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**Mean Stress Effects in Stress-Life and Strain-Life Fatigue
**

Norman E. Dowling

Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

**Copyright © 2004 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
**

properties from the same sources, specifically, 0.2% offset

yield strength σo , ultimate tensile strength σu , true stress

ABSTRACT

at fracture, ~

σ , and ductility, either percent reduction in

fB

Various approaches to estimating mean stress effects on area, or percent elongation, whichever is given. As indicated

stress-life and strain-life behavior are compared with test by the subscript B, the ~ σf B values are corrected for hoop

data for engineering metals. The modified Goodman equa-

tion with the ultimate tensile strength is found to be highly stress due to necking according to Bridgman [16]. As noted,

inaccurate, and the similar expression of Morrow using the some values of ~ σf B were unavailable and had to be esti-

true fracture strength is a considerable improvement. How- mated from those for similar material by assuming propor-

ever, the Morrow expression employing the fatigue strength tionality with the ultimate strength.

coefficient σ ′f may be grossly non-conservative for metals

TABLE 1 - Metals Studied, Sources of Fatigue Data, and

other than steels. The Smith, Watson, and Topper (SWT) Tensile Properties

method is a reasonable choice that avoids the above difficul- Ulti- Red

ties. Another option is the Walker approach, with an adjust- Yield Fracture

mate Area

able exponent γ that may be fitted to test data, allowing Material – ~

[Data Source] σo σu σfB (Elong)

superior accuracy. Handling mean stress effects for strain-

life curves is also discussed, including the issue of mathe- MPa MPa MPa %

matical consistency with mean stress equations expressed in

SAE 1015 Steel - [4] 228 415 726 68

terms of stress. A new and mathematically consistent

method for incorporating the Walker approach into strain- SAE 1045 Steel1 - [5] 1841 2248 2717 40.5

life curves is developed. With γ = 0.5, this result gives a AISI 4340 Steel2 - [6] 1103 1172 1634 56

new strain-based interpretation of the SWT method. 2014-T6 Al - [7] 438 494 580 4

(13.6)

4

INTRODUCTION 2024-T3 Al - [8, 9] 359 497 610 (20.3)

2

Mean stress effects have long been studied, as in the 2024-T4 Al - [10, 11] 303 476 631 35

early work of Gerber [1] and Goodman [2, 3], and one might 7075-T6 Al - [7] 489 567 7304 (16.5)

think that all has been said on the subject that needs to be Ti-6Al-4V3 - [12, 13] 930 978 13624 (20)

said. Nevertheless, several methods of questionable accu- 1 2

racy are currently in wide use. It is the purpose of this paper Notes: Hardness 595 HB. Fatigue specimens at longer lives

plastically strained prior to testing. 3Solution treated and vacuum

to examine the most widely used methods and to compare annealed. 4Values estimated from similar material in [14] or

their success in correlating fatigue data for engineering met- [15] by ratioing ultimate strengths.

als. The methods considered are those of Goodman, Mor-

row, Smith-Watson-Topper, and Walker. There are more With the aid of Fig. 1, let us be sure that the nomen-

than one version of some of these, and they may be used clature used herein is clear. The mean stress σm is the av-

differently in the context of stress-life versus strain-life erage level of a constant amplitude cyclic loading, and the

curves.

stress amplitude σ a is the variation about this mean. The

Fatigue data will be analyzed for several steels and non- amplitude is also half of the overall stress range ∆σ. The

ferrous metals as listed in Table 1, where references to the maximum and minimum values reached are, respectively,

sources of fatigue data are given. Table 1 also lists tensile σ max = σ m + σa and σmin = σm − σa . The ratio

