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Lab Report

Prepared by

Satyam Kumar

Introduction

Any structural model must be designed , loaded, and interpreted according to the set of

similitude requirements that relate the model to the prototype structure.

Similitude requirement are based upon the theory of modelling, which is derived from the

dimensional analysis of the physical phenomena involved in the behaviour of structure.

Dimensions are used to define and measure physical quantity, it has two characteristics

Qualitative and Quantitative

The Qualitative characteristics enable physical phenomena to be expressed in certain

fundamental measure of nature. Length, Force(mass), Time, Temperature, Electric Charge,

are the qualitative term used to describe the Mechanical, Thermodynamic, Electrical etc.

Physical problems.

The quantitative characteristics is made up of both a number and standard of comparison.

Any mathematical description that describes some aspect of nature must be in a

dimensionally homogenous form so that it can be expressed in dimensionless product of

physical variables.

Introduction

and interpretation of test result of models.

Dimension Analysis: Analytical tool to develop similitude between the model and

the prototype

Types of similitude:

Geometric similarity: Model and prototype have same shape and

behaviour

Distorted similitude: Two or more different scales are used

Dissimilar similitude: No physical resemblance

Typical list of physical quantity

Quantity Units

L Length L

Q Force F

M Mass FL-1T2

Stress FL-2

Strain -

a Acceleration LT-2

Displacement L

Poissons Ratio -

E Modulus of elasticity FL-2

Purpose and Objective

Similitude between the Prototype and model and to perform a frequency analysis.

Similitude was obtained for a desired frequency scale factor by altering mass of

the structure, for the given dimensional scale factor of two.

To obtain similitude between the prototype and modal for frequency scale

factor of 0.5 by changing mass of the structure.

To obtain similitude between the prototype and modal for frequency scale

factor of 1 by changing mass of the structure.

To obtain the dynamic properties of the structure: frequency, time period and

mode shapes.

To compare the dynamic properties of the structure obtained from the

experiment with that from computational analysis and theoretical calculation.

Prototype

Three

Prototype design information

Table 2: Provided and measured dimension and geometric scale factors of the

prototype and the model

Description Specified Measured

Slab Width (inch) 20 10 2 20.02 10.09 1.98

Slab Thickness (inch) .7 .35 2 .7 .36 1.97

Floor height (inch) 16 8 2 16.04 8.03 2

Distance between the 18 9 2 18.46 9.21 2

columns along length

(inch)

Distance between the 12 6 2 12.63 6.33 1.99

columns along width

(inch)

Column Diameter (inch) .5 .25 2 .47 .24Avg =1.94

1.98

Dimensional Analysis

on dimension

Forms of dimensional equation :

A= FC1LC2 TC3

Where,

A= Dependent variable

F, L, T= Primary quantities

C ,C ,C ,= constants

1 2 3

Theory of models

Buckinghams Pi Theorem

This theorem states that any dimensionally homogenous equation involving

certain physical quantities can be reduced to an equivalent equation involving a

complete set of dimensionless products.

F ( X1, X2, X3Xn) = 0

Can equivalently be expressed in the form

G( 1,2, m) = 0

The Pi terms are dimensionless product of the physical quantities X1, X2, X3Xn

.A complete set dimensionless product are the m = n-r independent products.

Where, m is no of dimensionless product

n is no of physical variable r is number of fundamental measure

Theory of models

General equation of prototype

1= f( 2,3, 4, 5)

i are non-dimensional, independent combination of variables

For the model system :

1m= f( 2m,3m, 4m, 5m)

1 f( 2,3, 4, 5)

1 from 1m as follows: =

1m f( 2m,3m, 4m, 5m)

Similitude requirements for modelling results from forcing the m

dimensionless pi terms of n physical quantity to be equal in model and

prototype, which is a necessary condition for the full functional relationships

between prototype and in the model structure

Theory of models

measurements in the prototype and model domains.

r,j is ratio of the physical quantity j, m,j is physical quantity j measured

in the model structure , p ,j physical quantity j measured in the

prototype structure; j = 1 to n.

m, j

r j = The associated dimensionless products r,s ( S= 1 to m)

p, j

must then be equal to 1, since the ratios are already dimensionless.

Types of models

2. Adequate: Accurate predictions of one characteristic of the

prototype may be made, but possibly not others

3. Distorted: Some design conditions are violated.

4. Dissimilar: Model bears no resemblance to prototype

fabrication accuracy, loading techniques, measurement methods and

interpretation of results.

