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Similitude and Modeling

Lab Report
Prepared by
Satyam Kumar
Introduction

Any structural model must be designed , loaded, and interpreted according to the set of
similitude requirements that relate the model to the prototype structure.
Similitude requirement are based upon the theory of modelling, which is derived from the
dimensional analysis of the physical phenomena involved in the behaviour of structure.
Dimensions are used to define and measure physical quantity, it has two characteristics
Qualitative and Quantitative
The Qualitative characteristics enable physical phenomena to be expressed in certain
fundamental measure of nature. Length, Force(mass), Time, Temperature, Electric Charge,
are the qualitative term used to describe the Mechanical, Thermodynamic, Electrical etc.
Physical problems.
The quantitative characteristics is made up of both a number and standard of comparison.
Any mathematical description that describes some aspect of nature must be in a
dimensionally homogenous form so that it can be expressed in dimensionless product of
physical variables.
Introduction

Theory of similitude: Principles which underlie the proper design, construction,


and interpretation of test result of models.
Dimension Analysis: Analytical tool to develop similitude between the model and
the prototype
Types of similitude:
Geometric similarity: Model and prototype have same shape and
behaviour
Distorted similitude: Two or more different scales are used
Dissimilar similitude: No physical resemblance
Typical list of physical quantity

Table 1: Typical physical quantity


Quantity Units
L Length L
Q Force F
M Mass FL-1T2
Stress FL-2
Strain -
a Acceleration LT-2
Displacement L
Poissons Ratio -
E Modulus of elasticity FL-2
Purpose and Objective

Similitude between the Prototype and model and to perform a frequency analysis.
Similitude was obtained for a desired frequency scale factor by altering mass of
the structure, for the given dimensional scale factor of two.
To obtain similitude between the prototype and modal for frequency scale
factor of 0.5 by changing mass of the structure.
To obtain similitude between the prototype and modal for frequency scale
factor of 1 by changing mass of the structure.
To obtain the dynamic properties of the structure: frequency, time period and
mode shapes.
To compare the dynamic properties of the structure obtained from the
experiment with that from computational analysis and theoretical calculation.
Prototype

Three

Figure 1: Prototype structure


Prototype design information

Figure 2: Elevation and plan dimension of model and prototype


Table 2: Provided and measured dimension and geometric scale factors of the
prototype and the model
Description Specified Measured

prototype model prototype model

Slab Length (inch) 16 8 2 30.04 15.21 1.98


Slab Width (inch) 20 10 2 20.02 10.09 1.98
Slab Thickness (inch) .7 .35 2 .7 .36 1.97
Floor height (inch) 16 8 2 16.04 8.03 2
Distance between the 18 9 2 18.46 9.21 2
columns along length
(inch)
Distance between the 12 6 2 12.63 6.33 1.99
columns along width
(inch)
Column Diameter (inch) .5 .25 2 .47 .24Avg =1.94
1.98
Dimensional Analysis

Based on relationship that exists among variables based


on dimension
Forms of dimensional equation :
A= FC1LC2 TC3
Where,
A= Dependent variable
F, L, T= Primary quantities
C ,C ,C ,= constants
1 2 3
Theory of models
Buckinghams Pi Theorem
This theorem states that any dimensionally homogenous equation involving
certain physical quantities can be reduced to an equivalent equation involving a
complete set of dimensionless products.
F ( X1, X2, X3Xn) = 0
Can equivalently be expressed in the form
G( 1,2, m) = 0
The Pi terms are dimensionless product of the physical quantities X1, X2, X3Xn
.A complete set dimensionless product are the m = n-r independent products.
Where, m is no of dimensionless product
n is no of physical variable r is number of fundamental measure
Theory of models
General equation of prototype
1= f( 2,3, 4, 5)
i are non-dimensional, independent combination of variables
For the model system :
1m= f( 2m,3m, 4m, 5m)
1 f( 2,3, 4, 5)
1 from 1m as follows: =
1m f( 2m,3m, 4m, 5m)
Similitude requirements for modelling results from forcing the m
dimensionless pi terms of n physical quantity to be equal in model and
prototype, which is a necessary condition for the full functional relationships
between prototype and in the model structure
Theory of models

