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BACK, VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND CONTENTS

I. THE BACK

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Briefly describe each of the constituents of the skeletal support.
2. Give the origin, insertion, action and nerve supply of the muscles in each layer of
muscles of the back.

II. VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND CONTENTS

Specific Instructional Objectives;

A. VERTEBRAL COLUMN
1. Discuss the regions / segments
2. Describe the primary and secondary curvatures
3. Describe the movements of the vertebral column
4. Give the main parts of the vertebra
5. Give the characteristic features of the vertebra in each segment of the vertebral
column
6. Discuss the main joints of the vertebral column
7. Discuss clinical conditions affecting the bones, joints, and ligaments of the
vertebral column
a. ruptured intervertebral disk
b. whiplash injury
c. lumbargo

B. CONTENTS OF THE VERTEBRAL CANAL


1. Briefly describe each spinal meninx.
2. Name and describe the spaces around and enclosed by the meninges.
3. Describe the epidural venous plexuses.
4. Analyze the clinical importance of the communications of the venous plexuses
5. Describe the spinal cord as to the following:
a. extent
b. fixation
c. external features
d. gross internal features
e. signs of dysfunction of spinal cord transaction at different levels
6. Describe the formation of the spinal nerves.
7. Name the blood supply of spinal cord.
8. Trace the venous drainage of the spinal cord
9. Describe lumbar /spinal puncture / tap.
HEAD

I. CRANIAL FOSSA

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Describe the cranial fossae:
a. bones that form the fossae
b. parts of brain lodged in each fossa
2. Enumerate the openings/foramina found in each fossa.
3. Name the structures that are transmitted through the openings.

II. BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE BRAIN

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Name the main trunks that supply the brain.
2. Describe the formation of the Circle of Willis.
3. Enumerate the branches of the Circles of Willis.
4. Discuss the distribution of the branches of Circle of Willis.
5. Illustrate by drawing the formation of Circle of Willis and its branches.

III. FACE

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Discuss the cutaneous innervation of the face.
2. Tabulate the muscles of the face and their actions.
3. Discuss the dangerous area of the face.
a. location
b. blood vessels involved
4. Trace the course of the facial artery.
5. Trace the course of the anterior facial vein and its communications.

IV. PAROTID REGION, TEMPORAL AND INFRATEMPORAL REGIONS

Specific Instructional Objectives:

A. PAROTID REGION
1. Describe the cutaneous innervation of the parotid region.
2. Describe the parotid gland.
a. location / relations
b. investments
c. innervation sensory and motor
d. secretion
e. duct
3. Trace the course of the duct.
4. Discuss the structures embedded in the parotid gland.

B. TEMPORAL AND INFRATEMPORAL REGIONS


1. Name the boundaries of the temporal fossa
2. Name the boundaries of the infratemporal fossa.
3. Enumerate the contents of the temporal fossa.
4. Enumerate the contents of the infratemporal fossa.
5. Describe the mandibular nerve.
a. divisions
b. branches
c. distribution of branches
6. List down the branches of the maxillary artery.
7. Describe the otic ganglion.
a. location / relations
b. motor root
c. sensory root
d. branches and distribution
V. EYELIDS AND ORBIT AND CONTENTS

Specific Instructional Objectives:

A. EYELIDS
1. Discuss the layers of the eyelids.
2. Discuss the following conditions that affect the eyelids.
a. chalazium
b. stye / hordeolum

B. ORBIT
1. Discuss the wall of the orbit.
a. bones
b. openings / communications
c. relations
2. Describe the orbital periosteum.
3. Enumerate the contents of the orbit.
4. Describe the eyeball.
a. layers
b. chambers and contents
5. Discuss the ciliary ganglion.
a. location / relations
b. sensory root
c. motor root
d. branches and distribution
6. Name the branches and areas of distribution of the ophthalmic nerve and artery in the
orbit.
7. Discuss the lacrimal apparatus.
a. lacrimal gland
b. lacrimal sac
c. nasolacrimal duct
8. Tabulate the origin, insertion, nerve supply and action of extraocular muscles.