SIMILITUDE OF DYNAMIC

STRUCTURAL MODEL

Table 3: Similitude Relations

Parameters Dimension Scale Factor

Small Scale 1:2 Reduced

Mode Model

Modulus, E FL-2 SE 1

Poissons Ratio - 1 1

Gravitational LT-2 1 1

Acceleration, G

Stress, FL-2 SE 1

SIMILITUDE OF DYNAMIC

STRUCTURAL MODEL

Strain - 1 1

Acceleration, a LT-2 1 1

Linear Dimension, L Sl 1/2

Displacement L Sl 1/2

Force, P F SESl 2 (1/2)2

Time, t T Sl 1/2 (1/2)1/2

Frequency T-1 Sl -1/2 (1/2)-1/2

Velocity, V LT-1 Sl 1/2 (1/2)1/2

Mass Density FL-4T2 SE / Sl (1/2)-1

SIMILITUDE OF DYNAMICS

TRUCTURAL MODEL

The problem of dynamic loading in a building can be described with the

greatest degree of simplification as the functional of Equation:

= f , , , , , , , ,

Where, = stress; r = position vector; t = time; = density; E = modulus of

elasticity; a = acceleration; g = acceleration of gravity; l = length; 0 = initial

stress; r0 = initial position vector, physical phenomenon is being measured

using 10 physical quantities

No of fundamental unit needed is 3 =f , , , , ,

SIMILITUDE OF DYNAMICS

TRUCTURAL MODEL

=

, , , , , ,

property of the material E

If prototype materials are to be used, then Er = 1,

and then r = 1 (equal stresses).

Scaling and model development

The material used in prototype and model is same

the geometric scale factor (l) is 1.98 and the scale factors for elastic

modulus (E) and density () are both 1

There are two cases for frequency scale factor( = l-1 )

First case =0.5

Second case =1.0

Prototype

Model

Model developed to represent the real

structure.

Table 4: Scale Factors provided to obtain similitude between the Prototype and model with Geometric scale

factor of 0.5 and having same material and acceleration scale factor.

Required Provided

Geometric length, L l 1.98 1.98

Elastic Modulus, E E 1 1

Acceleration, a a = l E / 1 1

Density, = E /( l la)2 0.51 0.51

Velocity v = ( l la)1/2 1.41 1.41

Forces, F F = l2E 3.92 3.92

Stress, s = E 1.0 1.0

Strain, = 1 1.0 1.0

Area, A A = l2 3.92 3.92

Volume, V v= l3 7.76 7.76

Second Moment of Area, I I= l4 15.37 15.37

Impulse, i i= l3( E)1/2 5.52 5.52

Energy, e e= l3E 7.76 7.76

Frequency, = 1/ l (E / )1/2 .71 .71

Time ( Period), t t = (l /E)1/2 1.41 1.41

Gravitational g= 1 1 2

Gravitational Force, fg fg = l 3 3.92 3.92

Critical Damping, = 1 1 1

Table 5: Scale Factors provided to obtain similitude between the Prototype and model for frequency scale

factor of 0.5

Required Provided

Geometric length, L l 1.98 1.98

Elastic Modulus, E E 1 1

Acceleration, a a = l E / 0.5 1

Density, = E /( l la)2 1.02 1.02

Velocity v = ( l la)1/2 .99 .99

Forces, F F = l2E 3.92 3.92

Stress, s = E 1.0 1.0

Strain, = 1 1.0 1.0

Area, A A = l2 3.92 3.92

Volume, V v= l3 7.76 7.76

Second Moment of Area, I I= l4 15.37 15.37

Impulse, i i= l3( E)1/2 7.84 7.84

Energy, e e= l3E 7.76 7.76

Frequency, = 1/ l (E / )1/2 .5 .5

Time ( Period), t t = (l /E)1/2 2.00 2.0

Gravitational g= 1 1 2

Gravitational Force, fg fg = l l 3 7.92 7.92

Critical Damping, = 1 1 1

Table 6 : Scale Factors provided to obtain similitude between the Prototype and model for frequency scale