A set of ratios is defined to describe the relationship between the


measurements in the prototype and model domains.
r,j is ratio of the physical quantity j, m,j is physical quantity j measured
in the model structure , p ,j physical quantity j measured in the
prototype structure; j = 1 to n.
m, j
r j = The associated dimensionless products r,s ( S= 1 to m)
p, j
must then be equal to 1, since the ratios are already dimensionless.
Types of models

1. True: All significant characteristics are reproduced


2. Adequate: Accurate predictions of one characteristic of the
prototype may be made, but possibly not others
3. Distorted: Some design conditions are violated.
4. Dissimilar: Model bears no resemblance to prototype

The modelling accuracy depends upon material properties,


fabrication accuracy, loading techniques, measurement methods and
interpretation of results.
SIMILITUDE OF DYNAMIC
STRUCTURAL MODEL
Table 3: Similitude Relations
Parameters Dimension Scale Factor
Small Scale 1:2 Reduced
Mode Model
Modulus, E FL-2 SE 1
Poissons Ratio - 1 1
Gravitational LT-2 1 1
Acceleration, G
Stress, FL-2 SE 1
SIMILITUDE OF DYNAMIC
STRUCTURAL MODEL

Strain - 1 1
Acceleration, a LT-2 1 1
Linear Dimension, L Sl 1/2
Displacement L Sl 1/2
Force, P F SESl 2 (1/2)2
Time, t T Sl 1/2 (1/2)1/2
Frequency T-1 Sl -1/2 (1/2)-1/2
Velocity, V LT-1 Sl 1/2 (1/2)1/2
Mass Density FL-4T2 SE / Sl (1/2)-1
SIMILITUDE OF DYNAMICS
TRUCTURAL MODEL
The problem of dynamic loading in a building can be described with the
greatest degree of simplification as the functional of Equation:
= f , , , , , , , ,
Where, = stress; r = position vector; t = time; = density; E = modulus of
elasticity; a = acceleration; g = acceleration of gravity; l = length; 0 = initial
stress; r0 = initial position vector, physical phenomenon is being measured
using 10 physical quantities


No of fundamental unit needed is 3 =f , , , , ,

No of dimensionless products( pi term) is 7


SIMILITUDE OF DYNAMICS
TRUCTURAL MODEL
=
, , , , , ,

The first ratio relates the stresses to the mechanical


property of the material E
If prototype materials are to be used, then Er = 1,
and then r = 1 (equal stresses).
Scaling and model development

Model is geometrically similar with prototype


The material used in prototype and model is same
the geometric scale factor (l) is 1.98 and the scale factors for elastic
modulus (E) and density () are both 1
There are two cases for frequency scale factor( = l-1 )
First case =0.5
Second case =1.0
Prototype

Model

Figure 3: Prototype structure and the


Model developed to represent the real
structure.
Table 4: Scale Factors provided to obtain similitude between the Prototype and model with Geometric scale
factor of 0.5 and having same material and acceleration scale factor.

Quantity General case Same Material


Required Provided
Geometric length, L l 1.98 1.98
Elastic Modulus, E E 1 1
Acceleration, a a = l E / 1 1
Density, = E /( l la)2 0.51 0.51
Velocity v = ( l la)1/2 1.41 1.41
Forces, F F = l2E 3.92 3.92
Stress, s = E 1.0 1.0
Strain, = 1 1.0 1.0
Area, A A = l2 3.92 3.92
Volume, V v= l3 7.76 7.76
Second Moment of Area, I I= l4 15.37 15.37