data for SAE 1045 steel fit the three steels. and the larger σ ar = σ ′f (2N f )b (3) one is six times larger than ~ σ . Stress Amplitude. as for SAE 1045 steel in Fig. The degree to which actual data closely fit Eq. con.E+03 1. 595 HB 0 1000 σa t CCCCC σmin 2024-T4 Al. note that very good. Comparing the ~ σf B values in Table 1 with the corre- as the fitting constants σ ′f and b are determined from tests sponding σ ′f values in Table 2. σm = (1 + R ) (a. σm = (a. Following this. b) (2) 2 2 true fracture strength from a tension test. consider the values in Tables 1 and 2 for 7075-T6 cluding remarks are given that are intended to interpret and aluminum. MPa ∆σ SAE 1045 Steel.E-01 1. gives two addi. we will first briefly dis.E+07 Figure 1 – Definitions for cyclic stressing Nf. σ σm σa 10000 σa. 3 is quite good. stress-life data tend to approach the σa = (1 − R ). where the values are similar. two σ ′f values differ by a factor of three. we will present vari. ~ σf B . σm = 0. where the trend . Depending on how the data are fit and the range of data life data for various mean stresses. where the data flatten at short lives.E+05 1. R = σ min / σ max is also used to characterize the mean of the data flattens at short lives and the fit to Eq. where we have ~ σf B = 730 MPa. in Fig. Finally. This contrasts with the situation for the ies. b) (1) zero mean stress portion of the data. fB ous methods for estimating mean stress effects. Table 2 gives values of σ ′f and b for the metals to be studied here. 2. If the fit to Eq. which is noted to be the inter- Manipulating Eq. 3 var. and corresponds to R = −1. However. cept at one-half cycle. Further. But this is not the case for 2024-T4 aluminum. considerably exceed ~ σ . 2 2 σ max σ max At very short lives. nonferrous metals. Cycles For the special case of stress amplitude σa where the mean ▲ Figure 2 – Two stress-life curves with intercepts at ½ cycle stress is zero. expected straight line on this log-log plot fairly well. For example. fB where Nf is cycles to failure. then σ ′f . As an extreme strain-life equations that include mean stress. 2. σ ′f ≈ ~ σf B . the notation σ ar is employed for the compared to true facture strengths. Such a situation of zero mean stress is also called σf B and × Intercept. is approximately equal to the true tional useful relationships. This is often the case for σmax steels. strength. 2. the difference may be quite large. example. σ ′f may cuss stress-life curves. and then we will look at the ability of these methods to correlate stress. 3 is not stress situation. Note that the relationship. as for 2024-T4 aluminum in Fig. also called completely reversed higher than the former by a factor of three or four for the tests.E+01 1. 1 into the product of σmax and an algebraic expression. over a wide range of lives for data on similar material gives STRESS-LIFE CURVES σ ′f = 1466 MPa. and the stress variable is σ ar . ~ completely reversed cycling. and invoking the definition of R. fracture strength. 2. A stress-life fit summarize the earlier portions of the paper. the latter are typically under zero mean stress. In the treatment that follows. Eq. σ ′f . where these values are from fitting the σ max − σ min σ max + σ min σa = . Next. we will consider available. True fracture amplitude. And a fit to the intermediate-to-long life Stress-life curves are assumed to follow a power data to be analyzed gives σ ′f = 4402 MPa. Prestrained 100 1.

6 expected to cause the same life as the actual combination of 0.4 amplitude and mean. substituted.143 (Not Done) -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 6 7075-T6 4402 -0. with the intercept along the σ a / σar = 0 If a given combination of stress amplitude and mean are axis expected to be the static strength of the material. One can then normalize 0.098 (Not Done) 1.8 σa/σar calculate a value of completely reversed stress σar that is 0. Morrow [19] suggested modifying the Goodman rela- tionship by employing the true fracture strength as the inter- cept. Since the fitting constants σ ′f and b are obtained by testing at zero σa σm mean stress. Smith [3]. σm combination. 2024-T3 aluminum. But the life estimate σar σu does depend on the accuracy of Eq. plotting the ratio σa / σ ar . A linear relationship is often as.8 2014-T6 1120 -0.480 σa / σar 0. runouts not Figure 4 – Normalized stress amplitude-mean plot for considered.2 ~ the amplitudes to σar . MPa Ti-6Al-4V 2749 -0. σu sumed to occur. the expected to cause the same life as the σ a .108 0. . 3 and 4. σm.163 0.505 0. 5Overall fit for similar material from [18]. σa σar = (5) σm Note that the trend of such data is expected to pass through 1− σa / σ ar = 1.6 2024-T3 1602 -0.122 949 -0. It is useful to solve for σ ar .460 0.108 0. 3 and 4.098 1963 -0.2 SAE 1045 3050 -0. σa and σm .195 0. 2Data for Nf > 106 cycles not included in fit if far from the log-log linear trend. 4 1294 -0. 4 Walker fit from Nf > 103 data. 2 Fit σm = 0 Fit All Data to Material Data Walker Figure 3 – Normalized stress amplitude-mean plot for AISI 4340 steel.113 799 -0. 3. the calculated value of σar can be thought of as GOODMAN AND MORROW EQUATIONS .2 AISI 4340 Steel Consider a set of fatigue data with cycles to failure at σu = 1172 MPa various stress amplitudes and mean stresses. 6Fit to data from [7]. such -400 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 normalized amplitude-mean plots are given as Figs. 3 to 0.114 0. causing conservative life estimates. σ'f b σ'fw bw γ SAE 1015 801 -0.0 at σm = 0.262 (Not Done) σm.0 7075-T6 1466 -0. straight line corresponds to One can then estimate the life by entering Eq.2 σu ~ σ fB σ'f 5 0.0 mean stress. The number of 1. it is not necessary to have data at non-zero + =1 (4) mean stress to make a life estimate. 5.4 1.142 2452 -0.154 1772 -0. In Figs.4 2024-T43.144 (Not Done) Notes: 1Stress intercepts in MPa units. 3Zero mean is overall fit for the same data from [17].0 cycles to failure Nf for each test can be used with Eq. MPa TABLE 2 . note that the data tend to lie above the Eq.650 0. 5 line for tensile mean This is the modified Goodman relationship as formulated by stress.Stress-Life Fitting Constants1.0 2024-T3 Al AISI 4340 1758 -0. O. J. For two of the data sets of current interest.If the an equivalent completely reversed stress amplitude that is static strength is taken as the ultimate tensile strength.713 1.AMPLITUDE-MEAN EQUATIONS 1.versus the σu σf B σ'f 0.