VII. NOSE

Specific Instructional Objectives


1. Name the parts of the external and internal nose
2. Name the structures that form the nasal septum.
3. Discuss the innervation of the nose.
a. external nose
b. internal nose
4. Name the blood supply of the nose
5. Enumerate the paranasal sinuses
6. Discuss the communications of the paranasal sinuses.
7. Give the nerve supply of the paranasal sinuses.

VIII. ORAL CAVITY

Specific Instructional Objectives


1. Discuss the divisions of oral cavity.
a. boundaries
b. communications
c. associated salivary ducts
2. Discuss the tongue.
a. oral and pharyngeal portion
b. innervation motor and sensory
c. muscles intrinsic and extrinsic
IX. PHARYNX

Specific Instructional Objectives


1. Discuss the features of the three divisions of the pharynx.
2. Give the communications
3. Discuss the innervation of the pharynx.

X. EAR

Specific Instructional Objections


1. Describe the divisions of the ear.
a. external
b. middle
c. internal
2. Describe the tympanic membrane.
a. attachments
b. parts
c. innervations
d. functions
3. Discuss the middle ear.
a. boundaries
b. contents
c. communications
4. Discuss the internal ear.
a. osseous labyrinth
b. membranous labyrinth
5. Describe the cochlear and vestibular apparatus.
6. Describe the spaces that contain endolymph and perilymph.

XI. SCALP AND MENINGES

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Discuss the layers of the scalp.
2. State the reason why the 4th layer is considered the dangerous layer.
3. Enumerate the layers of the meninges.
4. Differentiate the cranial dura mater from that of spinal dura mater.
5. Name the spaces between the layers of the meninges. Give the contents.
NECK AND THORAX

I. NECK

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Describe the deep cervical fascia as to the:
a. layers
b. attachments
c. contents
2. Name the boundaries of the triangles of the neck.
3. Name and briefly describe the contents of the triangle.
4. Describe the thyroid gland and parathyroid gland.
5. Describe the larynx.
6. Analyze the consequences of partial or complete injury to the nerve supplying the
laryngeal muscles.

II. THORAX
Specific Instructional Objectives
1. Describe the framework of the anterior chest wall.
2. Describe the anatomical features of the mammary gland.
3. Name the muscles of the anterior chest wall.
4. Describe the thoracic cavity as to:
a. shape
b. boundaries
c. divisions
5. Describe the pleura and the lines of pleural reflection.
6. Discuss the lungs as to:
a. parts
b. surfaces
c. relations
d. root
e. blood supply
f. venous drainage
7. Identify the contents of the mediastinum.
8. Enumerate the contents of the mediastinum.
9. Discuss the surface topography of the heart.
10. Discuss the heart as to:
a. layers
b,. relations
c. chambers
d. blood supply
e. venous drainage
f. conducting system
ABDOMEN

I. ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL AND INGUINAL REGION

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Name the nine abdominal regions.
2. Describe and illustrate how to come up with the nine regions.
3. Enumerate the organs found in each of the nine regions.
4. Name the four abdominal quadratus.
5. Describe and illustrate how to come up with the four abdominal quadratus.
6. Name the cutaneous nerves and vessels of the anterior abdominal wall.
7. Differentiate between Campers and Scarpas fascia.
8. Describe and illustrate the formation of the rectus sheath in the following planes:
a. subcostal plane
b. above and below the umbilicus
c. above the symphysis pubis

II. INGUINAL REGION


Specific Instructional Objectives:

1. Describe the location of the inguinal region.


2. Define inguinal canal.
3. Describe the walls of the inguinal canal.
4. Describe the Hesselbachs triangle.
5. Describe the spermatic cord.
6. Enumerate the structure forming the spermatic cord and their derivatives

III. PERITONEUM, ABDOMINAL PORTION OF ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, DUODENUM,


PANCREAS AND SPLEEN

Specific Instructional Objectives:

A. PERITONEUM
1. Give a brief description of the peritoneum.
2. Describe the lesser and greater peritoneal sac.
Describe the foramen of Winslow and give their boundaries.
Define the following terms and give examples for each.
a. peritoneal folds
b. ligaments
c. omentum
d. mesentery

B. ABDOMINAL PORTION OF ESOPHAGUS


1. Give a brief description of the abdominal esophagus.
2. Describe the relations.
3. Name the blood supply and venous lymphatic drainage of the abdominal esophagus.

