaining the d i r e c t i o n during t h e f i r s t s t a g e of
/ 96
the takeoff run, b e f o r e t h e rudder becomes responsive, which almost e l i m i n a t e s
t h e use of the brakes i n t h e main landing g e a r t r o l l e y .

In t h e second method of p i l o t i n g , the t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e remains p r a c t i c a l l y


t h e same as i n the f i r s t , but t h e takeoff run i s somewhat s h o r t e r due t o t h e
h i g h e r speed. Also, t a k e o f f with. a s i d e wind i s f a c i l i t a t e d , s i n c e t h e
c o n t r o l l a b l e nose wheel i n combination with t h e rudder makes it p o s s i b l e t o
hold a f i x e d d i r e c t i o n up t o t h e moment of s e p a r a t i o n without i n c r e a s i n g t h e
t a k e o f f run length ( i n a i r c r a f t with u n c o n t r o l l e d nose wheel, t h e run length
i s u s u a l l y i n c r e a s e d due t o t h e asymmetrical braking of main landing gear
t r u c k s ) . A f t e r t h e a i r c r a f t breaks away, t h e s i d e wind causes it t o t u r n
a g a i n s t t h e wind; f o r example, with a wind speed of 18-20 m/sec, t h e
r o t a t i o n angle i s 18-20".

89

F l y i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d r o t a t i o n of t h e
f r o n t wheel does n o t exceed 4-5" with a s i d e wind up t o 20 m/sec. This
allows t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e s i d e wind d u r i n g t a k e o f f t o b e i n c r e a s e d , f o r
example,a wind a t 90" t o t h e runway can be up t o 15-18 m/sec, and a l s o
s i m p l i f i e s t h e t a k e o f f maneuver.

Up t o t h e p r e s e n t time, no s i n g l e o p i n i o n h a s developed among p i l o t s as


t o t h e way i n which t h e c o n t r o l system o f t h e f r o n t g e a r should be
c o n s t r u c t e d . The predominant opinion i s t h a t t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e wheels
should b e c o n t r o l l e d by t h e rudder p e d a l s ( a s on t h e TU-124 a i r c r a f t ) ,
f r e e i n g t h e p i l o t ' s hands f o r o p e r a t i o n of t h e e l e v a t o r c o n t r o l l e v e r , motor
t h r o t t l e s , e t c . However, i t i s known t h a t when t h e t a k e o f f speed reaches
150-200 km/hr and t h e rudder begins t o be e f f e c t i v e , i t i s more expedient t o
u s e t h e rudder alone t o m a i n t a i n t h e t a k e o f f d i r e c t i o n , d i s c o n n e c t i n g t h e
f r o n t l a n d i n g g e a r , which i s n o t always t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e i f t h e g e a r i s
c o n t r o l l e d by t h e p e d a l s . Therefore, t h e wear r a t e of t h e rubber t i r e s on
t h e f r o n t landing g e a r may be i n c r e a s e d . A second p l a n i s t h a t o f
independent c o n t r o l o f r o t a t i o n of t h e f r o n t l a n d i n g g e a r , n o t connected t o
t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e r u d d e r (TU-104 a i r c r a f t ) .

Let us analyze t h e technique of performing a t a k e o f f u s i n g t h e second


method ( s e p a r a t i o n from t h r e e p o i n t s ) . I t i s recommended t h a t t h e e l e v a t o r
trimmer l e v e r be s e t a t 0 . 5 - 0 . 8 d i v i s i o n s forward i n advance, i n o r d e r t o
i n c r e a s e t h e load on t h e s t i c k from t h e e l e v a t o r a t t h e moment o f s e p a r
a t i o n . Thus, t h e s e a c t i o n s a r e i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n ,
according t o which t h e trimmer c o n t r o l i s moved 0.5-1 d i v i s i o n s back i n
o r d e r t o d e c r e a s e l o a d s a t t h e moment o f l i f t i n g o f t h e f r o n t g e a r and
s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t . Before beginning t h e t a k e o f f r u n , t h e s t i c k i s
pushed forward approximately t o t h e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n . Holding t h e a i r c r a f t
with t h e b r a k e s , t h e engines are s e t a t t a k e o f f regime. A f t e r making s u r e
t h a t t h e o p e r a t i n g regime of t h e engines corresponds t o t h e norm, t h e b r a k e s
a r e r e l e a s e d and t h e t a k e o f f run i s begun, d u r i n g which t h e r e q u i r e d
d i r e c t i o n i s maintained by c o n t r o l l i n g t h e f r o n t landing g e a r . The
e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o n t r o l of t h e f r o n t l a n d i n g g e a r i s h i g h e r , t h e more
s t r o n g l y t h e wheels a r e f o r c e d down t o t h e runway. When s u f f i c i e n t e f f e c t /%

i v e n e s s o f t h e r u d d e r has been achieved t o m a i n t a i n t h e t a k e o f f c o u r s e ,


g e n e r a l l y 60-70% of t h e maximum speed, c o n t r o l of t h e f r o n t wheels can be
disconnected ( i f t h i s i s p o s s i b l e i n t h e a i r c r a f t ) . When t h e t a k e o f f i s
b e i n g performed with a s i d e wind, i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t wind banking a t t h e
moment o f s e p a r a t i o n , t h e a i l e r o n c o n t r o l must be t u r n e d " a g a i n s t t h e wind"
by 30-80" with a wind speed of 8-18 m/sec b e f o r e s e p a r a t i o n . A f t e r
s e p a r a t i o n , t h e r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n t h e p i t c h a n g l e must be s l i g h t l y
decreased and t h e s t i c k smoothly moved t o t h e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n .

86. F a i l u r e o f E n g i n e D u r i n g Takeoff

Main t a k e o f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a i r c r a f t with one engine i n o p e r a t i v e .


A s we know, one of t h e main requirements p l a c e d on passenger a i r c r a f t i s t h e
p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n t i n u i n g t a k e o f f and climb i n c a s e o f engine f a i l u r e . A

90
knowledge o f t h e t a k e o f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an a i r c r a f t and t i m e l y usage o f
t h e p i l o t i n g recommendations i n c a s e o f engine f a i l u r e w i l l guarantee a
.
s u c c e s s f u l c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e f 1i g h t

The t a k e o f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an a i r c r a f t with one i n o p e r a t i v e engine


i n c l u d e t h e following: a ) t h e l e n g t h of t h e t a k e o f f run from t h e s t a r t i n g
p o i n t t o t h e moment of engine f a i l u r e ; b) t h e l e n g t h of t h e t a k e o f f run from
t h e moment o f engine f a i l u r e t o t h e moment o f s e p a r a t i o n ; c ) t h e i n c l i n a t i o n
of t h e t r a j e c t o r y during t h e climbing s e c t o r with a c c e l e r a t i o n ; d) t h e
i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e t r a j e c t o r y during t h e climbing s e c t o r with landing g e a r
up; e ) t h e c r i t i c a l engine f a i l u r e speed ( t h e speed o f i n t e r r u p t i o n of
t a k e o f f ) Vcr; f ) t h e s a f e t a k e o f f speed Vsto.

I f we know t h e l e n g t h of t h e t a k e o f f run o f t h e a i r c r a f t from t h e


s t a r t p o s i t i o n t o t h e moment o f engine f a i l u r e and t h e l e n g t h of t h e run
from t h e moment of f a i l u r e t o complete a i r c r a f t h a l t , which make up t h e
d i s t a n c e f o r i n t e r r u p t i o n of t a k e o f f , we can determine which a i r f i e l d s a r e
s a f e f o r o p e r a t i o n of a given a i r c r a f t , which t y p e of approaches t o t h e
runway should b e used, how t h e a i r c r a f t should b e p i l o t e d with an inoper
a t i v e engine, e t c .

I n o r d e r t o a s s u r e s a f e t y during c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e t a k e o f f and climb


with one motor i n o p e r a t i v e , i t i s necessary t h a t t h e angle of i n c l i n a t i o n of
t h e t a k e o f f t r a j e c t o r y and climb t o a l t i t u d e measured during t e s t s be
g r e a t e r than t h e minimum p e r m i s s i b l e angle (Figure 6 4 ) . A s we can s e e from
t h e f i g u r e , a f t e r t h e landing gear are r a i s e d t h e i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e
t r a j e c t o r y should be no less than 2 . 5 % , corresponding t o an angle
0 = 1' 30 min ( s i n 0 = V /V = 0 . 0 2 5 and 0 = 1' 30 min) . The end of t h e
Y
o p e r a t i o n of r a i s i n g t h e landing g e a r should correspond approximately t o t h e
moment of passage of t h e t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e (H = 10.7 m) p l u s 300 m .

I n case of an engine f a i l u r e during t a k e o f f , t h e a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t


d e c r e a s e s , t h e f l y i n g q u a l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t becomes w o r s e and p i l o t i n g
becomes more d i f f i c u l t due t o t h e asymmetrical n a t u r e of t h e t h r u s t and t h e /98

low f l i g h t speeds, decrease i n c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y and decrease i n r a t e of


climb.

The decrease i n a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t l e a d s t o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e dependence


of t h e f l y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e a i r c r a f t on temperature and a i r
p r e s s u r e . Therefore, t h e v e r t i c a l speed of t h e a i r c r a f t with one engine
i n o p e r a t i v e , c h a r a c t e r i z i n g . t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of continuing t h e t a k e o f f and
climb under design c o n d i t i o n s (p = 730 mm Hg and t = +3OoC) a r e s l i g h t l y
l e s s than under s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s (p = 760 mm Hg and t = +15'C).

The following speeds a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r continued and i n t e r r u p t e d


t a k e o f f s : a ) t h e c r i t i c a l speed o f engine f a i l u r e , V i s t h e speed c o r r e
cr J
sponding t o t h e " c r i t i c a l p o i n t " during t h e t a k e o f f r u n , a t which f a i l u r e of
one of t h e engines i s p o s s i b l e . I n c a s e of f a i l u r e of one engine a t t h i s
p o i n t , t h e p i l o t can e i t h e r end t h e t a k e o f f run w i t h i n t h e d i s t a n c e

91

a v a i l a b l e , s e p a r a t e and c o n t i n u e h i s f l i g h t , o r end h i s t a k e o f f run and s t o p

w i t h i n t h e i n t e r r u p t e d t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e ; b ) t h e s a f e t a k e o f f speed

i s t h e speed a t which t h e a i r c r a f t begins"to climb a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n and

VstoJ
a c c e l e r a t i o n with one engine i n o p e r a t i v e . According t o t h e norms of t h e
ICAO, t h i s should be 15-20% (depending on t h e number o f engines on t h e
a i r c r a f t ) g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed f o r t h e t a k e o f f c o n f i g u r a t i o n of
the aircraft : Vsto - > (1.15-1.2) Vs ( s e e Chapter X I , 514).
1

If t h e speed o f s e p a r a t i o n i s l e s s t h a n t h e s a f e speed o f t h e a i r c r a f t ,
t h e a i r c r a f t i s h e l d a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n with a c c e l e r a t i o n t o V s t o ' t h e n t h e
climb : o a l t i t u d e i s begun.

The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t i n g t o t h e p i l o t t h a t an engine has


f a i l e d i s t h e appearance of a tendency of t h e a i r c r a f t t o t u r n and bank
toward t h e engine which has f a i l e d . Also, f a i l u r e o f an engine can b e
determined from t h e d r o p i n o i l p r e s s u r e and f u e l p r e s s u r e , d e c r e a s e i n
engine r o t a t i n g speed i n d i c a t e d by t h e tachometer, e t c .

I n o r d e r t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e p i l o t t o d e c i d e t o c o n t i n u e t h e
t a k e o f f o r i n t e r r u p t t h e t a k e o f f , t h e p i l o t should know t h e c r i t i c a l speed
f o r engine f a i l u r e and f o r i n t e r r u p t i o n of t h e t a k e o f f .

During t h e p r o c e s s of a i r c r a f t t e s t i n g , i n t e r r u p t e d and continued


t a k e o f f s a r e u s u a l l y performed w i t h one engine switched o f f d u r i n g v a r i o u s
s t a g e s o f t h e t a k e o f f . When t h i s i s done, t h e l e n g t h of t h e t a k e o f f run t o
s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e l e n g t h of t h e t r a j e c t o r y t o a l t i t u d e
1 0 . 7 m a r e measured i f t h e t a k e o f f i s continued, a s well a s t h e l e n g t h of
t h e run t o h a l t i f it i s i n t e r r u p t e d . When an i n t e r r u p t e d t a k e o f f i s
performed, f i r s t t h e engine i s turned o f f , t h e n a f t e r 3 s e c ( r e a c t i o n
of p i l o t t o f a i l u r e ) t h e o p e r a t i n g engines a r e reduced t o t h e i d l e ,
t h e s p o i l e r s a r e extended and t h e b r a k i n g p a r a c h u t e i s r e l e a s e d and
i n t e n s i v e b r a k i n g i s begun. The t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e i d l e i s made due t o t h e
n e c e s s i t y of maintaining p r e s s u r e i n t h e h y d r a u l i c system c o n t r o l l i n g t h e
s p o i l e r s and landing g e a r .

When a continued t a k e o f f i s performed, t h e p i l o t , a f t e r t h e engine i s /E


turned o f f , c o n t i n u e s h i s a c c e l e r a t i o n t o t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed and a c c e l
e r a t i o n t o t h e s a f e f l y i n g speed. The d a t a produced by t h e s e t e s t s a r e used
t o c o n s t r u c t graphs o f t h e dependence of t a k e o f f r u n , d i s t a n c e of continued
f l i g h t t o H = 10.7 m and d i s t a n c e of i n t e r r u p t e d t a k e o f f on speed
(Figure 6 7 ) . The c r i t i c a l speed f o r engine f a i l u r e ( p o i n t B) corresponds t o
p o i n t A of t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e curves f o r i n t e r r u p t e d and continued
t a k e o f f s . Here a l s o t h e s o - c a l l e d runway b a l a n c e l i n e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of
t h e t a k e o f f c o u r s e ( p o i n t C) i s determined, which i n c a s e of an engine
f a i l u r e d u r i n g t a k e o f f provides f o r c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e t a k e o f f o r s t o p p i n g

92
I111

of t h e a i r c r a f t (by braking) w i t h i n t h e l e n g t h o f t h e runway a f t e r t h e /-


loo
takeoff i s interrupted.

I L I

Figure 67. Diagram f o r Determination o f


Balance Runway L e n g t h and C r i t i c a l S p e e d o f E n g i n e
Failure

I f t h e t a k e o f f i s continued, a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e s a f e
t a k e o f f speed should b e performed a t an a l t i t u d e of 5-7 m (above t h e
runway), a t which p o i n t t h e l a n d i n g g e a r should begin t o b e r a i s e d . A t
1 0 . 7 m , t h e landing g e a r should be almost a l l t h e way up [ t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e ) .

The complete r a i s i n g of t h e landing g e a r shou'ld be completed a f t e r t h e .


t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e p l u s 300 m ( r e s e r v e ) have been covered.

I n c a s e o f i n t e r r u p t i o n of t h e t a k e o f f , t h e run should b e completed on


t h e runway.

93

The c r i t i c a l speed f o r engine f a i l u r e is t h e maximum speed, upon


r e a c h i n g which t h e p i l o t can i n t e r r u p t t h e t a k e o f f o r c o n t i n u e i t with equal
s a f e t y . If t h e t a k e o f f i s continued a t VM < 'cr (F.igure 68), t h e continued
t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e LM t o a l t i t u d e 1 0 . 7 m i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e balanced
runway l e n g t h ; t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous i f t h i s l e n g t h i n c l u d e s t h e
400-m t e r m i n a l s a f e t y s t r i p . This i s a paved c o n c r e t e s t r i p ( i n case t h e
a i r c r a f t r o l l s beyond t h e a c t u a l runway d u r i n g an i n t e r r u p t e d t a k e o f f ) .

240 260 280 300 320 340 34 35 36 37 E.. on


zKM/hr r.0:
Figure 68. V e r t i c a l S p e e d of Figure 69. V e r t i c a l S p e e d
A i r c r a f t During C 1 imb w i t h O n e A s a Funct ion of Takeoff
I n o p e r a t i v e Engine A s a Func Weight of Passenger Air
t i o n of F l i g h t S p e e d ( A i r c r a f t c r a f t ( A i r c r a f t w i t h Two
w i t h Two E n g i n e s , G t o = 35 t , E n g i n e s , S p e c i f i c Loading
360 kg/m2, O n e E n g i n e
Landing Gear Up, H = 900 m)
lnoperat i v e , A v a i l a b l e
Power 0.14 kg t h r u s t / k g
We i g h t )

I n c a s e o f an i n t e r r u p t e d t a k e o f f a t t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed V
s e p ' 'cr,
t h e braking d i s t a n c e w i l l a l s o be i n c r e a s e d ( p o i n t P ) and t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l
r o l l beyond t h e end o f t h e a i r f i e l d .

The b e s t c a s e i s e q u a l i t y of c r i t i c a l speed and s e p a r a t i o n speed, s i n c e


t h i s f a c i l i t a t e s p i l o t i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t c o n s i d e r a b l y and makes i t p o s s i b l e
t o i n t e r r u p t t h e t a k e o f f s a f e l y r i g h t up t o t h e moment of s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e
aircraft.

Let u s now analyze t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a safe speed f o r c o n t i n u i n g o f t h e


t a k e o f f (Figure 6 8 ) . Usually a t speeds of 280-320 km/hr, t h e maximum
v e r t i c a l speed i s achieved with t h e f l a p s i n t h e t a k e o f f p o s i t i o n .
However, a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t from V = 220-260 km/hr t o a speed
seP
o f 280-320 km/hr r e q u i r e s a g r e a t d e a l o f time and l e n g t h e n s t h e t a k e o f f
d i s t a n c e . Therefore, i n o r d e r t o avoid i n c r e a s i n g t h e t a k e o f f run l e n g t h
u n n e c e s s a r i l y , l e a v i n g it w i t h i n l i m i t s o f 600-800 m , t h e s a f e t a k e o f f speed
i s s e l e c t e d a s 10-15 km/hr g r e a t e r than t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed, i f t h i s w i l l
provide a climb t r a j e c t o r y angle of no l e s s t h a n 2.5% f o r an a i r c r a f t with
l a n d i n g g e a r up. With an average a c c e l e r a t i o n o f 1 m/sec2, 3-4 s e c a r e

94
r e q u i r e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e speed o f t h e a i r c r a f t by 10-15 km/hr (2.8

4 . 2 m/sec). During t h i s t i m e , t h e a i r c r a f t can climb 5-7 m . The c r i t i c a l / l

o1
speed of engine f a i l u r e f o r an a i r c r a f t with a given weight under given

c o n c r e t e atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e balanced runway length h a s a

unique value. However, i t i s known t h a t t h e engine t h r u s t depends s t r o n g l y

on temperature of t h e surrounding a i r and atmospheric p r e s s u r e , and, f o r

example, decreases below t h e s t a n d a r d t h r u s t with i n c r e a s i n g temperature, s o

t h a t t h e excess a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t d e c r e a s e s . T h i s means t h a t t h e t a k e o f f run

l e n g t h and t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e , t h e v e r t i c a l speed d e c r e a s e s

(Figure 69), t h e angle of i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t t r a j e c t o r y with a

continued t a k e o f f w i t h one engine i n o p e r a t i v e d e c r e a s e s .

I n o r d e r t o go beyond t h e l i m i t a t i o n with r e s p e c t t o t r a j e c t o r y i n c l i n
a t i o n , t h e angle o f i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e f l a p s must be decreased,' o r i f t h i s
i s i n s u f f i c i e n t , t h e t a k e o f f weight must b e decreased.

The o p e r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s of every a i r c r a f t include graphs and


nomograms which can be used t o determine t h e t a k e o f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n case
o f engine f a i l u r e during t h e t a k e o f f run. For t h i s purpose, f i r s t of a l l on
t h e b a s i s of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t r a j e c t o r y i n c l i n a t i o n of a continued t a k e o f f
should b e no l e s s t h a n 2 . 5 % , t h e p e r m i s s i b l e t a k e o f f weight i s determined
f o r each s e l e c t e d f l a p angle and a c t u a l a i r temperature (Figure 7 0 ) . . Then,
u s i n g t h e nomogram (Figure 71) f o r t h e same atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s and t h e
weight which h a s been determined, t h e balanced runway length i s found
(point K ) . Then, u s i n g t h e nonogram (of Figure 72), t h e c r i t i c a l engine
f a i l u r e speed ( t a k e o f f i n t e r r u p t i o n ) i s found, a s w e l l a s t h e s a f e speed f o r
continued t a k e o f f . Figure 72 shows a nomogram f o r determination o f t h e
c r i t i c a l speed. The same form of nomogram as on Figure 72 i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n
o r d e r t o determine t h e s a f e speed f o r continued t a k e o f f , t a k e o f f run l e n g t h ,
s e p a r a t i o n speed, e t c .

The nomograms on Figures 70-72 correspond t o t h e norms of t h e ICAO.


The arrows on t h e nomograms show t h e p a t h f o r determining d e s i r e d q u a n t i
ties.

P i l o t i n g of an a i r c r a f t with one engine i n o p e r a t i v e a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n .


S e p a r a t i o n of an a i r c r a f t with one engine i n o p e r a t i v e occurs a t t h e same
speeds as with a l l engines o p e r a t i n g . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e a i l e r o n s i s
decreased. Therefore, t h e p i l o t should a c c e l e r a t e t h e a i r c r a f t t o a s a f e
speed, exceeding t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed by 10-15 km/hr. This speed i s a l s o / l
o2
c a l l e d t h e b e s t t a k e o f f speed, s i n c e i t provides s u f f i c i e n t t r a n s v e r s e
c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y and allows a climb t o b e performed a t V :V = 2 . 5 % .
Y
A c c e l e r a t i o n a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n should b e performed n e a r t h e ground,
s i n c e t h e aerodynamic i n f l u e n c e of t h e s u r f a c e i s f a v o r a b l e and t h e
i n d u c t i v e drag of t h e a i r c r a f t i s decreased. A t V + 10-15 km/hr with
SeP
f l a p s d e f l e c t e d by 10-25", c1 = 7-9" and t h e aerodynamic q u a l i t y i s 12-13;
t h e i n d u c t i v e d r a g ( c = 1.15-1.3) i s approximately equal t o one-half of t h e
Y

95
e n t i r e d r a g o f t h e a i r c r a f t . With
q u a l i t y v a l u e s o f 12-13, t h e t h r u s t
consumption of t h e a i r c r a f t i s
always c o n s i d e r a b l y less t h a n t h e
a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t and t h e a i r c r a f t
can be e i t h e r a c c e l e r a t e d o r t r a n s
f e r r e d i n t o a climb.

W e can see from Figure 65 t h a t


f o r an a n g l e ci = l l " , t h e aero-
SeP
dynamic q u a l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t
K = 9 , while c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i n f l u
ence of t h e e a r t h it i s i n c r e a s e d t o
1 2 . A t 10-15 m , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f
t h e e a r t h d e c r e a s e s s h a r p l y , and b y
t h i s time t h e a i r c r a f t i s a l r e a d y
f l y i n g a t t h e s a f e speed ( i n our
example t h i s corresponds t o c1 = 8"
and K = 9 ) . The a i r b o r n e s e c t o r of
a i r c r a f t a c c e l e r a t i o n d u r i n g which
it climbs t o 5-7 m, i s 600-800 m ,
and t h e v e r t i c a l speed V = 1.5-
Y
2.5 m/sec (depending on atmospheric
c o n d i t i o n s ) . Upon a c h i e v i n g t h e
f i e l d temp., O C safe a l t i t u d e a f t e r acceleration,
t h e l a n d i n g g e a r must be r a i s e d , i n
order t o decrease t h e drag.
Figure 70. Nomogram f o r 6-8 s e c a f t e r t h e landing
Determination o f P e r m i s s i b l e g e a r b e g i n t o come up, t h e d r a g of
Takeoff W e i g h t from Cond i t ion t h e a i r c r a f t i s decreased s i g n i f
of Product ion of T r a j e c t o r y i c a n t l y and t h e excess t h r u s t can
I n c l i n a t i o n of 2.5% i n Con s u p p o r t a climb with h i g h e r v e r t i c a l
t i n u e d Takeoff speed, i n c r e a s i n g t h e s a f e t y o f
continuation of the f l i g h t .
Therefore, i f t h e landing g e a r a r e
r a i s e d q u i c k l y , t h i s should be done d u r i n g t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n s e c t o r , although
t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e will s t i l l b e q u i t e low. Raising t h e landing g e a r / l
o3
i n c r e a s e s t h e v e r t i c a l speed by 0.5-1.0 m/sec, i . e . , t h e climb w i l l occur a t
V = 2-2.7 m/sec (depending on t h e a i r c r a f t w e i g h t ) .
Y
Climbing up t o 100 m a l t i t u d e should b e continued a t c o n s t a n t speed.
A t t h i s a l t i t u d e , t h e a i r c r a f t can b e a c c e l e r a t e d t o t h e p e r m i s s i b l e f l i g h t
speed with mechanical d e v i c e s r e t r a c t e d , and t h e f l a p s can b e r a i s e d . I n
o r d e r t o avoid a l o s s i n a l t i t u d e , it i s recommended t h a t t h e f l a p s b e
r a i s e d i n two t o t h r e e p a r t i a l movements. A f t e r t h e f l a p s a r e r a i s e d , t h e
engines should b e s e t i n t h e nominal regime. The d i r e c t i o n of f l i g h t can be
maintained with one engine i n o p e r a t i v e by d e f l e c t i o n of t h e p e d a l s and
c r e a t i o n of a 2-3-degree bank toward t h e engine s t i l l o p e r a t i n g .

96
E

Figure 71. Nomogram f o r Determination of Balanced


Runway Length

Fiel'd TemD.9 OC Takeoff w t . , T

Flgure 7 2 . Nomogram f o r Determination o f C r i t i c a l


E n g i n e Failure Speed

F l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y with one engine i n o p e r a t i v e . A s we noted above, t h e / l


o4
angle of i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e t r a j e c t o r y during t h e f l i g h t s e c t o r a f t e r t h e
landing gear a r e r a i s e d should be no l e s s t h a n 1' 30 min, i . e . , 2 . 5 % .
However, depending on t h e c o n c r e t e c o n d i t i o n s i n which t h e a i r c r a f t i s being
o p e r a t e d , t h i s t r a j e c t o r y i n c l i n a t i o n may vary.

Under s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s , t h e a i r c r a f t h a s g r e a t v e r t i c a l speed, s o
t h a t it i s not d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v i d e t h e necessary t r a j e c t o r y a n g l e . The
problem i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t under design c o n d i t i o n s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y
a t high a i r temperatures, a t which t h e v e r t i c a l speed d u r i n g t a k e o f f with
one engine i n o p e r a t i v e i s s h a r p l y decreased.

Usually, t h e f i r s t marker beacon i s l o c a t e d 900-1000 m from t h e runway,


and has a tower 10-12 m h i g h . I f t h e takeoff i s continued, t h e a i r c r a f t
w i l l f l y over thTs p o i n t w i t h l a n d i n g g e a r almost up a t 90-25 m. E r r o r s i n
p i l o t i n g t e c h n i q u e s and i n s t r u m e n t a l e r r o r s , as w e l l a s f a i l u r e t o f o l l o w
t h e f l y i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s may r e s u l t i n reduced a l t i t u d e of f l i g h t over t h i s
beacon. I t i s t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e approach t o t h e runway b e open i n
o r d e r t o avoid c o l l i s i o n of a i r c r a f t w i t h o b s t a c l e s i n c a s e o f a continued
takeoff .

S7. Influence of Various Factors on Takeoff Run L e n g t h

During t h e p r o c e s s o f f l y i n g o p e r a t i o n s , t h e l e n g t h o f t h e t a k e o f f r u n
may d i f f e r from t h e v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d f o r s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s under t h e
i n f l u e n c e of changes i n engine t h r u s t , a i r c r a f t weight, temperature,
d e n s i t y and p r e s s u r e of t h e a i r , p o s i t i o n of t h e f l a p s , speed and d i r e c t i o n
of t h e wind.

Engine t h r u s t h a s a c l e a r l y expressed dependence on engine r o t a t i o n


speed. For example, i f t h e r o t a t i n g speed i s decreased from t h e t a k e o f f t o
t h e nominal speed, t h e t h r u s t i s decreased by 5-7% ( s e e F i g u r e 5 2 ) .
T h e r e f o r e , a d e c r e a s e i n r o t a t i n g speed may i n c r e a s e t h e t a k e o f f r u n l e n g t h
c o n s i d e r a b l y . During t a k e o f f a t t h e nominal regime, t h e t a k e o f f run l e n g t h
is i n c r e a s e d by 10-12%, and f l i g h t s a f e t y i n c a s e of an engine f a i l u r e i s
decreased.

The t a k e o f f weight i n f l u e n c e s t h e t a k e o f f r u n l e n g t h as f o l l o w s :
1) with an i n c r e a s e i n weight, t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed i n c r e a s e s ; 2) w i t h t h e
same engine t h r u s t , an i n c r e a s e i n weight l e a d s t o a d e c r e a s e i n perform
ance, and consequently t o a d e c r e a s e i n a c c e l e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e takeoff run.
As a r e s u l t , t h e l e n g t h o f t h e r u n i s i n c r e a s e d .

The a i r temperature i n f l u e n c e s t h e t a k e o f f run l e n g t h i n two d i r e c


t i o n s . F i r s t of a l l , t h e a i r temperature i n f l u e n c e s t h e t h r u s t of t h e
engine, and, secondly, i t i n f l u e n c e s t h e t r u e s e p a r a t i o n speed. I n c r e a s i n g
t h e temperature aauses a d e c r e a s e i n t h r u s t , and consequently o f
a c c e l e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e t a k e o f f r u n , which i n c r e a s e s t h e t a k e o f f run l e n g t h .
Also, i n c r e a s i n g t h e temperature causes a d e c r e a s e i n d e n s i t y a n d ,
consequently, an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed. For. example, an i n c r e a s e /lo5
i n a i r temperature of 10" i n c r e a s e s t h e t a k e o f f run l e n g t h by 6 - 7 % .
-

P r e s s u r e and d e n s i t y of t h e a i r . I f t h e a i r temperature i s c o n s t a n t ,
b u t t h e p r e s s u r e changes, t h e d e n s i t y of t h e a i r w i l l a l s o change; a s t h e
p r e s s u r e changes, t h e d e n s i t y changes by t h e same f a c t o r , s i n c e

p = o 0473 f,

98
I

where p i s t h e a i r p r e s s u r e , mm Hg;
T = 273 + t i s t h e a b s o l u t e temperature;
t i s t h e temperature of t h e surrounding a i r i n degrees Centigrade.

This formula allows us t o determine t h e d e n s i t y i n case o f a simul


taneous change of t e m p e r a t u r e and a i r p r e s s u r e . A d e c r e a s e i n d e n s i t y l e a d s
t o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n speeds and a d e c r e a s e i n t h e t h r u s t o f t h e
engine due t o t h e d e c r e a s e i n t h e a i r flow by weight through t h e engine.
With d e c r e a s i n g t h r u s t , t h e mean a c c e l e r a t i o n j d e c r e a s e s and, i n t h e
x av
f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e t a k e o f f run l e n g t h i n c r e a s e s .
A d e c r e a s e i n p r e s s u r e of
10 mm Hg l e a d s t o an i n c r e a s e i n t a k e o f f run l e n g t h o f 3-4%. Thus, d u r i n g

t a k e o f f under nonstandard c o n d i t i o n s ( t = +3OoC and p = 730 mm Hg) t h e


t a k e o f f r u n l e n g t h i s i n c r e a s e d by 30-32%.

Wind speed and d i r e c t i o n . The l e n g t h of t h e t a k e o f f run with a


wind i s determined by t h e f o l l o w i n g formula:

where W i s t h e head wind component o f t h e wind ( t h e "plus'' s i g n i s taken


with a t a i l wind, "minus" - - with a head wind).

The t a k e o f f , a s a r u l e , i s performed a g a i n s t t h e wind, s o t h a t t h e run


l e n g t h and t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e a r e minimal. S e p a r a t i o n occurs a t a given a i r
speed V
SeP
. With a head wind, t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed of t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e
t o t h e ground i s decreased by t h e v a l u e of t h e wind speed. T h e r e f o r e , l e s s
time i s r e q u i r e d f o r a t a k e o f f run with a head wind t h a n i n calm a i r , and
t h e t a k e o f f run l e n g t h i s decreased; whileewith a t a i l wind i t i s i n c r e a s e d .
F o r example, i f t h e head wind speed i s 5 m/sec (18 km/hr), t h e a i r c r a f t need
b e a c c e l e r a t e d t o only 2 2 2 km/hr ground speed, a t which time t h e a i r speed
w i l l be 240 km/hr, i . e . , t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed i s reached, and t h e t a k e o f f
run i s s h o r t e n e d . A headwind o f 5 m/sec decreases t h e t a k e o f f run length by
an average of 15-17%, while a t a i l wind of t h i s same speed i n c r e a s e s t h e
l e n g t h by 18-20%. When t a k i n g o f f w i t h a s i d e wind, t h e a i r c r a f t t e n d s t o
t u r n i n t o t h e wind, p a r t i c u l a r l y during a c c e l e r a t i o n with t h e f r o n t landing
g e a r up. The reason f o r t h i s r o t a t i o n is t h e f a c t t h a t a i r c r a f t with
t u r b o j e t engines have l a r g e v e r t i c a l t a i l s u r f a c e a r e a , l o c a t e d a t a
c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e from t h e main landing g e a r .

A q u a n t i t a t i v e e s t i m a t e of t h e i n f l u e n c e o f v a r i o u s f a c t o r s on t h e / l
o6
l e n g t h o f t h e t a k e o f f run can be made u s i n g nomograms, w i t h which t h e p i l o t
can determine t h e t a k e o f f r u n l e n g t h under t h e c o n c r e t e t a k e o f f c o n d i t i o n s
involved.
98. Methods of Improving Takeoff C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
As we analyzed above, t h e l e n g t h .of t h e t a k e o f f r u n depends on t h e
s e p a r a t i o n speed and a c c e l e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e t a k e o f f run. I n t u r n , t h e
s e p a r a t i o n speed depends on t h e s p e c i f i c loading p e r 1 m2 o f wing a r e a and
C while t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n depends on t h e excess t h r u s t a v a i l a b l e .
Y sep
A decrease i n s p e c i f i c loading on t h e wing i s t h e most e f f e c t i v e method
o f decreasing V and Ltor. However, t h i s always i n v o l v e s a d e c r e a s e i n
seP
t h e u s e f u l weight c a r r i e d , s i n c e with t h e s u r f a c e area of t h e wing c o n s t a n t ,
a decrease i n t a k e o f f weight can b e achieved only by d e c r e a s i n g t h e u s e f u l
load. A decrease i n t h e weight c a r r i e d i n a passenger a i r c r a f t means a
d e c r e a s e i n o p e r a t i o n a l economy. Therefore, t h i s means o f decreasing t h e
t a k e o f f run length i s used t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e
tendency t o u s e t h e maximum p o s s i b l e f l i g h t range r e q u i r e s an i n c r e a s e i n
s p e c i f i c loading on t h e wing.

The most a c c e p t a b l e method of d e c r e a s i n g t h e t a k e o f f run length i s an


i n c r e a s e i n t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e of t h e wing u s i n g t h e wing mechanisms.

A s w e know, t h e main means of mechanization o f t h e wing c o n s i s t s of t h e


f l a p s . A l l modern j e t passenger a i r c r a f t have extendable ( s l i d i n g ) s l i t
t y p e wing f l a p s 1 . The ef?ectiveness o f t h e f l a p s (magnitude o f i n c r e a s e i n
A c ) i n c r e a s e s as t h e s l i d e (outward movement) of t h e f l a p s and angle o f
Y
f l a p d e f l e c t i o n a r e i n c r e a s e d . With low angles o f f l a p d e f l e c t i o n , t h e
l i f t i n g f o r c e i s p r i m a r i l y i n c r e a s e d without any e s s e n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n drag,
and t h e aerodynamic q u a l i t y i s decreased o n l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y . These angles
can be used f o r t a k e o f f d u r i n g high temperature c o n d i t i o n s , when t h e length
o f t h e t a k e o f f run can b e r e t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e r e q u i r e d l i m i t s i n s p i t e of
t h e decrease i n q u a l i t y . The lower drag during t h e t a k e o f f run allows a
considerable a c c e l e r a t i o n t o b e achieved.

Usually, attempts a r e made t o produce t h e maximum a i r c r a f t aerodynamic


q u a l i t y with t h e f l a p s d e f l e c t e d t o t h e t a k e o f f p o s i t i o n , s i n c e t h e q u a l i t y
determines t h e t h r u s t consumed and t h e excess t h r u s t which a c c e l e r a t e s t h e
a i r c r a f t during t h e t a k e o f f run. For a i r c r a f t with t a k e o f f weights of
55-80 and aerodynamic q u a l i t y o f 12-14, a t h r u s t o f consumption of 5000
6000 kg i s r e q u i r e d , and with a t o t a l a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t o f 13,000-28,000 kg,
t h e excess t h r u s t provides r a p i d (25-30 sec) a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t t o /=

t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed; t h e t a k e o f f run l e n g t h i s 1000-1200 m .

Long experience of passenger a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n h a s proven t h e u s e f u l


ness of t h e method o f d e c r e a s i n g t a k e o f f run l e n g t h by i n c r e a s i n g t h e
a v a i l a b l e power ( g r e a t e r excess t h r u s t ) . The Boeing 727 a i r c r a f t c a r r i e s a

. .
I S M Yege r-, Proyektirovaniye Passazhirskikh Reaktivnikh SumoZetov
[Design of Passenger J e t A i r c r a f t ] , Mashinostroyeniye P r e s s , 1964.

100

t h r e e - s l i t f l a p (Figure 73) which, t o g e t h e r with t h e s l i t t y p e s l a t and


Kruger s l a t ( f r o n t f l a p ) makes i t p o s s i b l e t o produce c = 2 . 7 with t h e
Y m a
maximum angle o f f l a p d e f l e c t i o n . T h i s i n t u r n allows r a t h e r high v a l u e s of
c t o b e achieved with lesser a n g l e s of d e f l e c t i o n , corresponding t o t h e
Y
t a k e o f f p o s i t i o n of t h e f l a p s ( c = 1.6-1.8).
Y sep
aJ
-.
=-%%
ti .

Figure 73. Diagram of Extendable Flaps:


a , S i n g l e - s l i t (flow s e p a r a t i o n b e g i n s a t 6 3 = 35
4 0 " ) ; b , c , M u l t i - s l i t (flow s e p a r a t i o n delayed
t o 6 3 - 50-60")

Th.e m u l t i - s l i t f l a p , due t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n c u r v a t u r e of t h e p r o f i l e
and t h e pumping e f f e c t of t h e s l i t s , delays flow s e p a r a t i o n t o l a r g e r angles
of a t t a c k , which allows r a t h e r high values of c t o be produced during
t a k e o f f and landing. The i n c r e a s e i n t h e l i f t i x g f o r c e of t h e wing with
f l a p s down r e s u l t s from a change i n c i r c u l a t i o n around t h e wing with
i n c r e a s i n g flow speed over t h e upper s u r f a c e of t h e wing.

However, a t l a r g e angles of a t t a c k , flow s e p a r a t i o n a t t h e upper


s u r f a c e begins a t t h e f r o n t of t h e wing p r o f i l e , which i s combatted u s i n g
f r o n t s l a t s o r d e f l e c t a b l e leading edges of t h e wing. S l i t t y p e s l a t s
(Figure 7 4 , a ) , which allow a i r t o flow through t h e f r o n t s l i t , i n t e n s i f y
t h e boundary l a y e r behind t h e peak of r a r e f a c t i o n on t h e wing p r o f i l e and
i n c r e a s e t h e energy of t h e flow, s o t h a t s e p a r a t i o n of t h e flow i s delayed
a t high angles o f a t t a c k .

When Kruger s l a t s a r e opened (Figure 74, c ) t h e e f f e c t i v e aerodynamic


c u r v a t u r e of t h e p r o v i l e i s increased i n t h e f r o n t p o r t i o n , as a r e s u l t o f
which t h e load-bearing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e p r o f i l e a r e improved. Since / l
o8
t h i s i n c r e a s e s t h e s u c t i o n f o r c e p u l l i n g forward, t h e drag of t h e wing with
t h e f r o n t s l a t open i n c r e a s e s only s l i g h t l y , and t h e aerodynamic q u a l i t y
of t h e wing remains e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged.

10 1
The same effect can a l s o b e achieved by t i l t i n g t h e forward edge o f t h e
wing downward (Figure 74, b ) .

Thus, t h e r e i s a r a t h e r l a r g e number o f methods o f i n c r e a s i n g c and,


Y
consequently, d e c r e a s i n g t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed and l e n g t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t
takeoff run.

One promising method i s t h e usage o f t h e g a s streams from t h e j e t


e n g i n e s . Experiments have shown t h a t i f t h e gas stream i s d i r e c t e d down
ward, i t can supplement t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e of t h e wings. As a r e s u l t , t h e
a i r c r a f t can be s e p a r a t e d from t h e e a r t h almost without a t a k e o f f r u n .
During t h e l a n d i n g , t h i s same gas stream c a r r i e s a p o r t i o n of t h e f l y i n g
weight o f t h e a i r c r a f t and allows t h e a i r c r a f t t o be landed a t low speeds

PI , Slat UP

Slat out

1-
Figure 7 4 . Diagram of S l i t T y p e Front S l a t ( a ) ,
D e f l e c t a b l e Front P o r t i o n of A i r c r a f t Wing of
"Trident" A i r c r a f t ( b ) and Kruger Front S l a t ( c )

The r e a c t i o n f l a p (Figure 7 5 ) , a device c o n s i s t i n g o f a s l i t along t h e


r e a r edge o f t h e wing through which a stream o f a i r flows a t a c e r t a i n
angle 6 t o t h e chord, d r i v e n by t h e compressor of t h e j e t e n g i n e , i s q u i t e
important f o r heavy t r a n s p o r t a i r c r a f t . This d e v i c e changes t h e n a t u r e of
flow around t h e wing, causing a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n l i f t i n g f o r c e . The
v a l u e o f c i n c r e a s e s due t o t h e pumping o f gas j e t s i n t h e boundary l a y e r
Y
from t h e upper s u r f a c e of t h e wing and t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e outflowing gas
stream. The f o r c e o f t h e r e a c t i o n of t h e s t r e a m i s d i v i d e d i n t o components
N and N x . The component N i n c r e a s e s t h e l i f t o f t h e wing, while N
Y Y X
produces a d d i t i o n a l t h r u s t . The l i f t i n g f a c t o r o f a wing with a r e a c t i v e
f l a p i s equal t o t h e sum of t h e l i f t f a c t o r s of t h e aerodynamic e f f e c t o f /-
109
t h e flow o v e r t h e wing and from t h e r e a c t i o n of t h e outflowing g a s e s .

102

The usage o f t h e r e a c t i v e f l a p allows a broad range o f f l i g h t speeds t o


b e used and s i m p l i f i e s t h e problem o f t a k e o f f and l a n d i n g .

Systems a r e known f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e boundary l a y e r , which e i t h e r


remove o r i n j e c t a i r . A s w e know, flow s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e wing due t o an
i n c r e a s e d boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s d e c r e a s e s c o e f f i c i e n t c By u s i n g
Y'
removal o r i n j e c t i o n i n t h e boundary l a y e r , t h e beginning of s e p a r a t i o n can
b e delayed t o h i g h e r a n g l e s of a t t a c k , which makes it p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e
t h e l i f t of t h e wing, d e c r e a s e t h e t a k e o f f and l a n d i n g speed o f t h e a i r c r a f t
and reduce t h e t a k e o f f and landing r u n l e n g t h (and consequently t h e l e n g t h
of t h e runway). F o r example, a boundary l a y e r blowing d e v i c e decreases t h e
landing speed by 20 - 25%. This t y p e of boundary l a y e r c o n t r o l system (BLAC)
was used on t h e C-130C "Hercules" heavy turboprop t r a n s p o r t . With t h i s
system, t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e o f t h e wing i s i n c r e a s e d more t h a n when t h e
boundary l a y e r is drawn o f f b y s u c t i o n . Four gas t u r b i n e r e a c t i o n engines
l o c a t e d i n two gondolas beneath t h e wing were used t o supply compressed a i r
t o t h e system. The a i r i s c o l l e c t e d i n t h e r e a r p o r t i o n s of t h e gondola
and f e d by f o u r c e n t r i f u g a l compressors t o a network o f a i r l i n e s (common
system f o r wing and t a i l s u r f a c e ) . Many small l i n e s connect t h e main
d i s t r i b u t i n g l i n e with a common c o l l e c t i n g chamber, from which t h e a i r i s
e j e c t e d on t h e upper s u r f a c e s of t h e f l a p s and a i l e r o n s through s l i t s . The
landing speed of- t h e a i r c r a f t was decreased from 170 t o 110 km/hr, while t h e
t a k e o f f d i s t a n c e was reduced from 1280 t o 853 m , and t h e l a n d i n g d i s t a n c e
was reduced from 427 t o 250 m .

D i s t r i b u t i ng

Figure 75. Reactive Flap on Wing ( a ) and Air


F e e d System f o r Boundary Layer I n j e c t i o n a t Wing
Surface ( b )

A BLAC system i s a l s o i n s t a l l e d on t h e English Blackburn NA39


"Buckaneer" m i l i t a r y t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t . The experimental Boeing 707
a i r c r a f t used a system f o r boundary l a y e r i n j e c t i o n i n t h e a r e a of t h e f l a p s
u s i n g a i r taken from t h e engine compressors. During t h e t e s t s , a d e c r e a s e
i n l a n d i n g speed from 220-240 t o 150-160 km/hr was achieved, i . e . , by
/110
approximately 30%.

103
I
Turbofan engines expand t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r u s i n g BLAC i n passenger j e t
a i r c r a f t , s i n c e t h e removal of c o n s i d e r a b l e masses of a i r from t h e o u t e r
channel does not d i s r u p t t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e engine.

The placement of a s l a t on t h e f r o n t edge of t h e wing and i n j e c t i o n o f


t h e boundary l a y e r a t t h e f l a p s and a i l e r o n s can produce a c o n s i d e r a b l e
decrease i n landing and t a k e o f f speeds and allow t h e l e n g t h of runways t o be
decreased by 30-40%. The placement of a s l a t on t h e wing o f a j e t a i r c r a f t ,
i n a d d i t i o n t o decreasing t a k e o f f and landing speeds, a l s o improves i t s
maneuverability a t high speeds, s i n c e i t d e l a y s t h e p o i n t o f flow s e p a r a t i o n
t o higher angles o f a t t a c k . P r a c t i c e has shown t h a t s l a t s can be used up t o
M = 0.9.

A laminar flow c o n t r o l system i s i n t h e s t a g e of development. I t has


been experimentally e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f laminar flow t o
t u r b u l e n t flow can be prevented by sucking t h e slow, t u r b u l i z a t i o n - i n c l i n e d
boundary l a y e r away from t h e wing s u r f a c e through a l a r g e number of t h i n
s l o t s c u t i n t h e wing covering. This i s c a l l e d laminar flow c o n t r o l .
I n v e s t i g a t i o n s performed i n t h e USA' have shown t h a t t h i s method can.
i n c r e a s e t h e p r o f i l e d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t of a swept wing t o a v a l u e n e a r t h e
drag c o e f f i c i e n t of a p l a t e with laminar flow, i . e . , decrease i t by approx
imately s i x t i m e s .

Laminar flow c o n t r o l by sucking away t h e boundary l a y e r , n a t u r a l l y ,


i n c r e a s e s t h e load-carrying c a p a c i t y of t h e wing. However, t h e usage o f l f c
t o i n c r e a s e c alone i s not expedient, s i n c e t h i s problem can be more
Y
simply solved by i n j e c t i o n i n t o t h e boundary l a y e r . The production of high
aerodynamic q u a l i t y ( i n c r e a s e d by a f a c t o r of 1 . 5 times) b o t h during t a k e o f f
and during f l i g h t , allows t h e t a k e o f f and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e
a i r c r a f t t o be improved. C a l c u l a t i o n s have shown t h a t f o r an a i r c r a f t l i k e
t h e Lockheed C-141 with a t a k e o f f weight of about 120 t and a c r u i s i n g speed
o f 850 km/hr, laminar flow c o n t r o l can i n c r e a s e t h e f l i g h t range by 30-33%.
With t h i s f l i g h t range, t h e t a k e o f f weight of t h e a i r c r a f t can be decreased
by 18-20% by decreasing t h e f u e l r e s e r v e s c a r r i e d .

In conclusion f o r t h i s c h a p t e r , we n o t e t h a t an improvement of t a k e o f f
( a s well as landing) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of passenger j e t a i r c r a f t - - decreased
t a k e o f f run l e n g t h and s e p a r a t i o n speed -- makes i t p o s s i b l e t o expand t h e
network of a i r f i e l d s and connect a r e a and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r s . I t i s
always e a s i e r t o f i n d a r e a s f o r small a i r f i e l d s t h a n f o r l a r g e a i r f i e l d s . /111
-
B e t t e r t a k e o f f and landing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a i r c r a f t w i l l a l s o provide a
lower "minimum weather" (see Chapter I X , S8).

A t t h e p r e s e n t time, c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i s being turned t o t h e


c r e a t i o n of s p e c i a l passenger j e t a i r c r a f t with s h o r t t a k e o f f and landing
characteristics.