factor of 1

Required Provided

Geometric length, L l 1.98 1.98

Elastic Modulus, E E 1 1

Acceleration, a a = l E / 1.98 1.98

Density, = E /( l la)2 0.26 0.26

Velocity v = ( l la)1/2 1.98 1.98

Forces, F F = l2E 3.92 3.92

Stress, s = E 1.0 1.0

Strain, = 1 1.0 1.0

Area, A A = l2 3.92 3.92

Volume, V v= l3 7.76 7.76

Second Moment of Area, I I= l4 15.37 15.37

Impulse, i i= l3( E)1/2 3.92 3.92

Energy, e e= l3E 7.76 7.76

Frequency, = 1/ l (E / )1/2 1.00 1.00

Time ( Period), t t = (l /E)1/2 1.00 1.00

Gravitational g= 1 1 2

Gravitational Force, fg fg = l l 3 1.98 1.98

Critical Damping, = 1 1 1

Materials and constraints

Slab: Plywood

Colum : Steel

There is no constraints in use of material.

Table 7: Material properties considered

Material Density, Elastic Modulus, E

(lb/in3) (ksi)

Plywood 2.222 x 10-2 1800

Structural Steel 0.2836 29000

Prototype

Structure

Model

Structure

structure

Instrumentation

Loading system

An impulse force was applied to each structure by hand-hitting its top

floor

To record response accelerometers are attached on each floor

Data acquisition

Data acquisition systems convert analog waveforms into digital

values

The components of these systems include sensors, signal

conditioning circuitry and analog to digital converters

The physical parameters (acceleration in this case) are converted to

electrical signals by the sensors

Figure 5: Instrumentation - Accelerometers on prototype and model structure

Figure 6: Flow chart of the data acquisition system

Raw Data was collected by

Data acquisition system and

processed to obtain the

dynamic properties of the

structure

Test implementation

2. Experiment 1: Structure was excited using an impulse to find the natural

frequency of three modes

3. Structure was struck at different locations using different techniques to

assess the effect of location and type of impulse

4. Structure was excited while varying the mass of different floors to achieve

the similitude requirements

1. Experiment 2: changing the mass of the prototype to obtain

frequency scale factor of 0.5

2. Experiment 3: changing the mass of the model to obtain frequency

scale factor of 1

Test results

First set of experiments to find the natural frequency and mode shape of

prototype and model.

Plots of Fourier amplitude spectrum were collected by the data acquisition

system at the end of the each test to find the frequency and mode shape.

Table 8 : Natural frequency and mode shape for prototype and model

Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3

Prototype Model Prototype model Prototype Model

Frequency 6.1 11.1 19.8 33 34.7 48.6

Fourier Floor 1 .131 .227 .139 .192 .169 .225

Amplitude Floor 2 .248 .505 .065 .079 .184 .334

Floor 3 .319 .652 .115 .188 .089 .188

Figure 8: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for prototype obtained in the

test to find natural frequencies

to find natural frequencies

Test results (Experiment 2)

scale factor of 0.5

Mass added Total fn fn f f

Trial to prototype mass Required Provide Required Provided

added d

N Kg lb lb

1 5 1.124 5.55 5.9 .5 .532

2 2 2 5.55 5.7 .5 .514

3 5 2 3.124 5.55 5.4 .5 .486

4 2 2 6.4092 5.55 5.5 .5 .495

Figure 11: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for Figure 12: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for

prototype when the mass was added in the prototype when the mass was added in the

process of obtaining the frequency scale factor process of obtaining the frequency scale factor

of 0.5 (Trial 1) of 0.5 (Trial 2)

Figure 13: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for Figure 14: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for

prototype when the mass was added in the prototype when the mass was added in the

process of obtaining the frequency scale factor process of obtaining the frequency scale factor

of 0.5 (Trial 3) of 0.5 (Trial 4)

Test result (Experiment 3)

scale factor of 1

Trial to prototype mass Required Provided Required Provided

added

N Kg lb lb

1 20 4.496 6.1 6 1 1.017

2 10 2 4.248 6.1 6.1 1 1.00

Figure 15: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for prototype when the mass was added in the

process of obtaining the frequency scale factor of 1 (Trial 1)

Figure 15: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for prototype when the mass was added in the

process of obtaining the frequency scale factor of 1 (Trial 2)

Data processing

Mass calculation

To calculate the mass matrices of the two structure weight of plywood

slab and rod column is considered

The measured dimension were used for the calculation

Obtained mass matrices for prototype and model structure are:

0.00368 0 0

mp r = 0 0.00422 0 lb.sec/in2

0 0 0.00422

.028 0 0

mp r = 0 .032 0 lb.sec/in2

0 0 .032

Data processing

structures. weights were distributed uniformly in the three floors of

structure.