C. STOMACH
1. Give a brief description of the stomach.
2. Enumerate the different parts and openings of the stomach.
3. Enumerate the structure that forms the stomach bed.
4. Give the blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage of the stomach.

D. DUODENUM
1. Give a brief description of the duodenum.
2. Enumerate the divisions of the duodenum.
3. Describe the relations of each divisions of the duodenum.
4. Name and state the areas of distribution of the blood supply of the duodenum.
5. Give the venous and lymphatic drainage of the stomach.
E. PANCREAS
1. Give a brief description of the pancreas.
2. Enumerate the main parts and describe the relations.
3. Name the ducts and describe the course of these ducts.
4. Give the blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage of the pancreas.

F. SPLEEN
1. Give a brief description of the spleen.
2. Give a brief description and relations of the borders and surfaces.
3. Give the blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage of the spleen.

IV. LIVER, BILIARY APPARATUS, JEJUNUM, AND ILEUM

Specific Instructional Objectives

A. LIVER
1. Give a brief description of the liver.
2. Describe the different surfaces and relations of the liver.
3. Enumerate the different ligaments of the liver.
4. Describe the anatomical divisions and compare it with the physiologic or functional
division.
5. Name the blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage.

B. BILIARY APPARATUS
1. Give a brief description of the different organ components.
2. Explain the formation and drainage of the biliary apparatus.
3. Describe and give the different boundaries of the cystohepatic triangle ( triangle of
Calot ) and give its importance.

C. JEJUNUM AND ILEUM


1. Give a brief description.
2. Describe the location ad position of the jejunum and ileum in relation with the
mesenteric attachment.
3. Give the differences between jejunum and ileum.
4. Give the blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage of the jejunum and ileum.

V. LARGE INTESTINE

Specific Instructional Objectives


1. Give a brief description of the large intestine.
2. Name the differences between the large and small intestine.
3. Give the different segments of the large intestine and a brief description.
4. Discuss the vermiform appendix.
5. Give the blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage of the large intestine.

VI. POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL, NEUROVASCULAR AND LYMPHATIC


STRUCTURES

Specific Instructional Objectives

A. ABDOMINAL AORTA
1. State the extent of the abdominal aorta.
2. Enumerate the different branches
3. Describe the relations.

B. INFERIOR VENA CAVA


1. Describe how the inferior vena cava is formed
2. Enumerate the tributaries
3. Describe the relations
C. AZYGOS VEIN
1. Describe the formation of the azygos vein
2. Name the tributaries in the abdomen.
3. Describe the relations.

D. LYMPHATICS
1. Describe the lymphatic of the posterior abdominal wall as to the following structures:
a. lumbar nodes
b. lumbar trunks
c. intestinal trunks
d. cisterna chili
2. Describe the relations

E. LUMBAR SYMPATHETIC TRUNKS


1. Describe the lumbar sympathetic trunks
2. Describe the lumbar splanchnic nerves
3. Give the relations.

F. AORTIC PLEXUS
1. Give a brief description.
2. Enumerate the composition of different aortic plexus.
3. Give the relations.

G. KIDNEY
1. Give a brief description of the kidney
2. Give the differences between the left and right kidney and their relations.
3. Enumerate the different coverings of the kidney.
4. Enumerate the factors that maintain the position of the kidneys.
5. Give the blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage
6. Describe the parts of the kidney seen in coronal section.
7. Describe the ureter.
8. Enumerate the different levels of anatomic narrowing.
9. Give the blood supply, venous and lymphatic of the ureter.