~ _ -_
S. M. Yeger , Proyektirovaniye Passazhirskikh Reaktivnykh ShoZetov
[Design of Passenger J e t A i r c r a f t ] , Mashinostroyeniye P r e s s , 1964.

104

I
I

Chapter V I . Climbing

l. Forces A c t i n g on A i r c r a f t

Climbing refers t o s t r a i g h t and even (constant v e l o c i t y ) f l i g h t of an


a i r c r a f t i n an ascending t r a j e c t o r y . During t h e climb, t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g on
t h e a i r c r a f t i n c l u d e t h e f o r c e o f g r a v i t y G , t h e f o r c e of t h e t h r u s t P',
l i f t i n g f o r c e Y and drag Q (Figure 7 6 ) .

Forces Y and Q a r e a r b i t r a r i l y considered t o be a p p l i e d t o t h e


c e n t e r of g r a v i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t , although t h e y a r e a c t u a l l y a p p l i e d a t t h e
c e n t e r of p r e s s u r e . This a r b i t r a r i n e s s i s p e r m i t t e d f o r f o r c e s Y and Q,
s i n c e ' t h e a i r c r a f t i s balanced by d e f l e c t i o n of t h e e l e v a t o r . Force P f o r
s i m p l i c i t y of d i s c u s s i o n w i l l b e considered t o b e a p p l i e d through t h e
c e n t e r of g r a v i t y . The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t of t h e f o r c e s i s as follows:
f o r c e G a c t s v e r t i c a l l y downward, f o r c e P - - forward a t a c e r t a i n angle f3
t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of f l i g h t , f o r c e Y - - p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of
f l i g h t and f o r c e Q - - o p p o s i t e t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of f l i g h t .

Figure 76. Diagram of Forces Acting on A i r c r a f t i n


S t a b l e C 1 i m b : 1 , C l i m b t r a j e c t o r y ; 2 , Longitudinal
a x i s of a i r c r a f t ; 3 , Chord o f w i n g

The f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y o f t h e a i r c r a f t is i n c l i n e d t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l a t
a c e r t a i n angle 0 , c a l l e d t h e climbing angle. The following dependence
e x i s t s between t h e p i t c h a n g l e 9, t h e climbing a n g l e 0, angle o f a t t a c k a
and a n g l e of wing s e t t i n g ( a n g l e i n c l u d e d between l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of /112
a i r c r a f t and wing chord) : 9 + 4 = 0 + a. For modern a i r c r a f t , a n g l e
4 = 1-3", angle a = 2 . 5 - 5 " , t h e p i t c h angle ( t h e angle included between t h e
a x i s of t h e f u s e l a g e and t h e h o r i z o n t a l ) i n f l i g h t can b e determined u s i n g
t h e gyrohorizon. During a climb, t h e climbing angle i s less t h a n t h e p i t c h
angle.

105

Force P does n o t correspond t o t h e f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y , forming with it a


c e r t a i n angle 8 . The magnitude o f t h i s a n g l e i s i n f l u e n c e d .by t h e angle of
motor s e t t i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . As w e
e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r ( c h a p t e r 4, 58) t h e a n g l e of motor s e t t i n g may b e from
zero t o f i v e d e g r e e s . Angle B can b e determined as f o l l o w s . L e t us a n a l y z e
t h e climb d u r i n g t h e f i r s t moments a f t e r t a k e o f f . Let us assume t h a t f o r c e
P forms an a n g l e o f 5" w i t h t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l axis o f t h e a i r c r a f t ,
t h e v e l o c i t y i n t h e climb i s 520 km/hr, and t h e v e r t i c a l speed i s 16 m/sec.
The climbing a n g l e can be determined as f o l l o w s (Figure 76):

i . e . , 0 = 6.5". Then p i t c h a n g l e 4 = 0 .t ci - 4 = 6.5" + 3" - 1" = 8.5" (we


assume ci = 3" f o r Vr = 520 km/hr, and t h e a n g l e of wing s e t t i n g $ = 1").
S i n c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between angles 4 and 0 f o r t h i s c a s e i s 2 " , f o r c e P
corresponds t o t h e climbing t r a j e c t o r y , a n g l e B = 7". I n t h i s c a s e , t h e
component P s i n B i s added t o t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e . The magnitude o f t h i s
component may b e r a t h e r high. For t h e q u a n t i t i e s h e r e b e i n g analyzed i n an
a i r c r a f t with f o u r motors with a t h r u s t of each motor o f 8,000 kg, w e
produce P s i n B = 32,000*0.122 = 3900 kg. This f o r c e i s added t o t h e l i f t
Y = 80-85 t .
As t h e a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e s , t h e v e r t i c a l speed d e c r e a s e s , b u t t h e t r u e
v e l o c i t y i n t h e climb i n c r e a s e s . Therefore, t h e l i f t a n g l e i s c o n t i n u a l l y
decreased. We can t h e r e f o r e w r i t e t h e f o l l o w i n g two e q u a t i o n s f o r a s t a b l e
climb :

Y=G COS 9;
P=Qf G sin 0.

We can see from t h e f i r s t e q u a t i o n t h a t t h e l i f t d u r i n g a climb e q u a l i z e s


only a p o r t i o n o f t h e weight of t h e a i r c r a f t . The o t h e r p o r t i o n of t h e
a i r c r a f t weight (G s i n 0) i s balanced by t h e motor t h r u s t . For example,
f o r an a i r c r a f t weighing 38 t with a climbing angle 0 = 7 " , component
G s i n 0 = 38,000-0.122 = 4630 kg, and f o r an a i r c r a f t weighing 80 t t h i s
f i g u r e i s 9770 kg.

If t h e a v a i l a b l e engine t h r u s t f o r an a i r c r a f t with a t a k e o f f weight of


38 t i s 6700-7000 kg i n t h e nominal o p e r a t i n g mode ( n e a r t h e e a r t h ) , more
t h a n one h a l f o f t h i s t h r u s t i s expended t o b a l a n c e t h e weight o f t h e
a i r c r a f t , while t h e remaining t h r u s t is expended i n overcoming drag. The
climbing a n g l e 0 can a l s o b e determined from t h e second f o r c e equation:

106

/113
c _

where P - Q = AP is t h e excess t h r u s t ; P is t h e t h r u s t f a c t o r of t h e a i r c r a f t :
t h e r a t i o o f engine t h r u s t t o a i r c r a f t weight; Q/G i s a q u a n t i t y i n v e r s e to
quality.

A t climbing angles of 6-8', t h e v a l u e o f cos 0 1, and t h e f i r s t


equation can b e w r i t t e n as follows:

In o r d e r t o determine a n g l e 0, w e must u s e t h e Zhukovskiy curves f o r


consumed and a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t . Figure 77 shows t h e d e f i n i t i o n of APmax, a t
which t h e maximum climbing angle i s achieved. The maximum excess t h r u s t is
produced a t t h e m o s t f a v o r a b l e f l i g h t v e l o c i t y , corresponding t o t h e maximum
aerodynamic q u a l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e s t e e p e s t climbing angle. For
a i r c r a f t with s p e c i f i c loads of 350-370 kg/m2, t h e most s u i t a b l e speed i s
360-370 km/hr, f o r s p e c i f i c loads of 500-550 kg/m2 - - 400-450 km/hr. The
excess t h r u s t produced under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a t nominal engine o p e r a t i o n
w i l l provide a climbing angle 0 = 6-8'.

52. Determination o f Most S u i t a b l e


C1 imbing Speed

The v e r t i c a l speed i n a climb i s


determined by t h e formula V = V s i n 0.
Y
Replacing s i n 0 with t h e excess t h r u s t and
weight (we know from aerodynamics t h a t
AP/G = s i n 0, we produce

VAP
V Y = 7 m/sec
F i g u r e 77. Determination
o f Maximum Excess Thrust
U s i n g Zhukovskiy Curves I n o r d e r t o produce t h e maximum r a t e
of a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e ( s i n c e it i s t h i s
q u a n t i t y , not t h e climbing angle which i s
of t h e g r e a t e s t p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t ) , w e must know t h e maximum value of t h e
product APV, which r e p r e s e n t s t h e excess power: AN = APV.

107

For t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t , t h e maximum v a l u e s of t h e product APV kg*m/sec i s


determined, and t h e v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t i e s are c a l c u l a t e d (Figure 78).

I f we have t h e maximum v a l u e s of t h e product APV/3.6(kg-m/sec), we can /114


determine t h e maximum V f o r v a r i o u s weights.
Y
The v e l o c i t y along t h e t r a j e c t o r y a t which t h e maximum r a t e o f a l t i t u d e
i n c r e a s e is achieved i s c a l l e d t h e climbing speed V I t i s higher than t h e
cl'
speed a t s t e e p e s t climb which, as w e showed i n t h e preceding paragraph, c o r r e
sponds t o t h e most s u i t a b l e a i r c r a f t v e l o c i t y (maximum q u a l i t y ) .

The climbing speed can be e a s i l y determined a l s o u s i n g Zhukovskiy curves


f o r power consumed and a v a i l a b l e (Figure 79) ( t h e a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t power was
analyzed i n Chapter IV,7, and t h e graph of power consumption f o r v a r i o u s
f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s i s c o n s t r u c t e d l i k e t h e graph f o r t h r u s t consumed). I n o r d e r
t o do t h i s , we must draw a tangent p a r a l l e l t o l i n e N o f power t o t h e curve
P
f o r power consumed. A t t h e p o i n t of c o n t a c t , t h e excess AN = PAV and
max
v e l o c i t y corresponding t o t h i s excess power are determined.

k g , m/se_c

f
885000
825000

Figure 78. Excess Power Figure 79. Zhukovskiy


As a Function of F l i g h t Curves f o r Power
Velocity ( G t L = 52 T ,
spec i f i c 1 oad 390 kg/m2)
F o r a i r c r a f t with wings swept a t 30-35", t h e maximum r a t e o f a l t i t u d e
i n c r e a s e i s produced f o r p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t a k e o f f weights ( f r o m t h e maximum
p e r m i s s i b l e t o t h e minimum with small commercial load) i s produced a t
i n d i c a t e d speeds o f 480-550 km/hr a t t h e e a r t h . This speed must be maintained
up t o 5000-6000 m . I f t h i s i s done, t h e maximum r a t e o f a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e
w i l l be achieved a t a l l a l t i t u d e s . A s t h e a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e s , t h e t r u e f l i g h t
speed w i l l i n c r e a s e ( f o r example a t H = 6000 m and V = 520 km/hr,
ind
Vtr = 700 km/hr).

108
Many f l y i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown t h a t i n order t o r e t a i n maximum
v e r t i c a l speed, t h e i n d i c a t e d speed must be decreased beginning a t 6000-7000 m /115
by an average of 15-20 km/hr p e r 1000 m. Figure 78 shows t h a t t h e product APV
has a smoothly s l o p i n g upper p o r t i o n i n t h e zone of maximum v a l u e s , s o t h a t a
d e v i a t i o n of t h e i n d i c a t e d climbing speed o f * 2 0 km/hr from t h e most f a v o r a b l e
v a l u e ( p i l o t e r r o r ) changes t h e v e r t i c a l speed i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y , and t h e time
t o climb and f u e l expenditure over t h e climb remain p r a c t i c a l l y unchanged from
t h e most f a v o r a b l e v a l u e s .

The maximum v e r t i c a l speeds of a i r c r a f t with two and t h r e e motors a r e


17-25 m/sec ( a t t h e e a r t h ) , decreasing with i n c r e a s i n g a l t i t u d e t o 8-10 m/sec
a t 8000-9000 m. For a i r c r a f t with f o u r motors, t h e v e r t i c a l speeds a r e
12-15 m/sec a t low a l t i t u d e and 5-8 m/sec a t high a l t i t u d e s . The g r e a t e s t
decrease i n v e r t i c a l speeds i s observed a t a l t i t u d e s of over 10,000 m. The
f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a t which t h e v e r t i c a l speeds equal 0 . 5 m/sec co.rresponds t o
t h e p r a c t i c a l c e i l i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t . The height of t h e p r a c t i c a l c e i l i n g of
a passenger a i r c r a f t i s 12,000-13,500 m. The h e i g h t of t h e p r a c t i c a l c e i l i n g
(without c o n s i d e r a t i o n of maneuvering i n t h e a r e a of t h e a i r f i e l d a f t e r
t a k e o f f ) can be reached by an a i r c r a f t i n 43-45 min.

Figure 80. Vertical Speed and Time o f C l i m b f o r


An A i r c r a f t w i t h Two Motors (nominal mode, power
f a c t o r P = 0.3)

Climbing a t t h e nominal engine mode i s t h e most economical (Figure SO),


s i n c e t h e maximum d i f f e r e n c e between a v a i l a b l e and consumed power i s produced, -
/ 116
and t h e s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption w i l l be near minimal. A decrease i n t h e
o p e r a t i n g mode o f t h e engines i n a climb leads t o an i n c r e a s e i n s p e c i f i c f u e l
consumption, a decrease i n a v a i l a b l e power and r a t e o f a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e of
t h e a i r c r a f t , an i n c r e a s e i n climbing time, and as a r e s u l t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e
t o t a l f u e l expenditure r e q u i r e d t o perform t h e climb. A modern passenger

109

a i r c r a f t reaches an a l t i t u d e o f 10,000-11,000 m i n 18-25 min, covering


200-250 km and expending 2000-4000 kg of f u e l ( t h e h i g h e r . v a l u e s correspond t o
t h r e e - and four-motor a i r c r a f t ) .

S3. Velocity Regime o f C l i m b

Climbing a t t h e maximum r a t e o f a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e i s most economical. In


t h i s case, up t o 10,000-11,000 m t h e climb occurs a t an i n d i c a t e d speed of
460-440 km/hr (with corresponding lower t r u e v e l o c i t y ) , and upon reaching t h e
i n d i c a t e d a l t i t u d e t h e p i l o t a c c e l e r a t e s t h e a i r c r a f t a t t h e nominal regime t o
an i n d i c a t e d speed o f 500-550 km/hr i n 4-5 min f o r subsequent h o r i z o n t a l
f l i g h t a t t h e maximum c r u i s i n g regime. Thus, a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t a t
t h e s e a l t i t u d e s , where t h e excess t h r u s t is s l i g h t , r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l time.
Operational t e s t s of many t u r b o j e t passenger a i r c r a f t have shown t h a t a t times
it i s more expedient (from t h e p o i n t o f view o f c o s t ) t o climb t o a l t i t u d e i n
t h e s o - c a l l e d h i g h speed regime.

To do t h i s , t h e a i r c r a f t i s turned i n i t s f i n a l f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n , t h e n
a c c e l e r a t e d t o an i n d i c a t e d speed of 600-670 km/hr and t h e climb i s performed
a t t h i s speed u n t i l t h e a i r speed reaches 800-880 km/hr (according t o t h e t h i n
needle). A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e r a t e of a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s .de
creased t o 12-14 m/sec, while t h e i n d i c a t e d speeds a r e considerably h i g h e r
than t h e most f a v o r a b l e speed.

When an a i r speed of 800-880 km/hr i s reached, f u r t h e r climb i s continued


a t t h i s speed. The r a t e o f a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e decreases t o 2 - 3 m/sec as
a l t i t u d e s of 10,000-11,000 m a r e reached. The a i r c r a f t a r r i v e s a t i t s
assigned a l t i t u d e with s u f f i c i e n t t r u e v e l o c i t y , so t h a t almost no a d d i t i o n a l
acceleration is required. After t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o horizontal f l i g h t , t h e
c r u i s i n g o p e r a t i n g regime of t h e motors i s i n s t i t u t e d .

Climbing a t t h e high speed regime d e c r e a s e s t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e f l i g h t ,


b u t i n c r e a s e s s l i g h t l y t h e f u e l expenditure. The problem i s t h a t a5 speeds o f
600-880 km/hr are maintained, t h e v e r t i c a l speed i s decreased a t a l l a l t i t u d e s
and t h e time which t h e a i r c r a f t spends a t low a l t i t u d e s i s i n c r e a s e d , l e a d i n g
t o an i n c r e a s e i n f u e l expenditure i n t h e climb. Therefore, t h e high speed
climb method is g e n e r a l l y recommended f o r f l i g h t s over s h o r t d i s t a n c e s , SO-60%
of t h e maximum range of t h e a i r c r a f t with f u l l f u e l load. The a d d i t i o n a l /I17
f u e l expenditure i n t h e s e f l i g h t s r e q u i r e s no d e c r e a s e i n commercial l o a d ,

The d i s t a n c e which t h e a i r c r a f t t r a v e l s i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i r e c t i o n
d u r i n g t h e climb i n t h e high speed regime i s 50-100 km g r e a t e r t h a n d u r i n g t h e
climb a t maximum r a t e o f a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e . The p o l a r curve on Figure 81
c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e s e two climbing methods. A s w e can s e e from t h e f i g u r e , t h e
v e c t o r corresponding t o t h e speed of 500 km/hr is d i r e c t e d more s t e e p l y upward,
corresponding t o v e r t i c a l speeds o f 15-17 m/sec, while a t 650 km/hr t h e
v e r t i c a l speeds produced a r e l e s s , but t h e h o r i z o n t a l range i s g r e a t e r .

110

S4. Noise R e d u c t ion Methods

The n o i s e of t u r b o j e t passenger
a i r c r a f t i s caused by: o s c i l l a t i o n s o f
--
0 $KN/h; c o l d a i r flowing around t h e a i r c r a f t
and mixing- o f t h e cold a i r w i t h t h e
p u l s a t i n g , h o t gas j e t s from t h e
engines and o s c i l l a t i o n s of a i r com-
F i g u r e 81. Polar Curve o f p r e s s e d i n t h e compressors of t h e
C 1 imb i ng S p e e d s engines.

The frequency spectrum o f t h i s


n o i s e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from
t h e n o i s e c r e a t e d by p i s t o n and turboprop motors. Whereas t h e n o i s e spectrum
of turboprop engines i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by high sound p r e s s u r e s i n t h e low
f r e q u e n c i e s , t h e n o i s e spectrum o f t u r b o j e t engines c o n t a i n s predominantly
high frequency sound. This makes t h e n o i s e c r e a t e d by a t u r b o j e t engine more
unpleasant t o human h e a r i n g . The n o i s e c r e a t e d by an o r d i n a r y t u r b o j e t a t
over 35% t h r u s t i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e n o i s e r e s u l t i n g from t h e e f f l u x o f t h e
jets.

The usage of two c i r c u i t t u r b o j e t motors allows t h e n o i s e l e v e l t o be


decreased during t a k e o f f by 8-10 db ( d e c i b e l s ) , although t h e n o i s e l e v e l i s
s t i l l q u i t e high. E x i s t i n g engineering methods of n o i s e r e d u c t i o n - - dampers
a t t h e i n p u t p i p e s (JT8D engine) and exhaust nozzles (JTSD and Conway engines,
e t c . ) are n o t e f f e c t i v e , and d e c r e a s e t h e n o i s e very s l i g h t l y . F o r example, a
m u f f l e r on t h e output nozzle c o n s i s t i n g of n i n e t u b e s d e c r e a s e s t h e n o i s e
l e v e l by 5 . 5 db, b u t a l s o d e c r e a s e s t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e engine. I n s t a l l
a t i o n o f p e r f o r a t e d s h e e t s and a s c r e e n around t h e a i r i n t a k e a l s o provide
some decrease i n n o i s e l e v e l a t t h e i n p u t t o t h e compressor o r f a n .

Therefore, i n o r d e r t o decrease t h e n o i s e t o t h e r e q u i r e d l e v e l ( a t high /118


power, t h e n o i s e from t h e t u r b i n e and exhaust j e t , a t low power - - from t h e
compressor), s p e c i a l methods of p i l o t i n g a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n and d u r i n g landing
must b e used. A s we know, f o r e i g n a i r c r a f t ( t h e Boing 7 0 7 , C a r a v e l l e ,
e t c . ) employ t h e s o - c a l l e d low n o i s e t a k e o f f and landing method ( t a k e o f f and
landing u s i n g t h e s t e e p e s t t r a j e c t o r i e s with engines t h r o t t l e d over
l i s t e n i n g check p o i n t s ) , i . e . , t h e d e c r e a s e of n o i s e a t ground l e v e l is based
on r a p i d removal o f t h e n o i s e source from ground l e v e l . The i n i t i a l climb i s
achieved on s t e e p t r a j e c t o r i e s a t s a f e speed with decreased engine power.
This i s aided by improved engine design and high mechanization o f t h e wing.

I n o r d e r t o determine t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e n o i s e of an a i r c r a f t t a k i n g
o f f on t h e population i n t h e r e g i o n of an a i r p o r t , t h e q u a n t i t y known as
perceived n o i s e l e v e l i s o f t e n used. I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e
maximum p e r m i s s i b l e perceived n o i s e l e v e l a c t i n g on t h e organs of h e a r i n g f o r
s e v e r a l seconds P = 1 1 2 PN db (here PN db i s t h e u n i t o f measurement of
"ax
t h e n o i s e ) . Noise l e v e l s over 1 1 2 PN db i s s a i d t o b e above t h e " t o l e r a n c e
l i m i t " f o r man.

111

A t many l a r g e a i r p o r t s i n Europe and t h e USA, l i m i t a t i o n s have been


p l a c e d on t h e n o i s e c r e a t e d by a i r c r a f t t a k i n g o f f and landing!. The a p p a r a t u s
measuring t h e n o i s e l e v e l i s p l a c e d d i r e c t l y beneath t h e f l i g h t p a t h o f t h e
a i r c r a f t . I f t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e n o i s e l e v e l i s exceeded, t h e a i r l i n e
companies are f o r b i d d e n t o c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t .

L e t u s a n a l y z e t h e s p e c i f i c s o f a i r c r a f t f l i g h t along a s t e e p t r a j e c t o r y .
As we can s e e from t h e formula s i n 0 = V /V, i n o r d e r t o produce t h e maximum
Y
a n g l e 0, w e must p r o v i d e a combination of v e r t i c a l speed and speed along
t r a j e c t o r y such t h a t t h e v a l u e of s i n 0 is maximal. F l i g h t t e s t s are u s u a l l y
performed t o determine t h e s t e e p climbing speed, d u r i n g which t h e f l a p s are
l e f t down a t low speeds a f t e r t a k e o f f i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e f l i g h t s a f e t y .
T h e r e f o r e , t h e s t e e p climbing speed i s g e n e r a l l y 40-50 km/hr h i g h e r t h a n t h e
s e p a r a t i o n speed and p r a c t i c a l l y corresponds t o maximum a i r c r a f t aerodynamic
q u a l i t y f o r t h e t a k e o f f wing s e t t i n g angle.

As i s known, t h e f l i g h t regime with maximum t r a j e c t o r y i n c l i n a t i o n 0


corresponds t o t h e maximum excess t h r u s t AP and, consequently, t h e maximum
v a l u e of s i n 0:

sin8,,,=-- ARnax- .
G

Therefore, i f t h e most f a v o r a b l e a i r c r a f t speed (K ) i s about


max 9 Omax
350-360 km/hr f o r f l a p s up, due t o t h e placement of t h e f l a p s i n t h e i r landing
/ 119
p o s i t i o n , t h i s speed i s decreased t o 300-310 km/hr. The climb a f t e r t a k e o f f
on t h e s t e e p t r a j e c t o r y i s performed a t t h e most f a v o r a b l e speed w i t h f l a p s
down.

During t e s t i n g o f one a i r c r a f t , t h e following method was developed f o r


s t e e p climbing (Figure 8 2 ) . With f l a p s down i n t h e t a k e o f f p o s i t i o n ( l o " ) ,
V = 260 km/hr. A f t e r s e p a r a t i o n , a t an a l t i t u d e of 5-10 m , t h e landing
S eP
g e a r was r a i s e d and t h e speed i n c r e a s e d t o 300 km/hr ( a t 50-60 m ) . The
climb was continued t o 300 m a t t h i s speed with t h e motor o p e r a t i n g i n t h e
t a k e o f f mode, a f t e r which t h e motor was s h i f t e d t o t h e nominal regime.
Whereas t h e climbing a n g l e o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y a t t h e t a k e o f f regime 0 =
a t t h e nominal regime i t i s decreased t o 6.5-7". A t an a l t i t u d e of 500 m, t h e
a i r c r a f t was d e c e l e r a t e d by d e c r e a s i n g t h e v e r t i c a l speed and t h e f l a p s were
r a i s e d . The f l i g h t was performed a t a p i t c h angle o f 14-16".

During t h e l a n d i n g , i t i.s impossible t o reduce n o i s e by i n c r e a s i n g t h e


s t e e p n e s s o f t h e g l i d i n g t b a j e c t o r y , s i n c e t h e r a t e o f descent i s f i x e d by t h e
o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of t h e l a n d i n g system. However, s i n c e t h e engines a r e
o p e r a t i n g a t reduced power, t h e i n i t i a l n o i s e l e v e l i s decreased.

112

I
500 ---
H,fl

450 -

300 -

1.50
-

0 -

Figure 82. Optimal C l i m b i n g Tra e c t o r i e s f o r


Noise Reduction a t Ground L e v e l : a , S e p a r a t i o n ,
V = 260 km/hr; b, B e g i n n i n g of 1 f t i n g of
landing g e a r ; c , Landing g e a r u p ; d , Accelera
t i o n t o V = 300 km/hr; e , F1 i g h t s e c t o r a t
V = 300 km/hr; 6 3 = 10"; f , B e g i n n i n g o f a c c e l
e r a t i o n f o r r a i s i n g of f l a p s ; g , L i s t e n i n g
p o i n t ; h , F l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y w i t h continuous
a c c e l e r a t i o n ; i , Point o f b e g i n n i n g of l i f t i n g
f l a p s ; j , End o f l i f t i n g of f l a p s

The i n f l u e n c e of noi'se from an a i r c r a f t t a k i n g o f f i s p a r t i c u l a r l y


n o t i c e a b l e i f t h e r e i s a populated p o i n t along t h e f l i g h t p a t h a t l e s s t h a n
4-5 km from t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t of t h e a i r c r a f t . I n such c a s e s , t e s t s must b e
made t o determine under which c o n d i t i o n s and o p e r a t i n g modes o f t h e engines
p e r m i s s i b l e n o i s e l e v e l s can be provided ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , 110-112 PN db f o r
t a k e o f f d u r i n g t h e day and 102 PN db a t n i g h t , t h e " t o l e r a n c e l i m i t " f o r
n o i s e being c o n s i d e r a b l y lower a t n i g h t ) . The nomogram on Figure 83 i s /120
c o n s t r u c t e d from t h e r e s u l t s of f l y i n g t e s t s on a i r c r a f t with two engines with
maximum t a k e o f f weight under s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s of 38 T . The s l o p i n g l i n e s
of t h e nomogram a r e t h e t r a j e c t o r i e s i n s t e e p climb s i t u a t i o n s .

The z e r o p o i n t on t h e nomogram corresponds t o t h e beginning of t h e


a i r c r a f t t a k e o f f r u n . On t h e r i g h t we have a t a b l e of o p e r a t i n g regimes of
t h e engines and t h e corresponding n o i s e l e v e l s perceived on t h e ground. The
d o t t e d l i n e shows an example of d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e a l t i t u d e of change i n
engine o p e r a t i n g regime and t h e necessary regime d u r i n g t a k e o f f o f an
a i r c r a f t weighing 38 T when t h e edge of a populated p o i n t i s l o c a t e d
3 . 3 km from t h e beginning o f t h e t a k e o f f r u n ( t h e t a k e o f f is performed d u r i n g
t h e day, s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s , no wind). To do t h i s , w e draw a l i n e from
p o i n t A, corresponding t o a d i s t a n c e o f 3 . 3 km, upward t o t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r
s e c t i o n with t h e 38 T weight l i n e ( p o i n t B ) , t h e n draw a h o r i z o n t a l l i n e .
Point C determines t h e a l t i t u d e (230-240 m) a t whichlhe o p e r a t i n g regime of

113

t h e engines must b e reduced t o 88-89% ( p o i n t D), corresponding t o t h e maximum


p e r m i s s i b l e n o i s e l e v e l f o r daytime, 1 1 2 PN db. If t h e regime i s n o t changed,
t h e n o i s e l e v e l i s 117 PN db ( p o i n t D).

After f l y i n g over t h e populated p o i n t o r an i n c r e a s e i n a l t i t u d e of


500 m , t h e engines must be s h i f t e d t o t h e nominal o p e r a t i n g regime.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9

Distance from s t a r t o f rup, KM

Figure 83. Nomogram f o r Determination of A l t i


t u d e of Change i n Operating Regime o f Motor (con
ditions of i n i t i a l c l i m b : V = 300 km/hr,
i nd
n = 97%, 63 = IOo)

A s we can s e e from t h e same nomogram, with t h e same a i r c r a f t , b u t with a /I21


s e p a r a t i o n d i s t a n c e t o t h e populated p o i n t o f 3 . 8 km ( p o i n t E ) , i t i s s u f f i
c i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e nominal regime ( p o i n t I ) and maintain an a l t i t u d e o f
300 m ( p o i n t F) i n o r d e r t o produce a n o i s e l e v e l o f 1 1 2 PN db i n t h e daytime.

When t h e a i r temperature and p r e s s u r e are changed o r when t h e r e is a


wind, s p e c i a l graphs must b e used t o determine t h e c o r r e c t e d a i r c ' r a f t weight,
s i n c e t h e f l y i n g d a t a change. These graphs change f o r each a i r c r a f t i n t h e
handbook on f l y i n g o p e r a t i o n s . For example, f o r t h e example above a t
t = +25"C, p = 760 mm Hg with a head wind component o f 2 m/sec, t h e c o r r e c t e d
weight Gcor = 40 t w i t h an a c t u a l weight of 38 t . The i n c r e a s e d c o r r e c t e d
weight r e q u i r e s a lower a l t i t u d e f o r t h e beginning of motor t h r o t t l i n g .
However, t h e decreased o p e r a t i n g regime o f t h e engines a f t e r r a i s i n g t h e
landing g e a r is not p e r m i t t e d a t an a l t i t u d e o f l e s s t h a n 150 m.

I n c o n c l u s i o n , we n o t e t h a t t h e f l i g h t speed d u r i n g a s t e e p climb t o
a l t i t u d e w i t h f l a p s down should provide a s u f f i c i e n t r e s e r v e a g a i n s t

114

s e p a r a t i o n . The a k r c r a f t speeds a t which h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t with s u f f i c i e n t


c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y i s p o s s i b l e i s c a l l e d t h e maneuvering speed; it must b e
1.15 times t h e minimum speed corresponding t o s e p a r a t i o n . F o r example, f l y i n g
t e s t s i n d i c a t e a minimum speed of 200 km/hr, s o t h a t t h e maneuvering speed i s
230 km/hr. The r e s e r v e a g a i n s t s e p a r a t i o n with a s t e e p climb speed o f
300 km/hr i s 70 km/hr, and t h e r e s e r v e t o s t a l l i s about 100 km/hr.

S5. C l i m b i n g w i t h O n e Motor Not Operating

If t h e s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e s a p i l o t t o f l y t o a r e s e r v e a i r f i e l d a f t e r a
motor f a i l u r e on t a k e o f f , with t h e r e s e r v e a i r f i e l d l o c a t e d 350-400 km
d i s t a n c e , a climb must b e performed. I t w i l l b e shown i n Chapter V I 1 t h a t
t h e most f a v o r a b l e a l t i t u d e f o r ranges of 300-400 km i s 5700-6000 m;
however, f o r f l i g h t w i t h one motor n o t o p e r a t i n g , t h e most f a v o r a b l e a l t i t u d e
i s 2500-3000 m. An a i r c r a f t w i t h a motor o u t , when climbing a t t h e nominal
regime, can a t t a i n a v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y component o f 3-6.5 m/sec a t ground
l e v e l . This speed d e c r e a s e s with a l t i t u d e and a t 4500-7000 m , t h e r a t e of
a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e i s about 0 . 5 m/sec. I t i s considered t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t t h e
a i r c r a f t reaches i t s p r a c t i c a l f l i g h t c e i l i n g w i t h one motor n o t o p e r a t i n g .
F o r a i r c r a f t with t h r e e motors, t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e with one nonoperating
motor, n a t u r a l l y , i s g r e a t e r t h a n f o r a i r c r a f t with two motors. The time t o
climb t o t h i s a l t i t u d e i s 45-50 min and depends s t r o n g l y on t h e a c t u a l
temperature of t h e surrounding a i r . The climbing speed i n such c a s e s i s
70-100 km/hr l e s s , explained by t h e d e c r e a s e i n a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t of 30-SO%,
s o t h a t t h e maximum of product APY is d i s p l a c e d toward lower v a l u e s of
i n d i c a t e d ( a s w e l l as t r u e ) speed. I t i s recommended t h a t as t h e a l t i t u d e i s
i n c r e a s e d , t h e i n d i c a t e d speed be decreased by 5 km/hr p e r 1000 m a l t i t u d e .
T r a n s i t i o n of engines from nominal t o t a k e o f f regime i n c r e a s e s t h e excess
t h r u s t and allows t h e r a t e of a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t t o b e
i n c r e a s e d t e m p o r a r i l y , although t h e time of o p e r a t i o n i n t a k e o f f regime i s
1i m i t e d .

115

Chapter V I I . Horizontal F1 i g h t /122

91. Diagram of Forces A c t i n g on A i r c r a f t

H o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t means s t r a i g h t l i n e , s t a b l e a i r c r a f t f l i g h t without
i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e of a l t i t u d e .

The f o r c e s a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t were shown i n c h a p t e r V I . We add t h a t


t h e t o t a l aerodynamic f o r c e R ( e q u a l i z i n g f o r c e s Y and Q) i s a p p l i e d a t t h e
c e n t e r of p r e s s u r e , and i s d e f l e c t e d from f o r c e Y by c e r t a i n angle 0
(Figure 8 4 ) . I n c l i n a t i o n of f o r c e R i s changed by t h e p i l o t by u s i n g t h e
e l e v a t o r , d e f l e c t i n g it enough so t h a t f o r c e R p a s s e s through t h e c e n t e r o f
g r a v i t y . T h e r e f o r e , we w i l l c o n s i d e r f o r h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t , as f o r climbing,
t h a t a l l f o r c e s a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t .

Figure 84. Diagram of Forces Acting on A i r c r a f t


i n Horizontal F l i g h t : 1 , Longitudinal a x i s of
a i r c r a f t ; 2 , Chord l i n e ; 3 , D i r e c t i o n of a i r
c r a f t ; 4 , Direction of t h r u s t

As we know, i n o r d e r t o achieve s t a b l e h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y
t h a t t h e following e q u a t i o n b e f u l f i l l e d :

G=Y+Psinp; Q=Pcosp.

These e q u a l i t i e s show t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t . The f i r s t e q u a l i t y


shows t h a t t h e movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s l i n e a r and occurs i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l
p l a n e . The second i s t h e c o n d i t i o n of evenness of motion, i . e . , f l i g h t a t
c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y . If t h i s c o n d i t i o n were n o t f u l f i l l e d , t h e f l i g h t would be /123
u n s t a b l e (with a c c e l e r a t i o n o r d e c e l e r a t i o n ) .

116

I t w a s s t a t e d above t h a t f o r c e P may make a c e r t a i n angle w i t h t h e chord


o f t h e wing. If w e assume as an average a = 3", t h e wing s e t t i n g a n g l e $I = 1"
and t h e motor s e t t i n g a n g l e ( i n t h e t a i l p o r t i o n of t h e f u s e l a g e ) i s z e r o , a s
w e see from F i g u r e 84 a n g l e B = 2O. T h e r e f o r e , t h e force, P cos B w i l l b e less
t h a n f o r c e P . I n p r a c t i c e , w i t h angle B = 2-7", t h e v a l u e of cos B d i f f e r s
l i t t l e from u n i t y , s o t h a t it can b e considered t h a t Q = P. We can a l s o
c o n s i d e r t h a t Y = G , s i n c e w e can i g n o r e t h e component P s i n 6 , which f o r
c r u i s i n g t h r u s t v a l u e s w i l l b e less t h a n one p e r c e n t of t h e mean f l y i n g
weight. For example, w i t h an average f l y i n g weight o f 70 t and a q u a l i t y of
14, t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t Pr = 5000 kg, and P s i n 2" = 5000*0.035 = 175 kg,
i . e . , 0.25% of t h e average weight. Even i f $Ien = 5" (with engines i n t h e rear
p o r t i o n o f t h e wing) and a = 3" and B = 7", = 5000 kg w e
w i t h t h e same P
r
produce P s i n 7" = 5000-0.122 = 610 kg. T h i s i s 0.87% of t h e weight o f 70 t .

52. Required T h r u s t f o r H o r i z o n t a l F1 i g h t

An a i r c r a f t i s capable of performing f l i g h t a t v a r i o u s angles of a t t a c k


w i t h i n t h e speed range from t h e minimum t o t h e maximum, i . e . , a t v a r i o u s
regimes. Each o f t h e s e regimes corresponds t o a c e r t a i n a i r speed (angle of
a t t a c k ) , providing t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e equal t o t h e weight of t h e a i r c r a f t .
This v e l o c i t y has come t o be c a l l e d t h e r e q u i r e d v e l o c i t y f o r h o r i z o n t a l
f l i g h t , and t h e t h r u s t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e performance of h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t a t
t h i s angle o f a t t a c k i s t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t f o r h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t . Thus, i n
h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t a given angle of a t t a c k corresponds t o a d e f i n i t e r e q u i r e d
v e l o c i t y and t h r u s t . I n o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e t h e graphs o f r e q u i r e d t h r u s t on
Figure 85, a graph o f t h e dependence c = f ( a ) and t h e p o l a r curve o f t h e
a i r c r a f t with a wing without geometricYtwist i s used. The c a l c u l a t i o n was
performed i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t i n h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t i s
s e t equal t o t h e d r a g : Pr = Q. S e t t i n g v a r i o u s f l i g h t speeds, we determine
f o r each of them t h e impact p r e s s u r e and c
Y'
-
u s i n g t h e p o l a r curve ( f o r
v a r i o u s M numbers) w e f i n d t h e v a l u e o f c corresponding t o t h e s e speeds.
X
Using t h e formula Pr = Q = cxSp(V2/2) = cxSq, w e determine t h e r e q u i r e d
thrust .

As w e can s e e from F i g u r e 85, with t h e most f a v o r a b l e angle o f a t t a c k


OL = 6" and H = 0 , we produce t h e minimum r e q u i r e d t h r u s t , corresponding t o
hv
t h e most f a v o r a b l e speed of 360 km/hr and q u a l i t y K = 15 (from t h e formula
= G / K w e produce K = G/Pr = 35,000/2330 = 1 5 ) . An i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n
'r
speed l e a d s t o an i n c r e a s e i n r e q u i r e d t h r u s t , s i n c e w i t h angles of a t t a c k
g r e a t e r t h a n o r l e s s t h a n 6", t h e aerodynamic q u a l i t y d e c r e a s e s . /124

For f l i g h t a t 360 km/hr n e a r t h e e a r t h t h e motors must b e t h r o t t l e d back


so as t o achieve e q u a l i t y P = Pr. I n t h i s c a s e , t h e curve o f a v a i l a b l e
P

117

t h r u s t touches t h e curve o f r e q u i r e d t h r u s t a t p o i n t B , corresponding t o


a = 6'. As w e can see from F i g u r e 85, f o r f l i g h t with lower speed
(V = 300 km/hr) as w e l l as f o r f l i g h t w i t h h i g h e r speed (600 km/hr),
an i n c r e a s e i n engine t h r u s t i s r e q u i r e d ( p o i n t s C and A ) .

---

i.g.

3000

2500

Figure 85. Required T:lrust As a Function of F l i g h t


S p e e d ( f l y i n g w e i g h t 35 T I : 1 , Thrust f o r f l i g h t w i t h
= 360 km/hr; 2 , Thrust f o r f l i g h t w i t h
'hv
1 . g . = landing g e a r V = 600 km/hr

We know t h a t f o r a i r c r a f t with t u r b o j e t engines, t h e maximum excess


t h r u s t corresponds t o t h e most f a v o r a b l e speed and, i n t h e example h e r e
analyzed Vhv = 360 km/hr. I n o r d e r t o achieve APmax a t t h e t a k e o f f o r
nominal regime, an i n d i c a t e d f l i g h t speed of 360 km/hr must be maintained.

As t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e i s i n c r e a s e d ( f o r t h e same weight, i n o u r example.


35 t ) , t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t remains unchanged i f t h e q u a l i t y i s t h e same. I n
p r a c t i c e , however, as t h e i n d i c a t e d speed i s r e t a i n e d , Kmax d e c r e a s e s s l i g h t l y
with i n c r e a s i n g a l t i t u d e (by 0 . 4 - 0 . 6 ) , s o t h a t Pr i s somewhat h i g h e r . I n our
example (Figure 85), t h e i n d i c a t e d speed o f 360 km/hr a t 10,000 m corresponds
t o a t r u e speed of 592 km/hr (M = 0.5) and a maximum q u a l i t y of 1 4 . 5 , i . e . ,
t h e q u a l i t y i s decreased by 0.5. The angles of a t t a c k corresponding t o Kmax
are a l s o d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t a l t i t u d e s due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e
M number on t h e p o l a r curve of t h e a i r c r a f t . F o r example, f o r H = 0 , t h e /125
angle of a t t a c k corresponding t o t h e minimum r e q u i r e d t h r u s t i s 6 " , and f o r
H = 10,000 m -- 4.8".

118

A d e c r e a s e i n f l y i n g weight r e s u l t s i n a d e c r e a s e i n r e q u i r e d t h r u s t f o r
t h e same angles of a t t a c k (and t h e r e f o r e , f o r t h e same a l t i t u d e s ) . As w e can
see on Figure 85, a t H = 10,000 m f o r G = 30 t , t h e minimum Pr i s less t h a n
t h e minimum P f o r G = 35 t , and a l s o t h e speed corresponding t o t h e minimum
r
r e q u i r e d t h r u s t i s less - - 575 km/hr (Vind = 350 km/hr).

9000 C I I

Figure 86. Required Thrust As a Function of


F l i g h t Speed ( a i r c r a f t w i t h three e n g i n e s )

If w e c o n s t r u c t curves of r e q u i r e d t h r u s t s f o r a i r c r a f t with h i g h weight


and s p e c i f i c load ( f o r example with G = 80 t and G/S = 432 kg/m2), t h e most
f a v o r a b l e speed is i n c r e a s e d t o 400 km/hr a t H = 0 and 625 km/hr a t
H = 10,000 m (Figure 8 6 ) .

I n o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e t h e curves on Figure 86, w e used t h e dependence


c = f ( a ) and t h e p o l a r curve of t h e a i r c r a f t shown on F i g u r e s 16 and 27. The
Y
i n c r e a s e d ah,, i s explained by t h e geometric t w i s t of t h e wing, about 3". F o r /126

c l a r i t y , Figure 86 shows t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t as a f u n c t i o n of f l i g h t speed f o r

an a i r c r a f t w i t h landing g e a r and f l a p s down, when t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t i s

i n c r e a s e d due t o t h e decreased q u a l i t y .

119

S3. Two Horizontal F l i g h t Regimes

The p o i n t s o f i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e curves o f r e q u i r e d and a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t


correspond t o t h e e q u a l i t y P = P a consequently, f o r c e s P and Q, as w e l l as
r P
Y and G w i l l a l s o b e e q u a l . On Figure 85 f o r H = 0, t h e s e p o i n t s are marked
by t h e l e t t e r s a , b and c. Due t o t h e s p e c i f i c f d a t u r e s of p i l o t i n g d u r i n g
t r a n s i t i o n from one v e l o c i t y t o a n o t h e r , t h e s e p o i n t s d i f f e r considerably.
For example, a t p o i n t a t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o a d i f f e r e n t speed r e q u i r e s s i m p l e r
c o n t r o l t h a n a t p o i n t c. Thus, i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e speed t o over
600 km/hr, a c c e l e r a t i o n must b e performed by i n c r e a s i n g t h e t h r u s t (P > Q ) .
I n o r d e r t o decreas.e t h e speed, t h e a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t should be decreased,
s i n c e t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t i n h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t i n t h i s case i s l e s s t h a n f o r
600 km/hr. However, i n o r d e r t o move t o a d i f f e r e n t speed a t p o i n t c, f o r
example, i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h r u s t over 300 km/hr, t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k must b e
pushed forward t o t r a n s f e r t h e a i r c r a f t t o a lower angle of a t t a c k and, i n
o r d e r t o maintain t h e same f l i g h t a l t i t u d e , t h e t h r u s t must b e i n i t i a l l y
decreased, t h e n t h e n e c e s s a r y regime s e t when t h e speed begins t o i n c r e a s e .
The same t h i n g must b e done t o d e c r e a s e t h e f l i g h t speed: t h e t h r u s t must b e
t e m p o r a r i l y decreased, t h e n once more i n c r e a s e d , s i n c e a d e c r e a s e i n speed
causes an i n c r e a s e i n r e q u i r e d t h r u s t .

Point a corresponds t o t h e f i r s t f l i g h t regime, p o i n t c t o t h e second.


The main p e c u l i a r i t y o f t h e second regime i s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f double a c t i o n
with t h e c o n t r o l l e v e r o f t h e motor when f l i g h t speed i s changed. Therefore,
f l i g h t should n o t be performed i n t h e second regime. s i n c e i t decreases
c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y and makes flow s e p a r a t i o n on t h e a i r c r a f t wing p o s s i b l e .

The boundary between t h e f i r s t and second f l i g h t regimes i s t h e most


f a v o r a b l e angle o f a t t a c k f o r a t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t ( f o r a p i s t o n powered
a i r c r a f t it i s t h e most economical). Whereas f l i g h t s i n t h e second regime had
no p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r p i s t o n powered c r a f t , s i n c e f l i g h t s a t angles of
a t t a c k g r e a t e r t h a n t h e economical angle of a t t a c k were almost never performed
since a was n e a r t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e a n g l e o f a t t a c k , f l i g h t s of j e t
ec
a i r c r a f t ( p a r t i c u l a r l y a t a l t i t u d e s n e a r t h e p r a c t i c a l c e i l i n g ) may occur a t
regimes n e a r t h e most f a v o r a b l e .

The e s t a b l i s h e d minimum p e r m i s s i b l e o p e r a t i n g speed on t h e b a s i s of t h e


values c i s u s u a l l y 50-70 km/hr less t h a n t h e most f a v o r a b l e speed. We
Y Per
should n o t e t h a t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g i n our a n a l y s i s o f examples w e w i l l n o t
c o n s i d e r a l t i t u d e l i m i t a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e f l y i n g weight of t h e a i r c r a f t
( s e e 58 of t h i s c h a p t e r ) .

I n t h e examples on F i g u r e s 85 and 86, t h e d i v i s i o n between t h e two f l i g h t /127


regimes a t low a l t i t u d e c o n s i s t s o f t h e most f a v o r a b l e speeds of 360 km/hr and
400 km/hr. I n h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t with Vhv t h e motors must b e t h r o t t l e d back s o
t h a t f l i g h t occurs a t speeds corresponding t o t h e p o i n t of c o n t a c t of t h e
curves of a v a i l a b l e and r e q u i r e d t h r u s t (on F i g u r e 85, p o i n t b ) . As t h e
f l y i n g weight i s d e c r e a s e d , t h e most f a v o r a b l e speed d e c r e a s e s ; f o r example,

120
a t 30 t , Vmf = 350 km/hr i n d i c a t e d (Figure 85).

Lowering t h e landing g e a r and f l a p s d i s p l a c e s t h e boundary between f i r s t


and second regimes c o n s i d e r a b l y toward lower speeds (Figure 8 6 ) . For example,
with f l a p s down t h e speed d e c r e a s e s t o 325 km/hr ( a = 8.5") and with f l a p s
mf
down 25", t o 265 km/hr (amf = 7 . 8 " ) . A s a r u l e , t h e a i r c r a f t i s brought i n
f o r a l a n d i n g i n t h e f i r s t regime.

I n o r d e r t o avoid t r a n s f e r r i n g t o t h e second regime with t h e a i r c r a f t


wing mechanics i n t h e t a k e o f f and l a n d i n g p o s i t i o n , t h e p i l o t must r e c a l l t h e
i n d i c a t e d speed corresponding t o t h e boundary between t h e two f l i g h t regimes.

94. Influence o f External Air Temperature on Required Thrust

A s was noted, a change i n t h e temperature of t h e surrounding a i r l e a d s t o


a change i n engine t h r u s t ( c h a p t e r V I , 6 ) . Also, temperature o f t h e s u r
rounding a i r i n f l u e n c e s t h e n a t u r e of t h e dependence of r e q u i r e d t h r u s t on
f l i g h t speed, which appears a s a displacement of t h e curve t o t h e l e f t (with
d e c r e a s i n g t ) o r t o t h e r i g h t (with i n c r e a s i n g t ) and i n f l u e n c e s t h e v a l u e of
r e q u i r e d speed f o r h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t . The e x t e r n a l a i r temperature does n o t
i n f l u e n c e t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t , s i n c e P = G / K , and K = c / c depends only on
r Y X
t h e angle of a t t a c k . Let US analyze t h e reason why t h e curve P = (V,t") i s
r
d i s p l a c e d . We know t h a t i n h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t with unchanging a n g l e o f a t t a c k
( o r c ) a t d i f f e r e n t temperatures t h e following c o n d i t i o n should be f u l f i l l e d :
Y

A s t h e temperature i s decreased with c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e , t h e d e n s i t y of t h e a i r


i s i n c r e a s e d . I n t h i s c a s e , i n o r d e r f o r e q u a l i t y Y = G t o be f u l f i l l e d , t h e
r e q u i r e d h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t speed must be decreased ( c unchanged). As t h e
Y
v e l o c i t i e s a r e decreased, t h e curves of r e q u i r e d t h r u s t w i l l be s h i f t e d t o t h e
l e f t . A s t h e temperature i s i n c r e a s e d , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e curves o f
required t h r u s t a r e displaced t o t h e r i g h t , s i n c e t h e required v e l o c i t i e s
i n c r e a s e (Figure 8 7 ) .