WALKER EQUATION FITTING .2 1. 5 and 6 for the same sets of data.46 are close together.8 -0. and Topper [4]. σa σa the SWT equation ( γ = 0.0 1− γ -1. as the approximation σ ′f ≈ ~ σf B works quite data for at least similar material.0 2. 6(b) com. Equa. fitting constant that may be considered to be a materials property. Watson. been proposed.2 -0.2 Walker σ ar = σmax ⎜ ⎟ (b) (8) ⎝ 2 ⎠ 0. This of course arises from a stress-life curve that fB in the following convenient form: does not fit Eq.50) deviates from the data for σ ar = . However.4 ⎛ 2 ⎞ σ ar = σa ⎜ ⎟ (c) σm / σar ⎝1− R ⎠ where equivalent forms (b) and (c) are obtained from (a) by Figure 5 – SWT and Walker amplitude-mean curves for making substitutions from Eq.To fit a set of ampli- pletely misses most of the data due to σ ′f being far larger tude-mean-life data to the Walker equation. an adjustable parameter γ to aid in fitting data. which may be 1. But this is tion 6(b) seems to work equally well for the AISI 4340 steel of no benefit unless the value is known from mean stress of Fig. The Walker equation has the obvious advantage of having σ ′f . In Fig. Neither the SWT nor the Walker equations give a single trend on a plot of the type of Figs. γ ⎛ 1− R ⎞ σ ar = AN bf = σ max ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ σ ar = σ max σa (a) 1/b (10) ⎡ γ ⎤ 1− R ⎛1− R ⎞ 1 σ ar = σmax (b) (7) Nf = ⎢σ max ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠ A⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 σ ar = σa (c) 1− R 1.8 1. In Figs. where A = σ ′f 2b (9) aluminum alloy in Fig. all of the above forms of the Walker equation reduce to the corresponding SWT forms for the special case γ = 0. 3 and 4.8 γ = 0. 8(b) and then EQUATIONS . but Walker with γ = 0.65 fits it 1− m 1− m σ fB σ ′f quite well.4 0.6 2. 2(a).Numerous additional relationships have solve for Nf .0 σa / σar written 0. 2. well. Eq. the curves for SWT and Walker with γ = 0.4 tained from (a) by making substitutions from Eq. σu = 1172 MPa 1.2 Another proposal is that of Walker [20]. Obviously. 6(a) fits the data quite well. 3 than ~σ . both do form a single curve if the mean stress axis is also normalized by σar . But for 2024-T3 aluminum in Fig. 5.4 Data SWT γ γ = 0.5. first write Eq. the dif- where form (b) arises from estimating ~ σf B as being equal to ference being less than the considerable scatter in the data.6 −γ σ ar = σ1max σ aγ (a) 0. 2(a).6 where forms (b) and (c) are equivalent to (a) and are ob. lustrated in Figs. 3 very well in the manner of the similar σ ar = AN bf . forming instead a family of curves. SMITH-WATSON-TOPPER (SWT) AND WALKER Combine this with the Walker form of Eq. 3. including the widely used one of Smith.4 0.b) (6) σ σ AISI 4340 steel somewhat.500 ⎛ 1− R ⎞ 0.0 0. σ ar = (a. Eq. For 2024-T3 aluminum in Fig. 3 and 4. This is il- . The quantity γ is a AISI 4340 steel. AISI 4340 Steel 1. 6. 4.650 0.