For f = l-1 mass were added to prototype

For f = l mass were added to model

0.045 0 0 0.015 0 0

Mpr,sim = 0 0.0049 0 Mm,sim = 0 0.019 0

0 0 0.0049 0 0 0.019

Calculation of frequencies

Mass was added to prototype so that its frequency can be reduced. So for

f = l-1 = 0.5 target frequency was 5.55 for the first mode. We can see that

similitude criteria for second mode is not satisfied.

Table 11: Final Frequency for f = l-1 (first mode)

f = l-1 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3

Target Frequency (Hz) 5.55 15 24.3

Achieved Frequency (Hz) 5.50 18.3 32.2

Table 12: Final Frequency for f = l (first mode)

f = l Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3

Target Frequency (Hz) 6.1 19.8 34.7

Achieved Frequency (Hz) 6.1 17.6 26.6

Frequency

Table 13: Final Frequency for f = l-1 (Second mode)

f = l-1 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3

Target Frequency (Hz) 5.55 15 24.3

Achieved Frequency (Hz) 4.7 15.3 -

Table 14: Final Frequency for f = l (Second mode)

f = l Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3

Target Frequency (Hz) 6.1 19.8 34.7

Achieved Frequency (Hz) 7.5 19.7 -

Here, we can see that 2nd mode was captured properly, the similitude criteria

was not satisfied for the first mode

Calculation of mode shape

acceleration time histories.

Figure 11: Mode shape of Model structure Figure 12: Mode shape of prototype structure

mass added

Damping Ratio

ratio.

=

Damping ratio

Initial Case Mode 1 1.6 1.26

Mode 2 .88 .67

Mode 3 .36 .36

With additional Mode 1 .82 .9

mass

Mode 2 1.37 1.27

Mode 3 2.1 1.59

Determination and elimination

of errors

Sources of error

Instrument errors

Construction errors

Systematic errors

Accidental errors

Noise in the signals can be a systematic error, eliminated

by filtering

Detection and elimination of error in time domain was

not possible because Fourier Amplitude Spectrum was

in frequency domain

Determination and elimination

of errors

Natural Mode shape corresponding to different

natural frequencies should satisfy orthogonality

condition.

If r n then nT m r = 0

During testing we have tested the prototype and

model structure and nT m r was near equal to 0

Analytical Predictions-Simplified

Model

Simplified model (Mass are lumped at node) were created for comparison

Lumped mass

consist of mass

of the floor and

half of the

mass of

columns above

and below

It.

Table 16: Material and geometrical properties of structure for engineering

calculations

Quantity Prototype Model

Height (inch) 16 8

(Kips/in2)

Table 17 : Modal parameters of lumped mass model

Level Prototype Model

(lb.sec2/in) (lb./in) (lb.sec2/in) (lb./in)

1 .03175 329.72 0.00397 164.86

Table 18 : Response of structure predicted by analytical model

Quantity Prototype Model

Mode 1 2 3 1 2 3

Frequency (Hz) 7.47 20.70 29.46 14.93 41.42 58.93

1st floor 0.45 1 -0.77 0.45 1 -0.77

2nd floor 0.81 0.37 1 0.81 0.37 1

3rd floor 1 -0.86 -0.52 1 -0.86 -0.52

Table 19 : Comparison of analytical and experimental results

Quantity Prototype Model

Mode 1 2 3 1 2 3

Analytical 7.47 20.70 29.46 14.93 41.42 58.93

Frequency (Hz)

Frequency(Hz)

Error (%) 18.3 4.3 17.7 25.6 20.3 17.5

Figure 16 : Comparison 1st mode of prototype Figure 17 : Comparison 2nd mode of prototype

Figure 18 : Comparison 3rd mode of prototype Figure 19 : Comparison 1st mode of Model

Figure 20 : Comparison 2nd mode of Model Figure 21 : Comparison 3rd mode of Model

Conclusion

Following conclusion are drawn after comparing analytical Results and experimental

prediction:

1. It was established that application of initial displacement is a better

method of providing excitation than providing impulse at a certain location

2. Experimental results showed reasonable agreement (4%-25% error) with

analytical predictions from lumped mass model

3. Damping was neglected in calculation of modal response and frequencies,

a more accurate model would consider effect of frequency

4. It is difficult to achieve the similitude requirement for all the three modes

simultaneously

5. If possible, mass of floors and frame should be measured rather than

estimated based on material properties

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