A s w e can s e e from t h e f i g u r e , t h e same Prl corresponds t o a g r e a t e r


r e q u i r e d t h r u s t f o r a temperature 10" h i g h e r t h a n t h e s t a n d a r d t e m p e r a t u r e , /128
__.
since f o r t we have Vcrl, and f o r tst + 10" v e l o c i t y V
st Vcrl.
The curves of r e q u i r e d t h r u s t f o r c o n d i t i o n s o t h e r t h a n s t a n d a r d a r e
c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s . A t f i r s t we f i n d t h e a i r d e n s i t y under t h e new condi
t i o n s . For example, when t h e o u t s i d e a i r temperature i s i n c r e a s e d by 10" with
p r e s s u r e unchanged f o r H = 10,000 m y T = 223K and p = 198 mm Hg, w e produce

1 21
T = 223 + 10 = 233', p = 0.0473 p/T = 0.0473*198/233 = 0.0403 kg*sec2/m4.
This v a l u e o f p , according t o t h e s t a n d a r d t a b l e , i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a f l i g h t
a l t i t u d e o f 10,300 m.

Then, f i x i n g t h e f l i g h t speed, w e determine c then take c from t h e


YY X
p o l a r curve o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i t h v a r i o u s M (Figure 28). Using t h e formula
Pr = cxSq, w e determine t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t . I n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e M number, w e
b a s e o u r c a l c u l a t i o n s on t h e f a c t t h a t a t T = 233'K, t h e speed o f sound
a = 306 m/sec.
We must n o t e t h a t as t h e
t e m p e r a t u r e is i n c r e a s e d by more
. -
t h a n lo', t h e d e c r e a s e i n
d e n s i t y ( i n c r e a s e i n speed) w i l l
b e g r e a t e r . For example, w i t h
A t = +30 a t H = 10,000 m y t h e
tS
decrease i n d e n s i t y i s
e q u i v a l e n t t o an i n c r e a s e i n
f l y i n g a l t i t u d e t o approximately
11,000 m.

Let u s now a n a l y z e t h e
graphs o f r e q u i r e d t h r u s t
(Figure 87).
f i g u r e 87. Influence o f Surrounding

Air Temperature o n Required and


With s t a n d a r d t e m p e r a t u r e ,
Ava i 1 ab le A i r c r a f t Thrust ( s p e c i f i c
i n o r d e r t o produce t h e v e l o c i t y
1 oad i ng 340 kg/m2) a t H = 10,000 m , we must
'crl
u s e engine speed n O At this
1"'
speed, t h e a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t w i l l be equal t o t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t ( p o i n t A ) .
A s t h e temperature i s i n c r e a s e d by 10' (by 4.2% o f 233'K) , t h e curve o f
r e q u i r e d t h r u s t i s d i s p l a c e d t o t h e r i g h t , and t h e curve of P i s d i s p l a c e d
downward.

The a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t , depending on t h e t y p e and d e s i g n o f t h e motor, may


be decreased by 5-8% (curve 2 ) . The i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e curves of a v a i l a b l e
and r e q u i r e d t h r u s t d e f i n e s t h e speed Vcr2 w i t h unchanged engine o p e r a t i n g -
/129
regime. As we can see from t h e f i g u r e , t h e t r u e f l i g h t speed has decreased,
s o t h a t t h e M number i s a l s o decreased, s i n c e t h e speed o f sound i s n o t 300,
b u t r a t h e r 306 m/sec (M = Vcr2/306).

Thus, as t h e a i r temperature i s i n c r e a s e d by lo', t h e f l y i n g regime


changes s i g n i f i c a n t l y . If we must maintain t h e previous M number ( i . e . ,
corresponding t o t s t ) ' w e must i n c r e a s e t h e o p e r a t i n g speed of t h e engines
and, as we can see on Figure 87, s e t i n engine speed n3% ( p o i n t B ) . The t r u e
f l i g h t speed i n c r e a s e s and becomes V
cr3
= aM = 306 M.

122

. .
a,,
,
, '
I
,
0'
! I:
,

.;(, , : '. If t h e p i l o t does not change t h e o p e r a t i n g regime of t h e engines, as t h e


. 1 , , f l i g h t speed i s decreased from Vcrl t o Vcr2, t h e angle o f a t t a c k and c
,
'
, .II ,', *
Y
.' ., , ,
'

.
I
<;'
i n c r e a s e . Allowing t h e aircraft t o f l y a t h i g h e r angles of a t t a c k i s danger-
' I

,*,'
x.:. ,.. .., ous due t o t h e approach toward c and t h e s e p a r a t i o n l i m i t . Also, under
'.., Y Per
:
.,$,',,.-.
e. . -. r e l a t i v e l y h i g h temperature c o n d i t i o n s , t h e v e r t i c a l gust reserve i s
r
,
I: 3
, .. -.<
'
_..
;,,:', : ,': decreased. Therefore, i n case such c o n d i t i o n s are encountered, t h e r o t a t i n g
' . _ I .
speed o f t h e engine should b e i n c r e a s e d by .an -avecage of 5% f o r each 5-10"
k - .

\,
I,:, .,:. , 8. , , -.
: /. -.
<,
I. ; o f i n c r e a s e i n temperature, o r if t h i s i s impossible, a lower f l y i n g a l t i t u d e s
),,
\..
~

should be requested. I
,.I
.

1.' '

? I' .
As t h e temperature d e c r e a s e s , t h e a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t i n c r e a s e s (curve 4)
'
I

ad; ' and t h e curve of r e q u i r e d t h r u s t i s d i s p l a c e d t o t h e l e f t . The p o i n t of t h e i r


.;. , ' '
,
,
,x.
, ., '
'
. .
>
1 i n t e r s e c t i o n c d e f i n e s t h e new f l i g h t . s p e e d .
':~,, I ';
.>,
.I, . .. I
: 95. Most Favorable Horizontal F l i g h t Regimes. Influence of A l t i t u d e and ..
! .,, _ ' ')

"
.r :'-
,. .
>
.. > ...

The f l i g h t range i s t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l e d by t h e a i r c r a f t during t h e


, h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t and descent. If f l i g h t i s performed u n t i l t h e f u e l
i s completely exhausted, t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l e d i s c a l l e d t h e t e c h n i c a l range.
F o r . p a s s e n g e r a i r c r a f t , t h e f l i g h t range given i s u s u a l l y t h a t with one hour's
' f u e l reserve i f t h e f l i g h t schedule i s maintained. (recommended regimes).
t h e r e are v a r i o u s ways w h i c h - t h e aircraft can l e a v e t h e area of t h e
e l d and climb after t a k e o f f , t h e range o f f l i g h t covered during t h e climb
t o assigned a l t i t u d e changes s i g n i f i c a n t l y . However, t h e range covered during
t o a l t i t u d e i s r e l a t i v e l y . s l i g h t , s o t h a t i n t h e following w e w i l l
d i s c u s s t h e range of h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t .

The range of t h e h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t s e c t o r depends on t h e f u e l r e s e r v e f o r


h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t and on t h e rate a t which it i s expended, i . e . , t h e kilometer
expenditure c -- t h e expenditure of f u e l p e r kilometer of f l i g h t path.
k
',:,;* Before going over t o h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t , t h e a i r c r a f t must t a k e o f f and climb.
' , '
The f u e l expenditure during t h e time of t a k e o f f and climb t o 9-11 km f o r two-
': ! and three-engine aircraft is 1600-4000 kg.

'
The f u e l expended d u r i n g t a k e o f f and establishment of nominal f l i g h t
, ' . j regime (without c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f climb) i s 250-350 kg, t h e f u e l expended
-
/130

, , . : during t h e descent and landing i s 700-1000 kg. I n o r d e r t o determine t h e


! q u a n t i t y o f f u e l t o be used i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t s e c t o r Gf her, w e must
,- '!{ s u b t r a c t from t h e q u a n t i t y of f u e l t a k e n on board a l l supplementary expend-
,,,',: i t u r e s and t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l reserve. For example, with a t a k e o f f weight o f . -.....
..
,',; t h e aircraft o r 44,000 kg and an i n i t i a l f u e l weight of 13,000 kg, 7000
'>, 7700 kg o f f u e l remain f o r h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t a t H = 10,000 m, s i n c e about
"
2000 kg are expended i n ' t a k e o f f and climbing, 800-1000 kg f o r descent and
I , , ! landing and 2500 kg are h e l d as n a v i g a t i o n a l reserve.

123

For s h o r t e r range f l i g h t s a t t h e same a l t i t u d e , t h e o n l y change i s i n


t h e q u a n t i t y of f u e l r e q u i r e d f o r t h e h o r i z o n t a l s e c t o r , while t h e remaining
f u e l expenditure norms remain approximately unchanged.

The d u r a t i o n of h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t i s determined from t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p

where 5 is t h e hourly f u e l expenditure.

The hourly f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e i s t h e q u a n t i t y of f u e l expended by t h e


a i r c r a f t i n one hour of h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t . For example, f o r an a i r c r a f t with
t h r e e engines with a r e q u i r e d t h r u s t o f 6000 kg and a s p e c i f i c expenditure of
0 , 8 kg/kg.hr, t h e h o u r l y r a t e i s 4800 kg/hr.

The r e l a t i o n s h i p between h o u r l y and kilometer e x p e n d i t u r e s i s e s t a b l i s h e d


from t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : i n one hour of f l i g h t , t h e engines burn
\ kg o f f u e l . However, d u r i n g t h i s same time t h e a i r c r a f t covers a d i s t a n c e
numerically e q u a l t o t h e f l i g h t speed V ( i n calm a i r ) . Therefore, t h e f u e l
expenditure p e r km i s

where V i s t a k e n i n km/hr. If V i s taken i n m/sec,

ch
cK=- *
3.6V

For V = 880 km/hr and ch = 4800 kg/hr, we produce ck = 5.46 kg/km.

Both t h e hourly and k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e s depend g r e a t l y on t h e


s p e c i f i c e x p e n d i t u r e o f t h e engines c The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e
P
s p e c i f i c and h o u r l y e x p e n d i t u r e s i s e s t a b l i s h e d as f o l l o w s : f o r each
1 kg of t h r u s t and one hour of engine o p e r a t i o n , cp kg of f u e l are expended,
while a t h r u s t o f P kg r e q u i r e s t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f P times more f u e l .
Therefore,

124

I n Chzpter I V we e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c fuel expenditure depends


on t h e r o t a t i n g speed o f t h e engine, a l t i t u d e and v e l o c i t y of f l i g h t .
-
/131

L e t u s now go over t o an a n a l y s i s o f f l i g h t range. With i d e n t i c a l f u e l


reserve w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of p o s s i b l e speeds, v a r i o u s ranges w i l l b e produced.
For example, i n t h e example o u t l i n e d above with a f u e l load of 13,000 kg, a
t a k e o f f weight o f 44,000 kg, f l i g h t a t 10,000 m with a t r u e speed of
810 km/hr (M = 0.75-0.76) and an hourly fue1,expenditure of 2500 kg/hr, i n
calm a i r a range on t h e or-der of 2800-3000 km can be produced. With f l i g h t a t
a high M number (V > 810 km/hr), t h e range is decreased t o 2200-2500 km.
Figure 88 shows. a f l i g h t p r o f i l e f o r , an a i r c r a f t c a l c u l a t e d f o r various
h o r i z o n t a l ' f l i g h t speeds, which a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e above.

A head wind o r t a i l wind changes t h e


f l i g h t range.

Let u s analyze t h e i n f l u e n c e of
f l i g h t speed on t h e hourly and kilometer
f u e l expenditures. We can explain t h i s
f o r f l i g h t a t one and t h e same a l t i t u d e ,
using t h e Zhukovskiy curves f o r r e q u i r e d
and a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t (Figure 89).

F i g u r e 88. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c I n order t o achieve h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t


F l i g h t P r o f i l e of A i r c r a f t a t any given speed (Vmax' '1, 2' and vmf)
to Range a t Fixed A l t i t u d e
it i s r e q u i r e d t h a t P = P,'. This means
P
t h a t i n o r d e r t o f l y a t less than Vma,
t h e engine must b e t h r o t t l e d back s o t h a t t h e curve o f P passes through
P
p0int.s AI, A and A r e s p e c t i v e l y (Figure 89 a ) .
2 3
The hourly f u e l expenditure 5= cpP
P'
b u t s i n c e a t any v e l o c i t y o f -
/132
h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t Pr = Pp > Ch 5 cppr.

I n order t o decrease t h e f l y i n g speed, t h e r o t a t i n g speed of t h e engine


must be decreased. This r e s u l t s i n an i n c r e a s e i n s p e c i f i c consumption.
However, as t h e f l y i n g speed i s decreased, t h e value of Pr = G/K i s a l s o
decreased. Thus, as t h e engine is t h r o t t l e d back, cp i n c r e a s e s , b u t Pr
decreases. The hourly expenditure w i l l depend on t h e way i n which cp and P
change. W e f i n d t h a t as t h e f l i g h t speed i s decreased, t h r u s t P decreases .
more i n t e n s i v e l y than cp i n c r e a s e s . Therefore, c a l s o decreases; t h e minimum
h

125

"h min w i l l correspond t o Vmf, a t which Pr min - G/Kma. With V < Vmf, 5
begins t o i n c r e a s e , s i n c e P increases. Consequently, t h e g r e a t e s t f l i g h t
r
d u r a t i o n a t any a l t i t u d e w i l l occur when f l y i n g at t h e most f a v o r a b l e speed.

F i g u r e 89. Explanation of Influence of F l i g h t


Speed on Hourly and Kilometer F u e l Expenditures

Let us e x p l a i n how t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e i n f l u e n c e s t h e hourly expenditure.


I n 92 of t h i s chapter we showed t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t i s almost i d e n t i c a l
for t h e same weight a t a l l f l y i n g a l t i t u d e s up t o 10,000 m. However, t h e
r e q u i r e d speed i n c r e a s e s with a l t i t u d e . Therefore, t h e curves of r e q u i r e d
t h r u s t a r e d i s p l a c e d toward t h e a r e a of h i g h e r speeds with i n c r e a s i n g a l t i t u d e
( s e e Figure 85).

Since t h e a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t of t h e engine decreases with a l t i t u d e , t h e


curves o f t h e change i n t h r u s t with v e l o c i t y are displaced downward with an
i n c r e a s e i n a l t i t u d e . Therefore, whereas a t low a l t i t u d e t h e engines must be
t h r o t t l e d back, t h u s considerably i n c r e a s i n g t h e s p e c i f i c expenditure, a t
10,000 m l e s s t h r o t t l i n g i s r e q u i r e d and t h e s p e c i f i c expenditure i n c r e a s e s
only s l i g h t l y . When f l y i n g a t t h e c e i l i n g , t h e engines need not be t h r o t t l e d
back a t a l l . Therefore, as t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e s t h e product cpPr min
decreases, which e x p l a i n s t h e decrease i n hourly expenditure. Also, t h e
decrease i n \ with a l t i t u d e f a c i l i t a t e s a decrease i n s p e c i f i c expenditure a t
constant o p e r a t i n g speed. Therefore, t h e l o n g e s t f l i g h t d u r a t i o n f o r an
a i r c r a f t with a t u r b o j e t engine i s produced n e a r t h e c e i l i n g . F l i g h t d u r a t i o n
a t high a l t i t u d e i s 2-2.5 times g r e a t e r than a t low a l t i t u d e . The regime
of lowest hourly expenditure i s used when f l y i n g i n a holding p a t t e r n o r with
a s t r o n g t a i l wind (150-200 km/hr) i n o r d e r t o maintain t h e scheduled time of
arrival.

Let u s now analyze t h e way i n which t h e s e l e c t i o n o f f l i g h t speed


i n f l u e n c e s t h e kilometer expenditure. I t was shown above t h a t ck = eh//3.6 V.
S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e value \ = cpPr i n t h i s formula, we produce

126
If t h e p i l o t does n o t change t h e o p e r a t i n g regime of t h e engines, as t h e
f l i g h t speed i s decreased from Vcrl t o Vcr2, t h e angle of a t t a c k and c
ch=L Y
i n c r e a s e . Allowing t h e a i r c r a f t t o f l y a t h i g h e r angles of a t t a c k is danger
cI(=Ch= ous due t o t h e approach toward c and t h e s e p a r a t i o n l i m i t . Also, under
Y Per
r e l a t i v e l y h i g h temperature c o n d i t i o n s , t h e v e r t i c a l g u s t r e s e r v e i s
decreased. T h e r e f o r e , i n c a s e such c o n d i t i o n s a r e encountered, t h e r o t a t i n g
speed of t h e engine should b e i n c r e a s e d by an average of 5% f o r each 5-10'
In C h W e r I V w e established t h a t t h of i n c r e a s e i n temperature, o r i f t h i s i s impossible, a lower f l y i n g a l t i t u d e
on t h e r o t a t i n g speed o f t h e engine, a l t should b e r e q u e s t e d .

L e t u s now go over t o an a n a l y s i s o A s t h e temperature d e c r e a s e s , t h e a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t i n c r e a s e s (curve 4)


r e s e r v e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of p o s s i b l e s p and t h e curve of r e q u i r e d t h r u s t i s d i s p l a c e d t o t h e l e f t . The p o i n t of t h e i r
For example, i n t h e example o u t l i n e d abo: i n t e r s e c t i o n c d e f i n e s t h e new f l i g h t speed.
t a k e o f f weight o f 44,000 kg, f . l i g h t a t 1

810 km/hr (M = 0.75-0.76) and an h o u r l y

calm a i r a range on t h e o r d e r o f 2800-30 95. M o s t Favorable Horizontal F l i g h t Regimes. Influence o f A l t i t u d e and

a high M number (V > 810 km/hr), t h e r a n S p e e d

Figure 88 shows a f l i g h t p r o f i l e f o r an

h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t speeds, which a l s o i l l The f l i g h t range i s t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l e d by t h e a i r c r a f t d u r i n g t h e

climb, h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t and d e s c e n t . I f f l i g h t i s performed u n t i l t h e f u e l


i s completely exhausted, t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l e d i s c a l l e d t h e t e c h n i c a l range.
f l i g For passenger a i r c r a f t , t h e f l i g h t range given i s u s u a l l y t h a t with one h o u r ' s
V= 75-OK+,
f u e l r e s e r v e if t h e f l i g h t schedule i s maintained. (recommended regimes).
S i n c e t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s ways which t h e a i r c r a f t can l e a v e t h e a r e a of t h e
f l i g a i r f i e l d and climb a f t e r t a k e o f f , t h e range of f l i g h t covered d u r i n g t h e climb
f u e l t o assigned a l t i t u d e changes s i g n i f i c a n t l y , However, t h e range covered d u r i n g
f o r climb t o a l t i t u d e i s r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t , s o t h a t i n t h e following w e w i l l
u s i n d i s c u s s t h e range of h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t .
U 2800 L m and
The range of t h e h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t s e c t o r depends on t h e f u e l r e s e r v e f o r
Figure 88. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t and on t h e r a t e a t which it i s expended, i . e . , t h e k i l o m e t e r
F l i g h t P r o f i l e of A i r c r a f t at a e x p e n d i t u r e c - - t h e e x p e n d i t u r e of f u e l p e r k i l o m e t e r of f l i g h t p a t h .
t o Range a t Fixed A l t i t u d e k
it Before going over t o h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t , t h e a i r c r a f t must t a k e o f f and climb.
t h a t The f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e d u r i n g t h e t i m e of t a k e o f f and climb t o 9-11 km f o r two-
and t h r e e - e n g i n e a i r c r a f t i s 1600-4000 kg.
t h e engine- must b e t h r o t t l e d back s o tha
p o i n t s A1, A and A3 r e s p e c t i v e l y (Figur
2
The f u e l expended d u r i n g t a k e o f f and e s t a b l i s h m e n t of nominal f l i g h t
regime (without c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f climb) i s 250-350 kg, t h e f u e l expended
-
/130

The h o u r l y f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e ch = E' d u r i n g t h e d e s c e n t and l a n d i n g i s 700-1000 kg. I n o r d e r t o determine t h e


i q u a n t i t y of f u e l t o be used i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t s e c t o r Gf her, w e must
h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t Pr = P p , ch = c p P r .
s u b t r a c t from t h e q u a n t i t y of f u e l t a k e n on board a l l supplementary expend-

1
I n o r d e r t o d e c r e a s e t h e f l y i n g s p i t u r e s and t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l r e s e r v e . F o r example, with a t a k e o f f weight of
must be decreased. This r e s u l t s i n an , t h e a i r c r a f t o r 44,000 kg and an i n i t i a l f u e l weight of 13,000 kg, 7000
However, as t h e f l y i n g speed i s decreasc 7700 kg of f u e l remain f o r h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t a t H = 10,000 m , s i n c e about
2000 kg a r e expended i n t a k e o f f and climbing, 800-1000 kg f o r descent and
decreased. Thus, a s t h e engine is t h r o ; l a n d i n g and 2500 kg are h e l d as n a v i g a t i o n a l r e s e r v e .
d e c r e a s e s . The hourly expenditure w i l l 1 c
1
change. We f i n d t h a t a s t h e f l i g h t spef
more i n t e n s i v e l y t h a n c P i n c r e a s e s . 'ThlI
I

123
For s h o r t e r range f l i g h t s
t h e q u a n t i t y of f u e l r e q u i r e d f '
w i l l correspond t o Vmf, a t which Pr min - G/Kmm. With V < Vmf, ch
f u e l expenditure norms remain ch min
b e g i n s t o i n c r e a s e , s i n c e Pr i n c r e a s e s . Consequently, t h e g r e a t e s t f l i g h t
The d u r a t i o n of h o r i z o n t a l
d u r a t i o n a t any a l t i t u d e w i l l occur when f l y i n g a t t h e most f a v o r a b l e speed.

where % i s t h e h o u r l y f u e l expc

The h o u r l y f u e l expenditurc
a i r c r a f t i n one hour of horizon:
t h r e e engines with a r e q u i r e d t l
0 , 8 kg/kg-hr, t h e h o u r l y r a t e i t

The r e l a t i o n s h i p between hc
from t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o r Figure 89. Explanation o f I n f l u e n c e o f F l i g h t
% kg of f u e l . However, d u r i n g S p e e d o n Hourly and K i lometer F u e l Expend i t u r e s

numerically e q u a l t o t h e f l i g h t
expenditure p e r km i s Let u s e x p l a i n how t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e i n f l u e n c e s t h e h o u r l y e x p e n d i t u r e .
I n 9 2 o f t h i s c h a p t e r w e showed t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d t h r u s t i s almost i d e n t i c a l
f o r t h e same weight a t a l l f l y i n g a l t i t u d e s up t o 10,000 m. However, t h e
r e q u i r e d speed i n c r e a s e s w i t h a l t i t u d e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e curves of r e q u i r e d
t h r u s t a r e d i s p l a c e d toward t h e area of h i g h e r speeds w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a l t i t u d e
( s e e Figure 8 5 ) .

where V i s taken i n km/hr. If L S i n c e t h e a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t of t h e engine d e c r e a s e s with a l t i t u d e , t h e


curves o f t h e change i n t h r u s t w i t h v e l o c i t y a r e d i s p l a c e d downward w i t h an
i n c r e a s e i n a l t i t u d e . T h e r e f o r e , whereas a t low a l t i t u d e t h e engines must b e
t h r o t t l e d back, t h u s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e s p e c i f i c e x p e n d i t u r e , a t
10,000 m l e s s t h r o t t l i n g i s r e q u i r e d and t h e s p e c i f i c e x p e n d i t u r e i n c r e a s e s
only s l i g h t l y . When f l y i n g a t t h e c e i l i n g , t h e engines need n o t be t h r o t t l e d
back a t a l l . T h e r e f o r e , as t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e s t h e product cpPr min
F o r V = 880 km/hr and ch =
d e c r e a s e s , which e x p l a i n s t h e d e c r e a s e i n h o u r l y e x p e n d i t u r e . Also, t h e
Both t h e hourly and kilomet d e c r e a s e i n \ w i t h a l t i t u d e f a c i l i t a t e s a d e c r e a s e i n s p e c i f i c expenditure a t
s p e c i f i c expenditure o f t h e engi c o n s t a n t o p e r a t i n g speed. T h e r e f o r e , t h e l o n g e s t f l i g h t d u r a t i o n f o r an
s p e c i f i c and h o u r l y e x p e n d i t u r e s a i r c r a f t with a t u r b o j e t engine i s produced n e a r t h e c e i l i n g . F l i g h t d u r a t i o n
1 kg of t h r u s t and one hour of e a t high a l t i t u d e i s 2-2.5 times g r e a t e r t h a n a t low a l t i t u d e . The regime
of lowest h o u r l y e x p e n d i t u r e i s used when f l y i n g i n a h o l d i n g p a t t e r n o r w i t h
while a t h r u s t o f P kg r e q u i r e s a s t r o n g t a i l wind (150-200 km/hr) i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e scheduled time of
Therefore , arr i v a 1.
Let u s now analyze t h e way i n which t h e s e l e c t i o n o f f l i g h t speed
i n f l u e n c e s t h e k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e . I t was shown above t h a t ck = ch/3.6 V.
S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e v a l u e ch = cpPr i n t h i s formula, we produce

124
126

I n o r d e r t o s i m p l i f y o u r d i s c u s s i o n s , l e t u s assume t h a t c remains
P
c o n s t a n t with changing f l i g h t speed, i . e . , c o n s i d e r t h a t n e i t h e r a d e c r e a s e i n
engine t h r u s t n o r a d e c r e a s e i n t h e v e l o c i t y i t s e l f i n f l u e n c e s c Then i t
P'
f o l l o w s from t h e l a s t e x p r e s s i o n f o r c t h a t t h e minimum k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e
-
,133
k
w i l l occur a t t h e speed f o r which t h e q u a n t i t y P / V i s minimal. In order t o
r
determine t h i s speed, we u s e t h e graph on Figure 89 b . The q u a n t i t y
P / V = t a n $ ( a n g l e $ i s formed by t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s and a r a y from t h e
r
c o o r d i n a t e o r i g i n t o any p o i n t on curve P ) . When f l y i n g a t Vmf,
r
tan $ = P and when f l y i n g a t Vmm, t a n $ = P / V
r minlVmf' r max'
We can s e e from t h e f i g u r e t h a t w i t h d e c r e a s i n g f l i g h t speed, a n g l e 4
d e c r e a s e s and reaches a minimum a t a speed corresponding t o t h e p o i n t of
c o n t a c t o f t h e r a y t o t h e curve o f r e q u i r e d t h r u s t . This speed, a t which Pr/V
i s minimal, w i l l be c a l l e d speed V With a f u r t h e r d e c r e a s e i n speed, angle
3'
$ b e g i n s t o i n c r e a s e , i . e . , P / V i s i n c r e a s e d . Thus, i f we c o n s i d e r t h e
r
s p e c i f i c e x p e n d i t u r e c o n s t a n t a s t h e speed i s changed, (Pr/V)min and conse
q u e n t l y a l s o t h e minimal k i l o m e t e r expenditure w i l l be produced a t speed V
3'
A s we can s e e , V i s always g r e a t e r t h a n Vmf.
3
Let us now c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c expenditure i s n o t c o n s t a n t with
changing speed and c o n s i d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h r o t t l i n g of t h e motor on
c I f f l i g h t i s performed a t V w e have high P / V and nominal motor
P' max' r
o p e r a t i n g speed, s o t h a t c h e r e i s minimal. When we d e c r e a s e t h e speed
P
( d e c r e a s e motor o p e r a t i n g s p e e d ) , we d e c r e a s e P / V , but due t o t h e t h r o t t l i n g
r
o f t h e motors, c i n c r e a s e s . A t V3, t h e v a l u e of P / V i s minimal, b u t h e r e
P r
c i s i n c r e a s e d , s i n c e t h e engines are c o n s i d e r a b l y t h r o t t l e d . Comparing
P
t h e s e two extreme p o s i t i o n s , we might conclude t h a t somewhere between Vmax and
V t h e r e should be a speed a t which c P / V i s minimal. This speed i s s l i g h t l y

3 P r

g r e a t e r t h a n V3 and i s c a l l e d t h e speed of minimal k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e . For

H = 0 w i t h a s p e c i f i c l o a d i n g o f 350-420 kg/m2, t h i s speed i s approximately


450- 52 0 km/hr .

We can see from Figure 90 t h a t as t h e a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e s , t h e t r u e speed


corresponding t o t h e minimal k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e a l s o i n c r e a s e s . We can see
from F i g u r e 91 t h a t t h e minimal k i l o m e t e r expenditure d e c r e a s e s up t o
10,800 m , t h e n b e g i n s t o i n c r e a s e . The d e c r e a s e i n k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e of

127

f u e l with i n c r e a s i n g a l t i t u d e i s f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e d e c r e a s e i n t h e q u a n t i t y
P /V r e s u l t i n g from t h e i n c r e a s e d f l i g h t speed and decreased s p e c i f i c f u e l /134
r
expenditure.

I n t h i s example, t h e a l t i t u d e of 10,800 m a t which t h e minimum k i l o m e t e r


e x p e n d i t u r e i s produced i s c a l l e d t h e most f a v o r a b l e a l t i t u d e . For t u r b o j e t
a i r c r a f t it i s 1000-1200 m below t h e p r a c t i c a l c e i l i n g , a t which a c o n s i d e r
a b l e wave d r a g i s c r e a t e d due t o t h e high a n g l e s o f a t t a c k . T r a n s i t i o n t o
lower a l t i t u d e , i . e . , t o lower angles o f a t t a c k , d e c r e a s e s t h i s drag component
s i g n i f i c a n t l y and i n c r e a s e s t h e aerodynamic q u a l i t y . Let u s show t h a t t h e
k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e depends on q u a l i t y :

Figure 90. S p e e d of M i n Figure 91. Influe.nce of


imal Kilometer Expend F l i g h t A l t i t u d e on M i n
i t u r e o f F u e l As a imal Kilometer F u e l
Function of F l y i n g Expend i t u r e
Altitude (aircraft w i t h
two e n g i n e s )

We can see from t h e formula t h a t t h e k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e i s i n v e r s e l y


p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e q u a l i t y . Now w e can f o r m u l a t e a d e f i n i t i o n of most
favorable f l i g h t a l t i t u d e : t h e a l t i t u d e corresponding t o (KV) called t h e
max
most f a v o r a b l e a l t i t u d e o r t h e a l t i t u d e o f l e a s t k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e .

The dependence o f t h e a l t i t u d e of t h e p r a c t i c a l c e i l i n g and t h e a l t i t u d e


of minimal k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e on f l y i n g weight of a TU-124 a i r c r a f t i s
shown on Figure 9 2 , w h i l e F i g u r e 93 shows t h e dependence o f t h e minimal
k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e f o r t h i s a i r c r a f t on f l i g h t speed. We can s e e from t h i s
l a s t graph t h a t t h e minimal k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e i s produced a t

128

V = 752 km/hr. T h i s i s t h e speed V a t t h e most f a v o r a b l e a l t i t u d e .


C
k min
F l i g h t s a t lower and h i g h e r speeds and a t o t h e r a l t i t u d e s cause i n c r e a s e s i n
k i l o m e t e r expenditure.

I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a t speeds 5-8% (30-50 km/hr) h i g h e r t h a n


, t h e k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e i s i n c r e a s e d by an average of 1%( f o r
"k min
example, i f ck min = 3 kg/km, i t w i l l be i n c r e a s e d t o 3.03 kg/lcm), and t h a t
t h i s i s t h e optimal regime f o r l o n g - d i s t a n c e f l i g h t s . T h i s c r u i s i n g regime
i s t h e most economical as concerns t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t , s i n c e i t -
/ 135
consumes l i t t l e f u e l , allowing h i g h e r commercial load t o b e c a r r i e d .

For medium range f l i g h t s (1300-1500 km), t h e h i g h e s t c r u i s i n g regime i s


recommended, i n which t h e k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e h i g h e r b u t t h e i n c r e a s e d
f u e l load does n o t r e q u i r e a d e c r e a s e i n commercial l o a d , b u t t h e i n c r e a s e i n
speed does d e c r e a s e t h e f l y i n g t i m e , as a r e s u l t of which t h e c o s t o f t r a n s
p o r t a t i o n i s decreased. These regimes correspond t o f l y i n g a l t i t u d e s o f
7000-9000 m and maximal i n d i c a t e d speeds, o r maximum p e r m i s s i b l e M number a t
higher a l t i t u d e s .

rre 700 752 800 K M / ~r

Figure 9 2 . Height of Figure 93. Minimal Kilo


P r a c t i c a l C e i l i n g and meter Expenditure of F u e l
H e i g h t of Minimal Kilometer As a Function of F l i g h t
Expenditure o f F u e l As a S p e e d ( a i r c r a f t w i t h two
Function of F l y i n g W e i g h t eng i nes)
(TU-124 a i r c r a f t )

56. D e f i n i t i o n of Required Q u a n t i t y of F u e l

I n o r d e r t o determine t h e f u e l expenditure i n f l i g h t s t o v a r i o u s
d i s t a n c e s a t v a r i o u s a l t i t u d e s w i t h v a r i o u s winds, a s p e c i a l graph must be
used (Figure 9 4 ) . I n c a l c u l a t i n g t h i s graph, we assume t h e mean c r u i s i n g
regime of engine o p e r a t i o n , with a k i l o m e t e r expenditure of one p e r c e n t

129

I1 I I 1

g r e a t e r than t h e minimal. This i s s u f f i c i e n t t o provide a f u e l r e s e r v e


i n case t h e f l i g h t i s performed a t h i g h e r o r lower speed t h a n t h e minimal
expenditure speed. The climbing and descending regimes f o r t h e a i r c r a f t
a r e i d e n t i c a l i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l c a s e s . Therefore, t h e expenditures o f
time and f u e l f o r t h e s e p o r t i o n s of t h e f l i g h t can be considered c o n s t a n t ,
dependent only on t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e . The d i s t a n c e t r a v e l e d by t h e a i r c r a f t
during t h e climb and descent a l s o depends only on a l t i t u d e .

When it i s necessary t o determine t h e f l i g h t range o r f u e l r e s e r v e


p r e c i s e l y under s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ( s p e c i a l f l i g h t s ) , a graph of t h i s t y p e
must be c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h e regime s e l e c t e d . Figure 94 allows us t o determine
-
/136

without c a l c u l a t i o n s t h e range of an a i r c r a f t f o r a given q u a n t i t y of f u e l


f o r any p o i n t . For example, p o i n t 4 corresponds t o a f u e l r e s e r v e of
7750 kg and a f l i g h t range (calm wind) of 2220 km a t H = 10,000 m.

The lower p o r t i o n o f t h e graph p r e s e n t s c o r r e c t i o n s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e


i n f l u e n c e of wind.

Distance between a i r p o r t s (S),


Figure 94. Total Fuel Expenditure As a Function o f
Distance, A l t i t u d e and Wind

I f we must determine t h e f u e l expenditure f o r f l i g h t o f 1700 km a t


8000 m with a t a i l wind of 175 km/hr, we move from p o i n t 1, corresponding t o
s = 1700 km along t h e i n c l i n e d l i n e s f o r wind t o p o i n t 2 ' corresponding t o a
t a i l wind of 175 km/hr. Then we move v e r t i c a l l y upward t o t h e assigned
a l t i t u d e of 8000 m ( p o i n t 3 ' ) and h e r e read t h e f u e l expenditure: 5500 kg.
Adding t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l r e s e r v e , we produce t h e q u a n t i t y o f f u e l which must be
placed i n t o t h e f u e l t a n k s of t h e a i r c r a f t . For a f l i g h t of t h e same range
with a head wind o f 80 km/hr (point 2) a t 7000 m, 8000 kg w i l l be required
(point 3 ) .

130

I n p r o c e s s i n g t h e m a t e r i a l o f f l y i n g t e s t s with r e s p e c t t o f u e l r e s e r v e s ,
w e u s u a l l y determine t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e most s u i t a b l e as concerns t o t a l
f l i g h t Cost. Table 9 p r e s e n t s t h e s e a l t i t u d e s f o r one passenger a i r c r a f t .

A s w e can see from t h e t a b l e , even a t 200-400 km range, t h e f l i g h t should


b e performed at 4500-7000 m, s i n c e t h i s w i l l produce minimum f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e .
/137
F l i g h t s o v e r t h e s e ranges a t 1200-1500 m ( t h e a l t i t u d e of t h e IL-14 a i r c r a f t ) -
are i n e f f i c i e n t , s i n c e due t o t h e comparatively low t r u e f l y i n g speeds ( 5 7 0
600 km/hr, i n d i c a t e d speed 480-550 km/hr) t h e k i l o m e t e r expenditure i s r a t h e r
high.

TABLE 9
- . .. ~~
. . ~ * &-- __ -
Distance, km

Most favor
able a l t i t u d e ,
m

57. F l i g h t a t t h e "Ceilings"

With d e c r e a s i n g f l y i n g weight of t h e a i r c r a f t , t h e h e i g h t of minimal


k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e (most f a v o r a b l e a l t i t u d e ) i n c r e a s e s (Figure 9 2 ) . This
dependence i s used when f l y i n g a t t h e " c e i l i n g s . " The weight o f t h e a i r c r a f t
when f l y i n g t o maximum range can be reduced by 10-25 t (by 10-30% of i n i t i a l
w e i g h t ) . I n o r d e r t o keep t h e a i r c r a f t f l y i n g a t a l l times a t ck min, t h e
a l t i t u d e must be g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d as t h e f u e l i s consumed. The d e n s i t y
should b e decreased i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e d e c r e a s i n g f l y i n g weight. This t y p e
of f l i g h t i s c a l l e d f l i g h t a t t h e c e i l i n g s . This i s t h e way i n which maximum
range can b e a t t a i n e d . During t h e p r o c e s s o f such a f l i g h t , t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l
remain c o n t i n u o u s l y a t 1000-1200 m below i t s c u r r e n t p r a c t i c a l c e i l i n g .

We should n o t e t h a t c i v i l a i r c r a f t perform f l i g h t s a t assigned a l t i t u d e s .


However, it i s of i n t e r e s t t o t h e p i l o t t o know t h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e of f l i g h t
a t t h e c e i l i n g s , s i n c e he may f i n d t h i s f l i g h t n e c e s s a r y , f o r example, when
f l y i n g along o t h e r t h a n e s t a b l i s h e d a i r l a n e s and i n o t h e r cases when maximum
range must be a t t a i n e d .

Let us analyze t h e performance of a f l i g h t a t t h e c e i l i n g s ( F i g u r e 95)


u s i n g a TU- 1_24 a i r c r a f t . The i n i t i a l a l t i t u d e f o r t h i s t y p e o f f l i g h t w i l l b e
10,500 m. This a l t i t u d e ( p e r m i s s i b l e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e
e f f e c t on t h e a i r c r a f t o f a 1 0 - s / s e c v e r t i c a l g u s t ) w i l l correspond t o an
a c t u a l a i r c r a f t weight a t t h e i n n i n g of t h e f l i g h t o f 36 t (we w i l l
c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e f l i g h t i s nc- along an e s t a b l i s h e d a i r l a n e ) .

A t t h i s a l t i t u d e ( p = 0.0395 kg*sec2/m4, f u e l weight 8400 k g ) , t h e p i l o t

131

should e s t a b l i s h a h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t speed of Vc , which i n t h i s c a s e


k min *
corresponds t o M = 0.7. T h i s a i r speed w i l l b e maintained throughout t h e
e n t i r e f l i g h t . A f t e r approximately 2 h r 36 min, t h e p i l o t h a s expended
about 5200-5400 kg f u e l , i . e . , 15.5% of t h e i n i t i a l weight. The a i r d e n s i t y
should b e decreased by t h e same f a c t o r : 0.0395.84.5 = 0.0334 kg.sec2/m4
(84.5% d e n s i t y a t H = 10,500 m), meaning t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l a c t u a l l y have
r i s e n t o an a l t i t u d e o f 11,800 m ( s e e s t a n d a r d atmosphere t a b l e ) , i . e . , w i l l
have climbed by 1300 m, w i t h a v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y component o f 1300/156-60 =
= 0.139 m/sec. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n t h i s speed u s i n g t h e v a r i o m e t e r ,
p i l o t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e t h i n . n e e d l e o f t h e KUS-1200 speed
i n d i c a t o r . In p r a c t i c e , i t i s e a s i e r t o maintain t h e M number s t e a d y u s i n g
t h e M number i n d i c a t o r , s i n c e t h e v a l u e of a scale d i v i s i o n of t h i s instrument
i s 0.01. A t 10,000-12,000 M, t h e a i r temperature, and consequently t h e speed
of sound, remains p r a c t i c a l l y unchanged, so t h a t with c o n s t a n t M number, t h e
t r u e speed w i l l a l s o remain c o n s t a n t .

I n t h i s example as
t h e weight i s changed
f o r each 1000 kg t h e
flying altitude is
i n c r e a s e d by 200-220 m.
For a i r c r a f t with
h o u r l y f u e l expend
i t u r e s of 4000-5000 kg,
t h e increase i n
a l t i t u d e w i l l be
50-70 m . In f l i g h t a t
the ceilings, the
r o t a t i n g speed of t h e
engines and t h e M
36 min+28min = 3 h r 29 m i n number must b e kept
c o n s t a n t . If t h e a i r
Figure 95. P r o f i l e of F l i g h t a t t h e temperature changes,
c e i l i n g s : a , A t most f a v o r a b l e a l t i t u d e s ; t h e engine r o t a t i n g
b, C e i l i n g ; c , W i t h a l t i t u d e l i m i t e d speed should be changed
according t o f l y i n g w e i g h t by one p e r c e n t f o r each
So ( d e c r e a s i n g w i t h
d e c r e a s i n g temperature
and i n c r e a s i n g with i n c r e a s i n g t e m p e r a t u r e ) .

Flying t e s t s have e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t f l i g h t a t t h e c e i l i n g s can i n c r e a s e


t h e range by 3-8%. F l i g h t a t t h e c e i l i n g s can b e p r i m a r i l y used i n c a s e o f
engine f a i l u r e , when it i s necessary t o c o n t i n u e f l y i n g t o t h e assigned
d e s t i n a t i o n . I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e advantages o f t h i s t y p e o f f l y i n g a r e most
notable.

132

98. P e r m i s s i b l e F l y i n g A l t i t u d e s . Influence o f A i r c r a f t W e i g h t / 139


The o p e r a t i o n of j e t a i r c r a f t with high p r a c t i c a l c e i l i n g s (11,500
13,000 m) h a s shown t h a t i t i s n o t always p o s s i b l e t o f l y a t t h e s e a l t i t u d e s ,
o r even a t t h e a l t i t u d e o f minimal kilometer expenditure (most f a v o r a b l e
a l t i t u d e , Figure 92). The problem i s t h a t t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e of a high
speed a i r c r a f t is s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n o f maintenance of a
reserve f o r overloads i n case a v e r t i c a l wind gust is encountered. ChapterXI
w i l l p r e s e n t an a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t o f a v e r t i c a l g u s t on an a i r c r a f t , and
now l e t u s analyze t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a i r c r a f t weight on t h e s e l e c t i o n of
p e r m i s s i b l e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e , u s i n g t h e combined graphs c = f(M) and
Y Per
C = f(M).
Yhf
Let u s analyze t h e f l i g h t o f a TU-124 weighing 34 t a t 10,000 m a t a
speed corresponding t o M = 0.75, and e x p l a i n t h e p e r m i s s i b l e overload i n case
o f a v e r t i c a l maneuver from t h e s t a n d p o i n t of s a f e t y .

As we can see from t h e


CY hF f i g u r e , f o r t h e s e a l t i t u d e s and
M numbers t h e a i r c r a f t will have
= 0.3 and c = 0.715.
'yh f Y Per
Consequently, t h e r e s e r v e with

r e s p e c t t o c will be

AC = c y- = 0.715

Y Y Per CYhf
- 0 . 3 = 0.415. I n case a
v e r t i c a l gust i s encountered o r
i n case of maneuver, t h i s r e s e r v e
may be expended and t h e a i r c r a f t
w i l l find i t s e l f a t c . This
Y Per
r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e overload

C per 0.715
N per = Y = - 2.4.
Y C h.f. 0 .. 3
Y
Figure 96. Combined Graphs o f

Dependences o f Coef f i c i e n t s c
Yhf This w i l l be t h e value of

and c on M Number of F l i g h t p e r m i s s i b l e overload. Each


Y Per M number (with unchanged
weight) corresponds t o a d e f i n i t e
By j o i n i n g t h e p o i n t s corresponding t o t h e s e v a l u e s , we
Of CYhf'
produce t h e dependence c = f(M) (Figure 9 6 ) . A s w e can s e e from Figure 96,
Yh f
i n t h e range of numbers M = 0.7-0.75, t h e r e s e r v e with r e s p e c t t o c i s
Y
maximal. With high M numbers, p a r t i c u l a r l y a t M > 0 . 8 , t h e r e s e r v e of c i s
Y
decreased. This r e s e r v e i s a l s o decreased with i n c r e a s i n g f l i g h t a l t i t u d e
(with unchanged weight) and i n c r e a s i n g a i r c r a f t weight ( a t constant a l t i t u d e ) .

133

The r e s e r v e of c i s e q u i v a l e n t t o r e s e r v e a g a i n s t a v e r t i c a l g u s t . I n
Y -
/140
p a r t i c u l a r , it i s r e q u i r e d f o r a passenger a i r c r a f t t h a t i f an e f f e c t i v e
i n d i c a t o r g u s t o f 10 m/sec i s encountered, t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l r e a c h only
C n o t encountering s t a l l ( s e e d e f i n i t i o n i n C h a p t e r X I ) . Therefore; i n
Y Per
o r d e r t o avoid exceeding c and c a u s i n g t h e a i r c r a f t t o s t a l l , p e r m i s s i b l e
Y Per
f l y i n g a l t i t u d e s are e s t a b l i s h e d as a f u n c t i o n o f f l y i n g weight (Figure 9 7 ) .
I f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s are n o t observed, a v e r t i c a l g u s t o f lower magnitude w i l l
bring t h e aircraft t o c or stall.
Y Per
The d e c r e a s e i n weight r e s u l t i n g from consumption o f f u e l i n c r e a s e s t h e
r e s e r v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o c and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s e r v e f o r v e r t i c a l g u s t s ;
Y
t h e r e f o r e , t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e can b e i n c r e a s e d . I n t h e same way as t h e
a l t i t u d e i s decreased ( f o r example t o 5000 m), t h e r e s e r v e with r e s p e c t t o c
Y
and gusts i n c r e a s e s . For M = 0.6 (V = aM = 32000.6 = 198 m/sec) , c -
yhf
= 0.24 and c = 0.92 (Figure 96). I n t h i s case, t h e overload p e r m i s s i b l e
Y Per
with r e s p e c t t o c w i l l b e n = 0.92/0.24 = 3.83.
Y Y Per
Figure 97 shows a graph o f p e r m i s s i b l e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e ( f o r t h i s
example) as a f u n c t i o n of f l y i n g weight.

The s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e of
assigning a l t i t u d e intervals of
I f 500
1000 m a t a l t i t u d e s above 6000 m
rmu -r - - - reduces t h e " r e s o l v i n g capacity" o f
fUz0D -1- --- 4---
a i r c r a f t as t o p e r m i s s i b l e a l t i t u d e ;
tom -I- - - -I- - - 3- t h e r e f o r e , i t would b e more d e s i r a b l e
t o u s e s e p a r a t i o n s o f 600 m a l t i t u d e .
29 ' 32 '' 354 The h e i g h t s o f f l i g h t a t t h e c e i l i n g s
correspond t o p e r m i s s i b l e f l y i n g
Figure 97. P e r m i s s i b l e F l y i n g altitudes.
A l t ' i t u d e A s a Function o f Air
c r a f t Weight The l i m i t a t i o n on f l y i n g
a l t i t u d e i s n o t t h e only l i m i t a t i o n
f o r a high speed passenger a i r c r a f t .
The second l i - m i t a t i o n i s t h e p e r m i s s i b l e M number f o r f l i g h t s a t high
a l t i t u d e s (Chapter X$ 512). AS f l y i n g o p e r a t i o n s have shown, t h e most
f a v o r a b l e c r u i s i n g f l i g h t regimes as t o M number and a l t i t u d e f o r t h e f i r s t
g e n e r a t i o n of a i r c r a f t d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from safe regimes as concerns t h e
c o n d i t i o n s of encountering powerful ascending g u s t s .

59. E n g i n e F a i l u r e During Horizontal F1 i g h t

I n c a s e of engine f a i l u r e , i f c a n a i r c r a f t cannot c o n t i n u e f l y i n g a t
a l t i t u d e s o r d i n a r i l y used (8000-11,000 m). As we know, i n f l i g h t s a t a l t i
t u d e s below t h e c e i l i n g a t speeds lower t h a n t h e maximal, t h e engines a r e

134

t h r o t t l e d t o some e x t e n t . This i s a l s o t r u e of c r u i s i n g f l i g h t regimes a t

8000-11,000 m . The n e c e s s i t y of reducing engine speed i n t h e s e regimes causes /141

an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s p e c i f i c f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e . I n case of f a i l u r e of one

engine, t h e p i l o t w i l l b e forced t o s e t t h e remaining engines a t t h e nominal

regime (which i s permitted f o r long term o p e r a t i o n ) , which should reduce t h e

s p e c i f i c e x p e n d i t u r e . However, i n t h i s case t h e d r a g i s increased due t o

a u t o r o t a t i o n of t h e compressor and t u r b i n e o f t h e engine which has f a i l e d

( f o r example, a t V = 600-620 km/hr a t 4000-5000 m a l t i t u d e , t h e a u t o r o t a t i o n

drag i s 150-300 kg), l e a d i n g t o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e k i l o m e t e r and h o u r l y

e x p e n d i t u r e s . I n c a s e o f an engine f a i l u r e , h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t a t a l t i t u d e s

above 6000-7000 m i s impossible, and t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l descend t o 5500-6000 m

(two-engine a i r c r a f t , Figure 9 8 ) . For a i r c r a f t with t h r e e and f o u r engines i n

c a s e of f a i l u r e o f one engine, t h e d e c r e a s e i n a l t i t u d e i s not s o g r e a t .