H. SUPRARENAL GLAND.
1. Give a brief description of the suprarenal gland.
2. Name the investments of the suprarenal gland.
3. Give the differences between the two suprarenal glands.
4. Name the two layers and secretions of each.
5. Give the blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage

I. MUSCLES OF THE POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL


1. Enumerate the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall.
2. Name the origin, insertion, action and nerve supply of the muscles.
3. Describe the origin of the diaphragm.
4. Describe the lumbocostal arches.

J. LUMBAR PLEXUS
1. Identify and illustrate the formation of the lumbar plexus
2. Give the structures supplied by the branches of the lumbar plexus.

K. RESPIRATORY DIAPHRAGM
1. Give a brief description of the diaphragm.
2. Name and describe the divisions according to origin.
3. Name the openings and structures transmitted through.
4. Give the blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage.
5. Give the innervation.
PELVIS, PELVIC CAVITY AND PERINEUM

I. PELVIS

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Define the pelvis.
2. Give the two main divisions of the pelvis
3. Give the boundaries of each division of the pelvis.
4. Describe the surface landmark of the pelvis.
5. Name the bones that make up the level of the pelvis.
6. Define the pelvic inlet and pelvic outlet.
7. Describe the pelvic diaphragm.
8. Tabulate the origin, insertion, action and nerve supply of muscles that form the pelvic
diaphragm.
9. Describe the pelvic fascia.

II. PELVIC VISCERAL ORGANS COMMON TO BOTH MALE AND FEMALE

Specific Instructional Objectives


1. Differentiate and illustrate the peritoneal reflections in the male and female pelvis.
2. Enumerate the pelvic visceral organs common to both male and female.
3. Describe the sigmoid colon and the rectum as to:
a. location
b. length
c. extent
d. wall
e. relations
f. blood supply and venous drainage
g. nerve supply and lymphatic drainage
4. Describe the urinary bladder as to:
a. location
b. relations
c. external and internal features
d. neurovascular supply and lymphatic drainage
e. changes in shape, in empty and distended states
5. Describe the micturition reflex.

Specific Instructional Objectives:

A. FEMALE PELVIC VISCERAL ORGANS


1. Draw and label the sagittal section of male pelvic cavity.
2. Draw and label the organs forming the female pelvic genitalia.
3. Describe the ovary as to:
a. location
b. relations
c. surfaces, borders and pole and support
d. neurovascular supply
e. function
4. Describe the uterus as to:
a. location
b. relations
c. normal positions
d. parts
e. neurovascular supply
5. Describe the fallopian tube as to:
a. location
b. relations
c. parts
d. neurovascular supply
e. function
6. Describe vagina as to:
a. location
b. relations
c. parts
d. functions
Specific Instructional Objectives:

B. MALE PELVIC VISCERAL ORGANS


1. Describe the prostate gland as to:
a. location
b. relations
c. lobes
d. neurovascular supply and lymphatic drainage
e. functions
2. Describe the course of the prostatic urethra:
3. Describe formation and course of ductus deferens.
4. Describe the seminal vesicle as to:
a. location
b. relations
c. neurovascular supply and lymphatic drainage
d. functions
5. Describe the ejaculatory duct as to:
a. location
b. relations
c. neurovascular supply and lymphatic
d. function
6. Draw and label the posterior view of the urinary bladder showing the relations to
seminal vesicle and ductus deferens

III. NEUROVASCULAR STRUCTURE IN PELVIC CAVITY

Specific Instructional Objectives:

A. BLOOD VESSELS
1. Name the two divisions of internal iliac artery
2. Enumerate the branches of the internal iliac artery.
3. Describe the distribution of the branches of internal iliac artery
4. Name the tributaries of the internal iliac vein
5. Name the other blood vessels in the pelvic cavity aside from the internal iliac artery
and its branches

B. NERVES IN PELVIC CAVITY


1. Enumerate the nerves in the pelvic cavity
2. Describe the formation of the nerves in the pelvic cavity
3. Give the general distribution of the branches.