Once the fitting constants m1. 3 for the σm = 0 data is shown.6 2. ⎛ 1− R ⎞ In particular. or 8. x1 = log σ max .0 each test and plot these versus life. γ = bm 2 = Mean Stress.0 2. x2 = log ⎜ ⎟ poor results. analysis. Treating the data as a single. m2 = .2 2024-T3 Al γ = 0. Cycles mean stress data. 6(b). In these plots. σ ′fw . the Goodman relationship. conservative "predictions". Note that lower values of γ corre- 1.8 1. Eq. Figure 7(a) – Goodman life correlation for AISI 4340 steel. values of γ seem to generally be around Data 0. 5.4 0. with steels typically having higher values 1. with independent variables x1 and x2 and dependent vari. 7 and 8.4 2.0 Walker spond to greater sensitivity to mean stress. b w .E+02 1.E+06 added to avoid confusion with values fitted to only zero Nf . as noted. take the logarithm to the base 10 of both sides. that is.E+03 1.E+04 1. where subscripts w. m2. where the line corresponds to σ fw and Next. pected. 7. as might be expected form σu being only 17% below ~ σf B . 8(a-e) for 2024-T3 σm / σar aluminum. the de- sired values are easily determined. and d are known. For each material.0 0. 0 Fit σu = 1172 MPa 100 for five of the data sets. respectively. larger set enhances the possibility of statistical . An exception is b b b SAE 1045 steel. the σar values plotted are from Eqs. log N f = log σmax + log ⎜ ⎟ − log A b b ⎝ 2 ⎠ b The correlation is favorable to the extent that the data (11) points fall very near the line. 1000 1 m2 b= . or nonconservative "predictions". The trends observed were similar to those seen for AISI where 4340 steel and 2024-T3 aluminum in Figs. the line fitted to Eq. except for the Walker correlations.6 γ = 0.E+05 1. for Walker.2 SWT than nonferrous metals. 7 and 8. It is significant that all of the stress-life data at all mean stresses are now involved in the fit. Similar plots were prepared for all of the metals listed in Table 2. Conversely. where the results are quite good. are 1. b w used with Eq. for the (a) to (e) parts Figure 6 – SWT and Walker amplitude-mean curves for of each of Figs. gives y = log N f . 5. d = − log A available at compressive mean stresses. 3. 2024-T3 aluminum. 11. MPa m1 m1 σar .2 1. usually being excessively conservative for ten- ⎝ 2 ⎠ (13) sile mean stresses. in which case σar = σ a σa / σar 0.500 CORRELATION OF STRESS-LIFE DATA 0. Points to the right of the line correspond to lives longer than expected for the particular Based on Eq. MPa (14) 621 − db − d / m1 A 414 A = 10 = 10 . but nonconservative for the limited data 1 γ 1 m1 = . 6(a).460 For a set of amplitude-mean-life data. σ′f = 207 Goodman 2b -207 0 AISI 4340 Steel Table 2 gives the resulting three values. we can now do a multiple linear regression σar equation. points to the left of the line indicate lives shorter than ex- able y. there being no effect for γ = 1.4 neering metals.50 or above.4 0. it is useful to cal- culate equivalent completely reversed stress amplitudes for 0. -0. This is shown in Fig. and γ .8 0.8 7(a-e) for AISI 4340 steel and in Fig. as fitted to the entire set of data with γ 1 γ ⎛1− R ⎞ 1 as listed in Table 2. except that y = m1 x1 + m 2 x 2 + d (12) Walker correlations were not done for all of them.4 0. From Table 2 and other similar fitting for engi- 1.