The a l t i t u d e a t which
a t h e a i r c r a f t can f l y
without f u r t h e r descent
w i l l be e s s e n t i a l l y t h e
i n i t i a l a l t i t u d e of f l i g h t
a t t h e c e i l i n g s with one
nonoperating motor, i f
long range f l i g h t must be
Derformed and a landing"
0 500 I000 m-0 L, KM cannot be made immediately
a f t e r t h e motor f a i l s .
Figure 98. P r o f i l e of F l i g h t of A i r c r a f t .
w i t h Two E n g i n e s i n Case of F a i l u r e of O n e I n case of a motor
E n g i n e A f t e r 45 m i n F l y i n g Time: a , Point f a i l u r e , i t i s necessary
of f a i l u r e ; b , Descending t r a j e c t o r y ( t i m e f i r s t of a l l t o achieve
37 m i n , L = 400 km); c , F l i g h t w i t h t h e l e a s t p o s s i b l e r a t e of
increasing a l t i t u d e v e r t i c a l descent and
secondly t o decrease t h e
weight of t h e a i r c r a f t
r a p i d l y (using up f u e l ) i n o r d e r t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o continue h o r i z o n t a l
f l i g h t with one nonoperating engine a t high a l t i t u d e . Therefore, t h e descent
should be made a t t h e nominal regime, g r a d u a l l y decreasing t h e v e r t i c a l
v e l o c i t y component, which a t t h e beginning of t h e descent w i l l be
V = 3-5.5 m/sec. The i n d i c a t e d speed f o r each a i r c r a f t depends on t h e
Y
s p e c i f i c loading on t h e wing and t h e power f a c t o r . For exam l e , f o r an

8
a i r c r a f t with two engines and a s p e c i f i c loading of 350 kg/m , an i n d i c a t e d

speed of 430 km/hr was produced. The descent from 10,000-11,000 m t o t h e /142

p r a c t i c a l c e i l i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t with one nonoperating engine occurs i n

35-45 min. Over t h i s time, t h e a i r c r a f t covers 350-500 km.

I f i t i s necessary t o continue t h e f l i g h t , t h e p i l o t should s h i f t t h e


a i r c r a f t t o t h e regime o f f l y i n g a t t h e c e i l i n g s ; then i n 60-70 min t h e
a i r c r a f t w i l l cover another 650-750 km, with an i n c r e a s e i n a l t i t u d e of
800-1000 m and an average r a t e of a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e of 0.15-0.2 m/sec. F l i g h t

135

, .., .I.
should b e performed a t M = 0.50-0.55, corresponding a t 5500-6500 m a l t i t u d e t o
a t r u e speed o f 600-650 km/hr. The mean k i l o m e t e r f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e f o r an
a i r c r a f t with two engines a t t h i s s t a g e w i l l b e about 3 . 5 kg/km, which i s
approximately 0 . 5 kg/km g r e a t e r t h a n a t 10,000 m with two engines o p e r a t i n g .
Thus, t h e f l i g h t range with one engine n o t o p e r a t i n g i s always l e s s .

A g a i n i n f l y i n g range with one engine n o t o p e r a t i n g can be produced only


if t h e i n i t i a l f l y i n g weight was planned (due t o u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f h i g h e r
a l t i t u d e s o r o t h e r reasons) f o r a low a l t i t u d e , f o r example 6000-7000 m. F o r
example, f o r t h e TU-104 a i r c r a f t a t t h i s a l t i t u d e a t 800 km/hr, t h e h o u r l y
f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e i s 3100 kg/hr, and t h e k i l o m e t e r e x p e n d i t u r e i s 3100/800 =
= 3.88 kg/km. I n case one engine f a i l s , it i s p o s s i b l e t o f l y a t 5000 m and
620 km/hr, t h e second engine o p e r a t i n g a t t h e nominal regime w i t h an h o u r l y
e x p e n d i t u r e of 2200-2300 kg/hr. I n t h i s c a s e t h e k i l o m e t e r expenditure w i l l
be about 3.6 kg/km, i . e . , l e s s t h a n i n f l i g h t w i t h both engines ( f o r t h i s
a l t i t u d e ) and t h e p o s s i b l e f l y i n g range i n c r e a s e s .

In a l l c a s e s i n case of f a i l u r e o f one engine, t h e crew should r e t u r n


t o t h e a i r f i e l d o f o r i g i n i f p o s s i b l e o r land a t t h e n e a r e s t a v a i l a b l e
a i r f i e 1d .

010. M i n i m u m P e r m i s s i b l e Horizontal F1 i g h t S p e e d

The most f a v o r a b l e h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t speed i s t h e d i v i s i o n between t h e


two f l i g h t regimes. However, i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e minimum p e r m i s s i b l e speed,
t h e most f a v o r a b l e speed i s not t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , b u t c a l c u l a t i o n s
a r e based on c produced ?or low M numbers. The v a l u e of c which
Y per y max
i s used t o determine t h e s t a l l speed, i s a l s o n o t used i n t h i s c a s e .

Let u s determine t h e minimum speed o f h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t , i . e . , t h e speed


corresponding t o c assuming t h a t t h e wing a r e a i s 120 m 2 , t h e a i r c r a f t
Y per
weight i s 50 t , and c = 1 . 2 (from t h e graph on F i g u r e 9 6 ) :
Y Per

When v a l u e s o f c > c are achieved, t h e s t a b i l i t y o f an a i r c r a f t /143


Y Y Per
with a smooth wing ( f l a p s up) may be d i s r u p t e d . I n o r d e r t o prevent a l o s s of
speed and a s t a l l , t h e minimum p e r m i s s i b l e h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t speed should be
.50-60 km/hr g r e a t e r t h a n t h e a b s o l u t e l y minimal speed. I n o u r example, t h i s
w i l l be 320 km/hr. A f t e r 10 t of f u e l have been expended (Ginst = 40 t ) w e
produce (according t o t h e l a s t formula) t h e minimal p o s s i b l e speed of
240 km/hr, s o t h a t t h e minimal p e r m i s s i b l e speed w i l l b e 300 km/hr.

136

Frequently, i n o r d e r t o avoid t h e n e c e s s i t y o f memorizing many v a l u e s o f


minimal p e r m i s s i b l e speed, f l y i n g handbooks show o n l y t h e v a l u e f o r m a x i m u m
weight. I n our example, t h i s w i l l b e 320 km/hr. When f l y i n g a t t h i s speed,
an a i r c r a f t weighing 40-50 t o r l e s s w i l l have c < c by 30-40%. With
Y Y Per
normal o p e r a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t , f l y i n g a t 320 km/hr is n o t p e r m i s s i b l e ,
s i n c e even f o r c i r c l e f l i g h t s t h e speed a t t h i s weight (S = 120 m2) should be
350-370 km/hr.

T h i s l i m i t a t i o n w i l l provide f l i g h t s a f e t y .

137
Chapter V I I I . Descent / 143

91. General Statements. Forces Acting on A i r c r a f t During Descent

Descent refers t o s t e a d y , s t r a i g h t l i n e f l i g h t o f t h e a i r c r a f t on a
descending t r a j e c t o r y . Descent a t low power, when t h e t h r u s t a t 8000
10,000 m i s f l i g h t , w i l l b e c a l l e d g l i d i n g . Usually, passenger a i r c r a f t
descend with t h e engines o p e r a t i n g a t 80-86% r e v o l u t i o n s , a t which t h e t h r u s t
is g r e a t e r t h a n a t t h e i d l e ( f o r example, t h e i d l e a t H = 10,000 m might
correspond t o 72-74% r e v o l u t i o n ) . The p r e s e n c e o f motor t h r u s t i n c r e a s e s t h e
descent range and d e c r e a s e s t h e a n g l e of i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y .

Following h i s a s s i g n e d a l t i t u d e (9000-11,000 m) t h e p i l o t begins h i s


descent a t 250-300 km from t h e a i r f i e l d a t a h i g h i n d i c a t e d speed
(550-650 km/hr). The time f o r t h e beginning o f t h e d e s c e n t i s c a l c u l a t e d by
the navigator.

I n t h o s e c a s e s when t h e f l i g h t range i s n o t over 1000-1200 km and f u e l


economy i s of l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a n f l y i n g time economy, t h e descent i s
performed a t t h e g r e a t e s t p e r m i s s i b l e i n d i c a t e d speed o r M number.

Figure 99 shows t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g on an a i r c r a f t d u r i n g t h e descent with


engines o p e r a t i n g . The angle of i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e t r a j e c t o r y of t h e d e s c e n t
from 9000-11,000 m w i l l be 0 = 2.5-3', t h e p i t c h a n g l e = 2-2.5'. I t must b e /144
b e noted t h a t a n g l e 0 does n o t remain c o n s t a n t , b u t r a t h e r changes as a
f u n c t i o n of t h e v e r t i c a l component of t h e d e s c e n t , which i s maintained by t h e
p i l o t by s e t t i n g t h e corresponding engine o p e r a t i n g regime.

Operational e x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t d u r i n g a descent from 9000


1 1 , 0 0 0 m with t r u e speeds o f 850-900 km/hr, a t f i r s t a v e r t i c a l speed o f
8-10 m/sec must be maintained, t h e n g r a d u a l l y decreased s o t h a t by
5000-6500 m , when t h e p r e s s u r e i n t h e c a b i n i s c o n s t a n t (Figure 100) t h e
v e r t i c a l speed i s n o t over 5-6 m/sec. A t a l t i t u d e s o f l e s s t h a n 5000 m , t h e
v e r t i c a l speed can b e i n c r e a s e d t o 10 m/sec. We w i l l c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e
t h r u s t of t h e engines P a c t s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t ,
although as was s t a t e d above t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n angle B between f o r c e P and
t h e d i r e c t i o n of movement of t h e a i r c r a f t . The l i f t i n g f o r c e Y i s perpen
d i c u l a r t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of movement of t h e a i r c r a f t , and t h e drag 0 a c t s i n
t h e d i r e c t i o n o p p o s i t e t o a i r c r a f t movement.

For a s t a b l e d e s c e n t , it i s necessary t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t weight component


G cos 0 b e balanced by f o r c e Y , and t h a t f o r c e Q be balanced by t h e weight
component G s i n 0 and f o r c e P , i . e . , t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a l i t y be f u l f i l l e d :

138

Y=G cos 0 ; Q . = P f G sin 8.

rd

Horizon L i n e

Figure 99. Diagram o f Forces Acting on A i r c r a f t


During Descent: 1 , Longitudinal a x i s o f a i r
c r a f t ; 2 , Descent t r a j e c t o r y ; 6 , P i t c h a n g l e ;
0, , F l i g h t - p a t h a n g l e ; 4 , R i g g i n g a n g l e of
. incidence; a, Angle o f attack

The f i r s t e q u a l i t y i s t h e c o n d i t i o n f o r s t r a i g h t l i n e movement, while t h e /145


-
second i s t h e c o n d i t i o n f o r c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y on t h e t r a j e c t o r y .

92. Most Favorable Descent Regimes

I n o r d e r t o analyze t h e most f a v o r a b l e descent regimes from t h e s t a n d


p o i n t of f u e l economy, l e t us use t h e formula Q = P + G s i n @, which char
a c t e r i z e s t h e c o n d i t i o n of c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y . Let u s analyze a t f i r s t descent
with engines t h r o t t l e d .

We w i l l c o n s i d e r t h a t when t h e engines o p e r a t e a t t h e i d l e , t h e descent


occurs only under t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e component G s i n 0, when Q = G s i n 0.

Let u s assume t h a t t h e f l y i n g weight of t h e a i r c r a f t G = 33,000 kg, f o r c e


Q = 3000 kg with a q u a l i t y of 11 and t h e f l i g h t speed i s 810 km/hr. Then
s i n 0 = Q/G = 3000/33,000 = 0.091 and t h e a n g l e of i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e
trajectory 0 So.

I n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h i s angle 0, w i t h a forward speed of


V = 810 km/hr ( 2 2 5 m/sec) it i s n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n a v e r t i c a l speed

139

As t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e is decreased, t h e t r u e speed o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l
d e c r e a s e and, consequently, i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n t h e c o n s t a n t t r a j e c t o r y a n g l e ,
t h e v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y component must be i n c r e a s e d t o 15-17 m/sec.

With t h i s s o r t o f v e r t i c a l speed, t h e t o t a l d e s c e n t time t o t h e h o l d i n g


a l t i t u d e w i l l b e 10-12 min, and t h e t o t a l f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e 300-400 kg, t h e
descent range 120-170 km ( c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e d e c r e a s e i n v e r t i c a l
speed involved a t low a l t i t u d e s ) .

T h i s method of d e s c e n t i s used when t h e c a b i n a i r p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t i o n can


provide normal c o n d i t i o n s f o r crew and p a s s e n g e r s . Another descent regime
i s t h a t i n which t h e engine speed i s maintained o v e r t h e i d l e ( i n p r a c t i c e i n
passenger a i r c r a f t t h e d e s c e n t a t i d l i n g regime i s j u s t b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d ) .
When t h i s regime i s used f o r t h e d e s c e n t , t h e f u e l expended i s 400-500 kg
g r e a t e r t h a n i n t h e regime d e s c r i b e d above, b u t Z a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n s a r e
maintained f o r passenger and crew. Table 1 0 shows t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e
descent regime with l e a s t e x p e n d i t u r e of f u e l f o r a TU-124 a i r c r a f t .

In comparison with t h e descent regime a t t h e i d l e , t h e d e s c e n t t i m e is


almost doubled, and t h e range i s i n c r e a s e d by 50-100 km. The v e r t i c a l
v e l o c i t y components are s e l e c t e d from t h e c o n d i t i o n o f maintenance o f a
constant p r e s s u r e drop i n t h e passenger c a b i n . The d u r a t i o n o f t h e l a n d i n g
-
/146

maneuver (approximately from t h e r e g i o n of t h e t h i r d t u r n , see Chapter IX) i s


taken as 6 min (according t o s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a from scheduled f l i g h t s ) .

The next method i s d e s c e n t a t t h e h i g h e s t speed, i n which p i l o t i n g i s


performed a t t h e c r u i s i n g (maximum p e r m i s s i b l e ) M number o r maximum i n d i c a t e d
speed. I n t h i s regime, t h e descent must be begun 270-300 km from t h e landing
p o i n t . The f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e during t h e descent i s i n c r e a s e d , s i n c e t h e
engines o p e r a t e a t a regime n e a r t h e c r u i s i n g regime f o r h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t . /147
-
Table 11 shows t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e regime o f descent a t g r e a t e s t speed
(TU-124 a i r c r a f t ) .

53. Provision o f Normal Conditions i n Cabin During H i g h A l t i t u d e F l y i n g

The c a b i n o f a passenger t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t i s s e a l e d . I n t h e c a b i n , t h e
temperature (20-22C) , r e l a t i v e humidity and a i r p r e s s u r e a r e maintained s o a s
t o support normal v i t a l a c t i v i t y o f t h e crew and passengers d u r i n g high
altitude flight.

140
TABLE 10

V m/sec Eng i n e Des cen t Range, km F u e l expend


Y' "ind'
speed, % and i t u r e , kg
km/h r
landing
time, min
1

440 so 31'
-1
1 1 000
8.0
10 OOO 7,5 450 80 28,s
9000 '7.0 455 80 26,1
8 000 6,s 460 73 23,s
7 OCO 6,O 460 7.5 21,l
6000 5,5 465 75 18.2
5 000 5-10 470 60 15,l
4 000 10 475 60 13,4
3 000 10 480 60 11,s
2 000 10 490 60 10,2
500 60 S.3
1000

landing
10
- - 6.0
maneuver
from H=500m

An excess p r e s s u r e over t h e atmospheric p r e s s u r e i s i a i n t a i n e d i n t h e


cabin (Figure 100). A t . a l t i t u d e s between zero and 12,000 m , two p r e s s u r e
r e g u l a t i o n regimes a r e g e n e r a l l y used:

a) The regime of c o n s t a n t a b s o l u t e p r e s s u r e , during which from ground


l e v e l t o 4500-65'00 m y a p r e s s u r e of 760 mm Hg i s maintained;

b) A regime o f c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e drop ( d i f f e r e n c e between p r e s s u r e i n


cabin and atmosphere), i n which a t a l t i t u d e s over 4500-6500 m , t h e p r e s s u r e i n
t h e cabin i s 0.5-0.65 kg/cm2 h i g h e r t h a n t h e atmospheric p r e s s u r e . With
Ap = 0.5 kg/cm2 a t 8000 m, t h e cabin a l t i t u d e i s 1493 m, a t 10,000 m - - 2417 m ;
with Ap = 0.6, t h e cabin a l t i t u d e a t t h e s e a l t i t u d e s w i l l be 500-600 m lower.

Each of t h e s e regimes h a s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r a t e of change o f p r e s s u r e as


a f u n c t i o n of a l t i t u d e .

I n t h e c o n s t a n t a b s o l u t e p r e s s u r e regime, t h e a l t i t u d e i n t h e c a b i n
remains unchanged d u r i n g a s c e n t and d e s c e n t , equal t o zero. T h e r e f o r e , a t
a l t i t u d e s from z e r o t o 4500-6500 m a t any v e r t i c a l speeds p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e
(climb o r d e s c e n t ) t h e r a t e of change o f a l t i t u d e i n t h e c a b i n i s equal t o
z e r o . I n t h e c o n s t a n t excess and v a r i a b l e a b s o l u t e p r e s s u r e regime, t h e r a t e
of change of p r e s s u r e i n t h e c a b i n i s of e s s e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r high
a l t i t u d e passenger a i r c r a f t d u r i n g a climb and p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g a d e s c e n t ,
d u r i n g which v e r t i c a l speeds may r e a c h 45-70 m/sec ( i n an emergency s i t u a t i o n ) .

141

A t a l t i t u d e s Over 5000-6000 m, t h e v e r t i c a l climbing speeds are u s u a l l y huch


less t h a n descending speeds, 10-15 m/sec. /14

TABLE 1 1
- . _I_- .- ~ -~

H ,m V m/sec Eng i n e Descent Range, km F u e l expend


Y' 'ind'
speed, % and i t u r e , kg
km/hr
landing
time, min

11 000 8,O 480 84 31 270 960


10 OGO 7.5 520 83 28,8 240 900
9 cm 7.0 555 83 26,4 210 830
8 oco 6.5 595 82 23.8 175 760
7 000 690 600 82 21,l I40 680
6 GOO 5,5 600 81 18,2 105 600
5 000 5-10 600 80 15,1 65 500
4 000 10 600 79 13.4 45 460
3 000 10 600 77 11,8 30 400
2000 10 600 76 10,2 20 340
1 000 10 600 75 8,O 10 280
1 and i ng
- - 6,O 0 250
ma neuve r
from H-500m

The comfort o f most passengers v a r i e s s t r o n g l y w i t h t h e r a t e o f change i n


b a r o m e t r i c p r e s s u r e . During r a p i d p r e s s u r e changes ( p a r t i c u l a r l y during
descent) t h e passengers experience unpleasant and p a i n f u l s e n s a t i o n s i n t h e i r
e a r s . Therefore, t h e r a t e of change of c a b i n p r e s s u r e W should be
cab
= 0.18-0.20 mm Hg/sec, according t o medical requirements. Maintenance
'cab
o f Wcab w i t h i n t h e s e l i m i t s a t a l l a l t i t u d e s o v e r which p r e s s u r e changes w i l l
a s s u r e an even r a t e o f p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e . The r a t e o f change of cabin
p r e s s u r e i s equal t o

W cab = V y - A p H ,

where V i s t h e v e r t i c a l r a t e of descent (climb);


Y
Ap H i s t h e v e r t i c a l p r e s s u r e g r a d i e n t o f t h e atmosphere, mm Hg/m. For
H = 0, t h e g r a d i e n t Ap = 0.09, f o r H = 8000 m - - 0.038 and f o r
H
H = 10,000 m -- 0 . 0 3 mm Hg/m.

142

T h i s dependence can b e used t o d e t e r


mine t h e v e r t i c a l r a t e o f descent o r climb
f o r any h e i g h t , on t h e b a s i s of t h e
c o n d i t i o n o f maintenance of normal
s e n s a t i o n s of t h e passengers. For example ,
l e t u s determine t h e v e r t i c a l r a t e of
d e s c e n t o f an a i r c r a f t f o r W =
cab
= 0.18 mm Hg/sec:
F i g u r e 100. P r e s s u r e i n
Sealed Cabin A s a F u n c
For H = 0
tion o f F l y i n g Altitude
( p r e s s u r e drop Ap =
= 0.5k0.02 kg/cm2) :
1 , Pressure i n cabin;
2 , Atmospheric p r e s s u r e

For H = 10,000 m

v 0,18
=-- - 6
0,03 mlsec

Let u s now determine t h e p e r m i s s i b l e " v e r t i c a l speed" o f t h e descent i n a


passenger a i r c r a f t with s e a l e d c a b i n a t H = 10,000 m, i f t h e c a b i n a l t i t u d e i s
2417 m and t h e v e r t i c a l p r e s s u r e g r a d i e n t f o r t h i s a l t i t u d e Ap =
H
= 0.07 mm Hg/m: V = 0.18/0.07 = 2 . 5 m/sec. However, f l y i n g t e s t s have shown
Y
t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y component a t 10-12 km t o 8-9 m/sec
and a corresponding i n c r e a s e i n t h e v e r t i c a l i r e l o c i t y o f c a b i n a l t i t u d e t o
3-3.2 m/sec has almost no i n f l u e n c e on t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s .
Therefore, t h e descent can be begun a t 250-300 km from t h e a i r f i e l d , i n o r d e r
t o provide normal landing maneuver.

An improvement i n t h e v a l v e s o f t h e cabin a l t i t u d e system allows V t o be


Y
i n c r e a s e d and t h e r e f o r e allows t h e descent t o be i n i t i a t e d 100-120 km from t h e
landing p o i n t with t h e engines o p e r a t i n g a t t h e i d l e , which w i l l provide a
s a v i n g s o f 350-600 kg f u e l ( t h e descent a t t h e l e a s t f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e regime,
t h e i d l i n g regime, analyzed above).

The p e r m i s s i b l e " v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t i e s " i n t h e s e a l e d passenger cabin o f a


t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table 1 2 .

143

TABLE 12

Flying
altitude,
km

V i n cab i n ,
Y
m/sec

I t f o l l o w s from t h e above t h a t descent from high a l t i t u d e s should b e


performed a t a v e r t i c a l r a t e o f 8-9 m/sec down t o 4500-6500 m, t h e n w i t h any
v e r t i c a l r a t e r e q u i r e d , a s long a s t h e p e r m i s s i b l e i n d i c a t e d speed i s n o t
exceeded, s i n c e t h e p r e s s u r e i n t h e cabin w i l l be made c o n s t a n t a t 760 mm Hg.

S4. Emergency Descent

We have n o t e d t h a t i n s e a l e d cabins of t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t t h e a i r p r e s s u r e
i s 640-540 mm Hg w i t h a p r e s s u r e drop Ap = 0.50-0.62 kg/cm2 ( c o n s t a n t excess
p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t i o n regime).

The change i n t h e primary a i r parameters ( p r e s s u r e , weight d e n s i t y ,


temperature and humidity) a s a f u n c t i o n of " a l t i t u d e t t i n a s e a l e d c a b i n i s of
c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r l i f e support o f man i n f l i g h t . O f primary
s i g n i f i c a n c e i s any change i n p a r t i a l oxygen p r e s s u r e (p ) and i t s p e r c e n t
O2
content .
The p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e o f a gas included i n t h e composition of any gas
mixture i s t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l p r e s s u r e o f t h e mixture produced by t h e
s h a r e o f t h e gas i n q u e s t i o n . Oxygen e n t e r s t h e human organism, as w e know,
through t h e lungs, t h e a l v e o l i o f which are covered by a network o f blood
v e s s e l s . The p e n e t r a t i o n ( d i f f u s i o n ) of oxygen through t h e walls o f t h e blood
v e s s e l s i n t o t h e blood can occur o n l y i f t h e p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e exceeds t h e
p r e s s u r e o f t h e oxygen i n t h e blood. S i m i l a r l y , removal o f carbon d i o x i d e
from t h e organism r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e of carbon d i o x i d e i n t h e
blood b e h i g h e r t h a n i n t h e a i r i n t h e a l v e o l i o f t h e l u n g s . Thus, whereas
t h e p a r t i a l oxygen p r e s s u r e a t which normal gas exchange i s a s s u r e d under
s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e a i r i n h a l e d i s 159 mm Hg, t h i s f i g u r e f o r a l v e o l a r
a i r i s 105-110 mm Hg. The minimum p e r m i s s i b l e p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e o f oxygen i n
a l v e o l a r a i r , a t which blood s a t u r a t i o n of 80-85% w i l l occur i s 37-50 mm Hg.
T h i s p r e s s u r e corresponds t o an a l t i t u d e o f 4 . 5 km, and t h i s a l t i t u d e cannot
b e exceeded without s p e c i a l d e v i c e s t o i n c r e a s e t h e p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e /150
without oxygen s t a r v a t i o n . This a l t i t u d e i s t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l l i m i t f o r

144
f l i g h t i n nonpressurized c a b i n s without oxygen d e v i c e s . Oxygen s t a r v a t i o n ,
which causes s o - c a l l e d a l t i t u d e s i c k n e s s , may occur b e f o r e t h i s a l t i t u d e ,
s i n c e it depends t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on t h e work performed by man. The
symptoms of a l t i t u d e s i c k n e s s a r e headache, s l e e p i n e s s , decreased a c u i t y o f
v i s i o n and h e a r i n g , d i s r u p t i o n of d i g e s t i o n and metabolism. These symptoms
b e g i n t o appear q u i t e a c u t e l y beginning a t 4 . 5 km due t o t h e d e c r e a s e i n
oxygen supply t o t h e c e r e b r a l c o r t e x . I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e organism t o
compensate f o r a d e c r e a s e i n t h e q u a n t i t y o f oxygen i n t h e blood. T h e r e f o r e ,
t h e a l t i t u d e zone from 4 t o 6 km i s c a l l e d t h e zone of incomplete compensa
t i o n . Above 6 km t h e c r i t i c a l zone b e g i n s , i n which t h e d i s r u p t i o n of mental
a c t i v i t y , and f u n c t i o n s of t h e organism becomes q u i t e dangerous f o r s u r v i v a l .
I n t h i s zone, man l o s e s consciousness and can only b e saved by immediate
descent o r supplementary oxygen supply. The c r i t i c a l zone ends a t an a l t i t u d e
o f 8 km.

I n c a s e of a sudden s h a r p drop o f p r e s s u r e i n t h e cabin ( l o s s of cabin


p r e s s u r e ) , oxygen s t a r v a t i o n may occur. The t i m e from t h e beginning of oxygen
s t a r v a t i o n t o l o s s of consciousness i s c a l l e d t h e r e s e r v e t i m e . I t must b e
used t o descend t o an a l t i t u d e p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n .

I n c a s e of a l o s s of c a b i n p r e s s u r i z a t i o n o r i n o t h e r cases ( i n
p a r t i c u l a r i n case of f i r e on t h e a i r c r a f t ) r e q u i r i n g a r a p i d d e s c e n t , t h e
a i r c r a f t commander should d e c r e a s e t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e t o 5000 m ( s a f e
a l t i t u d e ) i n 2.5-3 min o r should perform an emergency l a n d i n g .

An emergency descent should be performed a t t h e maximum p o s s i b l e v e r t i c a l


speed. This can b e achieved by i n c r e a s i n g t h e forward speed and t h e angle of
i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y . The g r e a t e r t h e forward speed and t h e g r e a t e r
t h e a n g l e o f i n c l i n a t i o n , of t h e t r a j e c t o r y , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l b e t h e v e r t i c a l
speed. However, t h e speed of an a i r c r a f t i s u s u a l l y l i m i t e d a t high a l t i t u d e s
by t h e p e r m i s s i b l e M number, and a t a l t i t u d e s below 6000-7000 m by t h e
p e r m i s s i b l e i n d i c a t e d speed. T h e r e f o r e , u n l i m i t e d i n c r e a s e s i n forward
speed cannot be used, and t h e forward speed must be maintained w i t h i n
permissible l i m i t s .

The next p o s s i b i l i t y f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e v e r t i c a l speed i s t o i n c r e a s e t h e


angle o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y 0 . The l o n g i t u d i n a l f o r c e s must be equal d u r i n g
descent a t c o n s t a n t speed. I t should be kept i n mind t h a t i n a t u r b o j e t
a i r c r a f t d u r i n g an emergency d e s c e n t , t h e engines o p e r a t e a t t h e i d l e ,
c r e a t i n g i n s i g n i f i c a n t t h r u s t . We can s e e from t h e e q u a t i o n P + G s i n 0 = Q
t h a t s i n 0 = (Q - P ) / G , i . e . , t h e a n g l e of i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e descent t r a j e c
t o r y (with c o n s t a n t a i r c r a f t weight) i s g r e a t e r , t h e g r e a t e r t h e drag of t h e
/ 151
a i r c r a f t . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e d r a g of a t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t can be achieved by
lowering t h e l a n d i n g g e a r and s p o i l e r s . F o r example, during an emergency
d e s c e n t , c o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s 0.024-0.026 f o r M = 0.84-0.86. Lowering t h e
X
l a n d i n g g e a r i n c r e a s e s c o f t h e a i r c r a f t by 0.015-0.020. Lowering t h e
X
s p o i l e r s can i n c r e a s e cX s t i l l more. I n s p i t e of t h e high f l y i n g a l t i t u d e s
(9000-11,000 m), t h e impact p r e s s u r e r e a c h e s h i g h v a l u e s ( f o r example, f o r

145

v = 900 km/hr a t H = 10,000 m y q = 1300 k /m2, while a t 6000-7000 m w i t h


'ind

5
= 650-700 km/hr it i s over 2000 kg/m ) , which makes it d i f f i c u l t t o lower

and lock t h e l a n d i n g - g e a r if t h e y are r a i s e d w i t h t h e flow, o r t o lower them

if t h e y are r a i s e d a g a i n s t t h e flow. Therefore, i n o r d e r t o lower t h e l a n d i n g

g e a r t h e i n d i c a t e d speed must b e decreased by 40-60 km/hr. The l o s s o f t i m e

t o a c h i e v e t h i s i s compensated f o r by t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n a n g l e of

i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e descent t r a j e c t o r y and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e d e c r e a s e i n time

r e q u i r e d f o r t h e emergency d e s c e n t . A t t h e same time, r a i s i n g t h e s p o i l e r i s

p r a c t i c a l l y independent o f t h e impact p r e s s u r e .

Emergency d e s c e n t o f an a i r c r a f t can b e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main stageso!


1) t r a n s i t i o n t o descent with a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e maximum v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y of
35-40 m/sec with l a n d i n g g e a r up o r 65-70 m/sec w i t h l a n d i n g g e a r down;
2) s t a b l e descent w i t h t h e s e v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t i e s without exceeding t h e maximum
p e r m i s s i b l e M number a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s o r p e r m i s s i b l e i n d i c a t e d speed a t low
a l t i t u d e s ; 3) b r i n g i n g t h e a i r c r a f t out o f t h e d e s c e n t .

E n e r g e t i c t r a n s i t i o n from i n i t i a l c r u i s i n g regime t o t h e descent a t


M = 0.78-0.80 i s performed with an overload n = 0.6-0.55, and t h e c o n t r o l
Y
should b e performed u s i n g t h e overload i n d i c a t o r of t h e AUAP d e v i c e
(Chapter X I , 915). During t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , V = 35-40 m/sec can b e achieved
r Y
i n 12-15 sec, with t h e M number i n c r e a s i n g only t o 0.82-0.84 (with landing
g e a r u p ) . With a smooth t r a n s i t i o n with an overload o f 0.9-0.8, t h e v e r t i c a l
speed w i l l o n l y reach 25-28 m/sec a f t e r 35-40 s e c , and t h e M number w i l l be
approximately 0.85-0.86, i . e . , t h e r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n M number exceeds t h e
r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y . If t h i s mode of t r a n s i t i o n i s used,
t h e a i r c r a f t may q u i c k l y reach t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e M number o r exceed i t .
I f t h e t r a n s i t i o n i s performed w i t h n = 0.4-0.3 o r l e s s , it becomes d i f f i c u l t
Y
t o c o n t r o l t h e i n c r e a s e i n v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y , and t h e a i r c r a f t may reach
Vv > 35-40 m/sec and subsequently exceed t h e p e r m i s s i b l e M number. Therefore,
I
t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e descent should be performed with n = 0.6-0.55, which
Y
( a s w i l l be s e e n below) corresponds t o attainment o f a v e r t i c a l speed of
15-17 m/sec i n t h e f i r s t 5-6 s e c .

The second s t a g e o f t h e descent c o n s i s t s of maintaining a v e r t i c a l speed


of 35-40 m/sec with l a n d i n g g e a r up o r 65-70 m/sec with l a n d i n g g e a r down,
w i t h t h e M number i n c r e a s i n g t o t h e m a x i m u m p e r m i s s i b l e v a l u e a t t h e same
time. The a i r c r a f t should continue d e s c e n t a t t h i s M number down t o 6500-
/152
6000 m. The p r a c t i c a l l y p e r m i s s i b l e M number i s r e t a i n e d f o r 50-60 s e c , t h e n
d e c r e a s e s as t h e maximum i n d i c a t e d speed i s reached. S u b s e q u e n t l y , as
descent i s continued a t c o n s t a n t i n d i c a t e d speed, t h e M number drops (by
approximately 0.08-0.1 by 5000 m), and t h e v e r t i c a l speed d e c r e a s e s from
35-40 t o 20-25 m/sec.

Flying t e s t s have shown t h a t it i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o attempt t o b r i n g t h e


a i r c r a f t up t o t h e p e r m i s s i b l e M number, b u t r a t h e r descent can be formed a t
an M number 0.02-0.04 less t h a n t h e p e r m i s s i b l e , s i n c e i f t h e p e r m i s s i b l e

146

M number i s exceeded, subsequent d e c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l s h a r p l y


d e c r e a s e t h e v e r t i c a l speed. I t cannot be excluded t h a t d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s of
a descent t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l exceed t h e p e r m i s s i b l e v a l u e
( e i t h e r p e r m i s s i b l e M number o r i n d i c a t e d s p e e d ) . I n t h e s e c a s e s , i t i s
n e c e s s a r y f i r s t of a l l t o h a l t f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n M number, by s l i g h t l y
d e c r e a s i n g t h e v e r t i c a l speed (by 5-7 m/sec), t h e n once more d e c r e a s e t h e
v e r t i c a l speed by 5-7 m/sec, and when t h e M number reaches i t s p e r m i s s i b l e
v a l u e , t o r e - e s t a b l i s h t h e c o n s t a n t v e r t i c a l speed o f 35-40 m/sec ( o r
65-70 m/sec with landing g e a r down).

The t h i r d s t a g e i n t h e descent i s a smooth t r a n s i t i o n back t o h o r i z o n t a l


f l i g h t . This must be performed when t h e safe a l t i t u d e i s reached w i t h an
~ overload n = 1 . 1 - 1 . 2 , corresponding t o a l o s s of 350-400 m a l t i t u d e . The
Y
t r a n s i t i o n from t h e d e s c e n t ( c r e a t i o n o f n n o t o v e r 1 . 2 ) i s achieved by
Y
observing t h e change i n a l t i t u d e , overload and v e r t i c a l speed, not allowing
t h e maneuver t o b e performed i n l e s s t h a n 300-400 m.

As we can s e e from Figure 101, t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e of t h e a i r c r a f t with


landing g e a r up d e c r e a s e s by an average o f 1000 m each 30-32 sec, and t h e
t o t a l time of descent i s 2 min 30 sec-2 min 40 s e c . With t h e l a n d i n g g e a r
down, descent from 10,000 t o 5000 m occurs i n approximately 2 min. The
i n d i c a t e d speed g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e s from t h e c r u i s i n g speed (480-500 km/hr) t o
t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e speed (700 km/hr) r e t a i n i n g t h i s l a t t e r speed f o r
20-25 s e c from 6500 down t o 5000 m ( l a n d i n g g e a r u p ) .

The M number i s i n c r e a s e d from t h e c r u i s i n g v a l u e of 0.78-0.82 t o 0.85


( f o r t h i s c o n c r e t e c a s e ) which i t r e t a i n s f o r 50-52 s e c , t h e n d e c r e a s e s .

The v e r t i c a l speed i n c r e a s e s over 17-20 s e c t o a v a l u e of 35-40 m/sec


( l a n d i n g g e a r u p ) , t h e n r e t a i n s t h i s r a t e down t o 7000-7200 m , a f t e r which
(due t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t of an i n d i c a t e d speed of 700 km/hr, which must be
maintained by d e c e l e r a t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t with t h e e l e v a t o r ) it i s decreased.
With t h e landing g e a r , t h e v e r t i c a l speed reaches 65-70 m/sec and r e t a i n s t h i s
l e v e l f o r 50-60 s e c .

The overload i s decreased d u r i n g 5-6 sec of t h e i n i t i a l t r a n s i t i o n from


/ 153
i t s i n i t i a l v a l u e (n = 1) t o 0.6-0.4, then i n c r e a s e s t o i t s i n i t i a l v a l u e and
Y
f u r t h e r (depending on t h e p i l o t ' s o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s t i c k ) , remaining between
1.1 and 0 . 9 .

The p i t c h a n g l e 6 v a r i e s from '2 ( c r u i s i n g f l i g h t ) t o -(7-8O) w i t h


landing g e a r up o r -(20-2Zo) with landing g e a r down.

The angle of i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y i n a s t a b l e descent i s


0 = 19 + $I - a. For example, l e t u s determine a n g l e 0 i f t h e descent i s
performed a t M = 0.86 w i t h V = 38 m/sec, where H = 8000 m , t h e weight o f t h e
Y
a i r c r a f t i s 34 t , t h e wing s e t t i n g angle $I = l o ; w e know from c a l c u l a t i o n t h a t
f o r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s c = 0.171, a = l o , q = 1885 kg/m2. Then
Y

147

V = aM = 308-0.86 = 265 m/sec = 955 km/hr, and a n g l e 0 = 29 = 8 " , s i n c e

I n o r d e r t o achieve a d e s c e n t with l a n d i n g g e a r down w i t h a v e r t i c a l speed of


70 m/sec and a forward speed o f 955 km/hr, a n g l e 0 = 15-16".
-
/154

Figure 101. Recording of Parameters During Emergency


Descent of Turbojet A i r c r a f t : y - W i t h landing
g e a r u p from H = 10,000 m y M i n i t = 0.78; ----- , W i t h
landing gear down and preliminary d e c e l e r a t i o n from
H = 11,200 m , M i n i t = 0.8

The method of p i l o t i n g an a i r c r a f t w i t h landing g e a r up d u r i n g an


emergency descent c o n s i s t s of t h e following. Before beginning t h e d e s c e n t ,
engines a r e s e t a t t h e i d l e and, by moving t h e s t i c k r a p i d l y forward, t h e
p i l o t p u t s t h e a i r c r a f t i n a d e s c e n t . During t h i s maneuver, t h e p i l o t must
check t h e i n d i c a t i o n s of t h e v a r i o m e t e r , overload i n d i c a t o r and M number
indicator.

148
A t t h e moment when V = 15-17 m/sec i s a t t a i n e d , p r e s s u r e on t h e s t i c k
must be reduced, p u l l i n g Y t g e n t l y back s o as t o r e t a r d t h e i n c r e a s e i n
v e r t i c a l speed s l i g h t l y . When V = 25-30 m/sec i s achieved, t h e s t i c k must b e
Y
p u l l e d back smoothly t o r e t a r d t h e i n c r e a s e i n v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y s t i l l more,
g r a d u a l l y going over t o a s t a b l e descent a t a constant speed of 35-40 m/sec.

During t h e p r o c e s s o f i n c r e a s i n g V from 30 t o 35-40 m/sec, t h e M number


Y
i n d i c a t o r must be'watched, t o avoid exceeding t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e v a l u e .
Subsequently, a c o n s t a n t v e r t i c a l speed of 35-40 m/sec is maintained u s i n g t h e
variometer, and t h e M number i s not allowed t o exceed t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e
u n t i l t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e i n d i c a t e d speed i s reached ( a t approximately
6500 m). When t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e i n d i c a t e d speed i s achieved, t h e
descent i s continued a t t h i s speed u n t i l a safe a l t i t u d e i s reached.

The load can b e r e l i e v e d u s i n g t h e e l e v a t o r trimmer i n t h e process o f


s t a b l e descent when an i n d i c a t e d speed of 580-620 km/hr i s achieved, so t h a t a
p r e s s u r e o f 5-10 kg i s maintained on t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k . I f t h e f o r c e i s not
r e l i e v e d by t h e t r i m m e r , i t w i l l reach 50-60 kg. A s t h e i n d i c a t e d speed
i n c r e a s e s from 480-490 (beginning of descent) t o 680-700 km/hr, t h e e l e v a t o r
trimmer i s moved away by 2.5-3", and t h e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e trimmer reaches
4-4.5" by t h e time an i n d i c a t e d speed of 700 km/hr i s reached.

A s t h e assigned a l t i t u d e i s reached, t h e a i r c r a f t i s brought out of t h e


descent i n such a way t h a t i t l o s e s no more than 300-350 m a l t i t u d e i n t h e
maneuver. T h i s corresponds t o an overload of n = 1.16-1.2. A t a v e r t i c a l
speed of 5-6 m/sec, t h e engines can be t r a n s f e r y e d t o t h e r e q u i r e d regime.

P i l o t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t during an emergency descent with landing gear down


d i f f e r s only s l i g h t l y from t h e above. A f t e r t h e engines a r e s h i f t e d t o t h e
i d l e , t h e landing g e a r c o n t r o l l e v e r i s moved t o t h e "downT1p o s i t i o n , and t h e
a i r c r a f t i s d e c e l e r a t e d u n t i l t h e landing g e a r a r e completely down ( a t high
impact p r e s s b r e s , t h i s may r e q u i r e 20-22 s e c ) , a f t e r which t h e a i r c r a f t i s
put i n t o t h e descent by smoothly but f o r c e f u l l y moving t h e s t i c k forward. Due
t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n drag r e s u l t i n g from lowering t h e landing g e a r , t h e overload
involved i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n may be s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n i n t h e preceding c a s e
( t h e value may reach 0.3-0.4), s i n c e t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e /155
maximum p e r m i s s i b l e M number occurs somewhat more slowly.

When a v e r t i c a l speed of 22-24 m/sec i s reached, t h e p r e s s u r e on t h e


s t i c k must be decreased, and a t V = 35-40 m/sec t h e r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n
Y
v e r t i c a l speed must be decreased, and a v e r t i c a l speed must be gradually
brought up t o 65-70 m/sec.

149

Chapter IX. The Landing

1. Diagrams o f L a n d i n g Approach /155

The d e s c e n t of an a i r c r a f t i n t h e r e g i o n of t h e a i r f i e l d t o t h e a l t i t u d e
o f c i r c l i n g f l i g h t i s g e n e r a l l y performed u s i n g t h e o u t e r marker beacon
(OMB) o r t h e e n t r a n c e c o r r i d o r beacon u s i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r - r a n g e f i n d e r
system, t h e on-board and ground based r a d a r s .

During t h e p r o c e s s of t h e d e s c e n t , t h e a i r c r a f t i s guided t o t h e a i r f i e l d
s o t h a t t h e f l y i n g t i m e i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e a i r p o r t i s 5-6 min. This allows
t h e f u e l e x p e n d i t u r e t o be decreased ( t h e a i r c r a f t f l i e s f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f
time with l a n d i n g g e a r down), and decreases t h e f l y i n g t i m e and c o s t of a i r
travel.

Therefore, t h e approach i s e i t h e r d i r e c t o r u s e s t h e s h o r t e s t p a t h , i n
which t h e a i r c r a f t i s brought i n i n t h e r e g i o n of t h e t h i r d t u r n (Figure 102).
I f t h e approach i s d i r e c t , a t 25-30 km from t h e a i r f i e l d t h e a i r c r a f t descends /156
t o 400-600 m and d e c r e a s e s i t s speed t o t h e landing g e a r down speed. When
t h i s a l t i t u d e i s reached, t h e landing g e a r a r e lowered a t 12-15 km from t h e
OMB ( t h i s range i s checked u s i n g t h e range f i n d e r o r by commands from t h e
e a r t h ) , and t h e f l a p s a r e lowered by 15-20". The f l a p s a r e lowered completely
before entering the glide.

During a descending approach, t h e speed o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s decreased


i n t h e r e g i o n of t h e t h i r d t u r n d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f descent t o t h e c i r c l i n g
a l t i t u d e , and t h e landing g e a r a r e lowered. The f l a p s are dropped by 15-20"
between t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h t u r n s . The f o u r t h t u r n i s performed with t h i s
f l y i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n , u s u a l l y a t 12-16 km from t h e runway, t h e f l a p s a r e
d e f l e c t e d f u l l y and t h e a i r c r a f t follows t h e course t o t h e runway a t c o n s t a n t
a l t i t u d e u n t i l it enters the glide path.

With forward movement speeds i n t h e d e s c e n t of 350-500 km/hr and landing


speeds of 200-250 km/hr, a j e t a i r c r a f t w i l l cover c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e
d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f descent and speed r e d u c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e e x t e n t o f
t h e t u r n s and p a r t i c u l a r l y of t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e . s e c t o r s between t u r n s w i l l be
correspondingly i n c r e a s e d . A s a r e s u l t , a f t e r t h e f o u r t h t u r n t h e a i r c r a f t
w i l l be a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e from t h e runway (12-16 km).

The i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e g l i d e p a t h i s g e n e r a l l y 2" 40 min-4', as a


r e s u l t of which t h e t r a j e c t o r y of t h e a i r c r a f t ( a f t e r i t e n t e r s t h e g l i d e
p a t h ) i s smooth. The g l i d e p a t h i s e n t e r e d a t 7.5-8.5 km from t h e runway.

The OMB i s g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d 4 km from t h e runway, t h e boundary marker


beacon (BMB) a t 1000 m from t h e runway. The a l t i t u d e over t h e OMB should be
200 m a over t h e BMB - - 60 m . For t h e s e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e s , t h e v e r t i c a l
v e l o c i t y component o f t h e a i r c r a f t should b e 3-3.5 m/sec.

150

Figure 102. Diagram o f Approach t o Landing ( a ) and


G1 i d e ( b )

52. F l i g h t A f t e r E n t r y i n t o G l i d e Path. Selection o f G l i d i n g Speed

According t o t h e norms of ICAO, t h e g l i d i n g speed d u r i n g t h e d e s c e n t on


t h e g l i d e p a t h should be 30% g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s t a l l speed f o r t h e l a n d i n g
c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t , i . e . , V = 1 . 3 Vs (where V is the s t a l l
gl 0
speed with f l a p s i n t h e g l i d i n g p o s i t i o n ) .

A s we can s e e from Figure 16, f o r a maximum f l a p angle of 38", flow


s e p a r a t i o n on t h e wing begins a t c = 1 . 8 5 . For a mean landing weight o f 35 t
Y
and a wing a r e a of 110 m2, t h i s corresponds t o a s t a l l speed

= 1 4 . 4 ~ 3 5 , 0 0 0 / 1 1 0 * 1 . 8 5= 190 km/hr.
Vs 0

Then t h e g l i d i n g speed i s

Before t h e beginning o f l e v e l i n g o f f , g l i d i n g i s performed a t c o n s t a n t


speed, i n t h i s c a s e 250 km/hr. With t h e s t a n d a r d a n g l e o f i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e -
/157

151

2 O 40 min, t h e v e r t i c a l r a t e o f descent V = V s i n 0 = 69.5.0.0466 =


Y gl
= 3.24 m/sec ( h e r e s i n 2" 40 min = 0.0466, V = 250 km/hr = 69.5 m/sec)
gl
.
Establishment of a c o n s t a n t g l i d i n g speed a f t e r complete lowering of
t h e f l a p s f a c i l i t a t e s p i l o t i n g , s i n c e i t does not r e q u i r e a change i n t h e
o p e r a t i n g regime o f t h e engines o r a d e c r e a s e i n t h e speed from t h e moment
of e n t r y i n t o t h e g l i d e p a t h u n t i l t h e a i r c r a f t p a s s e s o v e r t h e OMB, BMB and
500-m mark, s o t h a t t h e p i l o t i s less d i s t r a c t e d from t h e i n s t r u m e n t s .

I f t h e a i r c r a f t e n t e r s t h e g l i d e p a t h a t 400 m a l t i t u d e and 8 km range


from t h e runway (Figure 102), f l i g h t t o t h e OMB i n calm a i r ( t h e a i r c r a f t
c r o s s e s t h e beacon a t 200 m a l t i t u d e ) r e q u i r e s t = 2 0 0 : 3.24 = 61 s e c .