C. LYMPHATICS IN PELVIC CAVITY:


1. Name the lymph nodes in the pelvic cavity.
2. Give the organs drained by the pelvic nodes,
3. Describe the route of drainage of some pelvic viscera.

IV. PERINEUM

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Give the boundaries of the division of the perineum.
2. Name the structures in each division.
3. Give the muscles forming the pelvic floor.
4. Discuss the anal canal as to:
a. extent
b. sphincters
c. internal features
d. neurovascular supply and lymphatic drainage
5. Describe the ischio-rectal fossa boundaries and contents
6. Describe the Alcocks canal formation and contents
7. Describe the course of the internal pudendal artery and pudendal nerve
8. Describe the urogenital triangle
9. Describe the boundaries of the superficial and deep perineal pouches.
10. Give the contents of the superficial perineal pouches in both male and female
11. Differentiate between male and female urethra.
12. Give the contents of the scrotum.
13. Describe the testis as to:
a. size and shape
b. relation
c. neurovascular supply and lymphatic drainage
d. function
14. Discuss the penis as to:
a. parts
b. associated muscles
c. neurovascular supply and lymphatic drainage
15. Discuss process of erection and ejaculation.
CELL AND TISSUES

I. CELL

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Enumerate the three major parts of the cell.
2. Give the compositions of the cell membrane.
3. Differentiate organelles from transient vesicles inside the cytoplasm.
4. Characterize the different organelles found in the cytoplasm and give their function/s.
5. Describe the nucleus and differentiate it from the organelles.
6. Enumerate and give the characteristics of the cellular membrane modifications /
specialization.
7. Define parenchyma and name the parenchyma of some tissues / organ.
8. Define stroma and enumerate the stroma of tissues / organ.
9. Characterize the cell as to the arrangement, number and location of nucleus and shape.
10. Give the components of intercellular spaces.

II. TISSUES

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Enumerate the four fundamental types of tissues.
2. Differentiate the four fundamental types of tissues.

A. EPITHELIAL TISSUES
1. Give the composition of epithelial tissues
2. Give the two major divisions
3. Name the subtypes of epithelial tissues
4. Give examples on each specific subtypes.
5. Enumerate and describe the junctional complexes that adheres the epithelial tissues.
6. Differentiate hemisdesmosome from the junctional complexes.

B. CONNECTIVE TISSUES
1. Give the compositions.
2. Name the major subdivisions.
3. Enumerate, characterize and site examples of the subtypes and specific subtypes of
tissues.

b.1. Bones and Cartilage


i. bones
1. Name the compositions of the bones.
2. Give the 2 classes of bones and describe each and location.

ii. cartilage
1. Enumerate the compositions of cartilage

C. MUSCULAR TISSUES
1. Describe the muscle tissue and cells.
2. Name and differentiate the three types.
3. Discuss the contractile element of the muscle

D. NERVOUS TISSUE
1. Describe the structural and functional unit.
2. Give the classification of nerve cells.
3. Name and differentiate the neuroglial cells
4. Describe the histologic features of cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord
5. Discuss ganglion cells and its importance.
CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

I. CARDIOVACULAR

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Briefly describe the histologic features of the wall of the heart.
2. Describe the layers of the walls of the blood vessels.

II. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Explain briefly the differences between the different parts of the intrapulmonary
bronchial tree.
2. Give the different cells present in the respiratory epithelium and describe each.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

I. ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE ORGAN OF DIGESTION:

Specific Instructional Objectives


A. LIVER
1. Describe the unit structure / organization of the liver.

B. GALL BLADDER
1. Describe the layers of the wall of the gallbladder

C. PANCREAS
1. Describe the exocrine and endocrine parts of the pancreas.

II. ORAL CAVITY

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Describe the mucosa of the oral cavity and its boundaries.

III. ESOPHAGUS AND STOMACH

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Give the different layers in the walls of the esophagus
2. Give the different layers in the walls of the stomach.