Mass, m m= l3 3.92 3.92


Impulse, i i= l3( E)1/2 5.52 5.52
Energy, e e= l3E 7.76 7.76
Frequency, = 1/ l (E / )1/2 .71 .71
Time ( Period), t t = (l /E)1/2 1.41 1.41
Gravitational g= 1 1 2
Gravitational Force, fg fg = l 3 3.92 3.92
Critical Damping, = 1 1 1
Table 5: Scale Factors provided to obtain similitude between the Prototype and model for frequency scale
factor of 0.5

Quantity General case Same Material


Required Provided
Geometric length, L l 1.98 1.98
Elastic Modulus, E E 1 1
Acceleration, a a = l E / 0.5 1
Density, = E /( l la)2 1.02 1.02
Velocity v = ( l la)1/2 .99 .99
Forces, F F = l2E 3.92 3.92
Stress, s = E 1.0 1.0
Strain, = 1 1.0 1.0
Area, A A = l2 3.92 3.92
Volume, V v= l3 7.76 7.76
Second Moment of Area, I I= l4 15.37 15.37

Mass, m m=l l3 7.92 7.92


Impulse, i i= l3( E)1/2 7.84 7.84
Energy, e e= l3E 7.76 7.76
Frequency, = 1/ l (E / )1/2 .5 .5
Time ( Period), t t = (l /E)1/2 2.00 2.0
Gravitational g= 1 1 2
Gravitational Force, fg fg = l l 3 7.92 7.92
Critical Damping, = 1 1 1
Table 6 : Scale Factors provided to obtain similitude between the Prototype and model for frequency scale
factor of 1

Quantity General case Same Material


Required Provided
Geometric length, L l 1.98 1.98
Elastic Modulus, E E 1 1
Acceleration, a a = l E / 1.98 1.98
Density, = E /( l la)2 0.26 0.26
Velocity v = ( l la)1/2 1.98 1.98
Forces, F F = l2E 3.92 3.92
Stress, s = E 1.0 1.0
Strain, = 1 1.0 1.0
Area, A A = l2 3.92 3.92
Volume, V v= l3 7.76 7.76
Second Moment of Area, I I= l4 15.37 15.37

Mass, m m=l l3 1.98 1.98


Impulse, i i= l3( E)1/2 3.92 3.92
Energy, e e= l3E 7.76 7.76
Frequency, = 1/ l (E / )1/2 1.00 1.00
Time ( Period), t t = (l /E)1/2 1.00 1.00
Gravitational g= 1 1 2
Gravitational Force, fg fg = l l 3 1.98 1.98
Critical Damping, = 1 1 1
Materials and constraints

Two type of material used for construction


Slab: Plywood
Colum : Steel
There is no constraints in use of material.
Table 7: Material properties considered
Material Density, Elastic Modulus, E
(lb/in3) (ksi)
Plywood 2.222 x 10-2 1800
Structural Steel 0.2836 29000
Prototype
Structure

Model
Structure

Figure 4 : Specimen used in testing, prototype and model


structure
Instrumentation
Loading system
An impulse force was applied to each structure by hand-hitting its top
floor
To record response accelerometers are attached on each floor
Data acquisition
Data acquisition systems convert analog waveforms into digital
values
The components of these systems include sensors, signal
conditioning circuitry and analog to digital converters
The physical parameters (acceleration in this case) are converted to
electrical signals by the sensors
Figure 5: Instrumentation - Accelerometers on prototype and model structure
Figure 6: Flow chart of the data acquisition system
Raw Data was collected by
Data acquisition system and
processed to obtain the
dynamic properties of the
structure

Figure 7: Schematic of Test Procedure


Test implementation

1. Dimensions of prototype and model were measured


2. Experiment 1: Structure was excited using an impulse to find the natural
frequency of three modes
3. Structure was struck at different locations using different techniques to
assess the effect of location and type of impulse
4. Structure was excited while varying the mass of different floors to achieve
the similitude requirements
1. Experiment 2: changing the mass of the prototype to obtain
frequency scale factor of 0.5
2. Experiment 3: changing the mass of the model to obtain frequency
scale factor of 1
Test results