The d i f f e r e n c e i n a l t i t u d e s of f l i g h t over t h e OMB and BMB i s 140 m,


and t h e time of d e s c e n t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e t = 140: 3.24 = 43 s e c . The
f l y i n g speed of 250 km/hr corresponds t o an angle of a t t a c k ci = 5"
(Figure 1 6 ) . Let u s now determine, assuming I$ = l o , t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e
a i r c r a f t concerning t h e landing g l i d e p a t h , i . e . , t h e p i t c h a n g l e :
i? = -2" 40 min + 5' - l o = 1' 20 min.

Thus, t h e a i r c r a f t a x i s h a s a p o s i t i v e angle w i t h n e g a t i v e descent


angle 0. I f , due t o high mechanization of t h e wing ( t h r e e s l i t f l a p s and
secondary c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s ) t h e g l i d i n g speed i s decreased (240-220 km/hr),
t h e p i t c h angle i n c r e a s e s . Therefore, t h e f l y i n g time from t h e moment t h e
a i r c r a f t e n t e r s t h e g l i d e p a t h u n t i l it f l i e s over t h e OMB and BMB a t lower
speeds i s i n c r e a s e d , and t h e p i l o t ' s r e s e r v e time i n c r e a s e s . As a r e s u l t ,
t h e f o u r t h t u r n can be formed c l o s e r t o t h e end o f t h e runway.

As t h e g l i d i n g speed i s decreased a t t h e same t r a j e c t o r y a n g l e , t h e


v e r t i c a l speed i s decreased, and with t h e i n c r e a s i n g angle of a t t a c k t h e
p i t c h angle i n c r e a s e s , worsening t h e view from t h e p i l o t ' s c a b i n .

Let u s analyze t h e engine o p e r a t i o n regime r e q u i r e d f o r g l i d i n g f l i g h t


of t h e a i r c r a f t .

With t h e landing g e a r down, f l a p s down and a i r b r a k e extended, t h e aero


dynamic q u a l i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t K = 5-6 and t h e g l i d i n g angle 0 = 9-10"
( t a n 0 = 1 / K = 1 / 5 . 5 = 0.183, 0 10") , b u t i n t h i s c a s e t h e engine t h r u s t
should be n e a r zero.

A c t u a l l y , t h e a i r c r a f t descends along t h e g l i d e p a t h with engines


o p e r a t i n g a t angle 0 = 2" 40 min. This a n g l e corresponds t o q u a l i t y

152

For c = 1.06 ( a n g l e of a t t a c k So, Figure 1 6 ) , we produce c = 0.19


Y X
(without a i r b r a k e ) . From t h i s v a l u e o f c we must s u b t r a c t t h e v a l u e of
X
c o e f f i c i e n t cR o f r e q u i r e d engine t h r u s t , i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n K = 21.5 where
c = 1.06:
Y

/158

from which

This v a l u e of t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t corresponds t o a t h r u s t consumption

P = c qS = 0.141*300*110 = 4650 kg, i . e . , 2325. kg t h r u s t f o r each engine

R
(with a two-engine a i r c r a f t ) . This t h r u s t i s s e v e r a l times g r e a t e r t h a n t h e

i d l i n g t h r u s t (300-500 k g ) . I f t h e a i r b r a k e i s extended, t h e t h r u s t must be

i n c r e a s e d ( t o m a i n t a i n t h e g l i d i n g angle unchanged, s i n c e c i s i n c r e a s e d t o

X
0.226) :

c --*- 1 % -0.226=@~0493-0,226.= 10,1771;


R-21.5
P=O ,177 -300-110=5840 kg

As we can see, t h e t h r u s t i s i n c r e a s e d by almost 25%.

I f a f t e r t h e a i r b r a k e i s extended t h e engine o p e r a t i n g regime i s l e f t


unchanged, t h e angle o f i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e d e s c e n t t r a j e c t o r y w i l l be
i n c r e a s e d t o 4" 30 min and t h e a i r c r a f t may come down b e f o r e t h e beginning of
t h e runway. In o r d e r t o determine t h e new angle of d e s c e n t , we must f i r s t
f i n d t h e q u a l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t from t h e e q u a t i o n c = (1.06/K) - 0 . 2 2 6 =
R
= -0.141 :

and t h e n f i n d t h e d e s c e n t angle

153

..

The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a i r b r a k e i s q u i t e h i g h , s i n c e as c is increased
X
t h e l i f t of t h e wing remains p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same. T h e r e f o r e , as t h e landing
g e a r a r e lowered t h e a i r c r a f t h a s no tendency t o wing s t a l l , b u t only shows a
change i n t h e i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y .

53. Stages i n t h e Landing

The f l i g h t of t h e a i r c r a f t (descent) from 15 m (according t o t h e ICAO


norms) c o n s i s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g main s t a g e s : I) g l i d i n g from 15 m a l t i t u d e a t
.
V = 1 . 3 Vs u n t i l l e v e l i n g o f f i s begun; 2 ) l e v e l i n g o f f u n t i l t h e moment of
gl 0
l a n d i n g and 3) t h e l a n d i n g run.

F i g u r e 103 shows a diagram of t h e d e f i n i t i o n of r e q u i r e d runway l e n g t h


and a p r o f i l e o f a i r c r a f t f l i g h t from 15 m downward.

The t o t a l l e n g t h o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y of t h e
a i r b o r n e s e c t o r and t h e landing run i s c a l l e d t h e l a n d i n g d i s t a n c e . The I159
r e q u i r e d runway l e n g t h i s determined f o r s t a n d a r d and d e s i g n m e t e o r o l o g i c a l
c o n d i t i o n s with t h e maximum landing weight of an a i r c r a f t and d r y runway.

Gliding - - s t r a i g h t
l i n e f l i g h t of the
a i r c r a f t on a
descending t r a j e c t o r y
at constant velocity.
Gliding i s usually

1
performed a t 250
220 km/hr i n d i c a t e d ,
anding d i s t a n c e with an angle o f a t t a c k
requ i red runway l e n g t h = c1 = 5-5.5" and
landing d i s t x 1.43 c = 0.95-1.1.
Y
Figure 103. P r o f i l e of Descent o f A i r c r a f t Prelanding g l i d i n g
from H = 15 m i s not gliding i n its
p u r e form, s i n c e t h e
engines c r e a t e
approximately 1800-2000 kg t h r u s t each. This t h r u s t i s r e q u i r e d t o r e t a i n t h e
a i r c r a f t speed and r e t a i n good motor r e a d i n e s s i n c a s e i t becomes necessary t o
c i r c l e once more o r f o r a d d i t i o n a l t h r u s t t o c o r r e c t t h e landing p a t t e r n . If
t h e a i r b r a k e i s extended, t h e engine o p e r a t i n g regime must b e i n c r e a s e d by
5-6%, i n c r e a s i n g t h e s a f e t y i n case a second c i r c l e i s r e q u i r e d .

154

When g l i d i n g from 15 m t o t h e h e i g h t where t h e l e v e l i n g i s begun, t h e


a i r c r a f t t r a v e l s 150-200 m. The v e r t i c a l speed i n t h e s e c t o r i s 3-5 m/sec.

With t h e a i r b r a k e extended, t h e q u a l i t y i s decreased t o 4.5-5, and t h e


angle o f i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y can b e i n c r e a s e d when n e c e s s a r y t o
9-11'. I n t h i s c a s e , t h e l e n g t h of t h e g l i d i n g s e c t o r from 15 m down
d e c r e a s e s t o 100-150 m. The v e r t i c a l speed can b e i n c r e a s e d t o 8-9 m/sec.

Extending t h e f u s e l a g e a i r b r a k e c r e a t e s p i t c h i n g moment and f a c i l i t a t e s


b a l a n c i n g t h e a i r c r a f t , s i n c e t h e f l a p s t e n d t o c r e a t e a p i t c h i n g moment i n
t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . The a i r c r a f t must b e balanced s o t h a t s l i g h t p u l l i n g
loads are f e l t on t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k a t a l l times.

Leveling o f f . During l e v e l i n g o f f , which begins a t an a l t i t u d e o f


8-10 m, t h e movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s curved and t h e speed d e c r e a s e s . By
p u l l i n g t h e s t i c k back, t h e p i l o t i n c r e a s e s t h e l i f t , which becomes g r e a t e r
t h a n t h e weight component and t h e r e f o r e t h e t r a j e c t o r y i s curved. I n /160
p r a c t i c e , d u r i n g l e v e l i n g o f f t h e a i r c r a f t does n o t f l y h o r i z o n t a l l y , b u t
r a t h e r a t a s l i g h t a n g l e t o t h e ground (0.5-0.8'). I n performing t h i s oper
a t i o n , t h e p i l o t d e c r e a s e s t h e angle of i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e t r a j e c t o r y and t h e
v e r t i c a l r a t e of d e s c e n t t o t h e p o i n t t h a t a l T s o f t l ftouchdown i s provided.
T h i s d e c r e a s e i n speed r e s u l t s from two f a c t o r s : f i r s t o f a l l , t h e angle of
a t t a c k i s i n c r e a s e d , i n c r e a s i n g d r a g Q ( f o r s t a b l e l a n d i n g a n g l e s of a t t a c k
9-10", t h e drag i n c r e a s e s by 25-30%) and, secondly, b e f o r e t h e beginning of
l e v e l i n g o f f t h e p i l o t t h r o t t l e s back t h e engines and t h e r e b y d e c r e a s e s t h e i r
t h r u s t . Leveling o f f i s completed a t an a l t i t u d e of 1-0.5 m , s o t h a t t h e
touchdown occurs on t h e main wheels a t l a n d i n g speed with s l i g h t p a r a c h u t i n g .
I n o r d e r t o r e t a i n l i f t d u r i n g t h e process of l e v e l i n g o f f , t h e angle of
a t t a c k must b e i n c r e a s e d t o t h e landing a n g l e of a t t a c k . During p a r a c h u t i n g ,
t h e l i f t i s less t h a n t h e weight of t h e a i r c r a f t by 25-30%.

When an a i r c r a f t l a n d s w i t h a i r b r a k e r e t r a c t e d , t h e l e n g t h of t h e
l e v e l i n g s e c t o r i s i n c r e a s e d , while i f t h e a i r b r a k e i s extended, due t o t h e
b e t t e r braking t h e l e n g t h of t h e landing s e c t o r i s decreased by 50-100 m.

During t h e l e v e l i n g s e c t o r , t h e speed of t h e a i r c r a f t i s decreased from


The l e n g t h o f t h e l e v e l i n g o p e r a t i o n depends on t h e d i f f e r e n c e
g l to "w
between t h e s e speeds. With a d i f f e r e n c e of 30 km/hr, i t amounts t o 350-400 m .
The g r e a t e r t h e landing angle of a t t a c k (8-lo'), t h e longer t h e b r a k i n g of t h e
a i r c r a f t and t h e g r e a t e r t h e l e n g t h o f t h e l e v e l i n g s e c t o r . As a r e s u l t , t h e
landing d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s , i n s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l e n g t h of t h e run i s
decreased s l i g h t l y by landing a t h i g h angle of a t t a c k . As f l y i n g t e s t s have
shown, i t i s more s u i t a b l e t o "brake" on t h e ground ( d u r i n g t h e run) t h a n i n
t h e a i r , when t h e aerodynamic q u a l i t y is r a t h e r h i g h (6-7). This l e a d s us t o
t h e following conclusion: i n o r d e r t o avoid l e n g t h e n i n g t h e h o l d i n g s e c t o r
u n n e c e s s a r i l y , l a n d i n g should b e performed with V = V - 20 km/hr.
1dg gl
The run. The speed a t which t h e a i r c r a f t t o u c h e s t h e ground i s c a l l e d
t h e landing speed. I t can b e determined from t h e f o l l o w i n g formula:

155

B
i

where c i s t h e l i f t i n g c o e f f i c i e n t a t t h e moment t h e a i r c r a f t touches t h e


Y 1dg
ground.

The run begins from t h e moment t h e a i r c r a f t wheels touch t h e l a n d i n g


s t r i p . The movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t d u r i n g t h i s s e c t o r i s s t r a i g h t and slow.
A t f i r s t t h e run i s accomplished on t h e main wheels, t h e n by moving t h e s t i c k
forward t h e p i l o t lowers t h e nose wheels. Most of t h e r u n occurs on t h r e e
p o i n t s with a low a n g l e of a t t a c k . On t h e p o l a r curve, t h i s corresponds t o
t h e s t a n d i n g angle o f a t t a c k 1-3" (Figure 6 5 ) .

Immediately a f t e r grounding, when t h e a i r c r a f t i s r o l l i n g on two p o i n t s , /161


t h e s p o i l e r s are d e f l e c t e d and wheel b r a k i n g b e g i n s . Whereas a t t h e moment of
landing c o e f f i c i e n t c = 1 . 4 - 1 . 7 , a f t e r t h e s p o i l e r s a r e extended, due t o t h e
Y
flow s e p a r a t i o n on t h e wing, it i s decreased t o 0.08-0.12. The l i f t
d e c r e a s e s s h a r p l y and complete loading o f t h e l a n d i n g g e a r wheels o c c u r s .

I t should b e noted t h a t a t t h e moment t h e s p o i l e r s are extended a


n e g a t i v e p i t c h moment i s a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e p i l o t must push t h e
s t i c k forward s l i g h t l y t o h o l d t h e a i r c r a f t a t t h e l a n d i n g a n g l e of a t t a c k .

Extending t h e s p o i l e r s d e c r e a s e s t h e speed o f t h e a i r c r a f t by 40-50 km/hr,


which causes t h e a i r c r a f t t o t e n d t o drop i t s nose r a p i d l y , t o which t h e p i l o t
must r e a c t by p u l l i n g t h e s t i c k back t o allow t h e nose wheel t o drop smoothly.

Figure 104 shows an a i r c r a f t d u r i n g t h e l a n d i n g r u n w i t h s p o i l e r s


extended and b r a k i n g p a r a c h u t e o u t . During t h e p r o c e s s of t h e r u n , t h e
a i r c r a f t i s d e c e l e r a t e d by t h e drag o f t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e f r i c t i o n o f t h e
wheels on t h e ground. The s l i g h t engine t h r u s t d e c r e a s e s t h i s d e c e l e r a t i n g
force.

The diagram of f o r c e s a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t d u r i n g t h e landing run i s


t h e same as during t h e t a k e o f f run (Figure 8-6). The only d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t
d u r i n g t h e landing run t h e t h r u s t P i s c o n s i d e r a b l y less than t h e sum o f
d e c e l e r a t i n g f o r c e s F and Q.
f
During t h e l a n d i n g r u n , t h e summary b r a k i n g f o r c e i s d e f i n e d as t h e
d i f f e r e n c e between d e c e l e r a t i n g f o r c e s and t h e t h r u s t of t h e engines:
Rbr = Q + Ff - P . A s a r e s u l t of t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e b r a k i n g f o r c e , a n e g a t i v e
a c c e l e r a t i o n ( i . e . , d e c e l e r a t i o n ) appears

156

I t f o l l o w s from t h e formula t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e sum Q + F the greater /162


f'
w i l l be jx. The f r i c t i o n f o r c e F depends on t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n o f
f
wheels w i t h t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h f and t h e f o r c e o f normal p r e s s u r e o f
t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e e a r t h N . I t h a s been determined by t e s t i n g t h a t f o r a i r -
c r a f t with d i s k brakes and s p o i l e r s running on d r y c o n c r e t e f = 0.2-0.3
.
.
( c o n s i d e r i n g braking)

Force N depends on t h e l a n d i n g weight o f t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e l i f t :


N = G - Y. The f o r c e of f r i c t i o n can b e expressed by t h e following formula:

then

A t t h e beginning o f t h e landing r u n , when t h e l i f t i s only s l i g h t l y less


than t h e weight, t h e f o r c e of f r i c t i o n w i l l be low (low difference G - Y ) .
For example, a t 200-220 km/hr, t h e f o r c e of f r i c t i o n i s 4000-5000 kg ( f o r an
a i r c r a f t w i t h a landing weight of 35-40 t ) . A t t h e end of t h e r u n , when t h e
l i f t i s s l i g h t , t h e f o r c e of f r i c t i o n i n c r e a s e s .

Figure 104. A i r c r a f t During Run w i t h S p o i l e r s


Extended and Braking Parachute O u t ( a ) and Diagram of
O p e n i n g of S p o i l e r ( b ) : 1 , Inner s p o i l e r s ; 2 , Outer
s p o i l e r s ; 3 , S p o i l e r ; 4 , Front f l a p ; 5 , Door; 6 , Flap

The f o r c e o f a i r c r a f t d r a g a t t h e beginning of t h e landing r u n (when t h e


speed i s n e a r t h e l a n d i n g speed, and angle of a t t a c k a = 9-10"> i s r a t h e r
g r e a t (Q = 5000-6000 kg f o r t h e same w e i g h t s ) . T h i s i s f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e
lowered f l a p s and t h e a i r b r a k e .

157

I 1

The l a n d i n g d i s t a n c e (Figure 103) i s t h e summary l e n g t h of t h e s e c t o r s of


g l i d i n g , l e v e l i n g and l a n d i n g ~ r u n . For a i r c r a f t w i t h two-engines i n t h e t a i l
p o r t i o n o f t h e f u s e l a g e , t h e l a n d i n g d i s t a n c e i s 1000-1200 m, and t h e r e q u i r e d
runway l e n g t h (according t o ICAO) i s 1400-1700 m.

S4. L e n g t h of Post-landing Run and Methods of Shortening It

The k i n e t i c energy of t h e a i r c r a f t a t t h e moment of touchdown i s


d i s s i p a t e d and absorbed by t h e work o f t h e b r a k i n g f o r c e s : t h e aerodynamic
drag, .the f r i c t i o n of t h e wheels on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e runway, t h e d r a g o f
b r a k i n g p a r a c h u t e s , t h r u s t r e v e r s a l , e t c . The dependences o f t h e s e b r a k i n g
f o r c e s on t h e speed o f t h e run a r e shown on F i g u r e 105. The u n i t o f b r a k i n g
f o r c e (drag f o r c e ) used i s t h e aerodynamic d r a g of t h e a i r c r a f t a t touchdown.
/163
-
For example, f o r t h e TU-124, a t t h e moment o f touchdown w i t h f l a p s a t 30" and
a i r b r a k e extended a t 225 km/hr, cx = 0.18, t h e aerodynamic drag Q = 4600 kg,
t h e p a r a c h u t e d r a g i s approximately 5500 kg and t h e b r a k i n g f o r c e o f t h e
wheels i s about 2500 kg. A s t h e speed o f t h e landing r u n d e c r e a s e s , t h e d r a g
f o r c e of t h e p a r a c h u t e and t h e aerodynamic d r a g of t h e a i r c r a f t drop s h a r p l y ,
while t h e f o r c e o f f r i c t i o n o f t h e wheels i n c r e a s e s . Thrust r e v e r s a l o f t h e
engines i s p r a c t i c a l l y independent o f t h e r a t e o f movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t .

j
.-m t:p=
45
The l e n g t h o f t h e l a n d i n g run o f an
a i r c r a f t can b e determined u s i n g t h e
f ormu 1a

Y
m I
3 I
al
m
0 36 72 ro8
r08 144 f80 YKMJ hr

Figure 105. Nature of


Change i n Braking Forces
During Post-landing Run where j i s t h e mean a c c e l e r a t i o n o f
xmlr
of Aircraft (calculated) :
braking (deceleration) o f t h e a i r c r a f t
1 , Braking f o r c e ;
during t h e landing r u n , m/sec2.
2 , Aerodynamic drag o
a i r c r a f t ; 3 , Drag o f
As we can s e e from t h e formula, with
braking parachute;
f i x e d l a n d i n g speed t h e l e n g t h of t h e run
4 , Thrust reversa can b e decreased by i n c r e a s i n g t h e mean
braking acceleration.

During t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e l a n d i n g run [Figure 105) t h e d e c e l e r a t i o n of


~I

a i r c r a f t movement i s achieved under t h e i n f l u e n c e of a l l t h e s e d e c e l e r a t i n g


f o r c e s , a f t e r which t h e main r o l e i s played by t h e b r a k i n g f o r c e of t h e wheels
and t h r u s t r e v e r s a l ( i f t h e r e i s a t h r u s t r e v e r s e r on t h e a i r c r a f t ) .

A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , braking wheels are equipped w i t h s p e c i a l automatic


b r a k i n g d e v i c e s , t h e p r i n c i p l e of o p e r a t i o n of which i s based on t h e usage o f
t h e f o r c e o f i n e r t i a of a flywheel r o t a t i n g i n p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e wheel.

158
If t h e wheel r o t a t e s without s l i p p i n g , t h e flywheel i n t h e automatic d e v i c e
r o t a t e s i n synchronism with t h e l a n d i n g wheel. I f t h e wheel begins t o s l i d e ,
t h e flywheel i n t r o d u c e s an a c c e l e r a t i o n and, working through a s p e c i a l d e v i c e ,
i n t e r r u p t s t h e supply o f p r e s s u r e t o t h e b r a k e , as a r e s u l t of which t h e
b r a k i n g f o r c e on t h e wheel i s decreased. A f t e r t h e r o t a t i n g speed of t h e
wheel i s i n c r e a s e d once more and synchronism i s e s t a b l i s h e d between r o t a t i o n
o f wheel and flywheel, t h e p r e s s u r e t o t h e brakes i s j n c r e a s e d t o t h e r e q u i r e d
l e v e l and t h e wheel i s once more braked. I n o p e r a t i o n , t h i s c y c l e i s u s u a l l y
r e p e a t e d q u i t e r a p i d l y and a c t u a l l y t h e p r e s s u r e i n t h e brakes never d e c r e a s e s
completely. Thus, t h i s d e v i c e p r o v i d e s optimal b r a k i n g , pumping a t t h e
boundary of s l i d i n g 1 . When t h i s d e v i c e i s t u r n e d on, t h e p i l o t immediately
provides f u l l p r e s s u r e i n t h e b r a k e s ( d e p r e s s e s b r a k e p e d a l s completely).

Smoothly d e p r e s s i n g t h e b r a k e s , a s i s recommended f o r nonautomatic


b r a k i n g , i n t h i s c a s e o n l y i n c r e a s e s t h e l e n g t h o f t h e l a n d i n g run, s i n c e t h e
maximum b r a k i n g regime will n o t be used.

The usage of automatic brakes has allowed t h e l e n g t h o f t h e l a n d i n g run /164


t o be decreased by an a d d i t i o n a l 20-25%.. The s e r v i c e l i f e o f t h e pneumatic
system h a s a l s o been i n c r e a s e d . The mean a c c e l e r a t i o n of automatic b r a k i n g i s
1 . 7 - 1 . 8 m/sec2 ( d i s k b r a k e s ) . In a i r c r a f t with s p o i l e r s opened a t t h e moment
of touchdown, t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e brakes i s even g r e a t e r and
= 2.25-2.5 m/sec2. For example, i n an a i r c r a f t with s p o i l e r s
Jxmlr
( j m = 2.25 m/sec2) with a l a n d i n g speed o f 216 km/hr (60 m/sec), Llr = 800 m.
For t h e TU-104 a i r c r a f t (no s p o i l e r s ) with V = 240 km/hr (66.7 m/sec) w i t h
142
an average b r a k i n g a c c e l e r a t i o n of 1 . 3 m/sec2 (drum brake) t h e l a n d i n g run
l e n g t h i s 1700 m. For t h e TU-104 w i t h d i s k brakes (with an average a c c e l e r
a t i o n o f 1.55 m/sec2) t h e l a n d i n g run l e n g t h i s 1430 m .

Even g r e a t e r b r a k i n g a c c e l e r a t i o n (drag) can b e produced by r e l e a s i n g a


b r a k i n g p a r a c h u t e . For example, i f t h e p a r a c h u t e i s open a t 225-215 km/hr,
t h e drag i s i n c r e a s e d by 4600-4900 kg (TU-124 a i r c r a f t ) .

Figure 106a shows a diagram of t h e usage o f a braking p a r a c h u t e . A f t e r


touchdown, a b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d dropping t h e p a r a c h u t e from i t s c o n t a i n e r
through h a t c h 1. A f t e r t h i s , t h e p i l o t chute p u l l s t h e braking chute o u t ,
c r e a t i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e movement of t h e a i r c r a f t . The p a r a c h u t e i s
connected t o t h e a i r c r a f t by c a b l e 3 through c a t c h 2 . A t t h e end of t h e r u n ,
t h e braking p a r a c h u t e s a r e disconnected. Braking p a r a c h u t e s 4 a r e
s t r i p t y p e , and t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e l i n e s and canopy i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r run /165
-
speeds of 260-230 km/hr. In a s t r i p type parachute, the a i r p a r t i a l l y passes
through t h e canopy and t h e r e f o r e f o r t h i s t y p e o f chute Acx = 0.25-0.55 ( f o r
an o r d i n a r y p a r a c h u t e A c = 1 . 2 - 1 . 3 ) . For example, one f o r e i g n b r a k i n g
X
p a r a c h u t e with a canopy diameter of 9 . 7 6 m and A c = 0.55 c r e a t e s a b r a k i n g
X

A. V. C h e s t n o v , Letnaya Ekspzuatatsiya S h o Z e t a [ F l y i n g Operation of Air


c r a f t ] , Voyenizdat. P r e s s , 1962.

159

J
f o r c e of 17.25 t a t 296 km/hr ( m i l i t a r y t r a n s p o r t a i r c r a f t ) .

The l e n g t h of t h e l a n d i n g r u n on an i c e covered runway can be reduced by


30-40% by u s i n g a b r a k i n g p a r a c h u t e . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , i t s e f f e c t i v e
n e s s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e . However, t h e less t h e speed, t h e less t h e
e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e p a r a c h u t e . For example, t h e b r a k i n g p a r a c h u t e s on a
TU-104 d e c r e a s e t h e run l e n g t h by 25-30% (wet o r i c e covered s t r i p ) . Thus,
under s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s f o r a l a n d i n g weight o f 58 t , t h e r u n l e n g t h i s
1730 m, w h i l e t h e usage o f t h e p a r a c h u t e reduces t h i s f i g u r e t o 1250-1350 m.
The b r a k i n g f o r c e i s 10-14 t .

Figure 06. Usage of t h e Braking Parachute ( a ) and


Diagram of I n s t a l l a t i o n and Operation of Thrust
Reverse s ( b ) o n Two External A i r c r a f t Engines:
1 , V i e w from r e a r , reversed flow i n c l i n e d by 20" from
v e r t i c a ; 2 , Apertures f o r gas o u t l e t d i r e c t e d a t
a n g l e o p p o s i t e t o f l i g h t ; 3 , A t moment of touchdown,
r e v e r s e doors c l o s e d , during braking t h e y d i r e c t g a s
i n d i r e c t i o n o p p o s i t e movement. During t a x i i n g ,
doors s e t i n i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n .

One d e f e c t of t h i s method of reducing t h e r u n l e n g t h i s t h e f a c t t h a t


with a s i d e wind s t r o n g e r t h a n 6-8 m/sec a t an a n g l e of o v e r 45" t o t h e runway,
t h e p a r a c h u t e w i l l be d e f l e c t e d from t h e a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t and w i l l tend t o
t u r n t h e a i r c r a f t i n t o t h e wind. AS t h e s i d e wind i n c r e a s e s i n speed, t h e
p r o b a b i l i t y o f r o t a t i o n a l s o i n c r e a s e s . However, even i n t h i s c a s e i t i s
recommended t h a t t h e b r a k i n g chute b e used d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e
landing r u n , b e i n g extended immediately a f t e r touchdown ( i n p r a c t i c e with a
d e l a y o f 5-7 s e c ) . Another d e f e c t i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i s c a r d e d p a r a c h u t e
must b e r a p i d l y removed from t h e runway, t r a n s p o r t e d , checked and packed. The
s e r v i c e l i f e of a b r a k i n g p a r a c h u t e (with an average a c c e l e r a t i o n o f
1.55 m/sec2) i s 40-50 l a n d i n g s . C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e d r a g produced by t h e
p a r a c h u t e i s performed u s i n g t h e formula

160

I-l-1.11111 IIIIII.-1111111IIIII I 11. 111 11111 I I 11111111111111=~111~111111111.1111111111ll I I I I I 11111 111111111 I II I


I

where Acx i s t h e drag of t h e parachute r e l a t e d t o t h e wing area o f t h e


aircraft;
S i s t h e wing area;
q i s t h e impact p r e s s u r e . ,

For example, f o r t h e b r a k i n g parachute o f a TU-124 with Scan = 40 m2,


= 0.54 (S = 105.35 m2) :

-
C
x par

0.54s 0.54.40
Acx pa -9.205.
S 105.35

E j e c t i o n of t h e braking parachute a t lower speed i s l e s s e f f e c t i v e . A t


t h e end of t h e landing run, due t o t h e d e c r e a s e i n speed and t h e angle of
a t t a c k , which w i l l b e equal t o t h e parked angle, f o r c e Q i s p r a c t i c a l l y equal
t o zero. I t i s considered t h a t i n t h e process of t h e e n t i r e landing run, an
average braking f o r c e a c t s on t h e a i r c r a f t , c r e a t i n g a average n e g a t i v e
acceleration

j xav = .9.51- br .
G

The g r e a t e s t v a l u e o f n e g a t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n i s achieved a f t e r t h e braking /166


parachute i s extended and amounts t o 4.4-4.2 m/sec2.

I n c r e a s i n g t h e landing speed by 5% (from 210 t o 220 km/hr) i n c r e a s e s t h e


l e n g t h o f t h e landing run by approximately 1 0 % . Therefore, a d e c r e a s e i n
landing speed i s t h e most e f f e c t i v e means of decreasing t h e run l e n g t h . An
increase i n j by t h e usage o f s p o i l e r s and a braking parachute o r t h r u s t
xav
r e v e r s a l o f t h e engines can s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h o r t e n t h e landing run.

When t h e engine t h r u s t i s r e v e r s e d , t h e r e a c t i o n j e t i s d i r e c t e d forward


and e x i t s upward and downward a t an angle t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l . For example, i n
t h e two outboard engines of t h e English "Comet" t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t , t h e r e a c
t i o n j e t e x i t s upward and downward a t 45" t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l .

The r e v e r s e r ( t h e d e v i c e which d e f l e c t s theflow) i s r o t a t e d a t 20" t o t h e


v e r t i c a l , i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t t h e j e t away from t h e f u s e l a g e and landing gear
(Figure 106 b ) .

161

With s u f f i c i e n t l y r a p i d movement of t h e a i r c r a f t , t h e j e t w i l l be
d e f l e c t e d rearward and w i l l not e n t e r t h e a i r i n t a k e s , while a t very low
speeds o r a t r e s t of t h e a i r c r a f t t h e stream w i l l move f a r forward.

The o p e r a t i n g time o f t h e r e v e r s e r i n a landing i s g e n e r a l l y n o t over


15 s e c . The doors of t h e r e v e r s i n g device a r e operated pneumatically. The
r e v e r s e r i s put i n o p e r a t i o n by'moving a s p e c i a l l e v e r forward. The t h r o t t l e s
c o n t r o l l i n g t h e outboard engines must f i r s t be p u t i n t h e i d l e p o s i t i o n and
l i f t e d . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h r u s t r e v e r s a l i s decreased with decreasing
a i r c r a f t speed.

However, when necessary t h r u s t r e v e r s a l can be used u n t i l t h e a i r c r a f t


comes t o a complete s t o p .

Thrust r e v e r s a l should be a p p l i e d t h e moment t h e a i r c r a f t touches t h e


runway. The maximum r e v e r s e t h r u s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y i s 70% of t h e forward
t h r u s t , b u t i n p r a c t i c e only about 50% i s r e a l i z e d .

The usage of t h r u s t r e v e r s a l makes it p o s s i b l e t o decrease t h e landing


run l e n g t h by 20-25%. Also, i n t h e "Comet-4B" a i r c r a f t t h e s i z e o f t h e f l a p s
i s i n c r e a s e d and t h e i r angle of d e f l e c t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d t o 8 0 , g r e a t l y
reducing t h e landing speed.

I n a i r c r a f t with engines l o c a t e d i n t h e wing and n e a r t h e f u s e l a g e , t h e


usage of t h r u s t r e v e r s a l i s d i f f i c u l t due t o t h e thermal e f f e c t s of t h e
reversed j e t s on t h e f u s e l a g e . I t i s e a s i e s t t o u s e t h r u s t r e v e r s e r s on
engines mounted on p i l o n s , as on t h e Boeing 707, DC-8, e t c . I f t h e r e a r e
f o u r engines mounted on t h e t a i l of t h e f u s e l a g e , t h e r e v e r s e r s a r e i n s t a l l e d
only i n t h e outboard engines.

A s was noted, i n a d d i t i o n t o braking p a r a c h u t e s , motor switch off during


t h e landing run, and t h r u s t r e v e r s a l , s p o i l e r s and a i r b r a k e s a r e a l s o used.
The s p o i l e r s a r e p l a t e s which can be extended o r d e f l e c t e d , mounted on t h e
upper s u r f a c e of t h e wings. One, two o r t h r e e s p o i l e r s can be used on each / 167
wing.

The s p o i l e r s a r e extended a f t e r t h e a i r c r a f t wheels touch t h e runway. By


s e p a r a t i n g t h e flow from t h e upper wing s u r f a c e , t h e s p o i l e r s decrease t h e
l i f t i n g f o r c e s h a r p l y and c r e a t e considerable a d d i t i o n a l drag.

The graph on Figure 107 shows t h a t with t h e s p o i l e r s closed t h e aero


dynamic q u a l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t decreases from 6 t o 4.4 upon t r a n s i t i o n from
t h e landing p o s i t i o n ( a = l o " ) t o t h e landing run p o s i t i o n (a = 1 " ) ; opening
of t h e s p o i l e r s during t h e run decreases t h e aerodynamic q u a l i t y by a n
a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r of 4 (from 6 t o 1 . 5 ) .

Extending t h e s p o i l e r s has approximately t h e same i n f l u e n c e on t h e


dependence c = f ( a ) .
Y

162

S5. Length o f Landing Run A s a


Function o f Various Operational
Factors

The l e n g t h o f t h e landing run i s


e s s e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e a i r c r a f t
weight, c o n d i t i o n of t h e runway,
d i r e c t i o n and speed o f wind, a i r
temperature, e t c . The l e n g t h o f t h e
l a n d i n g r u n a l s o depends on t h e
actions of t h e p i l o t i n control of the
aircraft .
The weight of t h e a i r c r a f t
i n f l u e n c e s t h e l e n g t h of t h e landing
run p r i m a r i l y through t h e l a n d i n g
speed. A s t h e weight of t h e a i r c r a f t
i s i n c r e a s e d , t h e square o f t h e
Figure 107. C o e f f i c i e n t c.. As l a n d i n g speed i s a l s o i n c r e a s e d and
Y consequently t h e l e n g t h o f t h e landing
a Function of A n g l e o f Attack
run i s i n c r e a s e d t o t h e same e x t e n t .
and Polar Curve o f A i r c r a f t
For example, w i t h landing weight o f
During Landing ( f l a p s down,
30,000 kg, t h e l e n g t h o f t h e landing
A i rbrake and Spoi 1 e r s
extended) r u n under s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s is
930 m , whereas with a landing weight
of 32,000 kg, i . e . , i n c r e a s e d by
1.065 times, t h e run l e n g t h i s
i n c r e a s e d by t h e same number o f times and w i l l be 930-1.065 = 990 m .

Thus, i f t h e a i r c r a f t weight i s i n c r e a s e d by 6.5%, t h e run l e n g t h w i l l be


i n c r e a s e d by t h e same f a c t o r .

The temperature of t h e surrounding a i r i n f l u e n c e s t h e run l e n g t h


p r i m a r i l y through t h e d e n s i t y . As t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i s i n c r e a s e d with unchanged
p r e s s u r e , t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e a i r i s decreased.2 I f t h e temperature i s
i n c r e a s e d by a c e r t a i n f a c t o r , t h e v a l u e of v Idg i s i n c r e a s e d by t h e same /168
f a c t o r . Thus, i f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i s i n c r e a s e d by 5% o v e r t h e s t a n d a r d
temperature, V2 w i l l b e i n c r e a s e d by approximately t h e same p e r c e n t .
1dg
A decrease i n d e n s i t y leads t o a decrease i n t h e drag Q during t h e run.
Also, d u r i n g t h e r u n t h e engines c r e a t e a s l i g h t t h r u s t and a s t h e temperature
i s i n c r e a s e d , t h i s t h r u s t i s decreased, which h e l p s t o reduce t h e run l e n g t h .
I f w e i g n o r e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f temperature on d r a g and t h r u s t , w e can approx
i m a t e l y c o n s i d e r t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n t e m p e r a t u r e o f 5% ( f o r example from 15 t o
3OoC (from 288 t o 303OK) w i l l r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n run l e n g t h o f
approximately 5%.

I t should be noted t h a t under c o n d i t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h e


s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s , t h e l a n d i n g speed i n d i c a t e d by t h e instrument ( t h e broad

163

arrow) w i l l b e t h e same as a t s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s , s i n c e w i t h a change i n a i r


d e n s i t y t h e v e l o c i t y i n d i c a t o r d e c r e a s e s t h e i n d i c a t e d speed due t o methodic
e r r o r . The f i n e n e e d l e o f t h e i n d i c a t o r shows t h e t r u e speed i n t h i s c a s e .

The i n f l u e n c e o f head winds and t a i l winds on t h e l e n g t h of t h e landing


r u n i s t h e same a s t h i s i n f l u e n c e on t h e l e n g t h of t h e t a k e o f f r u n .

The b r a k i n g e f f e c t i s always g r e a t e s t with t h e maximal speeds of


u t i l i z a t i o n of s p o i l e r s and p a r a c h u t e . Therefore, a d e l a y i n u s i n g t h e
s p o i l e r s of 1.5-2 s e c i n c r e a s e s t h e run l e n g t h by 100-150 m, w h i l e e j e c t i o n of
t h e p a r a c h u t e a t 180-140 km/hr decreases i t s b r a k i n g e f f e c t by 35-50%. The
wheel b r a k e s should be a p p l i e d immediately a f t e r t h e s p o i l e r s are extended,
i . e . , a t 250-220 km/hr.

56. S p e c i f i c Features of Landing R u n s on Dry, Ice o r Snow Covered Runways

A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e we s t i l l do not have s u f f i c i e n t d a t a on methods of


determining t h e e f f e c t o f b r a k i n g on wet o r snow covered runways.

I n s p i t e of t h e v a r i e t y of means of b r a k i n g , t h e p r i n c i p a l means remains


t h e d i s k wheel b r a k e s . I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t when l a n d i n g on a d r y
c o n c r e t e runway, about 70% of t h e energy o f movement of t h e a i r c r a f t i s
absorbed by t h e b r a k e s , and 30% by aerodynamic d r a g of t h e a i r c r a f t (usage of
f l a p s and a i r b r a k e s ) . When landing on a wet runway, o n l y about 50% of t h e
k i n e t i c energy i s absorbed by t h e b r a k e s , o r i f t h e t i r e s a r e worn -- even
l e s s . The wheel b r a k e s have an important r o l e t o p l a y d u r i n g a landing run i f
f l i g h t i s t e r m i n a t e d a t speeds less t h a n t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed by 15-20%, i n
which t h e s p o i l e r s and landing p a r a c h u t e are less e f f e c t i v e . The p r e s s u r e i n
t h e t i r e s has a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of b r a k i n g : t h e l e s s t h e
p r e s s u r e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e c o n t a c t a r e a and t h e more r e l i z b l y t h e brakes
operate .

A t t h e p r e s e n t time, t h e runway l e n g t h r e q u i r e d f o r a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n i s
determined e i t h e r on t h e b a s i s of t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e p r o v i s i o n of s a f e t y of
i n t e r r u p t e d o r extended t a k e o f f ( s e e Figure 7 1 ) , o r from t h e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e /169
c o n d i t i o n s of t h e landing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e a i r c r a f t ( s e e Figure 1 0 3 ) .
These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e g e n e r a l l y c a l c u l a t e d f o r a d r y runway s u r f a c e .
However, a t most a i r p o r t s due t o c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s o v e r one t h i r d of t h e
y e a r o r perhaps even. more t h e runway s u r f a c e s are m o i s t , snow covered o r
f r o z e n . S t a t i s t i c s show t h a t on t h e world s c a l e , one l a n d i n g of twelve i s
performed on a wet runway.

I [Technical
_____I_
.__ --- --
Zarubezhnyy Aviatransport , (Foreign A i r T r a n s p o r t ) No. 7, ONTI GOSNII GA
Information Department, S t a t e S c i e n t i f i c Research I n s t i t u t e f o r
C i v i l A v i a t i o n ] , 1965.

164

The experience o f o p e r a t i o n of domestic t u r b o j e t and turboprop a i r c r a f t ,


as w e l l as d a t a from f o r e i g n p r a c t i c e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e of s l u s h (wet
snow, water) on runway s u r f a c e s h a s t h e following n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on t h e
design o f a i r c r a f t and landing o p e r a t i o n s : 1) a d d i t i o n a l d r a g appears as t h e
s l u s h s t r i k e s t h e a i r c r a f t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c a s e o f a i r c r a f t with heavy
l a n d i n g g e a r ; 2 ) t h e danger arises t h a t l i q u i d may e n t e r t h e engine a i r
i n t a k e ; 3) c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t i s reduced; and 4) t h e 1andiv.g
run l e n g t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d .

Pavements f o r runways i n c l u d e c o n c r e t e , a s p h a l t , etc. On a moist o r wet


runway, t h e wheel r o l l d r a g i n c r e a s e s , b u t t h e coupling f o r c e between wheel
and runway d u r i n g b r a k i n g d e c r e a s e s ( i n comparison t o d r y pavement). This
r e s u l t s i n an i n c r e a s e i n t h e l a n d i n g run l e n g t h of t h e a i r c r a f t . This
i n c r e a s e i s so g r e a t t h a t i n many c a s e s t h e length of t h e runway may be
i n s u f f i c i e n t t o complete t h e l a n d i n g r u n .

A moist r u n w a y i s understood t o b e t h e c o n d i t i o n i n which t h e pavement


i s moistened w i t h water ( a f t e r r a i n ) , while a w e t runway means t h a t t h e r e i s
a l a y e r o f water on t h e runway 2 - 3 mm t h i c k . T e s t s performed i n t h e USA
showed t h a t w i t h a c e r t a i n t h i c k n e s s o f water on t h e runway and with c e r t a i n
parameters of t h e t i r e s , t h e c r i t i c a l speed can be reached a t which t h e
t i r e s a r e completely s e p a r a t e d from t h e s u r f a c e of t h e road by hydrodynamic
f o r c e s c r e a t e d by t h e l i q u i d between t h e t i r e and t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e runway
(Figure 108 a ) . This speed i s c a l l e d t h e s k i d d i n g speed o r speed o f hydro
planing.

The e f f e c t o f aquaplaning s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e s t h e landing run l e n g t h


on a w e t runway. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown t h a t aquaplaning a r i s e s a t speeds
averaging o v e r 160 km/hr. When t h i s o c c u r s , t h e c o n t a c t between wheels and
pavement i s l o s t and a f l i m o f water appears between them. This r e s u l t s i n a
l o s s of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of b r a k e s and makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n t h e
d i r e c t i o n of t h e landing r u n . The phenomenon of aquaplaning i s explained by
t h e f a c t t h a t a hydrodynamic f o r c e a c t i n g on t h e s u r f a c e of t h e pavement
a r i s e s as t h e a i r c r a f t moves over t h e runway. When i t s v e r t i c a l component / 170

becomes equal t o o r g r e a t e r t h a n t h e weight of t h e a i r c r a f t , c o n t a c t o f t h e


wheels with t h e runway i s l o s t .

The graph on Figure 108 b was produced t h e o r e t i c a l l y and confirmed


e x p e r i m e n t a l l y . Using t h i s graph (with known p r e s s u r e i n t h e t i r e s ) , we can
e s t a b l i s h t h e l i m i t i n g speed, above which usage of t h e wheel b r a k e s during a
landing on w e t s u r f a c e i s u s e l e s s , o r even dangerous i n c a s e of a s t r o n g s i d e
wind, so t h a t o n l y aerodynamic brakes should b e used. A s soon as t h e speed
drops below t h e aquaplaning speed, t h e wheel brakes can b e u s e d .

A t t h e moment t h e b r a k e s a r e a p p l i e d , a f r i c t i o n coupling f o r c e appears


between a i r c r a f t wheels and runway. I n some c a s e s b r a k i n g may r e s u l t i n
wheel lockup (100% s k i d ) i . e . , a s i t u a t i o n i n which t h e movement o f t h e
a i r c r a f t with n o n r o t a t i n g wheels ( s k i d ) causes t h e f o r c e of f r i c t i o n t o
d e c r e a s e , i n c r e a s i n g t h e l e n g t h of t h e landing run. The i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e
b r a k i n g wheel w i t h t h e runway s u r f a c e i s g e n e r a l l y e v a l u a t e d by t h e coupling

165

I
c o e f f i c i e n t o r c o e f f i c i e n t of f r i c t i o n , equal t o t h e r a t i o o f t h e t a n g e n t i a l
b r a k i n g f o r c e t o t h e normal l o a d i n g on t h e wheel.
.q D i r e c t i o n of
movement
320
[I Wheel brakes
ineffective I
n

f
-0
a,
a,
C r i t i c a l speed f o r
a i r c r a f t i n question
/
Whee 1 brakes
effective
6M G i ven

a
m 0 1
I 1
2
I
3
1
4
Mdl

5 6 7 2

pressure i n t i r e s , k d c m

D
5 --

Figure 108. Formation of Hydrodynamic L i f t i n g Force A s


Wheels Roll Along Wet Runway ( a ) and Aquaplaning S p e e d
A s a Function of P r e s s u r e and T i r e s ( b ) : 1-2, Hydro
dynamic l i f t and d r a g

On a c l e a n , d r y s u r f a c e , t h e coupling c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e t i r e s i s q u i t e
high and, i f t h e r u b b e r does n o t melt o r burn due t o t h e h i g h temperature a t
t h e p o i n t o f c o n t a c t with t h e runway s u r f a c e , t h i s c o e f f i c i e n t may v a r y
between 0 . 7 and 0.8 depending on t h e t r e a d p r o f i l e (dry c o n c r e t e ) . As t h e
speed of t h e a i r c r a f t i s i n c r e a s e d , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t d e c r e a s e s by 2-3 t i m e s .

T h e r e f o r e , t h e mean v a l u e of coupling c o e f f i c i e n t f o r a d r y c o n c r e t e
runway i s 0.15-0.25; f o r a moist runway t h i s f i g u r e i s 0.1-0.21 and f o r a w e t /171
runway, about 0 . 2 l 1 . For an a s p h a l t runway (according t o t h e d a t a of t h e
S t a t e Planning I n s t i t u t e and t h e S c i e n t i f i c Research I n s t i t u t e f o r C i v i l
Aviation) 2 , t h e coupling c o e f f i c i e n t f o r a l l of t h e pavement c o n d i t i o n s
analyzed above is somewhat h i g h e r : from 0.33 t o 0.23; f o r snow covered cement
and a s p h a l t pavements i t i s 0.3-0.25. Therefore t h e c a l c u l a t e d l a n d i n g run
l e n g t h o f an a i r c r a f t on t h e s e pavements i s 15-20% l e s s .

When landing on an i c e covered runway, t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e b r a k e s i s


s h a r p l y decreased, by an average of 25-30% i n comparison w i t h a l a n d i n g on a
d r y , c o n c r e t e runway. Due t o t h i s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y recommended t h a t a b r a k i n g
p a r a c h u t e be used, t h a t one o r two engines be s h u t down, e t c . I t i s known
t h a t r a p i d dropping o f t h e f r o n t wheel o n t o t h e runway a f t e r touchdown c r e a t e s
t h e b e s t c o n d i t i o n s f o r b r a k i n g . However, as a r u l e , t h i s method i s most
s u i t a b l e f o r a d r y runway pavement, s i n c e on w e t pavement, f r o z e n o r

~~ ~ ~..~-
~ ~ .... . . .~
~ - .- .. ~. ._ _ - .--__._ - ... .. - , .
Chestnov, A. V . , Letnaya EkspZuatatsiya S m o Z e t a [Flying Operation of t h e
A i r c r a f t ] , Voyenizdat. P r e s s , 1962.
GPI and NIIGA.

166

snow covered pavement, t h e b r a k i n g e f f e c t of t h e wheels i s reduced. Under


t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , we must keep i n mind t h e f a c t t h a t running with t h e f r o n t
wheel up c r e a t e s a d d i t i o n a l aerodynamic d r a g , which i s t h e main b r a k i n g
e f f e c t d u r i n g t h i s p o r t i o n of t h e run. I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t o
perform a landing ( o r t a k e o f f ) on a runway covered with w e t snow. Experience
h a s shown t h a t a l a y e r of wet snow 25 mm t h i c k i n c r e a s e s t h e t a k e o f f run
l e n g t h by 60%, and t h a t a l a y e r 75" t h i c k makes a t a k e o f f impossible.

The maximum p e r m i s s i b l e depth of a l a y e r of l i q u i d o r water h a s been


e x p e r i m e n t a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d a s 12.7 mm. This depth w i l l r e q u i r e an i n c r e a s e i n
t a k e o f f r u n l e n g t h of 20-30%.

57. Landing w i t h S i d e Wind

The s i d e wind means t h e wind v e l o c i t y component d i r e c t e d p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o


t h e runway.