IV. SMALL INTESTINES, LARGE INTESTINE, RECTUM, ANAL CANAL AND VERMIFORM
APPENDIX

Specific Instructional Objectives:

A. SMALL INTESTINES:
1. Describe the different segments of the small intestines and their histologic
characteristic features.

B. LARGE INTESTINES
1. Give the differences ( histologic and anatomical ) between the large intestines and
small intestines

C. RECTUM AND ANAL CANAL


1. Give their histologic features as compared with the colon and small intestines.

D. VERMIFORM APPENDIX
1. Give its histologic features as compared with the colon and small intestines.
BLOOD, IMMUNE, AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

I. LYMPHATIC TISSUE AND SUBTYPES

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Explain why lymphatic tissues form the immune system of the body.
2. Describe the different subtypes of lymphatic tissues and their distribution in the body.
3. Identify the characteristic cells and how their presence, arrangement, and number give
rise to the formation of the different types of lymphatic tissues.

II. LYMPHOID ORGANS

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Describe the different lymphatic organs
2. Describe the histologic characteristics of each of the lymphatic organs.
3. Explain how they are also considered as hemopoietic tissues.

III. BLOOD AND LYMPH

Specific Instructional Objectives

A. BLOOD
1. Describe the formed elements of the blood.
2. Enumerate the features and functions of the formed elements of the blood.
3. Give the proportion of the cellular elements of the blood elements with that of the
blood plasma.
4. Discuss the clinical conditions associated with blood:
a. anemia
b. polycythemic vera
c. leukemia
5. Describe the formation.

B. LYMPH
1. Describe the formation of lymph
2. Compare the plasma of lymph with that of the blood.

IV. IMMUNE SYSTEM

Specific Instructional Objectives


1. Identify the different types of immune response.
2. Give the primary and secondary structures involved in immune response.
3. Differentiate mucosal immune system from systemic immune system.
4. Give and explain the divisions of mucosal immune system
ENDOCRINE AND GENITO-URINARY SYSTEM

I. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Specific Instructional Objectives:


1. Discuss the histologic features of the different endocrine organs and their secretions.
2. Discuss the mechanism and functions of their secretions.

II. GENITO-URINARY SYSTEMS

Specific Instructional Objectives:

A. ECRETORY SYSTEM
i. Kidneys
1. Describe briefly the different parts of the kidney
2. Discuss the histologic feature and function of each part contributing to the formation of
urine.

ii. Ureter, urinary bladder and urethra


1. Describe their layers / subtypes.
2. Give the functions of each organ.

B. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS


1. Describe the general organization of the testis as it appears in a midsagittal section.
2. Describe the different accessory reproductive organs and their functions.
3. Describe the wall structure and functions of each duct of the male reproductive
systems.

C. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS


1. Name the internal organs of the female reproductive system and give the structure,
functions and location of each.
2. Discuss the roles of different hormones affecting follicle maturation and structural
changes in the female reproductive organs.
EMBRYOLOGY AND NEUROANATOMY

I. EMBRYOLOGY

Specific Instructional Objectives


1. Study the different stage of gametogenesis.
2. Describe the formation of the placenta and germ layers.
3. Briefly discuss the formation of the different organs.
4. Enumerate and describe common congenital anomalies and their etiologies.

II. NEUROANATOMY

Specific Instructional Objectives

A. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM


1. Discuss the different parts of the cerebrum and its functions and associated disorders.
2. Study the parts of the cerebellum and explain the distribution, relation, and functions
of its parts.
3. Enumerate and describe the external and internal features of brainstem.
4. Describe the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood supply of the brain.
5. Study the diencephalons, basal ganglia, and limbic system, and associated disorders.
6. Explain the parts and functions of the spinal cord.
7. Briefly explain the divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
8. Differentiate sensory, motor and association neurons of the nervous system.
9. Discuss the brainstem, auditory, optic, visual, and spinal reflexes.
10. Describe the fiber tract associated with pain, touch, temperature, pressure and
proprioception.

B. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM


1. Name and briefly describe the different kinds of neuron.
2. Discuss the classification of nerves and its coverings.
3. Study the structures of the ganglion.