First set of experiments to find the natural frequency and mode shape of
prototype and model.
Plots of Fourier amplitude spectrum were collected by the data acquisition
system at the end of the each test to find the frequency and mode shape.
Table 8 : Natural frequency and mode shape for prototype and model
Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3
Prototype Model Prototype model Prototype Model
Frequency 6.1 11.1 19.8 33 34.7 48.6
Fourier Floor 1 .131 .227 .139 .192 .169 .225
Amplitude Floor 2 .248 .505 .065 .079 .184 .334
Floor 3 .319 .652 .115 .188 .089 .188
Figure 8: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for prototype obtained in the
test to find natural frequencies

Figure 9: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for model obtained in the test


to find natural frequencies
Test results (Experiment 2)

Table 9: Test performed by adding weights to prototype to obtain frequency


scale factor of 0.5
Mass added Total fn fn f f
Trial to prototype mass Required Provide Required Provided
added d

N Kg lb lb
1 5 1.124 5.55 5.9 .5 .532
2 2 2 5.55 5.7 .5 .514
3 5 2 3.124 5.55 5.4 .5 .486
4 2 2 6.4092 5.55 5.5 .5 .495
Figure 11: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for Figure 12: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for
prototype when the mass was added in the prototype when the mass was added in the
process of obtaining the frequency scale factor process of obtaining the frequency scale factor
of 0.5 (Trial 1) of 0.5 (Trial 2)

Figure 13: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for Figure 14: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for
prototype when the mass was added in the prototype when the mass was added in the
process of obtaining the frequency scale factor process of obtaining the frequency scale factor
of 0.5 (Trial 3) of 0.5 (Trial 4)
Test result (Experiment 3)

Table 10: Test performed by adding weights to prototype to obtain frequency


scale factor of 1

Mass added Total fn fn f f


Trial to prototype mass Required Provided Required Provided
added

N Kg lb lb
1 20 4.496 6.1 6 1 1.017
2 10 2 4.248 6.1 6.1 1 1.00
Figure 15: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for prototype when the mass was added in the
process of obtaining the frequency scale factor of 1 (Trial 1)

Figure 15: Fourier Amplitude spectrum for prototype when the mass was added in the
process of obtaining the frequency scale factor of 1 (Trial 2)
Data processing

Mass calculation
To calculate the mass matrices of the two structure weight of plywood
slab and rod column is considered
The measured dimension were used for the calculation
Obtained mass matrices for prototype and model structure are:
0.00368 0 0
mp r = 0 0.00422 0 lb.sec/in2
0 0 0.00422

.028 0 0
mp r = 0 .032 0 lb.sec/in2
0 0 .032
Data processing

In order to satisfy similitude requirements, mass was added to both


structures. weights were distributed uniformly in the three floors of
structure.
For f = l-1 mass were added to prototype
For f = l mass were added to model
0.045 0 0 0.015 0 0
Mpr,sim = 0 0.0049 0 Mm,sim = 0 0.019 0
0 0 0.0049 0 0 0.019
Calculation of frequencies

Mass was added to prototype so that its frequency can be reduced. So for
f = l-1 = 0.5 target frequency was 5.55 for the first mode. We can see that
similitude criteria for second mode is not satisfied.
Table 11: Final Frequency for f = l-1 (first mode)
f = l-1 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3
Target Frequency (Hz) 5.55 15 24.3
Achieved Frequency (Hz) 5.50 18.3 32.2
Table 12: Final Frequency for f = l (first mode)
f = l Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3
Target Frequency (Hz) 6.1 19.8 34.7
Achieved Frequency (Hz) 6.1 17.6 26.6
Frequency
Table 13: Final Frequency for f = l-1 (Second mode)
f = l-1 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3
Target Frequency (Hz) 5.55 15 24.3
Achieved Frequency (Hz) 4.7 15.3 -
Table 14: Final Frequency for f = l (Second mode)
f = l Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3
Target Frequency (Hz) 6.1 19.8 34.7
Achieved Frequency (Hz) 7.5 19.7 -

Here, we can see that 2nd mode was captured properly, the similitude criteria
was not satisfied for the first mode
Calculation of mode shape

Mode shapes were obtained using the resulting FFT of the


acceleration time histories.