A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , l a n d i n g s w i t h s i d e winds a r e made by t h e method of


course l e a d , i . e . , d r i f t o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s compensated f o r by c r e a t i n g a
c e r t a i n l e a d angle E i n t h e course of t h e a i r c r a f t a f t e r e x i t from t h e f o u r t h
t u r n (Figure 109). I f t h e c o u r s e of t h e a i r c r a f t i s changed by angle E ,
determined from t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t a n E = W/Vg, t h e ground speed V w i l l be
g
d i r e c t e d along t h e runway. Thus, i f V = 250 km/hr, while W = 10 m/sec, t h e
g
l e a d angle E = 8 " . However, d u r i n g l e v e l i n g o f f and holding t h e speed o f t h e
a i r c r a f t w i l l d e c r e a s e and t h e i n i t i a l l e a d angle w i l l become t o o low; t h e
a i r c r a f t w i l l begin t o d r i f t o f f of t h e runway. T h e r e f o r e , a t t h e moment of
touchdown, t h e l e a d angle must be i n c r e a s e d by approximately 1-1.5".

The crew should have good v i s i b i l i t y from t h e c o c k p i t a t l e a d angles of /172


-
10-15", which a r e r e q u i r e d with a s i d e wind above 15 m/sec.

When d r i f t i s compensated f o r by a v a r i a t i o n i n landing c o u r s e , t h e


l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t does n o t correspond t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of
movement, and f l i g h t i s performed without s l i p p i n g o r bank. A t t h e moment of
touchdown, t h e c o n t r o l wheel should be t u r n e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e d r i f t ,
r o t a t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t along t h e runway by l e a d a n g l e E . I f when t h i s maneuver
i s performed t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s s t i l l makes a c e r t a i n angle with t h e
d i r e c t i o n of t h e runway, s i d e f o r c e Z w i l l a c t a g a i n s t t h e wheels, t e n d i n g t o
r o t a t e t h e a i r c r a f t along t h e runway, s i n c e it i s a p p l i e d behind t h e c e n t e r o f
g r a v i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t ; however, t h i s e f f e c t i s n o t dangerous f o r t h e landing
organs. A s w e can s e e from Figure 110, t h e nose wheel p r e s e n t s no moment,
s i n c e i t i s o r i e n t e d f r e e l y along t h e d i r e c t i o n of movement while t h e s i d e
f r i c t i o n f o r c e on t h e main wheels c r e a t e s s t a b i l i z i n g moment, t e n d i n g t o
r o t a t e t h e a i r c r a f t t o l i n e up with t h e runway. With a s i d e wind, g l i d i n g
should be performed a t h i g h e r speeds (10 km/hr h i g h e r ) , and t h e landing speed
should be 5-10 km/hr h i g h e r t h a n t h e normal recommended speed. The p i l o t must
c o n t r o l h i s a i r c r a f t on t h e approach t o t h e l a n d i n g s t r i p c a r e f u l l y , being
s u r e n o t t o l e v e l o f f high o r touchdown h a r d . The f r o n t l e g must be lowered

167

immediately a f t e r l a n d i n g i n o r d e r t o avoid zooming and t o m a i n t a i n t h e


d i r e c t i o n from t h e l a n d i n g run u s i n g t h e c o n t r o l wheel. The c o n t r o l s t i c k
should b e pushed forward t o t h e s t o p i n o r d e r t o b r i n g t h e nose wheel down t o
t h e pavement.

When l a n d i n g w i t h a s i d e wind, t h e l e n g t h o f t h e landing run i s i n c r e a s e d -


/173
by 10-15%. The maximum p e r m i s s i b l e v a l u e o f s i d e wind component (90" t o
runway a x i s ) i s 12-15 m/sec. I n case o f a l a r g e r o t a t i o n a l moment, t h e down
wind engine may b e switched o f f , t h e b r a k i n g p a r a c h u t e can b e r e l e a s e d , t h r u s t
r e v e r s a l and b r a k i n g can b e used..

58. T h e "Minimum" Weather f o r Landings and Takeoffs

The t a k e o f f - l a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an a i r c r a f t determine t h e
l i m i t i n g m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ("minimum weather") f o r which o p e r a t i o n of
t h e a i r c r a f t ( t a k e o f f and landing) can be p e r m i t t e d .

The c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d e : a) minimum c e i l i n g ; b) minimum v i s i b i l i t y a t


runway l e v e l ; c) minimum l a t e r a l component o f wind speed Wz.

The minimum c e i l i n g determines t h e f l y i n g a l t i t u d e t o which t h e a i r c r a f t


should come down o u t o f t h e clouds and c l e a r v i s i b i l i t y of r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s on
t h e ground o r runway l i g h t s should be e s t a b l i s h e d . A t t h i s a l t i t u d e , t h e crew
can guide t h e a i r c r a f t down on t h e landing l i n e v i s u a l l y . For t u r b o j e t
a i r c r a f t landing a t a i r f i e l d s equipped w i t h IL S, w i t h a g l i d e p a t h angle o f
2" 40 min, t h e minimum cloud cover c e i l i n g i s 60-100 m.

The minimum v i s i b i l i t y i s considered t h e range a t which t h e crew o f an


a i r c r a f t begins t o s e e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s on t h e ground and t h e beginning of t h e
runway during t h e daytime, o r landing l i g h t s and t h e i l l u m i n a t e d runway
s u r f a c e a t n i g h t . This range should be s u f f i c i e n t t o make it p o s s i b l e t o
c o r r e c t i n a c c u r a c i e s i n a i r c r a f t course and s e p a r a t i o n from runway a x i s . The
accuracy of guidance o f t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o t h e c e n t e r l i n e o f t h e
runway depends on t h e accuracy of o u t p u t of c o u r s e d a t a by on-board and ground
b a s e apparatus and t h e p r e c i s i o n of p i l o t i n g according t o t h e i n d i c a t o r on
board t h e a i r c r a f t . Experiments performed by GOSNII G A 1 have e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t
f o r passenger j e t a i r c r a f t t h e mean v a l u e of t o t a l d e v i a t i o n from t h e runway
a x i s i s 560 m. Coming down out of t h e clouds with t h i s amount of e r r o r , t h e
p i l o t must c o r r e c t t h e e r r o r with two s e q u e n t i a l t u r n s (Figure 1 1 1 ) . During
t h i s t i m e , t h e a i r c r a f t continues t o descend on t h e g l i d e p a t h , g e n e r a l l y
between 2" 40 min and 4" ( t h e h i g h e r v a l u e f o r a i r f i e l d s w i t h d i f f i c u l t
approaches). The time r e q u i r e d t o c o r r e c t l a t e r a l d e f l e c t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d
c o n s i d e r a b l y by t h e i n e r t i a of t h e a i r c r a f t , i t s d e l a y (4-5 s e c ) t o movements

.
S M. Yeger Proyektirovaniye Passazhirskikh Rgaktivnykh Smnozetov [Design
of J e t Passenger A i r c r a f t ] Mashinostroyeniye P r e s s , 1964.

168

of t h e c o n t r o l organs and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l a t e r a l and t r a n s v e r s e

s t a b i l i t y . Furthermore, an a d d i t i o n a l 2-3 sec is r e q u i r e d f o r crew r e a c t i o n

from t h e t i m e when t h e runway can f i r s t be s e e n . T h e r e f o r e , it i s r e q u i r e d /174

t h a t upon approach t o t h e BMB o r a f t e r f l y i n g over t h e BMB t h e crew o f t h e

a i r c r a f t must b e a b l e t o see t h e beginning of t h e runway from t h e p o i n t o f

beginning of l e v e l i n g o f f down t o t h e touchdown (which i n p r a c t i c e i s

250-300 m from t h e beginning o f t h e runway). Minimum v i s i b i l i t y i s t h e n

800-1200 m y o r 1500 m f o r n i g h t l a n d i n g s .

Thus, t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o v i s u a l f l i g h t ( e x i t from t h e cloud cover a t


60-100 m f o r a g l i d e p a t h a n g l e o f 2' 40 min) occurs a t 1250-1500 m from t h e
beginning o f t h e runway and d u r i n g t h e subsequent 6-7 s e c o f f l i g h t (240
250 km/hr v e l o c i t y ) t h e crew must have a c l e a r view of t h e runway, t h e p o i n t
o f beginning of l e v e l i n g off and t h e p o i n t of touchdown. During t h i s t i m e ,
t h e p i l o t can perform c o u r s e maneuvers i f t h e a i r c r a f t i s coming i n a t an
a n g l e , completing h i s maneuvers by t h e t i m e he reaches an a l t i t u d e o f 40-50 m
( a t 600-800 m from t h e runway). Below an a l t i t u d e of 50 m y it i s forbidden
f o r a j e t a i r c r a f t t o p u l l up f o r a second c i r c l e . This a l t i t u d e corresponds
approximately t o f l i g h t over t h e BMB, and t h e crew should t a k e a l l s t e p s t o
a s s u r e a normal landing from t h i s p o i n t .

Figure 109. Elimination Figure 110. Diagram o f


of Landing D r i f t by Landing R u n After Touch
Course Lead Method down w i t h Lead A n g l e E
( f l i g h t w i t h leading
course)

169
Figure 1 1 1 . Determination o f "Minimum Weather"

With l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n s of '60 m and a g l i d i n g speed o f 250-240 km/hr,


t h e r e q u i r e d ground l e n g t h t o b r i n g t h e a i r c r a f t over t o t h e landing l i n e i s
800-900 m. If t h e a i r c r a f t comes o u t o f t h e clouds a t 100 m a l t i t u d e and
1800-1900 m range from t h e runway and t h e p i l o t , upon s e e i n g t h e runway,
d e c i d e s t o t u r n t h e a i r c r a f t , h e can complete h i s maneuver a t 600-700 m from
t h e runway and b r i n g t h e a i r c r a f t onto t h e l a n d i n g course. With g r e a t e r
d e v i a t i o n s (70-100 m) t h e r e q u i r e d ground l e n g t h i s 1000-1200 m and t h e p i l o t
w i l l not be a b l e t o b r i n g t h e a i r c r a f t onto t h e course l i n e and perform h i s
landing i n t h e s p a c e a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r a d a r c o n t r o l l e r guiding t h e
a i r c r a f t i n t o a landing, upon determining t h i s abnormal d e v i a t i o n of t h e
a i r c r a f t from i t s c o u r s e , should f o r b i d t h e l a n d i n g ( b e f o r e t h e a i r c r a f t g e t s
down t o 50 m a l t i t u d e ) and r e q u i r e t h e a i r c r a f t t o go i n t o a second c i r c l e .

The "minimum weather" i s e s t a b l i s h e d n o t o n l y from c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of


s a f e t y of l a n d i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t under poor weather c o n d i t i o n s , b u t a l s o from
c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t a k e o f f s a f e t y . As was s t a t e d above, t h e h e i g h t a t which
t h e a i r c r a f t f l i e s over t h e BMB i n c a s e of extended t a k e o f f with one non
o p e r a t i n g motor i s 20-25 m . I f t h e h e i g h t o f o b s t a c l e s i n t h i s f l i g h t s e c t o r
i s not o v e r 11-14 m , t h e r e i s no l i m i t on t h e c e i l i n g . H o r i z o n t a l v i s i b i l i t y
should b e a t l e a s t 600-800 m. This q u a n t i t y i s determined as f o l l o w s .

During a climb a f t e r t a k e o f f , t h e p i t c h a n g l e 9 = 6-8" (depending on t h e


angle of t h e climbing t r a j e c t o r y 0). The a n g l e of view downward from t h e
crew's cabin f o r modern a i r c r a f t i s 15-20".

A f t e r t a k e o f f a t 60-70 m a l t i t u d e (when t h e l a n d i n g g e a r and f l a p s a r e


r a i s e d ) t h e crew should see t h e runway o r o r i e n t a t i o n p o i n t s on t h e s u r f a c e
such as approach l i g h t s ( i n o r d e r t o maintain t h e t a k e o f f course) a t l e a s t
400-500 m i n f r o n t o f t h e a i r c r a f t . The a d d i t i o n a l v i s i b i l i t y r e s e r v e due t o

170

t h e slower r e a c t i o n o f t h e p i l o t i s g e n e r a l l y 2-3 sec, corresponding t o an


a d d i t i o n a l 200-300 m. Thus, t h e minimum v i s i b i l i t y d u r i n g a t a k e o f f should b e
600-800 m.

S9. Moving into a Second Circle

An a i r c r a f t may move i n t o a second c i r c l e d u r i n g any s t a g e of t h e landing


approach, i n c l u d i n g t h e l e v e l i n g o f f . High power r e s e r v e makes it p o s s i b l e t o
move o f f i n t o a second c i r c l e even w i t h one motor o u t o f o p e r a t i o n (TU-104,
TU-124, TU-134).

The decreased pickup of t u r b o j e t engines does i n f l u e n c e t h e behavior o f


t h e a i r c r a f t a t t h e moment t h e t r a n s i t i o n i s made t o t h e second c i r c l e . The
problem i s t h a t t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e engine t o s h i f t from t h e i d l i n g
regime (300-600 kg t h r u s t ) t o t h e nominal t h r u s t regime o r h i g h e r i s 15
1 8 sec, while i n p r a c t i c e a f t e r 6-7 s e c , i . e . , a f t e r t h e t h r o t t l e i s p l a c e d i n
t h e "maximum t h r u s t " p o s i t i o n , t h e engine t h r u s t reaches a v a l u e s u f f i c i e n t t o
provide n o t o n l y h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t , b u t some climb. On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s , a
u n i f i e d method of p i l o t i n g i n c a s e it becomes n e c e s s a r y t o make a second
c i r c l e h a s been developed (by Candidate of Technical Sciences M. V . Rozenblat).

A f t e r deciding t o e n t e r a second c i r c l e , t h e p i l o t s e t s t h e t h r o t t l e t o
t h e maximum p o s i t i o n . I f t h e a i r b r a k e has been extended, i t s switch i s
s h i f t e d t o t h e " r e t r a c t " p o s i t i o n . The a i r c r a f t i s brought out o f t h e
descent and t h e speed i s r e t a i n e d unchanged u n t i l t h e a i r c r a f t begins t o /176
climb. S i x t o e i g h t sec a f t e r t h e t h r o t t l e s a r e pushed i n t o t h e maximum
p o s i t i o n , t h e engines w i l l develop t h r u s t equal t o 75-80% of t h e maximum
(Figure 1 1 2 , p o i n t 2 ) , which w i l l overcome t h e d r a g of t h e a i r c r a f t with some
excess power a v a i l a b l e . When t h e a v a i l a b l e power exceeds t h e r e q u i r e d power,
t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l begin t o climb.

When necessary ( f o r example with i n c r e a s e d v e r t i c a l d e s c e n t r a t e ) i n


o r d e r t o d e c r e a s e t h e r a t e o f d e s c e n t , immediately a f t e r t h e engines a r e
s h i f t e d t o t h e maximum regime t h e f l i g h t speed can be smoothly reduced by
10-15 km/hr, b u t never below t h e e s t a b l i s h e d g l i d i n g speed.

A f t e r t h e a i r c r a f t i s s h i f t e d i n t o a climb and t h e engines reach t h e


m a x i m u m regime, t h e landing g e a r a r e brought up, causing t h e f l y i n g speed t o
i n c r e a s e s h a r p l y . When a s a f e speed i s achieved and an a l t i t u d e o f 80-100 m
i s reached, t h e f l a p s are r a i s e d , and t h e engines a r e s h i f t e d t o t h e nominal
o r c r u i s i n g regime. The landing g e a r should n o t be r a i s e d u n t i l t h e engines
r e a c h a regime p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t t h r u s t f o r f l i g h t , s i n c e t h e drag o f t h e
a i r c r a f t is i n c r e a s e d when t h e l a n d i n g g e a r s t o r a g e bay doors a r e opened
causing t h e r a t e of d e s c e n t t o i n c r e a s e . The graph o f F i g u r e 1 1 2 shows t h a t
t h e a i r c r a f t continues t o descend u n t i l t h e engines r e a c h t h e r e q u i r e d regime;
when t h e v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y component V = 3.5-4 m/sec, t h e a d d i t i o n a l descent
Y
w i l l b e 15-20 m . With V = 5-7 m/sec, t h e a d d i t i o n a l d e s c e n t w i l l be 30-40 m
Y
i f t h e speed i s r e t a i n e d t h e same, o r 20-25 m i f t h e f l i g h t speed i s decreased

171

by 10-15 km/hr. T h e r e f o r e , t h e lowest s a f e a l t i t u d e f o r t h e d e c i s i o n t o make


a second c i r c l e with l a n d i n g g e a r down, f l a p s i n t h e landing p o s i t i o n and
airbrake on i s u s u a l l y 50 m. With t h e a d d i t i o n a l d e s c e n t o f up t o 30 m, an
altitude r e s e r v e i s t h u s guaranteed.
If t h e speed of
the aircraft is
decreased by lo-.
15 km/hr i n t h e range
of g l i d i n g speeds
240-260 km/hr, t h e
a d d i t i o n a l climb
r e s u l t i n g from k i n e t i c
energy i s 18-25 m.

F i g u r e 112. Change i n A l t i t u d e and F l i g h t


S p e e d of TU-124 A i r c r a f t upon T r a n s i t i o n t o
Second C i r c l e from A l t i t u d e of 75 m (average
weight 33 t , 6f = 30" and A a b = 4 0 " ) :
1 , Moment of t h r o t t l e s h i f t and beginning of
r e t r a c t i o n of a i r b r a k e ; 2 , Moment of achieve
ment of 75-80% maximum t h r u s t b y e n g i n e s ;
3 , Moment of t r a n s i t i o n of e n g i n e s t o takeoff
regime and b e g i n n i n g of r a i s i n g of landing
g e a r ; 4 , B e g i n n i n g of r a i s i n g of f l a p s

172

Chapter x. Cornering -
/177

91. Diagram o f Forces Operating D u r i n g Cornering

O f a l l of t h e curved t r a j e c t o r y maneuvers i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l


p l a n e s , t h e t r a n s p o r t a i r c r a f t i s p e r m i t t e d t o perform o n l y t h e c o r n e r i n g
maneuver -- f l i g h t i n a curved t r a j e c t o r y i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e w i t h a
360-degree t u r n . A p o r t i o n o f a c o r n e r i n g maneuver i s c a l l e d a t u r n . A
s t a b l e c o r n e r i n g maneuver without s l i p p i n g i s considered p r o p e r .

I n o r d e r t o perform
c o r n e r i n g it i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t
an unbalanced f o r c e a c t on t h e
a i r c r a f t , curving t h e t r a j e c t
o r y , and d i r e c t e d perpendic
u l a r t o the trajectory
(Figure 113). This f o r c e i s a
component o f t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e
Y s i n y (where y i s t h e bank
a n g l e ) , produced when t h e
a i r c r a f t i s banked. T h i s
force is called centripetal;
i t r e s u l t s i n t h e appearance
o f a f o r c e equal and o p p o s i t e
t o the centrifugal force:

G V:! V?
-m-,
pcF-L'7- r
Figure 113. Forces Acting on A i r c r a f t
D u r i n g Cornering: a , Proper c o r n e r i n g ;

b , Cornering w i t h outward s l i p (nose where m i s t h e mass of t h e

of a i r c r a f t d e f l e c t e d toward i n t e r i o r aircraft;

of turn) V i s t h e speed i n t h e
turn ;
r i s t h e r a d i u s of t h e
turn.

As t h e banking angle i s i n c r e a s e d i n a proper t u r n , t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e /178


must be i n c r e a s e d so t h a t i t s v e r t i c a l component Y cos y c o n t i n u e s t o b a l a n c e
t h e weight o f t h e a i r c r a f t .

The f o r c e s a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t d u r i n g a h o r i z o n t a l t u r n should s a t i s f y
t h e following e q u a l i t i e s

173

If Y i s expressed through t h e overload n = Y/G, t h e n

This formula shows t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between overloading, which must be used t o


perform t h e h o r i z o n t a l t u r n and t h e banking a n g l e y (Figure 1 1 4 ) . As we can

y-
see from t h e graph, i n o r d e r t o perform a h o r i z o n t a l t u r n a t y = 6 0 " , we must
create n = 2.
Y
I n passenger a i r c r a f t , t h e bank angle i s
u s u a l l y s e t a t 2 0 - 3 0 , which a f f o r d s t h e
necessary maneuverab i 1i t y .
40
I
During an approach t o landing under i n s t r u
w 1 I
ment f l i g h t r u l e s , t h e bank cannot exceed 15'.
I .I
'f 2 3 4 5 -67 With most modern a i r c r a f t , h o r i z o n t a l t u r n s
a r e performed u s i n g t h e a i l e r o n s a l o n e , almost
Figure 114. Over- without u s i n g t h e r u d d e r , with t h e a i r c r a f t
load A s a F u n c t i o n " i t s e l f " s e l e c t i n g an a n g u l a r t u r n i n g r a t e s o
of Banking Angle t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no s l i p p a g e . This has become
p o s s i b l e due t o t h e high degree o f d i r e c t i o n a l
s t a b i l i t y , which g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e s maintenance
of s o - c a l l e d "coordination," i . e . , a combination o f o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e a i l e r o n s
and rudder f o r which t h e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r remains i n t h e p l a n e of symmetry of
t h e a i r c r a f t and no s l i p p i n g occurs1.

52. Cornering Parameters

Cornering parameters i n c l u d e t h e r a d i u s o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l t u r n , time of


t h e t u r n , angular v e l o c i t y of t h e t u r n , e t c .

The following formulas are known f o r t h e r a d i u s and time o f a h o r i z o n t a l


turn :

m a r S t a b i 1 i t y of t h e A i r c r a f t ," Letchiku
o Prakticheskoy Aerod?k"ke [ P r a c t i c a l Aerodynamics f o r t h e P i l o t ] ,
Voyenizdat. P r e s s , 1961.

174

I I1 I I I l l 11.11 11111

where V i s t h e speed d u r i n g t h e c o r n e r i n g maneuver;


cor
g is the acceleration of gravity; /179

n i s t h e overload;
y is t h e bank a n g l e o f t h e a i r c r a f t .

We can see from t h e formula t h a t t h e r a d i u s of t h e t u r n depends s t r o n g l y


on t h e f l i g h t speed, i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y with i n c r e a s i n g speed. The r a d i u s of
t h e h o r i z o n t a l t u r n can be d e c r e a s e d by i n c r e a s i n g t h e overloading, i . e . , by
i n c r e a s i n g t h e bank a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t .

During c o r n e r i n g , t h e a i r c r a f t has an angular v e l o c i t y o f

Let us c a l c u l a t e t h e r a d i u s of t u r n s performed d u r i n g t h e landing


approach around a l a r g e , r e c t a n g u l a r course ( y = 1 S 0 , t a n 15" = 0.268).

If t h e bank a n g l e s and t h e t u r n s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n 15", t h e maneuver


a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t i n c r e a s e s and t h e landing approach time d e c r e a s e s ( t h e
r e s e r v e of p i l o t ' s time i n c r e a s e s ) .

F o r a l l a i r c r a f t , t h e f i r s t t u r n i n t h e approach t o landing begins


according t o t h e diagram a t 2800 m a l t i t u d e and 450 km/hr i n d i c a t e d speed.
Let u s d e f i n e t h e r a d i u s o f t h e f i r s t t u r n f o r a mean a l t i t u d e o f 2000 m ,
keeping i n mind t h a t t h e i n d i c a t e d speed of 450 km/hr corresponds t o a mean
a i r speed of 486 km/hr (135 m/sec):

Where y = 20" ( t a n 20" = 0.363), w e produce r = 5100 m.

Let us determine t h e r a d i u s o f t h e t h i r d t u r n when f l y i n g a t V 1. nd =


= 350 km/hr and y = 15":
Note: Tg = Tan

175

r= m
9480 - ~ 3 6 0 0
9 -81-0,268

A t a n g l e y = 20" and t h e same speed, t h e r a d i u s o f t h e t u r n w i l l b e


2660 m.

On t h e f o u r t h t u r n a t Vind = 320 km/hr and y = 15" ( l a n d i n g g e a r down,


f l a p s down 1 5 " ) , r = 3000 m, and a t 20" bank, r = 2200 m .

Let us determine t h e time f o r a t u r n w i t h a bank a n g l e o f 15". An


i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a d i u s of a t u r n a l s o r e s u l t s i n an i n c r e a s e i n time r e q u i r e d
t o perform t h e t u r n . The formula p r e s e n t e d f o r t i s used t o c a l c u l a t e
cor
t h e time f o r a complete c o r n e r i n g maneuver, i . e . , a 360-degree t u r n .
Usually, t h e a i r c r a f t performs t u r n s o f 180, 90 o r fewer d e g r e e s .

The time r e q u i r e d f o r a 180-degree t u r n ( f i r s t and second t u r n s performed


together) is

f=0;64. -.13' 0.5=161.5 sec=2 min 41.5 sec.


0.265

The t i m e f o r t h e t h i r d t u r n i s /180

97.2
t-0.64. -- .0.25=58 S ~ G .
0-268

The time f o r t h e f o u r t h t u r n i s

t = 0 . 6 4 . L89- O
0 O25=53 S ~ C .
0.265

The a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f r o t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e performance of t h e f o u r t h
turn i s

w- V --=0.03rad/sec=1.7
89 deg/sec;
r 3000

176

CHAPTER X I

STABILITY AND C O N T R O L A B I L I T Y OF A I R C R A F T

1. General Concepts on A i r c r a f t Equilibrium

I n studying t h e s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o f an a i r c r a f t , it i s
r e p r e s e n t e d as a body moving under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e x t e r n a l f o r c e s and
r o t a t i n g under t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e moments o f t h e s e f o r c e s .

I n any f l i g h t , e q u i l i b r i u m o f f o r c e s and moments a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t


must be observed.

Equilibrium of t h e a i r c r a f t i n f l i g h t i s what w e c a l l t h e s t a t e i n which


t h e f o r c e s and moments a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t cause no r o t a t i o n , i . e . , t h e
given s t a t e i s n o t d i s r u p t e d .

I n a l l f l i g h t modes, t h e a i r c r a f t should be balanced both i n t h e


l o n g i t u d i n a l and l a t e r a l d i r e c t i o n s . Balancing means achievement o f equi
l i b r i b r i u m of moments u s i n g t h e c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s i n any f l i g h t mode.

Equilibrium of f o r c e s and moments a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t i s analyzed


r e l a t i v e t o t h e t h r e e c o o r d i n a t e axes passing through i t s c e n t e r of g r a v i t y .
The coordinate axes used (Figure 115) are t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e
a i r c r a f t ox, t h e t r a n s v e r s e axis oz and t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s oy.

Figure 115 a l s o shows t h e following moments: M i s t h e yaw o r t r a c k


angle, r o t a t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t about a x i s oy, and i s Tonsidered p o s i t i v e i f t h e
a i r c r a f t r o t a t e s i t s bow t o t h e l e f t ; M i s t h e bank moment o r t h e t r a n s v e r s e
X
moment, r o t a t i n g a i r c r a f t around t h e ox a x i s , and i s considered p o s i t i v e i f
t h e a i r c r a f t r o t a t e s toward t h e r i g h t wing; M i s t h e p i t c h moment o r t h e
Z
l o n g i t u d i n a l moment, r o t a t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t about t h e oz a x i s , and i s c a l l e d
p o s i t i v e i f t h e a i r c r a f t tends t o l i f t i t s bow.

Equilibrium o f t h e a i r c r a f t about t h e s e axes i s divided i n t o longitud


i n a l e q u i l i b r i u m (about t h e a x i s oz) , t r a n s v e r s e e q u i l i b r i u m (about t h e
a x i s ox) and t r a c k e q u i l i b r i u m (about t h e a x i s oy).

Three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c forms o f body e q u i l i b r i u m are known: s t a b l e ,


u n s t a b l e and n e u t r a l e q u i l i b r i u m . An example i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e s e forms of
e q u i l i b r i u m might b e t h e behavior o f a b a l l on s u r f a c e s of v a r i o u s forms. The
behavior of a b a l l on a concave curved s u r f a c e c h a r a c t e r i z e s s t a b l e
equilibrium, on a convex s u r f a c e -- u n s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m and on a f l a t
s u r f a c e -- n e u t r a l e q u i l i b r i u m .

177

I
-
'r - 'r r
P > O i f
r

Figure 115. S y s t e m of A i r c r a f t Axes and Symbols Used f o r


Moments of Angular V e l o c i t i e s , D e f l e c t i o n o f Control
Surfaces and Forces on Command Levers

Although a i r c r a f t e q u i l i b r i u m i s a more complex phenomenon t h a n t h e


e q u i l i b r i u m of a b a l l , i n f l i g h t an a i r c r a f t may b e i n t h e s t a b l e , u n s t a b l e
o r n e u t r a l s t a t e s . I n correspondence with t h e s e forms o f e q u i l i b r i u m , t h e
a i r c r a f t i s c a l l e d s t a b l e , u n s t a b l e o r n e u t r a l . An u n s t a b l e o r n e u t r a l
a i r c r a f t cannot s a t i s f y t h e requirements o f normal c o n t r o l i n f l i g h t .

52. S t a t i c and Dynamic S t a b i l i t y

The s t a b i l i t y o f an a i r c r a f t i s i t s a b i l i t y t o r e t a i n i t s f l i g h t regime
o r r e t u r n t o i t s i n i t i a l balanced regime i n c a s e of an a r b i t r a r y d e v i a t i o n
r e s u l t i n g from e x t e r n a l p e r t u r b a t i o n s , without t h e a i d of t h e p i l o t .

A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , books on aerodynamics f r e q u e n t l y d i v i d e s t a b i l i t y
a r b i t r a r i l y i n t o s t a t i c and dynamic s t a b i l i t y , although i n a c t u a l i t y an a i r
c r a f t simply h a s s t a b i l i t y , meaning t h e a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t t o r e t u r n t o
movement a t t h e i n i t i a l kinematic parameters ( v e l o c i t y , angle o f a t t a c k , e t c . )
a f t e r a p e r t u r b a t i o n i s removed o r , as t h e y s a y , t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t
t o r e t a i n t h e i n i t i a l f l i g h t regime.

T h e r e f o r e , t h e s t a b i l i t y o f an a i r c r a f t c o n s i s t s o f s t a t i c s t a b i l i t y and
good damping p r o p e r t i e s , which determine and c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e q u a l i t y of t h e
t r a n s i e n t p r o c e s s when t h e e q u i l i b r i u m of t h e a i r c c r a f t i s d i s r u p t e d . This i s
f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d dynamic s t a b i l i t y .

178

.-. .. . . .. . . , ,, ...,

Let us analyze t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s o f an a i r c r a f t i n d i v i d u a l l y i n somewhat


more d e t a i l .

I n f l i g h t , an a i r c r a f t i s s u b j e c t t o t h e effects of t u r b u l e n c e of t h e
atmosphere, a s w e l l as s h o r t d u r a t i o n p e r t u r b a t i o n s c r e a t e d by random devi
a t i o n s o f t h e c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s by t h e p i l o t , e t c . The p e r t u r b i n g moments
d i s r u p t t h e e q u i l i b r i u m of f o r c e s , causing t h e t r a j e c t o r y of t h e a i r c r a f t t o
curve and t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t t o change. The summary movement of t h e
a i r c r a f t produced by adding t h e i n i t i a l unperturbed and supplementary motions,
i s c a l l e d t h e p e r t u r b e d movement.

S t a t i c s t a b i l i t y means t h e p r o p e r t y o f an a i r c r a f t causing it t o create


s t a b i l i z i n g moments when e q u i l i b r i u m i s d i s r u p t e d . For example, i f a n e g a t i v e
p i t c h i n g moment arises and acts on t h e a i r c r a f t when t h e angle of a t t a c k i s
i n c r e a s e d , t h i s w i l l b e a s t a b i l i z i n g moment. Also, on t h e r i g h t wing
causes a moment t o a r i s e t e n d i n g t o t u r n t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e r i g h t , it w i l l
a l s o b e a s t a b i l i z i n g moment.

Thus, i f when e q u i l i b r i u m i s d i s r u p t e d , moments a r i s e tending t o r e s t o r e


t h e i n i t i a l e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t , t h e a i r c r a f t i s c a l l e d
s t a t i c a l l y s t a b l e . The presence of s t a t i c s t a b i l i t y makes it p o s s i b l e f o r t h e
p i l o t t o c o n t r o l t h e a i r c r a f t normally, and t o t a k e proper c o n t r o l a c t i o n s i n
emergency s i t u a t i o n s .

Dynamic s t a b i l i t y means t h e tendency o f an a i r c r a f t , a f t e r a p e r t u r b i n g


f o r c e i s removed, t o r e s t o r e t h e i n i t i a l f l i g h t regime ( v e l o c i t y , a l t i t u d e ,
overloading, f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n ) without i n t e r f e r e n c e from t h e p i l o t . Dynamic
s t a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: t h e period of damping o f
o s c i l l a t i o n s T, t h e t i m e of damping of o s c i l l a t i o n s Td (during which time t h e
i n i t i a l amplitude of o s c i l l a t i o n s i s decreased by a f a c t o r o f 2 0 ) , t h e
d e c r e a s e i n o s c i l l a t i n g amplitude A i n one p e r i o d md = A1/A3 (Figure 116) and
t h e r e l a t i v e o s c i l l a t i o n damping c o e f f i c i e n t 6. C o e f f i c i e n t 5 determines t h e
q u a l i t y of t h e t r a n s i e n t process o r , i n o t h e r words, t h e i n t e n s i t y o f damping
o f o s c i l l a t i o n s from a p e r t u r b i n g movement.

I n a dynamically s t a b l e a i r c r a f t , p e r t u r b e d movement must b e damped. The


movement may b e e i t h e r a p e r i o d i c ( n o n o s c i l l a t i n g ) , i n which a p e r t u r b e d
-
/183

movement i s r a p i d l y damped, o r p e r i o d i c ( o s c i l l a t i n g ) , i n which damping occurs


with a c e r t a i n amplitude and r e q u i r e s somewhat more time (Figure 117).

A n e u t r a l a i r c r a f t shows no tendency toward damping o r i n c r e a s e i n


p e r t u r b a t i o n s (Figure 117 b ) , while a dynamically u n s t a b l e a i r c r a f t shows a
tendency toward i n c r e a s e d amplitude of p e r t u r b a t i o n s with t i m e (Figure 117 c ) .

Weak damping and o s c i l l a t i n g p e r i o d s which are t o o long are c h a r a c t e r


i s t i c s of poor a i r c r a f t s t a b i l i t y . A s t h e p e r i o d i s i n c r e a s e d , t h e perturbed
movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s " s t r e t c h e d out," i . e . , extends over a longer
p e r i o d of t i m e .

179

As w e can see from Figure 118, t h e


behavior of a d namically u n s t a b l e a i r c r a f t
d
i s c h a r a c t e r i e by an a p e r i o d i c i n c r e a s e i n
t h e p i t c h angle, t h a t of a dynamically
s t a b l e a i r c r a f t by damping o s c i l l a t i o n s .

If n e i t h e r s t a b i l i z i n g ilor d e s t a b i l
i z i n g moments a r i s e when t h e a i r c r a f t /184
-

d e v i a t e s from t h e e q u i l i b r i u m s t a t e , t h e
aircraft is called s t a t i c a l l y neutral
Figure 116. Determin (Figure 118 c ) .
stion of Characteristics
o f Short Period Damping S t a t i c s t a b i l i t y alone i s i n s u f f i c i e n t
Perturbed Movement t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l have
( A I , A 2 a r e amplitudes) dynamic s t a b i l i t y . This r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l
damping and i n e r t i a l p r o p e r t i e s , as w e l l as
a p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t a t i c s t a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e
various axes.

a) b) The damping
moments formed when
the aircraft is
r o t a t e d have a
tremendous r o l e t o
p l a y i n suppression
of o s c i l l a t i o n s and
p r o v i s i o n o f good
c o n t r o 11a b i li t y f o r
example,
1ong it ud i na1 damping
( p i t c h damping) i s
c r e a t e d p r i m a r i l y by
the horizontal t a i l
s u r f aces, while yaw
damping ( t r a c k
Figure 117. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Perturbed Move damping) i s produced
m e n t o f S t a b l e ( a ) , Neutral ( b ) and Unstable ( c ) by t h e v e r t i c a l t a i l
A i r c r a f t (arrow shows i n i t i a l equilibrium surfaces of the
pos i t ion) a i r c r a f t . When
r o t a t i o n about t h e
ox a x i s occurs, t h e
wings c r e a t e a t r a n s v e r s e damping moment.

With weak damping, a i r c r a f t o s c i l l a t i o n s w i l l b e a t t e n u a t e d slowly,


p a r t i c u l a r l y a t a l t i t u d e s of 10,000-11,000 m , and a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e w i l l b e
r e q u i r e d f o r r e s t o r a t i o n of e q u i l i b r i u m . With t o o s t r o n g damping, t h e r e t u r n
t o t h e e q u i l i b r i u m s t a t e i s a l s o delayed.

The i n e r t i a l p r o p e r t i e s of an a i r c r a f t a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s a b i l i t y
t o r e t a i n t h e s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m o r i t s previous angular r o t a t i o n a l

180

v e l o c i t y . The g r e a t e r t h e moment o f i n e r t i a , t h e more slowly t h e a i r c r a f t


r e a c t s t o d e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e s t i c k and p e d a l s . J e t a i r c r a f t have high moments
of i n e r t i a r e l a t i v e t o t h e y and z axes, s i n c e t h e y have a r e l a t i v e l y long
f u s e l a g e , i n which t h e main mass o f t h e load i s c o n c e n t r a t e d about t h e c e n t e r
o f g r a v i t y . The moment of i n e r t i a r e l a t i v e t o t h e x a x i s i s less, s i n c e t h e
wing span i s less t h a n t h e l e n g t h o f t h e f u s e l a g e .

a)

w i n i gust wind gust wind g u s t

Figure I 18. Behavior of Dynamical l y Unstable ( a ) ,


S t a b l e ( b ) and Neutral ( c ) A i r c r a f t During Perturbed
Mot ion

3. C o n t r o l l a b i l i t y of an A i r c r a f t

The c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o f an a i r c r a f t i s an important p i l o t i n g c h a r a c t e r
i s t i c , and means i t s c a p a b i l i t y t o respond t o t h e p i l o t ' s movements o f t h e
rudder and a i l e r o n s with corresponding movements i n space o r , as t h e y s a y , t h e
/ 185
a b i l i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t t o "follow t h e c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s . " I n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e
a i r c r a f t , t h e p i l o t moves t h e s t i c k and p e d a l s and e v a l u a t e s t h e behavior of
t h e a i r c r a f t by t h e f o r c e s on t h e c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s . By moving t h e v a r i o u s
s u r f a c e s , t h e p i l o t overcomes t h e i n e r t i a l , damping and r e s t o r i n g moments
a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t .

I f t h e f o r c e s a r e extremely h i g h , t h e p i l o t w i l l become f a t i g u e d d u r i n g
maneuvering. Such a i r c r a f t a r e d e s c r i b e d as being heavy t o c o n t r o l .
Unnecessarily l i g h t c o n t r o l should a l s o b e avoided, s i n c e it makes p r e c i s e
c o n t r o l of movements o f c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s d i f f i c u l t and may cause t h e a i r c r a f t
t o shake.

The c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s should make it p o s s i b l e t o balance t h e a i r c r a f t i n


a l l f l i g h t regimes used. This i s e v a l u a t e d u s i n g b a l a n c i n g c u r v e s , which
c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e change i n b a l a n c e angles of c o n t r o l s u r f a c e d e f l e c t i o n (and
correspondingly t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o l l e v e r s , a s w e l l a s t h e f o r c e s on
them) a t v a r i o u s s t a b l e f l i g h t regimes as a f u n c t i o n of a change i n one of t h e
parameters determining t h e regime ( f o r example, f l i g h t speed, M number, angle
of a t t a c k o r s l i p a n g l e , e t c . ) .

The p i l o t a l s o judges t h e c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y of an a i r c r a f t from t h e r e a c


t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t t o d e f l e c t i o n s of "the c o n t r o l l e v e r s during maneuvering.

C o n t r o l l a b i l i t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e forms: l o n g i t u d i n a l , directional and


t r a n s v e r s e . The a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t t o r o t a t e about t h e ox a x i s under t h e
i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a i l e r o n s i s c a l l e d t r a n s v e r s e c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y , about t h e oy
a x i s under t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e r u d d e r i s c a l l e d d i r e c t i o n a l c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y

181

and about t h e oz a x i s under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e e l e v a t o r i s c a l l e d l o n g i t u d


.
i n a l c o n t r o 1l a b i l i t y

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l o n g i t u d i n a l c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y i n c l u d e t h e amount o f
e l e v a t o r and s t i c k t r a v e l r e q u i r e d t o change t h e a i r c r a f t v e l o c i t y by a f i x e d
amount, as well a s t h e f o r c e , a p p l i e d t o t h e s t i c k by t h e p i l o t . One of t h e
most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s t h e f o r c e g r a d i e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o over
l o a d i n g APel/An showing t h e f o r c e which must b e a p p l i e d t o t h e s t i c k t o
Y'
change overloading by one u n i t .

The following parameters are used as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t r a n s v e r s e


.
c o n t r o 1l,abi 1i t y

1) The f o r c e which must b e a p p l i e d t o t h e s t i c k t o g i v e t h e a i r c r a f t an


a n g u l a r r o t a t i o n v e l o c i t y about t h e ox a x i s of 1 r a d / s e c :

AP
Pa -" - A ,
box

where APa i s t h e f o r c e a p p l i e d t o t h e a i l e r o n c o n t r o l l e v e r ;
Amx i s t h e change i n a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f 1 r a d / s e c ;

2 ) The f o r c e which must b e a p p l i e d t o t h e c o n t r o l l e v e r t o /186


balance t h e a i r c r a f t i n s t r a i g h t l i n e f l i g h t w i t h a s l i p of one degree o r a
bank o f one degree:

where A @ i s t h e change i n s l i p angle o f one degree;


Ay i s t h e change i n bank angle of one degree;

3 ) The change i n a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f a bank when t h e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e


a i l e r o n s i s changed by one degree:

where Amx i s t h e ehange i n a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f t h e bank;


A6 i s t h e change a i l e r o n a n g l e of one degree.
a

182

The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i r e c t i o n a l c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y are t h e following


parameters :

1) The f o r c e which must b e a p p l i e d t ? t h e pedals t o impart an angular


v e l o c i t y of 1 r a d / s e c t o t h e a i r c r a f t :

where APn i s t h e f o r c e a p p l i e d t o t h e p e d a l s ;
Au i s t h e change i n angular v e l o c i t y of 1 r a d / s e c ;
Y
2) t h e f o r c e which must be a p p l i e d t o t h e pedals t o d e f l e c t t h e rudder
when t h e a i r c r a f t i s balanced i n s t r a i g h t l i n e f l i g h t with a s l i p of one
degree o r a bank of one degree;

3 ) t h e change i n angular v e l o c i t y when t h e rudder i s d e f l e c t e d by one


degree, i . e . , t h e bank r e a c t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t t o d e f l e c t i o n of t h e rudder:

where A6n i s t h e change i n t h e rudder angle of one degree.

We can s e e from t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of a i r c r a f t s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l l a b i l i , t y


t h a t t h e y c h a r a c t e r i z e opposite p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t : s t a b i l i t y must b e
p r e s e n t t o maintain t h e f l i g h t regime unchanged, while c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y must be
p r e s e n t t o allow it t o b e changed. However, t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n i n t e r r e l a t i o n
s h i p between s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y .

On a s t a b l e a i r c r a f t , t h e n a t u r e of t h e movements of t h e c o n t r o l l e v e r s
and r e q u i r e d d e f l e c t i o n s during p i l o t i n g are s i m p l i f i e d , and i t i s e a s i e r t o
determine t h e f l i g h t regime. I t h a s been t h e o r e t i c a l l y proven and confirmed
by p r a c t i c e t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t , t h e less t h e delay
and g r e a t e r t h e accuracy with which i t follows a d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o l
s u r f a c e s . Therefore, s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y provide f o r complete /187
u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e maneuvering c a p a c i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t , a s s u r i n g t h e r e q u i r e d
accuracy and s i m p l i c i t y o f p i l o t i n g and are an important c o n d i t i o n f o r f l i g h t
safety,

183

I . .. . .- . _ .. . __ .. __ .._.. __ .
S4. Centering of t h e A i r c r a f t and Mean Aerodynamic Chord

The p o s i t i o n of t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y of an a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o t h e
wings i s c a l l e d t h e c e n t e r i n g o f t h e a i r c T a f t and i s determined by t h e
d i s t a n c e ( i n p e r c e n t ) from t h e o r i g i n of t h e mean aerodynamic cord
(Figure 119) :

--5.100%;
x -gT=: +.loo %,
'- MAC MAC

where b i s t h e mean aerodynamic cord o f t h e wing;


mac
x i s t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i s t a n c e from t h e l e a d p o i n t of t h e mac t o t h e
t
c e n t e r of g r a v i t y ;
y t i s t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e from t h e mac t o t h e c . g .

Figure 119. Diagram f o r Determining MAC of


Trapezoidal S w e p t Wing ( r . 1 . f . = r e f e r e n c e 1 i n e of
a i r c r a f t ; A , p o s i t i o n of c e n t e r of g r a v i t y
corresponding t o t i p p i n g of a i r c r a f t o n t o t a i l )

Since y i s small i n magnitude, xt i s of primary s i g n i f i c a n c e i n an


t
a n a l y s i s o f s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y .

The c e n t e r of g r a v i t y may b e e i t h e r above o r below t h e r e f e r e n c e l i n e of


t h e a i r c r a f t , depending on t h e a c t u a l weight of t h e a i r c r a f t ( f u e l load) and
placement of motors.

I n f l i g h t , t h e c . g . of t h e a i r c r a f t should b e i n s t r i c t l y defined
p o s i t i o n s i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e mac, guaranteeing continued s t a b i l i t y and
c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y as t h e f u e l i s consumed. The f u e l r e p r e s e n t s 25-45% o f t h e

184

weight o f t h e a i r c r a f t . I n o r d e r t o achieve t h e l e a s t displacement o f t h e


c . g . i n f l i g h t , t h e f u e l i s consumed i n a predetermined o r d e r , c o n t r o l l e d by
an automatic d e v i c e (Figure 120).

As w e can s e e from t h e graph, i n o r d e r t o remain w i t h i n t h e r e q u i r e d


range of c e n t e r i n g s
t
(x= 21-30% MAC), t h e loaded a i r c r a f t without f u e l must
have x t
= 23.3-28.5% MAC (corresponding t o s e c t o r AB on t h e f i g u r e ) . Then,
with any f u e l load c e n t e r i n g , o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l n o t go beyond t h e s e l i m i t s .
For example, i f a c e n t e r i n g of 26% mac was produced f o r t h e loaded a i r c r a f t
without f u e l ( l a n d i n g g e a r down) , when 8.5 t of f u e l is taken on
t
x
= 26.7%,
o r with 10.5 t -- 24.3% MAC. A f t e r t h e l a n d i n g g e a r a r e r e t r a c t e d , t h e
c e n t e r i n g moves a f t one p e r c e n t and w i l l amount t o 26.7 and 25.2%
r e s p e c t i v e l y . With a f u e l remainder of 6.65 t , t h e c e n t e r i n g w i l l b e f u r t h e s t
t o t h e r e a r , and with a remainder o f 3.15 t -- f u r t h e s t t o t h e f r o n t .

With c e n t e r i n g Yt = 42-50% MAC, f o r a i r c r a f t with motors on t h e wings


and 48-53% i f t h e motor i s l o c a t e d i n t h e r e a r p o r t i o n o f t h e fuselage, the
c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y i s l o c a t e d i n t h e p l a n e of t h e main landing gear s t r u t s ;
with c e n t e r i n g f u r t h e r t o t h e r e a r , t h e a i r c r a f t may t i p onto its t a i l
(Figure 119).

Figure 120. Change i n Centering of A i r c r a f t i n F l i g h t As


a Function o f Quantity of F u e l i n Tanks ( y t = 0.8 g/cm3)

S5. Aerodynamic Center o f Wing and A i r c r a f t . Neutral Centering

We know t h a t t h e r e i s a p o i n t on t h e cord of t h e wing about which t h e


moment o f aerodynamic f o r c e s does n o t change when t h e angle o f a t t a c k i s
changed. For example (Figure 121) with an angle of a t t a c k a l , l i f t i n g f o r c e
Y c r e a t e s a l o n g i t u d i n a l moment M Z r e l a t i v e t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t F
1
(Figure 1 2 1 a ) . A s t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k i s changed t o a 2 , t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e /189
--
i n c r e a s e s , b u t i t s arm l e n g t h r e l a t i v e t o p o i n t F i s decreased a s a r e s u l t of
displacement of t h e c e n t e r o f p r e s s u r e ( F i g u r e 1 2 1 b ) . The new moment may b e

185

I
H I I I

g r e a t e r t h a n o r less t h a n t h e preceding moment. This depends on t h e way i n


which t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e v a l u e s o f f o r c e and a r m l e n g t h change. I t
i s p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t a p o i n t F such t h a t t h e v a l u e o f t h e arm l e n g t h changes
i n i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e aerodynamic f o r c e . Then, t h e moment r e l a t i v e t o
t h i s p o i n t w i l l n o t change as t h e a n g l e o f a t t a c k i s changed. This p o i n t i s
c a l l e d t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r o f t h e wing. Thus, i f a3 > c1 > c1 and
2 1
L1 > Z 2 > Z, t h e n YIZl = Y2Z2 = Y Z i s t h e c o n s t a n t moment of aerodynamic
~ 3 3
f o r c e r e l a t i v e t o t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r o f t h e wing with v a r i o u s a n g l e s of
a t t a c k . With wing shapes used, t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r i s l o c a t e d 23 t o 25% o f
t h e d i s t a n c e along i t s cord.