E+05 1. Cycles Nf.E+03 1.6 R-ratio 0 -1 σu = 1172 MPa -1 Fit 0 Fit 100 100 1.E+03 1. Fracture 2024-T3 Al Mean Stress. 1000 1000 Morrow.E+06 1. Cycles Figure 7(c) .E+06 Nf . Cycles Nf .650.E+06 1.0E+03 1.E+05 1. 4340 steel 1000 1000 Goodman 2024-T3 Al Mean Stress.E+03 1.0E+06 Nf .E+04 1.E+02 1.6 R-ratio -1 -1 Fit 100 100 1.Morrow ~ σf B life correlation for AISI Figure 7(e) – Walker life correlation for AISI 4340 steel with γ = 0.E+02 1. Cycles Nf. MPa 621 0.E+07 1.E+05 1.02 0 AISI 4340 Steel -0.3 AISI 4340 Steel -0. MPa 621 Mean Stress.E+07 Nf .6 414 0.E+02 1.6 Morrow.E+02 1. minum. MPa σar .E+04 1.3 0 Fit σu = 1172 MPa -0. MPa 621 σar.0E+02 1.0E+05 1. Intercept 0. num. MPa σar . .E+06 1. 1000 1000 Mean Stress.E+03 1.Morrow ~ σf B life correlation for 2024-T3 alu- Figure 7(d) – SWT life correlation for AISI 4340 steel.E+03 1. MPa σar .4 -207 0.E+06 1. MPa 414 621 207 Morrow. Cycles Figure 7(b) .E+04 1. MPa 414 207 0.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+05 1.0E+04 1.Morrow σ ′f life correlation for AISI 4340 Figure 8(a) – Goodman life correlation for 2024-T3 alumi- steel. Cycles Figure 8(b) .E+02 1. Fracture 414 -207 207 Walker AISI 4340 Steel -207 AISI 4340 Steel 0 σu = 1172 MPa 0 σu= 1172 MPa 0 Fit Fit 100 100 1.02 -207 -0.4 207 SWT 0. MPa σar.E+04 1. MPa σar .

as might be expected from its ability to ad- Figs. and titanium sented in Fig.5 -69 0 Fit SWT 2024-T3 Al 100 1. 1000 0. 8(e) for 6Al-4V. For the three steels. .3 -0.4 R-ratio 0.0E+05 1.E+02 1. MPa -1 Fit -1 Fit Morrow. MPa 34. where the re- sults are similar.4 R-ratio 0.6 σar . the Morrow form of 1000 0 Eq. Cycles The Morrow expression of Eq.E+04 1. The SWT relationship of Eq. with γ = 0. except for SAE 1045 steel.3 0 Morrow. as expected due to ~ σ and σ ′ 69 fB f 103 σar . MPa -34.6 -1 σar.5 -69 and nonconservative values for the nonferrous metals due to 0 Fit the high values of σ ′f . 6(b) gives very poor -34.E+04 1.E+06 1. with ~ σf B for the nonferrous metals.E+06 or σ ′f .0E+03 1. MPa -0. 1. SAE 1045 just the value of γ .E+05 1.02 0.E+07 1. and Fig.0E+02 1. 7075-T6 aluminum. Cycles Figure 8(c) – Morrow σ ′f life correlation for 2024-T3 alu. Correlations have already been pre- steel.0E+06 1.E+04 1. Fig.4 R-ratio 0.02 1000 -0. are given in fB The Walker expression of Eq. 6(a).5 same result as Eq.460. The correlations for Morrow with ~ σ and SWT. MPa -0.SWT life correlation for SAE 1015 steel.E+02 1.3 -0.6 0. 1000 1000 0. Intercept Walker 2024-T3 Al 2024-T3 Al 100 100 1.02 -0. 14 gives the plot for SAE 1015 steel. 6(a) and 7.6 0. In addition. For steels. 2014-T6 aluminum.0E+07 Nf. Figure 8(e) – Walker life correlation for 2024-T3 aluminum minum.0E+04 1.E+06 Nf .6 0. Cycles mean stresses. Cycles Nf. However. Fracture Mean Stress.E+04 1.b) for SAE 1015 steel. 6(a) with the true fracture Figure 9(a) . 2024-T3 aluminum.Morrow ~ σf B life correlation for SAE 1015 strength ~ σf B gives considerably better results than Good- steel. man in all cases. MPa 34.6 σar. Eqs.E+05 1. 7(e) for AISI 4340 steel and Fig. Eq. 15 for 2014-T6 aluminum. 7 gives good results in all cases. 6(b) with the intercept constant σ ′f gives essentially the SWT SAE 1015 Steel Mean Stress. Cycles 100 Figure 8(d) – SWT life correlation for 2024-T3 aluminum. respectively.E+03 1. and it tends to be nonconservative for compressive Nf .E+03 1. it is not quite as good as Morrow with ~ σf B 100 1. 9(a.E+07 Nf .5 -1 SAE 1015 Steel 69 -1 Fit 103 σar .E+06 1.E+05 1. But SWT is consistently better than Morrow Figure 9(b) . 8 always gives an excel- lent correlation.b) through 13(a.E+05 1. MPa having similar values.