Figure 10: Mode shape of prototype structure


Figure 11: Mode shape of Model structure Figure 12: Mode shape of prototype structure
mass added

Figure 13: Mode shape of model structure mass added


Damping Ratio

Half power band width was used to find the Damping


ratio.

=

Figure 14: Half-power band width method


Damping ratio

Table 15: Damping Ratio

Prototype structure Model structure


Initial Case Mode 1 1.6 1.26
Mode 2 .88 .67
Mode 3 .36 .36
With additional Mode 1 .82 .9
mass
Mode 2 1.37 1.27
Mode 3 2.1 1.59
Determination and elimination
of errors
Sources of error
Instrument errors
Construction errors
Systematic errors
Accidental errors
Noise in the signals can be a systematic error, eliminated
by filtering
Detection and elimination of error in time domain was
not possible because Fourier Amplitude Spectrum was
in frequency domain
Determination and elimination
of errors
Natural Mode shape corresponding to different
natural frequencies should satisfy orthogonality
condition.
If r n then nT m r = 0
During testing we have tested the prototype and
model structure and nT m r was near equal to 0
Analytical Predictions-Simplified
Model
Simplified model (Mass are lumped at node) were created for comparison

Lumped mass
consist of mass
of the floor and
half of the
mass of
columns above
and below
It.

Figure 15: Engineering representation of actual structure


Table 16: Material and geometrical properties of structure for engineering
calculations
Quantity Prototype Model

Floor/Slab Column Floor/Slab Column

Diameter (inch) 0.5 .25

Height (inch) 16 8

Thickness (inch) 0.705 0.357

Density (lbs/in3) 0.0222 .2386 .0222 .2386

Elastic modulus 1800 29000 1800 29000


(Kips/in2)

The stiffness and mass matrix for the model:


Table 17 : Modal parameters of lumped mass model
Level Prototype Model

Mass Stiffness Mass Stiffness


(lb.sec2/in) (lb./in) (lb.sec2/in) (lb./in)
1 .03175 329.72 0.00397 164.86

2 .03175 329.72 0.00397 164.86

3 0.0278 329.72 0.003485 164.86

Natural frequency equation : ([ K ]- 2 [M ] ){ }


Table 18 : Response of structure predicted by analytical model
Quantity Prototype Model
Mode 1 2 3 1 2 3
Frequency (Hz) 7.47 20.70 29.46 14.93 41.42 58.93
1st floor 0.45 1 -0.77 0.45 1 -0.77
2nd floor 0.81 0.37 1 0.81 0.37 1
3rd floor 1 -0.86 -0.52 1 -0.86 -0.52
Table 19 : Comparison of analytical and experimental results
Quantity Prototype Model
Mode 1 2 3 1 2 3
Analytical 7.47 20.70 29.46 14.93 41.42 58.93
Frequency (Hz)

Experimental 6.1 19.8 34.70 11.10 33.00 48.60


Frequency(Hz)
Error (%) 18.3 4.3 17.7 25.6 20.3 17.5

Figure 16 : Comparison 1st mode of prototype Figure 17 : Comparison 2nd mode of prototype
Figure 18 : Comparison 3rd mode of prototype Figure 19 : Comparison 1st mode of Model

Figure 20 : Comparison 2nd mode of Model Figure 21 : Comparison 3rd mode of Model
Conclusion

Following conclusion are drawn after comparing analytical Results and experimental
prediction:
1. It was established that application of initial displacement is a better
method of providing excitation than providing impulse at a certain location
2. Experimental results showed reasonable agreement (4%-25% error) with
analytical predictions from lumped mass model
3. Damping was neglected in calculation of modal response and frequencies,
a more accurate model would consider effect of frequency
4. It is difficult to achieve the similitude requirement for all the three modes
simultaneously
5. If possible, mass of floors and frame should be measured rather than
estimated based on material properties