Figure 121. Explanation of Aerodynamic Center o f Wing ( a , b, c)


and of A i r c r a f t ( d )

We can draw an important conclusion from t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e aero


dynamic c e n t e r : t h e increments o f aerodynamic f o r c e s a r i s i n g when t h e angle
o f a t t a c k i s changed a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r . A c t u a l l y , f o r c e
Y = Y + AY, a p p l i e d a t cp2, can b e d i v i d e d i n t o f o r c e Y1 a p p l i e d t o cpl and
2 1
f o r c e Y, a p p l i e d a t t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r (Figure 1 2 1 b ) .

Since t h e moment o f f o r c e AY r e l a t i v e t o p o i n t F i s equal t o z e r o , t h e


l o n g i t u d i n a l moment of t h e wing a t angle o f a t t a c k c1 w i l l be t h e same as a t
2
angle o f a t t a c k a
1'
The h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e s , l i k e t h e wing, have t h e i r own aerodynamic /=
center.

186

.~ . . .... . . .
When t h e angle o f a t t a c k i s changed, a d d i t i o n a l l i f t i n g f o r c e a r i s e s on
t h e wing, and ends on t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e s , a p p l i e d t o t h e aero
dynamic c e n t e r s of t h e wing and h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e s (Figure 1 2 1 d ) . The
r e s u l t a n t of p a r a l l e l f o r c e s AYw and AYht i s a p p l i e d a t d i s t a n c e s i n v e r s e l y
p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e v a l u e s o f t h e s e f o r c e s . The p o i n t o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s
r e s u l t a n t i s c a l l e d t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r of t h e a i r c r a f t . We must n o t e h e r e
t h a t f o r a i r c r a f t o f known t y p e s , b o t h t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e l i f t i n g
f o r c e and i t s increment AYht are d i r e c t e d downward, no matter what t h e angle
o f a t t a c k of t h e wing.

As w e can s e e from t h e
f i g u r e , t h e moment of
supplementary f o r c e s r e l a t i v e
t o t h e a i r c r a f t aerodynamic
c e n t e r i s zero; consequently,
t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l moment o f t h e
aircraft relative t o this
40 c e n t e r does n o t change when t h e
angle o f a t t a c k i s changed.

1' F.t max r e a r 1 I'Stabi 1 i t y Reserve


T h e r e f o r e , t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e
a i r c r a f t aerodynamic c e n t e r
does n o t change when t h e angle
30
42 43 44
I
95
I,,,
47 4 8 M
46
of a t t a c k i s changed.

The aerodynamic c e n t e r of
Figure 122. Neutral Centering o f Air the a i r c r a f t is shifted t o the
c r a f t w i t h Respect t o Overloads As a r e a r under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f
Function of M Number (example): aerodynamic f o r c e increments
a , Maximal indicated speed 1 imita arising i n the stabilizer,
t i o n ; b , Minimum permissible f u s e l a g e and engine c e l l s . For
indicated s p e e d l i m i t a t i o n example, i f f o r t h e wing
without t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a i l
s u r f a c e ) X = 2 0 - 2 2 % mac, f o r
F
the aircraft xF = 46-50% mac.

If t h e loads on t h e a i r c r a f t a r e so d i s t r i b u t e d t h a t t h e c e n t e r of
g r a v i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t corresponds with i t s aerodynamic c e n t e r , t h e a i r c r a f t
becomes n e u t r a l i n t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s p e c t . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e c e n t e r i n g i s
c a l l e d n e u t r a l . Since i n t h i s c a s e t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l moment of t h e a i r c r a f t
w i l l n o t change as a f u n c t i o n of angle of a t t a c k , we must conclude t h a t
n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g i s t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r of t h e e n t i r e a i r c r a f t 1 . N e u t r a l
a i r c r a f t c e n t e r i n g s are c a l c u l a t e d f o r v a r i o u s a l t i t u d e s and f l i g h t speeds
(Figure 122).

r-l-.V. Ostoslavskry, Aerodinamika SamoZeta [Aerodynamics o f t h e A i r c r a f t ] ,


Oborongiz. P r e s s , 1957.

187

As w e can s e e from t h e f i g u r e , a t Mach numbers M 0.6, n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g


moves somewhat (by 1.1-1.7% mac) forward ( r e l a t i v e t o i t s i n i t i a l v a l u e s o f
45-43% mac), w h i l e a t a l t i t u d e s over 6,000 m i t s h i f t s n o t i c e a b l y t o t h e r e a r
as a r e s u l t of t h e effect of t h e compressibility o f t h e a i r .

For H = 11,000 m, t h e change i n n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g from 42 t o 49% mac


n o t e d i s explained by a displacement o f t h e c e n t e r o f p r e s s u r e o f t h e wing t o
t h e rear a t M numbers g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c r i t i c a l M number of t h e wing p r o f i l e
(approximately M > 0.7-0.72).

A f t e r determining t h e f a r t h e s t forward p o s i t i o n o f t h e n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g ,
t h e l i m i t i n g rearward c e n t e r i n g f o r o p e r a t i o n i s defined 10-12% less t h a n
n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g . The d i s t a n c e between t h e n e u t r a l and l i m i t i n g r e a r
c e n t e r i n g i s c a l l e d t h e r e s e r v e of s t a b i l i t y f o r c e n t e r i n g .

96. Longitudinal Equilibrium

Figure 123. Diagram o f Forces and Moments Act i n g


on A i r c r a f t About Transverse Axis

The p i l o t m a i n t a i n s l o n g i t u d i n a l e q u i l i b r i u m o r b a l a n c i n g by u s i n g t h e
e l e v a t o r and s e l e c t i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y motor t h r u s t . Any s t a b l e f l i g h t regime
i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by angle of a t t a c k a , f l i g h t speed V , a l t i t u d e H and t h e
a n g l e of t r a j e c t o r y i n c l i n a t i o n 0. I n o r d e r t o achieve l o n g i t u d i n a l e q u i
l i b r i u m o f t h e a i r c r a f t , t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e ox and
oy axes and t h e moments o f t h e s e f o r c e s a c t i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h e oz a x i s must be
i n e q u i l i b r i u m (Figure 123).

I n h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t , t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s o f e q u i l i b r i u m must b e observed. /192

The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n i s : t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e of t h e a i r c r a f t Y must b e equal


t o i t s weight.

We know t h a t t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e of an a i r c r a f t i s c r e a t e d by t h e wing,
h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e and p a r t i a l l y by t h e engine n a c e l l e s . The l i f t i n g

188

f o r c e c r e a t e d by t h i s f u s e l a g e i s r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t , and i s considered t o b e
p a r t o f t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e of t h e wing. As w e can see from t h e f i g u r e , t h e s e
f o r c e s create moments about t h e t r a n s v e r s e a x i s which d e c r e a s e o r i n c r e a s e t h e
angle o f a t t a c k . The l i f t i n g f o r c e of t h e wing i n c r u i s i n g f l i g h t c r e a t e s
n e g a t i v e p i t c h moment MZw = YwZ.

The l i f t i n g f o r c e o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e i s d i r e c t e d downward,
and i n a l l f l i g h t regimes used i n p r a c t i c e c r e a t e s t h e p i t c h moment

In o r d e r f o r f o r c e Yht t o b e n e g a t i v e , t h e angle of a t t a c k of t h e
h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e aht must a l s o be n e g a t i v e .

A s we can see from F i g u r e 124, a < a by t h e angle o f downwash of t h e


ht w
stream E ( t h e downwash o f t h e s t r e a m r e s u l t s from t h e a c t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t
ht
wing on t h e a i r stream). Also, a i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e angle of t h e
ht
s t a b i l i z e r C$ ( g e n e r a l l y zero t o - 4 ' ) . Thus, a = a + C$ -
ht w

chord stabi 1 izer


-4 / wing I

di'rection o f chord
w i n g chord
, / s t a b i 1 i zed chord

Figure 124. Determination of A n g l e of Attack of


Horizontal Tai 1 S u r f a c e ( r 2 e q u a l s r e f e r e n c e
l i n e of a i r c r a f t ; V equals f l i g h t speed; VI equals
v e l o c i t y of d i v e r t e d stream)

For o r d i n a r y a i r c r a f t with t h e s t a b i l i z e r on t h e f u s e l a g e a t a f l i g h t
speed o f M = 0.75-0.85 and c = 0.3-0.4, E = 2-3'. For example, w i t h aw = 3 " ,
Y
E = 2.68' and C$ = -2', a n g l e a = 3' - 2' - 2.68' = - 1.68'. The g r e a t e r t h e
angle of a t t a c k ( g r e a t e r t h e l k h i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e wing), t h e g r e a t e r t h e
downwash angle of t h e a i r stream.

I n o r d e r t o determine t h e summary l o n g i t u d i n a l moment a c t i n g on t h e -


/193
a i r c r a f t , we must add t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l moment r e s u l t i n g from engine t h r u s t

189

(M ) t o t h e moments of t h e wings and h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e .


z en
The axis of an engine l o c a t e d i n t h e r e a r p o r t i o n o f t h e f u s e l a g e is
placed above t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e t h r u s t o f
t h e motors creates a d i v i n g moment M = P 2
Zen en en'
Thus, t h e summary l o n g i t u d i n a l moment a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r
mined by t h e sum of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l moments o f t h e wing, h o r i z o n t a l t a i l
s u r f a c e and motor t h r u s t .

E q u a l i t y of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l moment t o zero i s t h e second c o n d i t i o n of


e q u i 1ibrium.

The t h i r d c o n d i t i o n f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l e q u i l i b r i u m of an a i r c r a f t i s
e q u i l i b r i u m o f t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e ox a x i s . I n o r d e r
f o r t h i s c o n d i t i o n t o be f u l f i l l e d , t h e t h r u s t o f t h e engines must b e equal t o
t h e drag of t h e a i r c r a f t : Pen = Q.

I f t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s n o t f u l f i l l e d , t h e movement of t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l be
a c c e l e r a t e d o r d e c e l e r a t e d and, consequently, t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e w i l l b e
changed and t h e f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y w i l l curve.

These t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l b a l a n c i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t are
f u l f i l l e d by varying t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e e l e v a t o r by t h e r e q u i r e d angle and by
a d j u s t i n g engine t h r u s t , depending on v e l o c i t y , a l t i t u d e , f l y i n g weight,
c e n t e r i n g , e t c . We n o t e t h a t when e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n s a r e f u l f i l l e d , t h e
r e s u l t a n t of t h e aerodynamic f o r c e s and t h e t h r u s t of t h e engines can be
considered t o be a p p l i e d t o t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t , and a l l
f o r c e s a r e balanced, i . e . , Pen = Q and Y = G . Therefore, t h e s e f o r c e s w i l l
n o t be shown on f i g u r e s i n t h e following, o n l y t h e a d d i t i o n a l f o r c e s and
moments and t h e i r increments a r i s i n g under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p e r t u r b a t i o n s
being shown.

57. S t a t i c Longitudinal Overload S t a b i l i t y

A d i s r u p t i o n i n l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y o f an a i r c r a f t i s accompanied by a
change i n t h e angle o f a t t a c k a t f l i g h t speed, t h e angle of a t t a c k changing a t
f i r s t more r a p i d l y t h a n v e l o c i t y . Subsequently, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e speed
changes more r a p i d l y . For example, by p u l l i n g t h e s t i c k toward himself
q u i c k l y , t h e p i l o t can i n c r e a s e t h e angle o f a t t a c k by a f a c t o r of two o r
t h r e e times o r more. However, i n o r d e r f o r t h e a i r c r a f t t o change i t s f l i g h t
speed by 1 . 5 times, he must use n o t a f r a c t i o n o f a second, b u t dozens of
seconds o r even s e v e r a l minutes. This s h a r p d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e n a t u r e of t h e
change i n angle of a t t a c k and v e l o c i t y when l o n g i t u d i n a l e q u i l i b r i u m i s
d i s r u p t e d has made it necessary t o d i s t i n g u i s h between l o n g i t u d i n a l angle of
a t t a c k s t a b i l i t y (overload s t a b i l i t y ) and v e l o c i t y s t a b i l i t y .

The s t a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h e f i r s t moment a f t e r e q u i l i b r i u m i s
d i s r u p t e d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s angle of a t t a c k s t a b i l i t y o r overload

190

s t a b i l i t y . This name i s given t o t h i s form of s t a b i l i t y s i n c e when t h e angle


o f a t t a c k i s i n c r e a s e d o r decreased ( a t c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y ) t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e
i s changed, s o t h a t t h e overload i s a l s o changed.

The v a l u e of t h e overload shows t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e e x t e r n a l load i s


g r e a t e r t h a n t h e weight of t h e a i r c r a f t . The overload i s always r e l a t e d t o
t h e d i r e c t i o n i n which i t i s b e i n g analyzed. I n f l i g h t , t h e e x t e r n a l loads
a c t i n g on t h e ox and oz axes a r e s l i g h t . Thus, t h e d r a g o f t h e a i r c r a f t ,
which i s 10-12 times less t h a n t h e weight o f t h e a i r c r a f t , acts along t h e ox
a x i s ; t h e loads a r i s i n g only d u r i n g s l i p p i n g o r as a r e s u l t o f s i d e wind g u s t s
act along t h e oz a x i s .

-
-
V
__c

---f
&kcen te r

wing chord

f i g u r e 125. Forces Acting on A i r c r a f t Entering a


V e r t i c a l Wind Gust

Therefore, t h e main overload i s t h a t a c t i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e oy


axis. I n t h i s c a s e , t h e e x t e r n a l load i s t h e l i f t of t h e a i r c r a f t Y and

I f c o n s t a n t c i s maintained a t t h e given a i r c r a f t speed, t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e


Y
w i l l a l s o b e c o n s t a n t . The overload w i l l a l s o be unchanged, equal t o z e r o .

An a i r c r a f t i s c a l l e d overload s t a b l e i f it tends t o r e t a i n t h e overload


of t h e i n i t i a l f l i g h t regime independently, without i n t e r f e r e n c e by t h e p i l o t .

I f an a i r c r a f t i s overload s t a b l e , when t h e angle of a t t a c k i s changed


t h e moments change so t h a t t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t which t h e y cause
r e s u l t s i n disappearance of t h e a d d i t i o n a l overload. Let us assume t h a t an
a i r c r a f t i n s t r a i g h t and l e v e l f l i g h t with an overload n = 1 and v e l o c i t y V
Y
e n t e r s an ascending c u r r e n t with v e l o c i t y W (Figure 125). This causes t h e
d i r e c t i o n of t h e r e s u l t i n g v e l o c i t y t o b e changed, causing an i n c r e a s e i n t h e
angle of a t t a c k and an i n c r e a s e i n l i f t i n g f o r c e AY (always a t t h e aerodynamic

191

c e n t e r ) o r an i n c r e a s e i n overload An = AY/G. I f f o r c e AY causes a d i v i n g


Y
r o t a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t , t h e a i r c r a f t i s s t a b l e . A s w e can s e e from t h e -
/195
f i g u r e , t h i s w i l l r e s u l t i f t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d
i n f r o n t of t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r . Consequently, t h e appearance of a d i v i n g
moment when t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k i s i n c r e a s e d i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f overload
s t a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t .

If t h e e x t e r n a l a c t i o n l e d t o a d e c r e a s e i n t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k , a
p i t c h i n g moment would a r i s e which would t e n d t o i n c r e a s e t h e a n g l e o f a t t a c k ,
i . e . , r e s t o r e t h e i n i t i a l overload regime.

With a c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n of t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y ( a t t h e aerodynamic
c e n t e r ) , t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l n o t r e a c t t o d i s r u p t i o n of e q u i l i b r i u m and w i l l
show no tendency e i t h e r t o r e t u r n t o i n i t i a l o v e r l o a d o r t o f u r t h e r movement
away from t h e i n i t i a l v a l u e . This p o s i t i o n o f t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y , as was
d i s c u s s e d above, i s c a l l e d n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g . Movement of t h e c e n t e r of
g r a v i t y t o t h e r e a r , behind n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g , r e s u l t s i n t h e appearance of
overload i n s t a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t , s i n c e f o r c e AY w i l l cause an i n c r e a s e i n
t h e p i t c h moment a r i s i n g when e q u i l i b r i u m i s d i s r u p t e d .

Thus, overload s t a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e
p o s i t i o n of t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o t h e n e u t r a l
c e n t e r i n g o r t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r . T h e r e f o r e , i n a d d i t i o n t o l e a d i n g
c e n t e r i n g , which d e f i n e s t h e c a p a b i l i t y of b a l a n c i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n
f l i g h t and during landing w i t h maximum displacement of t h e e l e v a t o r , we a i s 0
determine p e r m i s s i b l e rear c e n t e r i n g from t h e c o n d i t i o n of p r o v i s i o n of normal
overload s t a b i l i t y f o r t h e a i r c r a f t ' .

We can see from our a n a l y s i s t h a t a change i n overload s t a b i l i t y i n


f l i g h t may r e s u l t from a change i n t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y , as
well as a change i n n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g - - t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r of t h e
a i r c r a f t . The n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t may change i n f l i g h t as t h e
v e l o c i t y o r engine o p e r a t i n g mode i s changed, a s w e l l as when c o n t r o l i s
r e l e a s e d . I f overload s t a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s with unchanged c e n t e r of g r a v i t y ,
t h i s i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y and
n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g . On t h e o t h e r hand, i f overload s t a b i l i t y d e c r e a s e s , t h e
d i s t a n c e between t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y and n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g must b e
decreased.

A s a r u l e , n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g s a r e determined f o r a i r c r a f t with f i x e d
e l e v a t o r ; i f t h e c o n t r o l i s r e l e a s e d , c e n t e r i n g i s moved forward by approx
imately 1-2% mac.

The o p e r a t i n g mode o f t h e engine i n f l u e n c e s t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y of


t h e a i r c r a f t t o o v e r l o a d s . I n j e t a i r c r a f t , t h e downwash of t h e a i r stream i n
t h e a r e a of t h e s t a b i l i z e r changes n o t only under t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e wing,
b u t a l s o due t o t h e e f f e c t of t h e exhaust gases of t h e j e t engine on t h e
surrounding medium. The stream l e a v i n g t h e engine a t high v e l o c i t y a t t r a c t s a
c e r t a i n amount o f t h e surrounding a i r along with i t . This surrounding a i r
changes t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s t r e a m a s it approaches i t . Usually, t h e

192

h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e i s l o c a t e d above t h e stream (Figure 126), and t h e


r e s u l t a n t of t h e a i r flow toward t h e stream d e c r e a s e s t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k of
t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e (makes t h e stream downwash more n e g a t i v e ) . /196

During a climb, t h e o p e r a t i n g regime of t h e engines i s nominal and t h e


stream l e a v i n g t h e motor i s a t i t s h i g h e s t power l e v e l . The downwash of t h i s
stream i s t h e n maximal and d e c r e a s e s t h e angle o f a t t a c k o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l
t a i l s u r f a c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y (makes t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k a considerably
ht
negative).

When t h e angle o f a t t a c k o f t h e wing i s i n c r e a s e d ( a i r c r a f t e n t e r s a


v e r t i c a l wind g u s t ) t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k o f t h e ' h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e becomes
more n e g a t i v e due t o t h e i n c r e a s e d downwash o f t h e stream r e s u l t i n g from t h e
change i n l i f t o f t h e wing and a l s o from t h e stream o f gases. The r e s u l t a n t
of t h e i n c r e a s e i n l i f t i n g f o r c e of t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e AYht, a p p l i e d
a t i t s aerodynamic c e n t e r and d i r e c t e d downward, w i l l d e c r e a s e t h e r e s t o r i n g
moment of t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e and make t h e a i r c r a f t less e f f e c t i v e i n
r e t u r n i n g t o i t s i n i t i a l f l i g h t regime. This i n d i c a t e s t h e d e c r e a s e i n
l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y r e s e r v e , i . e . , t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r of t h e a i r c r a f t
i s moved forward along t h e cord a s a r e s u l t o f t h e engines o p e r a t i n g a t
high t h r u s t .

F i g u r e 126. P u m p i n g E f f e c t o f J e t Engine Exhaust


Gas Stream on Surrounding Air Stream

When g l i d i n g a t low engine s e t t i n g , t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e stream from t h e


engines can be ignored. I n t h i s c a s e , t h e downwash of t h e stream on t h e
s t a b i l i z e r w i l l b e determined by t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e wing alone. The angle
of a t t a c k of t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e i n c r e a s e s (becomes l e s s n e g a t i v e ) and
i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s i n c r e a s e d . Longitudinal o v e r l o a d s t a b i l i t y of t h e
a i r c r a f t is increased. This increase i n a i r c r a f t s t a b i l i t y i s equivalent t o a
displacement o f t h e n e u t r a l c e n t e r i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t (aerodynamic c e n t e r )
backward along t h e mac. This i s why a i r c r a f t s t a b i l i t y i s s l i g h t l y lower i n a
climb t h a n i n a g l i d e .

Overload s t a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t can b e e s t i m a t e d by t h e overload f o r c e


g r a d i e n t APel/Any.

193

58. Diagrams of Moments /197

The degree of l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y o f an a i r c r a f t i s determined by


wind t u n n e l t e s t i n g . Models are t e s t e d w i t h v a r i o u s d e f l e c t i o n s of t h e
e l e v a t o r , and t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l moment M i s measured u s i n g s p e c i a l scales. By
Z
determining moment M a t s e v e r a l s e q u e n t i a l a n g l e s o f a t t a c k , w e can c o n s t r u c t
Z
graphs c a l l e d moment diagrams mZ = f(a) f o r v a r i o u s M numbers (Figure 127).

m*ipi
4 tch
M=qS
Figure 127. C o e f f i c i e n t o f
Longitudinal Moment mZ A s a
Function of A n g l e o f Attack
( 6 e l = 0)

The l o n g i t u d i n a l moment c o e f f i c i e n t ( a dimensionless q u a n t i t y such as cx


and c ) can b e determined u s i n g t h e following formula:
Y

The p i t c h moments may b e e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e .

A c t u a l l y , i n f l i g h t t h e e l e v a t o r always h a s some b a l a n c i n g d e f l e c t i o n .
The angle of a t t a c k a t which mZ = O ( M = 0 ) i s c a l l e d balanced, s i n c e a t t h i s
Z
angle a t h e a i r c r a f t i s i n t h e s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m . As we can s e e , as t h e
angle of a t t a c k i s i n c r e a s e d t o c1 ) the a i r c r a f t acts stably, since
sup(cy sup
t h e d i v i n g moment which a r i s e s causes it t o r e t u r n t o i t s i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n .

A random d e c r e a s e i n t h e angle o f a t t a c k by -Aa causes a p o s i t i v e p i t c h


moment((+m ) which r e t u r n s t h e a i r c r a f t t o i t s i n i t i a l e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n ,
c o r r e s p o n h g t o location of t h e center of gravity i n f r o n t o f t h e aero
dynamic c e n t e r .

S e c t o r AB of curve mZ = f(a) corresponds t o i n s e n s i b l e e q u i l i b r i u m of t h e


a i r c r a f t , s i n c e an i n c r e a s e i n t h e angle of a t t a c k causes no change i n t h e
l o n g i t u d i n a l moment. S e c t o r BC of t h e moment diagram corresponds t o (over- / 1
98
load) u n s t a b l e behavior of t h e a i r c r a f t : when t h e angle o f a t t a c k changes, an
a d d i t i o n a l p o s i t i v e p i t c h moment a r i s e s , t e n d i n g t o i n c r e a s e it s t i l l f u r t h e r .

194

59. S t a t i c Longitudinal Velocity S t a b i l i t y

A v e l o c i t y s t a b l e a i r c r a f t i s one which r e s t o r e s i t s assigned v e l o c i t y


without i n t e r f e r e n c e of t h e p i l o t a f t e r p e r t u r b a t i o n . For s i m p l i c i t y o f
d i s c u s s i o n , w e can c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e angle of a t t a c k does n o t change when t h e
v e l o c i t y i s changed. L e t u s assume t h a t an a i r c r a f t f l y i n g h o r i z o n t a l l y a t
c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y V begins t o descend f o r some r e a s o n (Figure 128 a ) . Due t o
t h e d e s c e n t , it i n c r e a s e s i t s v e l o c i t y by AV.

Figure 128. Behavior of A i r c r a f t After Random


Descent ( a ) and F1 i g h t T r a j e c t o r y o f Velocity
Unstable A i r c r a f t ( b )

I f angle of a t t a c k cy. or c remains unchanged, due t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n


Y
v e l o c i t y , t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e a l s o i n c r e a s e s by AY. Due t o t h i s , t h e t o t a l
l i f t i n g f o r c e becomes g r e a t e r t h a n t h e weight components and t h e a i r c r a f t
t r a j e c t o r y begins t o curve upward, t h e v e l o c i t y begins t o d e c r e a s e , and AY
a l s o begins t o d e c r e a s e . A f t e r a c h i e v i n g i t s i n i t i a l a l t i t u d e ( p o i n t c) t h e
a i r c r a f t w i l l have i t s i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y V , b u t i t s t r a j e c t o r y w i l l be curved
s l i g h t l y upward. T h e r e f o r e , t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o climb. Due t o t h e
i n c r e a s e i n a l t i t u d e , t h e v e l o c i t y w i l l begin t o d e c r e a s e , i . e . , AV w i l l
become n e g a t i v e . This makes AY n e g a t i v e , and t h e t r a j e c t o r y begins t o curve
downward, e t c . T h u s , t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l o s c i l l a t e .

I f t h e a i r c r a f t i s v e l o c i t y s t a b l e , t h e s e o s c i l l a t i o n s w i l l be damped and
t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l come out o f o s c i l l a t i o n s a t i t s i n i t i a l a l t i t u d e and
v e l o c i t y . O s c i l l a t i o n damping occurs due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f o r c e s involved
i n t h e o s c i l l a t i n g p r o c e s s a r e always d i r e c t e d s o a s t o even t h e t r a j e c t o r y .
As w e can see from t h e figure, when t h e t r a j e c t o r y i s d e f l e c t e d downward and
AV i s p o s i t i v e , p o s i t i v e increments AY a r e a l s o produced; when t h e t r a j e c t o r y
d e f l e c t s upward and AV i s n e g a t i v e , n e g a t i v e AY r e s u l t s . N a t u r a l l y , i n
p r a c t i c e t h e p i l o t w i l l n o t w a i t u n t i l t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s damp o u t of t h e i r own
accord. H e t a k e s c o n t r o l of t h e a i r c r a f t and immediately e l i m i n a t e s them.

195

However, i t sometimes occurs t h a t , i n s p i t e o f an i n c r e a s e i n v e l o c i t y ,


t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e i s not i n c r e a s e d , b u t r a t h e r decreased, s i n c e t h e l i f t i n g
f o r c e depends n o t only on v e l o c i t y , but a l s o on c
Y
. Due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e of
c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i n f l i g h t a t l a r g e M numbers o r due t o e l a s t i c deformations,
c may i n c r e a s e s o s h a r p l y with i n c r e a s e d v e l o c i t y t h a t t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e
Y
decreases r a t h e r than i n c r e a s e s . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y w i l l
curve e v e r more s h a r p l y downward ( i f t h e p i l o t does not t a k e c o n t r o l o f t h e
a i r c r a f t q u i c k l y u s i n g t h e e l e v a t o r ) , t h e speed w i l l i n c r e a s e and t h e a i r c r a f t
w i l l go i n t o a d i v e (Figure 128 b ) . No r e t u r n t o t h e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n occurs.

Figure 129. Dependence o f Force on Elevator


Control on M Number (nominal mode, h o r i z o n t a l
f l i g h t , H = 1 0 , 0 0 0 m y tremor d e f l e c t e d by T = 2 . 3 " )

I t i s e a s i e s t f o r t h e p i l o t t o judge v e l o c i t y s t a b i l i t y from t h e n a t u r e
of t h e change i n f o r c e s on t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k when t h e a i r c r a f t v e l o c i t y o r
M numher changes. A s we know, balancing o f an a i r c r a f t a t v a r i o u s speeds of
h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t r e q u i r e s varying f o r c e on t h e s t i c k .

Figure 129 shows t h e f o r c e s r e q u i r e d t o balance t h e a i r c r a f t a t various


M nbmbers (see 510 of t h i s c h a p t e r ) . Thus, where ?- = 28% mac and M = 0.62,
t
t h e f o r c e on t h e s t i c k i s equal t o zero, s i n c e t h e a i r c r a f t i s balanced by

t h e trimmer and, consequently, t h e s t i c k can be r e l e a s e d i n t h i s p o s i t i o n .

This i s t h e balanced regime. A s t h e a i r c r a f t a c c e l e r a t e s t o l a r g e M numbers,

p r e s s u r e f o r c e s w i l l a r i s e on t h e s t i c k ( i f t h e trimmer i s l e f t i n i t s i n i t i a l

p o s i t i o n ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t i s v e l o c i t y s t a b l e . Actually,

suppose t h e M number i n c r e a s e s t o 0 . 7 4 . We can s e e from t h e graph t h a t i n

o r d e r t o hold t h i s new speed (M = 0.74), t h e p i l o t must apply a p r e s s u r e o f -

/200
P = +10 kg t o t h e s t i c k , i . e . , c r e a t e a d i v i n g moment with t h e e l e v a t o r i n

o r d e r t o balance t h e p o s i t i v e p i t c h which has a r i s e n .

We can conclude from t h e above t h a t if a t M = 0.62 with t h e s t i c k


r e l e a s e d , a random i n c r e a s e i n M number t o 0 . 7 4 o c c u r s , a p o s i t i v e p i t c h
moment should a c t on t h e a i r c r a f t , i n c r e a s i n g t h e angle of a t t a c k , and t h e
a i r c r a f t w i l l r e t u r n without i n t e r f e r e n c e from t h e p i l o t t o i t s i n i t i a l
v e l o c i t y (M = 0 . 6 2 ) . Consequently, t h i s a i r c r a f t i s v e l o c i t y s t a b l e . A
similar p i c t u r e w i l l occur i f t h e v e l o c i t y i s decreased.

196
A t Mach numbers M > 0.8, t h e c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y o f a i r begins t o have a
s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e , and t h e p r e s s u r e f o r c e r e s u l t a n t ( c e n t e r o f p r e s s u r e )
i s d i s p l a c e d rearward; an a d d i t i o n a l n e g a t i v e p i t c h moment begins t o act on
t h e a i r c r a f t . Therefore, whereas a t M = 0.74, a f o r c e o f 10 kg must b e
a p p l i e d t o t h e s t i c k , a t M = 0.82 t h e f o r c e w i l l only b e 8 kg, i . e . , t h e
p r e s s u r e f o r c e on t h e s t i c k i s decreased, and some v e l o c i t y i n s t a b i l i t y
appears. However, s i n c e t h e a i r c r a f t wing i s swept, t h e phenomenon o f p u l l i n g
i n t o a d i v e (during a c c e l e r a t i o n ) , a p r o p e r t y of v e l o c i t y i n s t a b i l i t y , is not
observed .
A decrease i n pushing f o r c e i s observed i n a narrow range o f M numbers,
then beginning a t M = 0.88-0.9, t h e f o r c e r e q u i r e d i n c r e a s e s once more,
i n d i c a t i n g t h e appearance o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o s i t i v e p i t c h moment, i n c r e a s i n g
with i n c r e a s i n g M number.

910. Longitudinal Controllability

Longitudinal overload s t a b i l i t y determines t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of


l o n g i t u d i n a l c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y of an a i r c r a f t , r e l a t e d t o r o t a t i o n of t h e a i r
c r a f t about t h e o z a x i s and c r e a t i o n of overloads.

I f t h e performance of a maneuver r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e overload be changed,


t h e p i l o t should do t h i s by d e f l e c t i n g t h e e l e v a t o r , d i s r u p t i n g t h e equi
librium and overcoming t h e moments attempting t o r e t u r n t h e a i r c r a f t t o i t s
i n i t i a l overload.

The primary moments p r e v e n t i n g r o t a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t about t h e o z a x i s


a r e : t h e a i r c r a f t overload s t a b i l i t y moment, t h e damping moment and t h e
moment of i n e r t i a .

The g r e a t e r t h e s e moments p r e v e n t i n g r o t a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t , t h e
g r e a t e r t h e angle t o which t h e e l e v a t o r must be d e f l e c t e d and t h e g r e a t e r t h e
f o r c e r e q u i r e d a t t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k i n o r d e r t o change t h e overload. Since
t h e p i l o t f e e l s t h e value of f o r c e a p p l i e d t o t h e s t i c k and t h e overload
r e s u l t i n g from i t , l o n g i t u d i n a l c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t can b e s t be
e v a l u a t e d by t h e g r a d i e n t of overload f o r c e APel/Any and t h z e l e v a t o r t r a v e l
used A6el/An .
Y
The overload f o r c e g r a d i e n t i s numerically equal t o t h e r a t i o of /201
a d d i t i o n a l f o r c e AP on t h e s t i c k t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n overload An produced as
el Y
a result of t h i s force.

Let u s assume t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t i s performing h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t and


n = 1 (Figure 130). Then, i n o r d e r t o produce n = 2 , t h e p i l o t must p u l l
Y Y
t h e s t i c k toward himself with a f o r c e of 40-70 kg ( f o r small M numbers, 40 kg
and f o r M = 0.7-0.8, 50-70 k g ) . Since overload s t a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e
a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t t o r e t a i n t h e i n i t i a l overload regime, obviously t h e
higher t h e s t a b i l i t y t h e g r e a t e r t h e force required at t h e control s t i c k t o

197
change t h e overload.

We can a l s o see on
Figure 130 t h a t i f t h e c e n t e r i n g
moves f u r t h e r forward, t h e f o r c e
r e q u i r e d t o change n i n c r e a s e s .
Y
This i s explained by an i n c r e a s e
i n t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e
c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t
and i t s aerodynamic c e n t e r .
Thus, t h e f u r t h e r forward t h e
centering of the a i r c r a f t , t h e
h e a v i e r it i s t o c o n t r o l .

The l i m i t i n forward
c e n t e r i n g is s e l e c t e d from t h e
c o n d i t i o n of a i r c r a f t b a l a n c i n g
d u r i n g t a k e o f f and l a n d i n g .
Figure 120. Overload Force Gradient
AP /An and Elevator Travel I n o r d e r t o exclude (during
el Y t a k e o f f ) s t r e a m s e p a r a t i o n from
A6el/An As a Function of M Number the horizontal t a i l surface, the
Y e l e v a t o r can be d e f l e c t e d 20-25"
( H = 10,000 m)
upward. During landing, t h e
p i l o t should i n c r e a s e c t o
Y

C By p u l l i n g t h e s t i c k toward h i m s e l f , h e i n c r e a s e s t h e angle of a t t a c k ,
Y 1dg'
c r e a t i n g p o s i t i v e p i t c h moments. When t h e angle o f a t t a c k i s i n c r e a s e d , an
i n c r e a s e i n l i f t Ay o c c u r s , a p p l i e d t o t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r and c r e a t i n g a
n e g a t i v e p i t c h moment opposing t h e p i l o t . The g r e a t e r t h e d i s t a n c e between
t h e aerodynamic c e n t e r and t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y , t h e g r e a t e r t h i s h i n d e r i n g
moment w i l l be. Since t h e movement of t h e e l e v a t o r i s c o n s i d e r a b l e a t low
v e l o c i t i e s , i t may b e found t h a t t h e l i m i t n g d e f l e c t i o n of t h e e l e v a t o r i s
i n s u f f i c i e n t t o t i l t t h e a i r c r a f t t o i t s landing a n g l e . Therefore, t h e
maximum rearward p o s i t i o n of t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y i s f i x e d s o t h a t t h e
p e r m i s s i b l e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e e l e v a t o r i s s u f f i c i e n t t o allow t h e p i l o t t o
land.

The usage of an a.djustable s t a b i l i z e r makes i t p o s s i b l e t o f l y i n


a i r c r a f t with more forward c e n t e r i n g , s i n c e i n t h i s case t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of
the elevator is increased.

Usually, some r e s e r v e i n e l e v a t o r d e f l e c t i o n ( 3 - 4 " , b u t no l e s s t h a n 10%


o f t h e complete d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e e l e v a t o r ) i s i n s t a l l e d .

Let us now analyze t h e d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e e l e v a t o r A6el/Any necessary t o


c r e a t e an a d d i t i o n a l u n i t of overload. A s we can s e e from Figure 130, as t h e
v e l o c i t y i n c r e a s e s , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e e l e v a t o r s a l s o i n c r e a s e s s h a r p l y .

198
c

For example, whereas


a t M = 0.5, t h e
e l e v a t o r must be
d e f l e c t e d by 8" i n
o r d e r t o cause a
double overload, a t
M = 0.78 t h e
required deflection
is only 4".

The b a l a n c i n g
curves, showing t h e
'h r dependence o f
e 1e v a to r de f 1ec t i on
on M number, are
a l s o used t o char
a c t e r i z e longitud
inal controllability
Figure 131. Balancing Curves of Elevator (Figure 131).

Deflection (produced a s a r e s u l t of f l y i n g

t e s t s ) : a , I n s t r a i g h t f l i g h t a t nominal e n g i n e According t o

o p e r a t i n g mode; b , Coming i n f o r a landing these curves, f o r


example with r e a r
c e n t e r i n g s (X =
t
= 28% mac), maintenance of l o n g i t u d i n a l e q u i l i b r i u m a t M = 0.62 r e q u i r e s t h a t

t h e e l e v a t o r b e d e f l e c t e d from i t s n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n by 1 . 2 " downward; a t

M = 0.74, 1.5" downward; a t M = 0.82, t h e b a l a n c i n g downward d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e

/203
e l e v a t o r i s decreased s l i g h t l y , becoming once again + l .2 .

Thus, as t h e a i r c r a f t a c c e l e r a t e s from M = 0.62 t o M = 0.74, l o n g i t u d


i n a l b a l a n c i n g r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e e l e v a t o r d e f l e c t i o n b e moved downward by
0 . 3 " , while f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t i o n t o M = 0.82 r e q u i r e s t h a t it b e decreased by
t h e same amount.

Beginning a t M = 0.88-0.9, t h e p o s i t i v e p i t c h moment i n c r e a s e s s h a r p l y ,


and t h e e l e v a t o r must b e d e f l e c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y downward.

511. Construction of Balancing Curve f o r Deflection of Elevator

Using t h e moment diagrams f o r v a r i o u s d e f l e c t i o n s of t h e e l e v a t o r , we can


determine-for t h e s e d e f l e c t i o n s c o e f f i c i e n t s c with mZ = O(cy , c ,...
,c 1
Y 1 y2 Yn
and c o n s t r u c t t h e b a l a n c i n g diagram f o r d e f l e c t i o n of e l e v a t o r as a f u n c t i o n
of c (Figure 132). The l e f t branch o f t h e graph ( l e f t of c ) can be
Y y5
produced by wind t u n n e l t e s t i n g o f a model, while t h e r i g h t branch can only
be produced i n t e s t f l i g h t s t e s t i n g t h e s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o f t h e
a i r c r a f t a t high angles of a t t a c k ; i n t h e s e t e s t s , t h e d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e
e l e v a t o r a s a f u n c t i o n o f c i s determined f o r each M number. For t h i s , t h e
Y

199
a i r c r a f t i s p l a c e d i n t h e regime c > c and h e l d i n t h i s regime u n t i l t h e
Y Y SUP
beginning o f "pickup," allowing US t o determine t h e degree of s t a b i l i t y of t h e
a i r c r a f t and s u f f i c i e n c y of t h e e l e v a t o r s t o b r i n g t h e a i r c r a f t out of t h i s
regime. The a i r c r a f t i s a l s o braked i n o r d e r t o determine t h e minimum
v e l o c i t y and n a t u r e of i t s behavior a t t h i s v e l o c i t y .

The b a l a n c i n g curves on
Figure 133 g i v e us an i d e a o f t h e
n a t u r e o f t h e dependence o f e l e v a t o r
d e f l e c t i o n del f o r a i r c r a f t e q u i l i b r a
t i o n with r e s p e c t t o l o n g i t u d i n a l
moments a t s t a b l e f l i g h t regimes on
coefficient c .
Y
A s we see, t h e s e
curves a r e s i m i l a r i n form t o t h e
moment diagram, f o r which p r o p o r t i o n
a l i t y of the deflection of elevator t o
t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of l o n g i t u d i n a l moment
m is also characteristic.
Z

In o r d e r t o r e c o r d t h e d e f l e c
t i o n s of t h e e l e v a t o r d u r i n g f l i g h t
tests, the a i r c r a f t is accelerated t o
Figure 132. Construction o f M = 0.65-0.85, and t h e n /204
Elevator D e f l e c t i o n Balancing a t c o n s t a n t M number, t h e e l e v a t o r i s
D i ag ram "fed" toward t h e p i l o t i n o r d e r t o
cause t h e a i r c r a f t t o climb. This
"feeding" of t h e e l e v a t o r i s performed
with c with c o n s t a n t i n c r e a s e i n o v e r l o a d n t o 2-3.
Y SUP Y
Let us analyze t h e movement of t h e a i r c r a f t upon t r a n s i t i o n t o l a r g e
angles of a t t a c k ( c > c ) , when t h e p i l o t i s c o n t r o l l i n g t h e a i r c r a f t .
Y Y SUP
Let us assume t h a t as a r e s u l t of t h e i n f l u e n c e of a powerful ascending
a i r c u r r e n t ( o r as a r e s u l t of c r e a t i o n of an overload i n a t e s t f l i g h t ) t h e
aircraft arrives a t c > c (Figure 133). I t was noted i n c h a p t e r I1 t h a t
Y1 YPU
if c i s exceeded, l o n g i t u d i n a l s t a b i l i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t may b e d i s -
Y SUP
r u p t e d , s i n c e as a r e s u l t of r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r e s s u r e on t h e wing, s o - c a l l e d
"capture" - - i n v o l u n t a r y p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e i n t h e angle o f a t t a c k - - occurs.

The angle o f a t t a c k n e a r which "capture" occurs i s c a l l e d t h e "capture"


angle of a t t a c k ( t h e c o e f f i c i e n t c and overload above which "capture" begins
Y
a r e named s i m i l a r l y ) .

I f a t t h e moment of c a p t u r e t h e p i l o t moves t h e e l e v a t o r downward by


, by t h e time t h e angle of a t t a c k c1 ( c ) i s achieved f o r which 6
*'el 1 1 Yl

200

I
.
8 max
gel mac considering deformation t h e balancing

/,////////, I , I , . . , ' / I/ / / L .,I'.I11111 / / / / / / / I / / / . I L deflection, further /205

1
i n c r e a s e i n t h e angle

min of a t t a c k does n o t

- -t4=@75 7
h

occur and t h e a i r c r a f t

_ _ _ M=a,S 2 :,/k g 1 i s balanced a t angle of

-4 : I
a t t a c k ct and w i l l

1
________---- --- r e t a i n t h i s angle2.

The behavior of an
a i r c r a f t i n t h i s curved
f l i g h t with n > 1 w i l l
Y
b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a
tendency t o i n c r e a s e
t h e p i t c h angle without
i n c r e a s i n g t h e angle of
attack.

In order t o return
Figure 133. Required Elevator Deflection As the aircraft t o its
a Function of c i n i t i a l f l i g h t regime,
Y t h e p i l o t s t i l l has t h e
e l e v a t o r r e s e r v e A6

s e p a r a t i n g t h e balancing e l e v a t o r d e f i e c t i o n from t h e maximal d e f l e c t i o n ,


corresponding t o complete d e f l e c t i o n downward ( t o t h e s t o p ) . T'ne f u r t h e r t h e
p i l o t moves t h e e1evato.r downward from t h i s balancing p o s i t i o n , t h e g r e a t e r
t h e angular v e l o c i t y with which t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l begin t o decrease t h e angle
of a t t a c k , i . e . , t h e more r a p i d l y t h e overload w i l l b e decreased t o u n i t y .

A p o s i t i o n should not a r i s e i n which t h e r e q u i r e d downward e l e v a t o r


d e f l e c t i o n t o r e s t o r e balancing is g r e a t e r than t h a t a v a i l a b l e , i n c l u d i n g
c o n s i d e r a t i o n of deformation of f o r c e t r a n s m i t t i n g hardware. Otherwise, it
w i l l be impossible t o balance t h e a i r c r a f t , and t h e p i l o t w i l l not be a b l e t o
r e t u r n i t t o t h e i n i t i a l f l i g h t regime.

Figure 133 shows t h a t with more forward c e n t e r i n g ( 2 5 % mac) t h e e l e v a t o r


r e s e r v e i s g r e a t e r , and t h e c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y i s b e t t e r . This r e s u l t s from t h e
f a c t t h a t with forward c e n t e r i n g i n t h e i n i t i a l balancing regime t h e e l e v a t o r
c o n t r o l s t i c k must b e h e l d c l o s e r t o t h e p i l o t than with rearward c e n t e r i n g
and, consequently, t h e e l e v a t o r r e s e r v e t o maximum d e f l e c t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d .

I t has been noted i n t h e p r o c e s s of f l i g h t t e s t s t h a t a f t e r an a i r c r a f t


i s put i n a high overload p o s i t i o n , s o a r i n g r e q u i r e s t h a t a p o s i t i v e p i t c h
moment be c r e a t e d by applying a f o r c e of 80-100 kg t o t h e s t i c k . This f o r c e ,
which e q u a l i z e s t h e aerodynamic load a c t i n g on t h e d e f l e c t e d e l e v a t o r , deforms
t h e f o r c e t r a n s m i t t i n g elements, s h o r t e n i n g them. A s a r e s u l t , f u l l forward
d e f l e c t i o n of t h e s t i c k d i d not r e s u l t i n f u l l d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e e l e v a t o r .
With maximum d e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e e l e v a t o r (29-31O) t h e a c t u a l angle of p o s i t i o n
M. V . Rozenblat, PiZoter o Peregrazke [To t h e P i l o t Concerning Overloading],
k r o f l o t Redizdat P r e s s , 1964.

201
was only 24-25", due t o deformation (Figure 134).

The only method of c r e a t i n g a r e s e r v e o f e l e v a t o r movement f o r a i r c r a f t


c o n t r o l i n t h i s case i s unloading of t h e c o n t r o l c a b l e by u s i n g t h e e l e v a t o r
trimmer.

When t h e trimmer o f t h e e l e v a t o r i s d e f l e c t e d , t h e h i n g e moments


d e c r e a s e , and t h e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e e l e v a t o r i s i n c r e a s e d as a r e s u l t of
unloading o f t h e c o n t r o l c a b l e s .

During t h e p r o c e s s of f l i g h t t e s t s o f an a i r c r a f t a t h i g h a n g l e s of
a t t a c k , t h e f o l l o w i n g p e c u l i a r i t y was discovered. We know t h a t when a back-
swept wing moves a t high a n g l e s o f a t t a c k , flow s e p a r a t i o n b e g i n s where t h e
a i l e r o n s a r e l o c a t e d . This l e a d s t o a change i n t h e a i l e r o n hinge moment such
t h a t b o t h a i l e r o n s t e n d t o move upward by approximately 2-4". This phenomenon /206
h a s come t o be c a l l e d " f l o a t i n g " o f t h e a i l e r o n s . I n i t s e f f e c t , it i s
e q u i v a l e n t t o an a d d i t i o n a l d e f l e c t i o n of t h e e l e v a t o r upward, s i n c e it causes
an a d d i t i o n a l l o s s i n l i f t a t t h e t e r m i n a l p o r t i o n of t h e wing where the' l i f t
p r o p e r t i e s a r e worsened by t h e s e p a r a t i o n . "Floating" o f a i l e r o n s worsens
l o n g i t u d i n a l i n s t a b i l i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t with swept wings a t high a n g l e s o f
a t t a c k and makes c a p t u r e of t h e a i r c r a f t even s h a r p e r . The design-
aerodynamic measures analyzed i n 53 of Chapter I11 improve t h e overload
s t a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a swept wing a i r c r a f t a t h i g h a n g l e s of a t t a c k .

mechanical d e v i c e s o r
by d e c r e a s i n g t h e s i z e
of t h e a i l e r o n s . The
c a b l e deformation

A p i l o t flying a
passenger a i r c r a f t with a swept wing should avoid a r e a s with s t r o n g
t u r b u l e n c e , i n which t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l o n g i t u d i n a l overload s t a b i l i t y
appear s o unfavorably.

202

112. Vertical G u s t s . P e r m i s s i b l e M Number i n Cruising F l i g h t

During f l i g h t through atmospheric t u r b u l e n c e , i n t e n s i v e and f r e q u e n t


v e r t i c a l g u s t s o f a i r r e s u l t i n l a r g e l o n g i t u d i n a l and l a t e r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s of
t h e a i r c r a f t . The a c c e l e r a t i o n s a r i s i n g i n t h i s case l e a d t o t h e appearance
o f i n e r t i a l f o r c e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by overloads on t h e a i r c r a f t . A v e r t i c a l /207

g u s t i s a v e r t i c a l a i r movement r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e i n overload i n n o t
over 2 sec.

The h o r i z o n t a l components of wind g u s t s have no e s s e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e


f o r t h e movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t . For example, h o r i z o n t a l wind g u s t s up t o
6-15 m/sec cause s l i g h t v e l o c i t y p u l s a t i o n s i n modern a i r c r a f t f l y i n g between
200 and 250 m/sec, and c r e a t e s l i g h t o v e r l o a d s , whereas v e r t i c a l wind g u s t s a t
t h e s e speeds cause 10-15 times more overloading 3 .

