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RELEASED UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT DIVULGUE SOUS LA LOI DE LACES A INFORMATION anes Gonder Agence des savices Ea He Sve, ABUSES PROTECT * EE SE ES Audience: CBSA Enforcement and Intelligence Operations Divisions Issued: FEB 2016 Enforcement and Intelligence Priority: Human Trafficking, Expiry: JUL 2016 er cre ney nital Mutilation Practitioners Entering Canada @- TORT 3 1 Issue 1. Practitioners of Female Genital Mutilation (PFGM) are almost certainly entering Canada to engage in Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on both girls and women of primarily African and South-East Asian descent. FGM was deemed illegal in Canada in 1997. (PA) Analysis 2. According to the World Health Organization, FGM includes all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It is also referred to as female genital cutting or female circumcision, There are four types of FGM: I: Clitoridectomy; If: Excision; II: Infibulation; IV: All other harmful procedures. There are no health benefits to FGM and it is recognized internationally as a human rights violation. Anti-FGM campaigns have led to it being illegal in most Western countries and some countries in Africa and Asia.(U) FGM is a centuries old cultural practice and is not limited to any religion. It happens primarily in African and Asian countries, however with the increase in diaspora communities its practice has extended to Western nations. Countries outside of Africa with cases of FGM include: Yemen, Iraq, Indonesia, Pakistan, India and the United Kingdom (U.K.) (all less than 25% of female population). See Appendix A for map of African countries where FGM is practiced. (U) INTELLIGENCE ADVISORY 4, The United States (U.S), the U-K. and Australia have documented cases of FGM and have determined the number of women and girls who have had it or who are at risk of FGM to be in the tens of thousands: 507 000 in the U-S., 197,000 in the U.K. and 83,000 in Australia, According to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and Canadian health care providers, itis almost certain that FGM is also happening in Canada, despite the legislation against the practice in 1997 (Bill C-27). Canada has sizeable diaspora populations from Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan and Nigeria, all countries where a high percentage of the female population is estimated to have experienced FGM. (PA) NE Canada acumen propyl Whe Canada Baer Sena Agog So _—.—ssss.00, RELEASED UNDER THE ROCESS TO TNFORMATION SOT —— DIVULGUE SOUS LA LOI DE LACES A INFORMATION eH Some geney ASriescs anacn » a Identifying Practitioners Entering Canada 5. According to the United Nations Children’s Fund, in countries without health-care coverage PGMs are primarily traditional practitioners such as circumeisers, birth attendants, midwives and generally older women, Conducting FGMs is usually the primary source of income for a PFGM. The procedure is performed in the home, in a special hut reserved for womanhood activities, or in 4 public building which is converted to a FGM facility. In countries with health-care coverage (Sudan and Kenya), health professionals (nurses, trained midwives or other trained health ‘workers) perform FGM in the home. Egypt is the only country where FGM is performed by @ doctor if performed by a medical professional and is still primarily at home. (PA) 6. In Canada, a PEGM is most likely to be called to the home of a woman to be re-infibulated post- partum (re-sewn) or of a girl to perform the initial FGM. Women will also travel to the home country to have post-partum infibulation performed. (PA) 7. The tools used to carry out FGM include razor blades, knives, scissors, scalpels, shards of glass, scrapping tools, awls, special string or belt tied around the female's waist, string or material in strips for tying the female’s legs together post-procedure and special herbs. Other items that may be used during an FGM include alcohol, lemon juice, shea butter, coconut oil, ash and herbal mixtures. These items may be present in the practitioner's baggage. See Appendices B and C. (PA) Implications for the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) and Canada 8. PGMS enter Canada with the purpose of committing a crime (aggravated assault) but ‘may not have the awareness or belief that they are doing so. Those aiding the PEGM may also be charged in accordance with the Criminal Code, Females who are at-risk for FGM do not present with the other typical criteria for child abuse and the PFGM believe that they are promoting the Jong-term well-being and social acceptability of the child. Reception at airports is likely to include the future “patient” or their family members. (PA) 9. According to the RCMP, although FGM legislation has been in place in Canada since 1997, there have not been any successful prosecutions of those who have engaged in FGM or aided PFGM. ‘The exact number of women and girls at risk of FGM is unknown in Canada and identification the PFGM at the ports of entry is an important first step in identifying the scope of the problem. (PA) Prepared by: J. S., Current Intelligence and Analysis Section ee Canada rset for aol we tic Sarde the Inligence Operations and Analyse RELEASED UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT DIVULGUE SOUS LA LOI DE LACES A INFORMATION Ganada Bower Agence dos sarvons Serie agony Raines du Caraca Appendix A - FGM is concentrated from the Atlantic Coast to the Horn of Africa (countries and the percentage of the population which is estimated to have experienced FGM) Sierra Guinea Leone 88 Liberia oJ 88 Burkina Togo Benin te Faso d'ivoire 76 Ghana 3B 7 Djibouti 3 Eritrea 89 1 Above 80% m 51% - 80% 28% -50% . > 10% - 25% ty Loss than 10% FGM/C is not concentrated inthese countries, Source: UNICEF. “Female Genital Mutiation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change.” UNICEF, 2013. Be ercrecrionsserce men Canada ee DIVULGUE SOUS LA LOI DE LACES A LINFORMATION BOR Sec iigona Ata Canoes =z_, Appendix B - Photos of Tools used in FGM Photo 3: an FGM toolbox including a ritual belttied Photo 4: knife and razor blade around the female's waist during the procedure, Photo 5: Tools from Tanzania Canada HE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT DIVULGUE SOUS LA LOI DE LACES A INFORMATION Be Smeigency Seimiewas Canada Appendix C - Photos of Herbs used during FGM Photo 6 - Maimal - East Africa (Kenya, Somalia) - a traditional medicinal herb used on the cut genitalia as itis believed to aid the infibutation Canada

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