Longitudinal overloading ( o r more a c c u r a t e l y an increment i n overloading)


a c t i n g i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e can be determined according t o t h e following
formula :

An,=-, AV
gAf

where AV i s t h e change i n v e l o c i t y r e s u l t i n g from an oncoming g u s t ;


A t i s t h e time of a c t i o n of t h e g u s t .
Thus, i f a h o r i z o n t a l wind g u s t causes a v e l o c i t y v a r i a t i o n of 11 m/sec i n
two seconds, t h e increment t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l o v e r l o a d w i l l be
An X = 11/2-9.81 = 0.56; with a t i m e of a c t i o n o f t h r e e seconds, AnX = 0.37.
The s i g n of t h e o v e r l o a d w i l l depend on whether t h e g u s t i s a headwind o r
t a i l w i n d . I n t h e case of a headwind g u s t , t h e s i g n w i l l b e p l u s ( t h e crew and
passengers w i l l b e p r e s s e d a g a i n s t t h e backs of t h e i r s e a t s ) , and with a
t a i l w i n d g u s t t h e s i g n w i l l be minus ( t h e crew and passengers w i l l be p u l l e d
away from t h e backs of t h e i r s e a t s ) .

What must t h e v e l o c i t y of a v e r t i c a l g u s t be i n o r d e r f o r t h e a i r c r a f t t o
b e brought t o c o r t o t h e mode of i n v o l u n t a r y i n c r e a s e i n overload
Y SUP
("captureIf)? As we can s e e from Figure 135, a t M = 0 . 8 when a g u s t of W
i sup'
an a i r c r a f t with an i n i t i a l v a l u e of c w i l l reach c while t h e e f f e c t s
Yh f Y SUP'
of a g u s t a t Wi capt w i l l cause it t o r e a c h c I n t h i s case, t h e
y capt'
b a l a n c i n g p o s i t i o n of t h e e l e v a t o r w i l l b e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o r e t u r n t h e a i r c r a f t
t o i t s i n i t i a l parameters.

I n o r d e r t o estimate t h e e f f e c t s of a v e r t i c a l a i r stream on t h e wings of /208


an a i r c r a f t , we must u s e t h e s o - c a l l e d v e l o c i t y o f t h e e f f e c t i v e g u s t . The
i n d i c a t o r e f f e c t i v e g u s t Wief d i f f e r s from t h e r e a l i n d i c a t o r g u s t (measured
under c o n c r e t e c o n d i t i o n s ) , s i n c e t h e r e are no s h a r p l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v e r t i c a l
jKu 1 ik M . M . , Obosnovmiye rekomendatsky o P i Z o t i r o v m i y u Sam0 Zetov p&
Poleta& v Zonakh Atmospernoy Turbulentnos% [Basis f o r Recommendat ions,
f o r P t l g t j n g Aircrzjft on F1 i i h t s i ~ nZones of Atmospheric Turbulence]
G Q s N I ( GA P r e s s , 1963.

203

movements i n t h e atmosphere, as a
r e s u l t of t h e i n f l u e n c e of v i s c o s i t y
of t h e a i r . There i s always a
t r a n s i t i o n zone, i n which t h e r a t e of
t h e v e r t i c a l component v a r i e s from
zero t o some v a l u e Wief. Various
a i r c r a f t with t h e i r inherent s p e c i f i c
f e a t u r e s of aerodynamics r e a c t d i f f e r
e n t l y t o t h e same g u s t . For example,
it h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t f o r
Figure 135. Determination of a i r c r a f t with swept wings, -
Effective Indicator Vertical 'ief -
= 1.11 wi.
Gust Bringing A i r c r a f t to
C and c * 1 , Initial
Y SUP y capt' C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e v e l o c i t y of an
balancing regime; 2 , E f f e c t i v e e f f e c t i v e v e r t i c a l g u s t i s performed
d i v i n g moment u s i n g t h e formula

where Aa i s t h e i n c r e a s e i n a n g l e of a t t a c k c a l c u l a t e d from ci
hf;
V. i s t h e i n d i c a t o r v e l o c i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t .
1

Let us assume t h a t t h e p i l o t does not i n t e r f e r e i n c o n t r o l and t h a t t h e


e l e v a t o r i s "clamped" i n t h e i n i t i a l balanced p o s i t i o n . L e t us c a l c u l a t e t h e
g u s t speed W . required t o bring the a i r c r a f t t o c . The f l i g h t i s
ief Y SUP
performed a t c = 0.35 and ct = 3' a t M = 0.75 and H = 10,000 m. In t h i s
Yhf
case c = 0.715 and a = 7.2'. Let us determine: t h e increment of angle
Y SUP SUP
of a t t a c k Aci = 4 . 2 " o r 0.073 r a d , t h e i n d i c a t o r v e l o c i t y V . = 475 km/hr =
1
= 132.0 m/sec, s o Wief = 1.11 Vi& = 1.11*132.0.073 = 10.7 m/sec.

The e f f e c t i v e i n d i c a t o r v e r t i c a l g u s t corresponding t o t h e beginning of


i n v o l u n t a r y i n c r e a s e i n overload - - "capture" with f i x e d c o n t r o l -- is
c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e same formula, except t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n angle of a t t a c k
i s s e l e c t e d from ahf t o t h e beginning of "capture." Thus, f o r t h e same
c o n d i t i o n s Aa = 7", and Wief = 1.11-132*0.157 = 23 m/sec.

When a v e r t i c a l g u s t a t 10.7 m/sec a c t s upon t h e a i r c r a f t , it goes t o


C while where Wief = 2 3 m/sec, t h e "capture" regime i s begun, and a
Y SUP'
s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g i n c r e a s e i n overload and v i b r a t i o n of t h e e n t i r e a i r c r a f t
occur.

As we can see from Figure 136, a t M = 0.75, t h e r e s e r v e f o r a v e r t i c a l /209


g u s t f o r t h e weight and f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s h e r e analyzed i s maximal. A t

204

M = 0.75-0.78, a s l i g h t reduction is

-&.
We1 m/sec C=3Zm observed, and a t M > 0.78 t h i s r e s e r v e i s
26 ' \ Capture somewhat g r e a t e r . Thesefore, f o r t h i s
+VOO"
24
22
20
- -:
10 000
_ /
a i r c r a f t , t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e M number
i n h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t i s 0.78, i n o r d e r t o
r e t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y high reserve of
f8 ! 805 -
'-
5 - .; '\
v e r t i c a l gust s t a b i l i t y .
16
3%
5'\,
I
14 .- 13. P e r m i s s i b l e Overloads During a
12 V e r t i c a l Maneuver
Iff
8 I n a d d i t i o n t o v e r t i c a l a i r g u s t s , an
6 , a i r c r a f t may be s u b j e c t e d t o t h e a c t i o n of
7 ---. extended ascending o r descending a i r
o p e r a t i o n o f ,j_
4
2
c u r r e n t s , which cause c o n s i d e r a b l e v e r t i c a l
AUAP displacement of t h e a i r c r a f t , independent
0
65 47 475 478 4 8 M of p i l o t a c t i o n .

I n s t a b l e h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t , t h e sum
Figure 136. P e r m i s s i b l e of v e r t i c a l f o r c e s a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t
Effective Indicator i s equal t o zero and t h e overload
V e r t i c a l Gust As a F u n c

t i o n of M Number of
Y

n=-=l.
F1 i g h t (TU-124 a i r c r a f t )
G

When t h e a i r c r a f t c r o s s e s a v e r t i c a l g u s t , t h e angle of a t t a c k i n c r e a s e s
r a p i d l y and consequently t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e i n c r e a s e s as w e l l . A l l of t h i s
causes v e r t i c a l and a n g u l a r displacement of t h e a i r c r a f t , which i n t u r n once
more i n f l u e n c e s t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e overload

The increment of overload An occurs as a r e s u l t of t h e summary increment


of angle of a t t a c k r e s u l t i n g from t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e v e r t i c a l gust and
a n g u l a r displacement of t h e a i r c r a f t caused by t h e g u s t . The overload a c t i n g
on t h e a i r c r a f t can be r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c a s e by t h e following e x p r e s s i o n :

205

( t h e lrplus'l s i g n r e l a t e s t o an ascending g u s t , t h e "minus" s i g n t o a


descending g u s t ) ,
where ca i s t h e t a n g e n t of t h e a n g l e o f i n c l i n a t i o n o f curve c = f(a), i . e . ,
Y Y
t h e g r a d i e n t o f t h e change i n c o e f f i c i e n t c as a f u n c t i o n o f angle of a t t a c k
a; Y
V. i s t h e i n d i c a t o r v e l o c i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t ;
1
W . i s t h e i n d i c a t o r v e l o c i t y of t h e v e r t i c a l g u s t ;
1

K is a coefficient characterizing t h e increase i n t h e v e r t i c a l gust


(K = 0.85-0.95).

As w e can see from t h e formula, t h e o v e r l o a d a c t i n g on t h e a i r c r a f t


depends on t h e f l i g h t speed and f o r c e of t h e v e r t i c a l g u s t . F l i g h t s o f high-
speed a i r c r a f t a t high a l t i t u d e s have shown t h a t when t h e a i r c r a f t e n t e r s a
v e r t i c a l gust with a c e r t a i n v e l o c i t y W t h e overload n ( r e l a t e d t o t h e
-
/210
i' W
moment o f a c t i o n o f t h e g u s t ) i s much less t h a n na b u t even i n t h i s case
y max'
s e p a r a t i o n of t h e flow over t h e wing occurs, which may l e a d t o r o l l i n g of t h e
a i r c r a f t . Usually, r o l l i n g i s preceded by t h e appearance of a c o n s i d e r a b l e
p o s i t i v e p i t c h moment, under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f which t h e a i r c r a f t climbs and
l o s e s speed.

Therefore, l i m i t a t i o n s on overloads move along two l i n e s : along t h e l i n e


of aerodynamics, i . e . , w i t h r e s p e c t t o c and along t h e l i n e of s t r e n g t h
Y SUP'
o f t h e a i r c r a f t , i . e . , with r e s p e c t t o t h e maximum c o e f f i c i e n t o f o p e r a t i o n a l
overload n; max.

I n o r d e r t o avoid exceeding c and p r e v e n t t h e a i r c r a f t from going


Y SUP
i n t o a r o l l , p e r m i s s i b l e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s are e s t a b l i s h e d as a f u n c t i o n o f
f l y i n g weight ( s e e Chapter V I I , 5 8 ) .

14. Behavior of A i r c r a f t a t Large Angles of Attack

A t t h e p r e s e n t time, t h e s e p a r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r o l l i n g and termin


a t i o n of r o l l i n g of a i r c r a f t with low s t a b i l i z e r s and engines i n s t a l l e d on t h e
wings have been s t u d i e d r a t h e r w e 1 1.

However, t h e r e i s s t i l l very l i t t l e m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e on t h e b e h a v i o r of
a i r c r a f t w i t h T-shaped t a i l s and motors l o c a t e d i n t h e r e a r p o r t i o n of t h e
f u s e l a g e d u r i n g flow s e p a r a t i o n a t high angles of a t t a c k . The b a l a n c i n g
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c analyzed i n 5 1 1 r e l a t e d completely t o an a i r c r a f t with load
st a b i 1i z e r .
L e t us analyze some f e a t u r e s o f t h e behavior of an a i r c r a f t moving i n t o
l a r g e angles o f a t t a c k . The f l i g h t speed o f t h e a i r c r a f t corresponding t o
C i s c a l l e d t h e minimum speed o r t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed. The problem is
Y "

206
~- ._. .... ..
1

t h a t when c i s achieved i n f l i g h t , t h e flow s e p a r a t e s , causing a s h a r p


y max
decrease i n t h e l i f t and a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e drag. (The s e p a r a t i o n
speed f o r a smooth wing i s r e p r e s e n t e d as V f o r t h e t a k e o f f p o s i t i o n of t h e
S'
wing mechanism as V , for t h e landing p o s i t i o n -- vs . I
s1 0

Due t o t h e asymmetrical development o f s e p a r a t i o n on t h e wings of t h e


aircraft, a b,anking moment arises and t h e a i r c r a f t r o l l s . By r o l l , we mean a
movement of t h e a i r c r a f t about t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s such tha't t h e angular
velocity of r o t a t i o n wx > 0 . 1 r a d / s e c , i . e . , g r e a t e r t h a n 6" p e r second.

I n o r d e r t o determine t h e minimum v e l o c i t y corresponding t o c the


y max'
a i r c r a f t i s d e c e l e r a t e d a t u n i t overload. Since t h e l i f t i n g f o r c e of t h e wing
depends on c V2, as t h e speed is reduced g r a d u a l l y , t h e v a l u e of c should
Y Y
i n c r e a s e , which does occur, w h i l e t h e p i l o t , g r a d u a l l y p u l l i n g t h e s t i c k
toward h i m s e l f , s h i f t s t h e a i r c r a f t i n t o high angles of a t t a c k . The speed a t
which s h a r p flow s e p a r a t i o n occurs i s accompanied by r a p i d r o l l i n g of t h e
a i r c r a f t , and t h i s i s t h e minimum speed o r t h e speed o f s e p a r a t i o n Vs. A case
has been observed i n which an a i r c r a f t developed such a high angular v e l o c i t y /211
w t h a t i t r o t a t e d by 180" i n a few seconds.
X

With f l a p s down, t h e movement of t h e s t i c k may n o t be s u f f i c i e n t t o


achieve V
S
o r Vs . Then, t h e f l i g h t speed corresponding t o maximum rearward
0 1
p o s i t i o n of t h e s t i c k i s taken as t h e minimum speed.

A s w e can s e e from processing o f s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r s (Figure 137) when


an a i r c r a f t with a low s t a b i l i z e r i s d e c e l e r a t e d a t an a l t i t u d e o f 1 2 , 0 0 0 m
( f l a p s and landing g e a r up) a f t e r an i n d i c a t e d speed o f 200 km/hr i s achieved,
t h e a i r c r a f t maintains almost constant c = 1 . 4 5 and overload n = 1 f o r
s e v e r a l seconds. The d e f l e c t i o n of t h e g l e v a t o r "upward" v a r i e g from 3 t o
3.8". A t c = 1 . 5 , a s l i g h t v i b r a t i o n of t h e a i l e r o n s and s t i c k b e g i n s .
Y
Rolling occurred a t c = 1 . 5 8 toward t h e r i g h t wing. In t h i s case, t h e
Y
angular banking v e l o c i t y ,+ reached 0.19 r a d / s e c (approximately 11 deg/sec) ,
and t h e nose dropped a t 4 deg/sec. During t h e r o l l , t h e a i l e r o n s were
observed t o move upward by 2 - 2 . 5 " (negative d e f l e c t i o n ) .

A f t e r 0 . 3 - 0 . 5 s e c of r o l l , t h e p i l o t moved t h e s t i c k away from himself


(6el = + 2 " ) and t r a n s f e r r e d t h e a i r c r a f t t o lower v a l u e s of c .Y
I n 3-4 s e c ,
t h e v i b r a t i o n s stopped. A f t e r t h e a i l e r o n s were moved t o s t o p t h e bank, t h e
a i r c r a f t r a p i d l y stopped r o l l i n g , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a i l e r o n s being
s u f f i c i e n t . By p u l l i n g t h e s t i c k toward himself ( d e f l e c t i n g t h e e l e v a t o r
"upward" by 2-3.5"), t h e p i l o t brought t h e a i r c r a f t back t o h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t
a t 320-340 km/hr.

207

I n o r d e r t o determine p e r m i s s i b l e v a l u e s of c t h e e l e v a t o r i s lrfedrr
Y SUP'
a t v a r i o u s v a l u e s of M number (Figure 138). I n o r d e r t o improve s a f e t y , t h i s
maneuver i s performed a t h i g h a l t i t u d e (about 12,000 m ) . When t h e s t i c k i s
moved e n e r g e t i c a l l y backward, t h e a i r c r a f t i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o angles of a t t a c k
(high c1 ) a t which "capture" o r i n v o l u n t a r y p o s i t i v e p i t c h occurs.
SUP
A s we can s e e from t h e s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d i n g s , t h e a i r c r a f t f i r s t
a c c e l e r a t e d , t h e n when M = 0.66 was reached, t h e p i l o t began t o i n c r e a s e t h e
overload by p u l l i n g t h e s t i c k s h a r p l y back. The a n g u l a r r a t e o f r o t a t i o n
about t h e t r a n s v e r s e a x i s reached 1 2 " p e r second ( w = 0.2 r a d / s e c )
z
. At this
p o i n t , t h e p i l o t slowed t h e r a t e a t which h e was p u l l i n g back t h e s t i c k , and
t h e d e f l e c t i o n was l e f t c o n s t a n t a t 3" "upward." The overload i n c r e a s e d
s h a r p l y , r e a c h i n g a maximum v a l u e of 2 . 8 , and "capture" began a t n = 2(cy =
Y
= 0.85) ( s e c t o r a b ) . A s t h e overload i n c r e a s e d t o 2.05-2.2 (c 1 1) , t h e
Y
a i r c r a f t s t a r t e d v i b r a t i n g and t h e a i l e r o n s began t o " f l o a t " ( d e f l e c t i o n of
both a i l e r o n s upward due t o e l a s t i c deformation o f t h e c o n t r o l c a b l e ) . The
a i r c r a f t d i d n o t r o l l , b u t a bank d i d occur a t 4-4.3 deg/sec. The maximum /213

ltfloatinglt of a i l e r o n s was 4.5-5".

When t h e e l e v a t o r was s h i f t e d a t M = 0 . 7 , v i b r a t i o n was noted a t


c = 0.85, while a t M = 0 . 8 - - a t c = 0 . 6 5 . When t h e s t i c k was moved f o r -
Y Y
ward, t h e maximum b a l a n c i n g d e f l e c t i o n of t h e e l e v a t o r (M = 0 . 8 and c = 0 . 9 )
Y
was 5 . 3 ' , and t h e maximum b a l a n c i n g f o r c e r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g t h e a i r c r a f t back
t o t h e i n i t i a l regime was 60 kg.

I t was noted i n t h e p r o c e s s of t e s t i n g t h a t t h e warning v i b r a t i o n which


/214
a r i s e s as t h e minimum f l i g h t speed i s approached i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e n s e t o
b e n o t i c e d by t h e p i l o t . A s t r o n g e r v i b r a t i o n o c c u r r e d a t t h e moment of
"capture" o r a t t h e moment t h e a i r c r a f t s t a r t e d t o r o l l .

I n most a i r c r a f t as t h e s e p a r a t i o n regime i s approached, t h e v i b r a t i o n of


t h e t a i l s u r f a c e s is noted due t o i n t e r f e r e n c e between t h e t a i l and streams
from t h e wings of t h e a i r c r a f t . I n t h o s e c a s e s when v i b r a t i o n was n o t
observed, devices have been i n s t a l l e d t o cause a r t i f i c i a l v i b r a t i o n o f t h e
s t i c k , warning t h e p i l o t t h a t he was approaching t h e s e p a r a t i o n regime. From
t h e p o i n t o f view of formation o f v i b r a t i o n and r o l l i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t , it
i s dangerous t o perform a t a k e o f f i n which d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e of t a k e o f f
t h e a i r speed i s 20% h i g h e r t h a n t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed V , a s w e l l a s landing
s1

during which t h e f l i g h t speed o f t h e a i r c r a f t exceeds t h e s e p a r a t i o n speed


Vs by 30%.
0

208

4
ffA

94
-
rac
see
a,;

tl
khrus

P
E 0

-5

F i g u r e 137. Recording o f S t r i p Chart Recorders


During D e c e l e r a t i o n o f A i r c r a f t

209
Figure 138. Recording o f S t r i p Chart Recorders AS
A i r c r a f t I s Transferred t o n > 1
Y

I n h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t ( f l a p s up) a t high a l t i t u d e s when a zone o f s t r o n g


t u r b u l e n c e i s e n t e r e d , s e p a r a t i o n may occur. I n t h i s case, i f t h e a i r c r a f t
has s a t i s f a c t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( a d i v i n g moment appears) and t h e p i l o t t a k e s
control, t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l eliminate t h e disruption of equilibrium.

The problem i s somewhat worse a s concerns t h e s e p a r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s


of an a i r c r a f t with a high h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s u r f a c e and motors i n t h e t a i l
p o r t i o n of t h e f u s e l a g e .

If i n a i r c r a f t with low s t a b i l i z e r , high s l i p angles E a r e c r e a t e d


immediately b e f o r e s e p a r a t i o n , and t h e s l i p p i n g of t h e stream d i s a p p e a r s

2 10

immediately a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n , causing an i n c r e a s e i n t h e angle of a t t a c k and


l i f t i n g force of the s t a b i l i z e r (a = a 1 , i . e . , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e d i v i n g
ht cr
moment, i n a i r c r a f t with T-shaped t a i l s u r f a c e s (high s t a b i l i z e r ) a f t e r t h e
stream s e p a r a t e s from t h e wing, v o r t e x e s from t h e f u s e l a g e , and t h e stream
from t h e wing, engine n a c e l l e s and mounting s t r u t s s t r i k e t h e s t a b i l i z e r ,
causing a p o s i t i v e p i t c h moment (Figure 139). This decreases t h e n e g a t i v e
s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l moment c o e f f i c i e n t , and t h e a i r c r a f t has no
tendency t o t i p over on i t s nose. When t h e s t a b i l i z e r i s below t h e s e p a r a t e d
stream zone, which occurs with v e r y high angles of a t t a c k , t h e h o r i z o n t a l
t a i l s u r f a c e c r e a t e s c o n s i d e r a b l e drag and a d i v i n g moment appears. In
connection with t h i s , a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n , a p o s i t i v e p i t c h moment may a r i s e ,
making t h e s i t u a t i o n worse; a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n begins, t h e e l e v a t o r should b e
f u l l y d e f l e c t e d "downward. Therefore, i n some a i r c r a f t with T-shaped t a i l s ,
a d i v i n g moment i s c r e a t e d a r t i f i c i a l l y u s i n g a "pusher" ("recoil" ~ y s t e m ) ~ .

This device, working from an angle of a t t a c k t r a n s d u c e r l o c a t e d on t h e /215


f u s e l a g e , c r e a t e s f o r c e s a c t i n g on t h e s t i c k i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of a d i v e a t an
angle of a t t a c k n e a r c1 . This f o r c e should be high enough t o overcome t h e
m
f o r c e a p p l i e d by t h e p i l o t and should continue a c t i n g u n t i l t h e angle of
a t t a c k i s decreased.

In order t o
prevent e l i m i n a t i o n of
a) overload by separ
a t i o n , t h e "pusherv1 i s

-
equipped with a
s p e c i a l device with a
gyroscope which l i m i t s
t h e incEease i n angle
b) of a t t a c k as a func
t i o n o f t h e angular
v e l o c i t y of t h e
beginning o f s e p a r
ation.

The "pusher" can


a l s o eliminate t h e
s t a b l e r o l l i n g mode
"long t e r m p o s i t i v e
p i t c h i n g moment), i n
Figure 139. Flow Spectra Around A i r c r a f t w i t h which t h e a i r c r a f t
T-shaped Tail Surface A f t e r Flow Separation: leaves t h e r o l l only
a , A n g l e of a t t a c k 3" g r e a t e r than s e p a r a t i o n a f t e r a considerable
a n g l e ; b , A n g l e o f a t t a c k 18" g r e a t e r than decrease i n v e l o c i t y
s e p a r a t i o n a n g l e ; 1 , Air stream from w i n g ; and a l t i t u d e .
2 , Air stream from n a c e l l e s and s t r u t s of
e n g i nes
..-.-. ...... . . _ _ . _ _ _ ..
4Z&bezhnyy Aviatransport, NO .*-12.; G O S N I - I - G A Pkess-, 1965.
~~
.

211

II
515. Automatic A n g l e o f Attack and Overload Device

The automatic a n g l e o f a t t a c k and overload d e v i c e (AUAP) i s used t o warn


t h e p i l o t t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g a t l a r g e a n g l e s of a t t a c k as t h e minimum
v e l o c i t y i s approached and d u r i n g f l i g h t s i n bumpy a i r .

During f l i g h t s u s i n g t h i s d e v i c e , t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s angle o f a t t a c k a t
which t h e a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g and t h e v e r t i c a l overload are determined. Also,
a t each moment i n time t h e v a l u e of t h e c r i t i c a l a n g l e o f a t t a c k i s determined /*
a s a f u n c t i o n of t h e M number of f l i g h t .

The d e v i c e c o n s i s t s of a number o f a g g r e g a t e s . The main u n i t s a r e :


1) t h e angle o f a t t a c k measuring d e v i c e , which measures t h e l o c a l angles of
a t t a c k i n c o n j u n c t i o n with t h e wind vane on t h e f u s e l a g e ; 2) t h e c r i t i c a l
angle measuring d e v i c e which o u t p u t s t h e r e q u i r e d v o l t a g e a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e
M number of t h e f l i g h t ; 3) t h e overload t r a n s d u c e r , i n s t a l l e d i n t h e a r e a of
t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t ; 4) an i n d i c a t o r d e v i c e on t h e i n s t r u
ment p a n e l i n f r o n t o f t h e p i l o t . Using t h i s d e v i c e , t h e p i l o t can observe
t h e c u r r e n t angles of a t t a c k a t which he i s f l y i n g , t h e c r i t i c a l a n g l e of
a t t a c k (more p r e c i s e l y , t h e angle of a t t a c k a t which t h e automatic d e v i c e
o p e r a t e s under t h e given c o n d i t i o n s ) and t h e v e r t i c a l overload.

When t h e a i r c r a f t e n t e r s a c r i t i c a l regime ( t h e o p e r a t i n g regime, which


i s somewhat less t h a n t h e p e r m i s s i b l e ) t h e lower s e c t o r o f t h e movable
c r i t i c a l angle o f a t t a c k s e c t o r on t h i s instrument corresponds with t h e arrow
i n d i c a t i n g t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s angle of a t t a c k ( F i g u r e 1 4 0 ) . A t t h i s moment, a 1217
lamp with t h e i n s c r i p t i o n "ac: l i g h t s up i n f r o n t o f t h e c o p i l o t . Also, i f
t h e a i r c r a f t undergoes overlo-ads g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e p e r m i s s i b l e t h e arrow
i n d i c a t i n g i n s t a n t a n e o u s overload approaches t h e s e c t o r of dangerous overloads
and t h e ].amp with t h e i n s c r i p t i o n 'In '' l i g h t s up.
Y SUP
When e i t h e r of t h e s e lamps l i g h t s up, t h e " a t t e n t i o n " lamp on t h e d i s p l a y
begins t o f l a s h .

Adjustment of t h i s d e v i c e i s performed i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r o p e r a t i o n i n
f l i g h t with a l l f l a p s and g e a r up and f o r f l i g h t with f l a p s down f o r t a k e o f f
and f o r l a n d i n g . For example, i n t h e o r d i n a r y f l y i n g mode ( f l a p s u p ) , t h e aCr
warning l i g h t s up when a n g l e s o f a t t a c k of 1 . 4 - 2 " less t h a n t h e p e r m i s s i b l e
angles a r e reached. These parameters a r e shown f o r one a i r c r a f t equipped with
t h e AUAP d e v i c e i n Table 13.

We can see from Figure 140 t h a t t h e a n g l e o f a t t a c k r e s e r v e up t o t h e


moment o f o p e r a t i o n i s 1.8-3.2" (M = 0.7-0.82). For example, f o r M = 0 . 8 , t h e
r e s e r v e from c1 = 3" t o c1 = 5 . 2 " i s 2 . 2 " , and t h e r e s e r v e t o c i s 4".
hf OP Y SUP
I n o r d e r t o achieve c = 0 . 7 i n f l i g h t a t M = 0.8, we must c r e a t e an
Y SUP
overload n = 0 . 7 / 0 . 2 7 5 = 2 . 5 2 . However, a t cx = 5.2" (c = 0.53), i . e . , a t
Y OP Y
overload n = 0.53/0.275 = 1.93, t h e "n '' l i g h t comes on. The p i l o t ' s
Y Y SUP

212

action i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e longitudinal a t t i t u d e of t h e aircraft prevents t h e


a i r c r a f t from e n t e r i n g t h e dangerous r o l l i n g regime.

TABLE 13
.~

0.8
. ..I . . .~
ao
SUP 10,6 9,8 7
aO0per.c r 9,2 8.4 794 6,3 5,2
aohf f o r H= 1 0 km' 5,7 5 4,2 3-5 3
c sup 0,96 0,91 0,84 0,78 0.7
C Y oper - 0,715 0,62 0,53
- 0,355 0,315 0.275
C y hf - 2,O 1,96 1,93

nyope r
Note: Commas r e p r e s e n t decimal p o i n t s .

The speed r e s e r v e from


t h e moment when t h e l i g h t
s i g n a l l i n g t h e dangerous
regime l i g h t s up u n t i l t h e
minimum p e r m i s s i b l e speed i s
II \ ."
reached i s u s u a l l y 25-40 km/hr
l and t h e r e s e r v e b e f o r e
r o l l i n g i s 80-100 km/hr
i n d i c a t e d speed.

With f l a p s down, t h e
automatic device a l s o warns
t h e p i l o t i n advance of any
d e v i a t i o n from t h e normal
regime. F o r example, where
ci = 9 - l o o (near t h e angles
OP
of a t t a c k used i n landing and
t a k e o f f ) , t r a n s f e r of t h e
a i r c r a f t i n t o t h e nonpermis
s i b l e regime i s s i g n a l l e d by
l i g h t i n g of t h e ''a ' I lamp.
cr

916. Lateral S t a b i l i t y -
/218
F i g u r e 140. Operating C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
o f AUAP AS a Function o f M Number:
L a t e r a l e q u i l i b r i u m of
1 , Movable s e c t o r of c r i t i c a l angles
t h e a i r c r a f t can be d i s r u p t e d
~2 2 , S e c t o r o f dangerous overloads; by two f a c t o r s which a r e
3 , Nonflashing lamp warning o f danger i n t e r r e l a t e d : s l i p p i n g and
ous n * 4 , Flashing lamp; 5 , Non- banking. Thus, i f t h e cause
Y' o f a d i s r u p t i o n of l a t e r a l
f l a s h i n g lamp s i g n a l l i n g c r i t i c a l equilibrium i s banking, as a
angles a r e s u l t o f t h e f o r c e of

213
g r a v i t y an unbalanced l a t e r a l f o r c e w i l l appear, a p p l i e d a t t h e c e n t e r of
g r a v i t y , which w i l l d i s t o r t t h e t r a j e c t o r y of movement. The a i r c r a f t b e g i n s
t o s l i p . I n t h e same way, i f t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f l a t e r a l e q u i l i b r i u m occurs as
a r e s u l t of s l i p p i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t , an i n c r e a s e i n l a t e r a l f o r c e AZ occurs,
a p p l i e d a t t h e l a t e r a l aerodynamic c e n t e r , t h e t r a j e c t o r y i s curved and as a
r e s u l t an unbalance t r a n s v e r s e moment AMx a p p e a r s . The a i r c r a f t begins t o
bank. Thus, when l a t e r a l e q u i l i b r i u m i s d i s r u p t e d , t h e a i r c r a f t begins
t o r o t a t e about t h e axes o f ox and oy simultaneously.

The term l a t e r a l s t a b i l i t y means t h e a b i l i t y of an a i r c r a f t t o r e t u r n


t o i t s i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n a f t e r any small p e r t u r b a t i o n independently,
without p i l o t a c t i o n , except f o r unavoidable course d e v i a t i o n .

F o r a b e t t e r understanding o f l a t e r a l s t a b i l i t y , i t i s methodologically
expedient t o analyze f i r s t s t a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o t h e ox a x i s ,
t h e n s e p a r a t e l y r e l a t i v e t o t h e oy a x i s . The former is c a l l e d t r a n s v e r s e
s t a b i l i t y , the latter -- directional s t a b i l i t y .

Simultaneous d i r e c t i o n a l and t r a n s v e r s e s t a b i l i t y r e p r e s e n t l a t e r a l
s t a b i l i t y of t h e a i r c r a f t .

517. Transverse Static Stability

Transverse s t a b i l i t y i s t h e a b i l i t y o f an a i r c r a f t t o e l i m i n a t e a
bank a u t o m a t i c a l l y , o r , i n o t h e r words, t o bank i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o p p o s i t e
t o s l i p p a g e . For example, i f t h e a i r c r a f t s l i p s t o t h e r i g h t , t h e a i r c r a f t
should bank t o t h e l e f t .

I n o r d e r f o r an a i r c r a f t t o e l i m i n a t e bank independently, it i s
n e c e s s a r y t h a t a t r a n s v e r s e moment a r i s e on t h e lower wing during s l i p p i n g
such as t o cause r o t a t i o n toward t h e h i g h e r wing. The banking o f t h e a i r c r a f t
i t s e l f h a s no d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on t h e magnitude o f t r a n s v e r s e moments. I t s
i n f l u e n c e i s f e l t through s l i p p i n g . The bank a n g l e determines t h e s l i p a n g l e
which i s t h e d i r e c t cause o f t r a n s v e r s e moments.

The degres of t r a n s v e r s e s t a b i l i t y i s e v a l u a t e d according t o t h e v a l u e of


t r a n s v e r s e moment Amx r e s t o r e d p e r one degree of s l i p angle B , i . e . , according
to t h e v a l u e of mx, 6 c a l l e d t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of t r a n s v e r s e s t a t i c s t a b i l i t y :

I n a t r a n s v e r s e l y s t a b l e a i r c r a f t , when s l i p p i n g occurs t o t h e r i g h t wing


/ 219
( p o s i t i v e s l i p p i n g ) , a n e g a t i v e t r a n s v e r s e moment appears on t h e l e f t wing,
and c o e f f i c i e n t m B i s n e g a t i v e . The v a l u e of t h i s c o e f f i c i e n t i s determined
X

2 14

p r i m a r i l y by t h e form o f t h e wing and t h e h e i g h t o f t h e v e r t i c a l c o n t r o l


s u r f a c e . For swept wings with no t r a n s v e r s e V, t h e t r a n s v e r s e s t a b i l i t y
c o e f f i c i e n t i s u s u a l l y q u i t e high, and must be decreased by g i v i n g t h e wing a
n e g a t i v e t r a n s v e r s e V = -(1-3O). This decreases t h e moment o f t h e bank
. s t r i v i n g t o b r i n g t h e a i r c r a f t out of t h e s l i p p i n g s t a t e .

Transverse s t a t i c
s t a b i l i t y depends both
on t h e angle o f a t t a c k
and on t h e f l i g h t
speed. Mechanization
of t h e wing i s a l s o
q u i t e important. The
increase i n t r a n s v e r s e
s t a t i c s t a b i l i t y with
increasing c o e f f i c i e n t
c i s explained as
Y
follows. When a
Figure 141. Change i n S w e e p A n g l e of Wing
swept wing s l i p s , t h e
During S l i p p i n g and Influence o f S l i p p i n g on
sweep angle o f t h e
D e p e n d e n c e o f c on A n g l e of Attack
Y wing i s changed
(Figure 141). Where
t h e sweep angle i s decreased ( r i g h t wing), t h e load b e a r i n g q u a l i t i e s
i n c r e a s e . The curve of t h e f u n c t i o n c = f ( a ) f o r t h i s wing i s h i g h e r than
f o r t h e wing f o r which t h e sweep angle'increases during t h e s l i p . We s e e from
t h e graph t h a t a t high angles of a t t a c k (more p r e c i s e l y a t high values of c )
Y
t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e values f o r t h e wings i n c r e a s e s . Therefore, t h e h i g h e r
t h e a n g l e s of a t t a c k a t which f l i g h t i s performed, t h e g r e a t e r t h e banking
moment c r e a t e d d u r i n g s l i p p i n g .

A s a r e s u l t , t r a n s v e r s e s t a b i l i t y of a swept wing i s h i g h e r , t h e h i g h e r
t h e angle of a t t a c k . Whereas during climbing, h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t and descent
(angles o f a t t a c k 2 . 5 - 3 . 3 " ) t h e t r a n s v e r s e s t a t i c s t a b i l i t y i s w i t h i n t h e
l i m i t s of normal v a l u e s , during t h e landing regime i t i n c r e a s e s .

The i n c r e a s e i n l a t e r a l s t a t i c s t a b i l i t y a t high angles of a t t a c k has a


n e g a t i v e influence on t h e prelanding regime and may worsen t h e f l y i n g qual
i t i e s of an a i r c r a f t , causing it t o rock and g i v i n g it poor damping char- / 2
20
a c t e r i s t i c s . Therefore, when t h e f l a p s a r e lowered (high values o f c ) , when
Y
f l i g h t i s being performed a t low speeds, t h e t r a n s v e r s e s t a t i c s t a b i l i t y i s
high.

An i n c r e a s e i n t r a n s v e r s e s t a b i l i t y of an a i r c r a f t a t low angles of
a t t a c k is aided by aerodynamic d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e wings.

Aerodynamic b a f f l e s a l s o extend t h e beginning o f development o f terminal


s e p a r a t i o n and h e l p t o i n c r e a s e t h e t r a n s v e r s e s t a b i l i t y of an a i r c r a f t a t
high angles of a t t a c k .

215

518. Directional S t a t i c S t a b i l i t y

D i r e c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y i s t h e a b i l i t y o f an a i r c r a f t t o e l i m i n a t e s l i p p i n g
a u t o m a t i c a l l y . During f l i g h t with s l i p p i n g , as a r e s u l t o f l a t e r a l a i r
c u r r e n t a g a i n s t t h e f u s e l a g e , aerodynamic f o r c e Z a r i s e s , t h e moment o f which
r e l a t i v e t o t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y c r e a t e s a r o t a t i n g moment M about v e r t i c a l
Y
a x i s oy. Normally, t h e p o i n t of a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e l a t e r a l f o r c e i s behind
t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t , as a r e s u l t of which f o r c e Z t e n d s t o
r o t a t e t h e a i r c r a f t ( l i k e a weather vane) toward t h e wing onto which t h e
a i r c r a f t i s s l i p p i n g . Q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , t h e degree o f d i r e c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y i s
determined by t h e v a l u e of s t a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t m B . P h y s i c a l l y , c o e f f i c i e n t
Y
mB d e f i n e s t h e amount of i n c r e a s e i n r o t a t i o n a l moment M B when t h e s l i p p i n g
Y Y
angle B changes by one degree, i . e . ,

+-. Amy
A@

The g r e a t e r mB t h e g r e a t e r t h e d i r e c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y o f t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e
Y
more i n t e n s i v e l y i t e l i m i n a t e s s l i p p i n g .

Modern a i r c r a f t have s u f f i c i e n t d i r e c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y , c o e f f i c i e n t m B i s
Y
n e g a t i v e , i . e . , when t h e a i r c r a f t s l i p s over onto t h e r i g h t wing ( p o s i t i v e 6)
a d i r e c t i o n a l moment appears t o r o t a t e t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e l e f t .

D i r e c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y o f a i r c r a f t i s provided p r i m a r i l y by t h e v e r t i c a l
t a i l surface.

519. Lateral Dynamic Stabi 1 i t y

Let us assume t h a t an a i r c r a f t i s banked onto t h e r i g h t wing under t h e


i n f l u e n c e of e x t e r n a l p e r t u r b a t i o n . This r e s u l t s i n r i g h t s l i p p a g e , and t h e
t r a j e c t o r y o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s bent t o t h e r i g h t . Further movement of t h e
a i r c r a f t depends on t h e r a t i o between t r a n s v e r s e and d i r e c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y .
Let us assume t h a t t h e t r a n s v e r s e s t a b i l i t y i s g r e a t e r than t h e d i r e c t i o n a l
s t a b i l i t y , i . e . , mB i s g r e a t e r t h a n mB In t h i s case t h e bank is r a p i d l y
X Y
eliminated, t h e a i r c r a f t moves from r i g h t bank t o l e f t bank and begins t o s l i p
on t h e l e f t wing. However, s i n c e t h e s l i p p i n g i s n o t completely e l i m i n a t e d ,
once more a banking moment onto t h e r i g h t wing appears. The a i r c r a f t goes
i n t o a r i g h t bank once more. Thus, a rocking of t h e a i r c r a f t occurs, c a l l e d
l a t e r a l o s c i 1l a t i n g i n s t a b i l i t y .

On t h e o t h e r hand, i f mB i s l e s s than m B i . e . , t h e d i r e c t i o n a l moment i s


X Y
g r e a t e r than t h e t r a n s v e r s e moment, a f t e r t h e a i r c r a f t i s banked, t h e bank i s
r e t a i n e d , but t h e s l i p p i n g i s r a p i d l y eliminated. The remaining bank curves

216

t h e t r a j e c t o r y , i . e . , t h e a i r c r a f t descends i n a s p i r a l t o t h e r i g h t . This i s
known as l a t e r a l s p i r a l i n s t a b i l i t y .

The dynamics o f t h e l a t e r a l movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t under t h e i n f l u e n c e


o f e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s and i t s behavior under t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e p i l o t ' s
a c t i o n s a r e determined i n t h e s e examples n o t only by t h e s i g n and magnitude of
c o e f f i c i e n t s m' and mB b u t a l s o by t h e presence of c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s
Y X'

between them. Therefore, t h e magnitude of K, which i s d i r e c t l y dependent on


t h e r a t i o mE/mB and numerically equal t o t h e r a t i o of angular v e l o c i t i e s of
Y
bank and yawing, i s very important i n l a t e r a l dynamic s t a b i l i t y as w e l l as t h e
controllability of t h e aircraft.

This parameter c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e l a t e r a l movement of t h e a i r c r a f t .

Figure 1 4 2 shows a recording from a s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r when t h e rudder


i s moved with (a) and without (b) t h e yaw damper. Recording of c h a r a c t e r
i s t i c s w and w a t low f l i g h t speeds was performed with f l a p s f u l l y down.
X Y
A f t e r t h e rudder impulse was t r a n s m i t t e d , t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t began
t o s l i p with a bank.

A s we can s e e from t h e recordings, a f t e r 8 . 8 s e c K = 2 , a f t e r 1 2 . 1 s e c ,


1.94 and f u r t h e r , as t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s were damped, t h e value decreased.
Attenuation of o s c i l l a t i o n s shows t h e dynamic l a t e r a l s t a b i l i t y of t h e
a i r c r a f t . The v a l u e of K should l i e between zero and one. We can s e e on
Figure 143 t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s observed a t various a l t i t u d e s only w i t h i n a
d e f i n i t e range of M numbers, f o r example f o r 11 = 10,000 m a t M > 0 . 7 5 . A t
s m a l l e r M numbers, K > 1 . When t h e value of K i s extremely high, s o t h a t t h e
r a t i o m B / m B i s high, t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l be judged u n s a t i s f a c t o r y by i t s p i l o t s .
X Y
This i s explained by t h e f a c t t h a t with high t r a n s v e r s e s t a b i l i t y , t h e r e a c

t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t t o s l i p p i n g becomes q u i t e s h a r p . In t h i s c a s e , even

small s l i p angles cause t h e a i r c r a f t t o bank s h a r p l y , and banking and yawing

movements with comparatively s h o r t r e p e t i t i o n p e r i o d s occur, and a r e n o t

always damped. This "rocking" of t h e a i r c r a f t i s u s u a l l y evaluated by p i l o t s /223


as l a t e r a l i n s t a b i l i t y , although a c t u a l l y i t i s an excess o f l a t e r a l s t a b i l
i t y , causing t h e a i r c r a f t t o respond e a g e r l y t o t h e s l i g h t e s t random s l i p p i n g .
I n landing modes, t h e values o f K produced a r e r a t h e r high (on t h e o r d e r o f
of 1.5-23, leading t o yawing and rocking of t h e a i r c r a f t (Figure 144).
P i l o t i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s more d i f f i c u l t , and t h e p i l o t must f r e q u e n t l y
o p e r a t e t h e c o n t r o l s . F l i g h t i n bumpy a i r becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y u n p l e a s a n t .

217

The dependence of
t h e parameters T , K and
mbl , c h a r a c t e r i z i n g
t h e l a t e r a l dynamic
s t a b i l i t y of the
a i r c r a f t , on f l i g h t
speed are shown on
Figure 144.

520. Yaw Damper

We know t h a t an
arrow-shaped a i r c r a f t
w i 11 have s a t i s f a c t o r y
lateral stability if,
i n addition t o trans
v e r s e and d i r e c t i o n a l
s t a b i l i t y and t h e
Figure 142. Determination of Value of optimal combination o f
x ( V r = 220 km/hr, 6 n is t h e angle of devi- t h e s e two, it a l s o has
a t i o n o f t h e rudder, H = 2000 m, landing gear good damping p r o p e r -
and f l a p s down) t i e s , providing intens
i v e damping o f l a t e r a l
oscillations.
a!
1

ec
5
U
43 44 Q5 46 97 Q8 M

Figure 143. Character- Figure 144.


i s t i c s of L a t e r a l Dynamic Characteristics
S t a b i l i t y As a Function of L a t e r a l
of M Number ( a n g l e x = Dynamic Stabi 1
= 35", landing gear and i t y As Functions
Flaps Up); 1 , 2 , Normal- of F l i g h t S p e e d
ized values of parameters (1.g. down,
f l a p s down, H =
= 2100 m)

218

The i n s t a l l a t i o n of dampers h a s allowed improvement i n t h e damping char


a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e event of p e r t u r b a t i o n s t o b e achieved, p a r t i c u l a r l y during
t a k e o f f and l a n d i n g . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e a i l e r o n s has
been i n c r e a s e d .

Thus, t h e s t a b i l i t y of an a i r c r a f t i s i n c r e a s e d and t h e work of t h e p i l o t


i s g r e a t l y eased, e s p e c i a l l y i n t r a n s i e n t modes. For example, t h e yaw damper
provides automatic damping of a i r c r a f t c o u r s e and bank o s c i l l a t i o n s by
a r t i f i c i a l l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e damping c o e f f i c i e n t by a u t o m a t i c a l l y s h i f t i n g t h e
rudder t o an angle p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y . A s t h e yaw damper
o p e r a t e s , t h e i n t e n s i t y of damping o f l a t e r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s i s i n c r e a s e d ; t h i s
means t h a t t h e number o f o s c i l l a t i o n s t o complete damping and t h e t o t a l t i m e
o f damping a r e decreased. The amplitude of o s c i l l a t i o n s A (Figure 116) during
one p e r i o d i s decreased s o g r e a t l y t h a t t h e v a l u e "bn = A / A is decreased by
1 2
s e v e r a l times. Figure 142 b shows a diagram of t h e d e c r e a s e i n a n g u l a r
v e l o c i t i e s when t h e yaw damper i s turned on a f t e r a p u l s e i s f e d t o t h e
r u d d e r . The p e r i o d of o s c i l l a t i o n i s decreased t o 5-7 s e c , mbl = 5-8 and t h e
s e n s e and s i g n i f i c a n c e of parameter K are l o s t .

The a c t u a t i n g mechanism of t h e damper (Figure 145) is a t e l e s c o p i c arm.


Control of t h e rudder during o p e r a t i o n o f t h e damper i s performed u s i n g a
h y d r a u l i c a m p l i f i e r which t r a n s m i t s t h e f o r c e t o t h e r u d d e r .

The angular v e l o c i t y t r a n s d u c e r s , which measure wx and w a r e gyroscopes


Y'
with two degrees of freedom, r e a c t i n g t o t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f r o t a t i o n of
/224
t h e a i r c r a f t about t h e oy and ox axes. A s t h e a i r c r a f t o s c i l l a t e s about t h e s e
a x e s , p e r i o d i c changes i n angular v e l o c i t i e s of yaw w and bank wx o c c u r .
Y
E l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l s a r e produced which a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l a t each moment t o t h e
v a l u e s of t h e s e v e l o c i t i e s , t h e n a r e a m p l i f i e d and s e n t t o t h e t e l e s c o p i n g
arms. The t e l e s c o p i n g arms a r e i n s t a l l e d i n t h e arms of t h e r i g i d c o n t r o l
system from t h e p e d a l s i n f r o n t o f t h e p i l o t . The h y d r a u l i c a m p l i f i e r
d e f l e c t s t h e rudder depending on t h e l i n e a r displacement of t h e s h a f t o f t h e
t e l e s c o p i n g arm according t o an e s t a b l i s h e d c o n t r o l law. For example, with
t h e landing gear down and f l a p s down, d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e rudder occurs on t h e
b a s i s of s i g n a l s from t h e w and wx t r a n s d u c e r s . The c o n t r o l law can be
Y
r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g formula:

A$ = Aoy+ Bo,,

where A6r i s t h e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e r u d d e r ;
A, B a r e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y corresponding t o t h e
adjustment o f t h e damper.

With t h e landing g e a r and f l a p s up, t h e s i g n a l from t h e wx t r a n s d u c e r i s


disconnected and t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e damper follows t h e law = Aw
Y
.

2 19

The o p e r a t i o n o f t h e t e l e s c o p i c arms has no i n f l u e n c e on t h e movement o f


t h e p e d a l s , although t h e rudder i s d e f l e c t e d by an a n g l e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e
a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f r o t a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t . When t h e a i r c r a f t r o t a t e s t o
t h e r i g h t , t h e rudder i s d e f l e c t e d t o t h e l e f t and v i c e versa.

Let us u s e t h e f o l l o w i n g examples t o analyze when and how t h e rudder is


d e f l e c t e d by t h e damper:

1. Let u s assume t h a t i n f l i g h t with landing g e a r and f l a p s down, t h e


p i l o t t u r n s t o t h e r i g h t . To do t h i s , h e d e f l e c t s t h e s t i c k t o t h e r i g h t ,
banking t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e r i g h t by angle y (Figure 146 a ) . Due t o t h e
d i f f e r e n c e i n l i f t i n g f o r c e s on t h e wings, t r a n s v e r s e bank moment +M appears
xa
from t h e a i l e