E+06 Approx.E+05 1. 23] for descriptions and 0 and -138 to +138 discussion of the overall strain-based approach for making 690 life estimates for notched components.E+06 1.05 The quantity E is the elastic modulus.E+03 1.E+03 1.E+08 curve of Eq. Fracture these circumstances. 3.E+03 1.E+06 0. See Landgraf [21] for discussion of Eqs. R Nf . Real data obey the above mathematical forms only im- perfectly. Fracture εa = +⎜ ⎟ (15) 7075-T6 Al E ⎝ H′⎠ σ′f σar. so that mean 1. 0 Fit 100 1000 1. which are usually represented by Figure 11(b) – SWT life correlation for 2014-T6 aluminum.45 0. and ε'f and c are additional fitting constants for the plastic strain term. Cycles Figure 12(a) .37 σar.E+07 stresses in the tests are at or near zero.E+06 1.E+04 1.E+04 1.E+01 1.05 Figure 10(b) – SWT life correlation for SAE 1045 steel.E+01 1. it is recommended that the above two SAE 1045 Steel equations be fitted separately to stress-strain-life test data.E+06 1. 10. Equation 15 gives the cyclic stress-strain curve.0 Fit strain terms.E+04 1. R 100 0.E+05 1. 10 in which H' and n' are fitting constants. . Cycles -0. -0.0 Fit steel. Cycles 1.E+05 1.000 0 and -138 to +138 Figure 11(a) .E+04 1. -345 Mean Stress.000 Morrow. and see Dowling [22. Nf.E+00 1. Both of these equa.Morrow ~ σf B life correlation for 7075-T6 Eq.E+05 1.E+07 σar . Cycles vide a cyclic stress-strain curve and a strain-life curve. the quantities σ ′f and b are the same as in Nf. The materials properties needed 2014-T6 Al to apply a strain-based approach are obtained from tests 100 under completely reversed controlled strain. Cycles 0.E+02 1. aluminum. 16. MPa 1.0 Figure 10(a) .Morrow ~ σf B life correlation for SAE 1045 -1.E+05 1. MPa -1. σar .37 -1. Fracture SWT 2014-T6 Al SAE 1045 Steel 595 HB 100 1.E+07 1. R E 0.E+00 1.E+04 1.Morrow ~ σf B life correlation for 2014-T6 690 -345 Mean Stress.E+03 1.E+02 1. Such test results pro. To aid with accurately fitting each curve under 10.0 tions represent summation of elastic strain (σ/E) and plastic -1. MPa -1.0 -1.000 Morrow.45 1. MPa 1000 0 Fit Approx.000 15 and 16.05 Nf .37 σar. 1000 σa ⎛ σa ⎞1/ n′ Morrow. MPa Nf.0 Fit STRAIN-LIFE EQUATIONS WITH MEAN STRESS Mean stress adjustments are needed in making strain- SWT based fatigue life estimates. For the strain-life 1. MPa aluminum. MPa ε ar = (2 N f ) b + ε′f (2 N f ) c (16) 100 Approx. 595 HB with theoretical relationships among the six fitting constants not being invoked. -0.45 0.E+03 1.

E+05 1.45 0 to -0. 17 and 18 may give reasonable life estimates. obtained σ a and R.5 f (σ a . the quantity σm / σ ′f in Eq.0E+06 Nf. allow this relation- ship to be expressed in terms of σmax and R.E+05 1.We STRESS . STRAIN-LIFE EQUATIONS FOR NONZERO MEAN MATHEMATICALLY CONSISTENT FORMS .0 Ti-6Al-4V -1.E+06 1. We can now manipulate Eq.E+03 1. Cycles similar to Eq. R -1.05 0.2 -0. One equation that is often used for this purpose is an sider the general case of an amplitude-mean equation ex- extension of the Morrow equation used with σ ′f . Con- fects. R 100 Approx. such as Eq.E+06 1. 17 should be 100 replaced by σ / ~ σ for nonferrous metals. 1. so that it is more m fB 1. is generalized in a mathematically consistent manner.E+05 1. Cycles Figure 12(b) – SWT life correlation for 7075-T6 aluminum. 7(a) with εa .E+06 1. Cycles Then solve for stress amplitude σa and manipulate the Figure 13(a) .1 to 0. pressed in terms of stress. 3 and 19 to obtain 0. Eq.E+03 1.E+07 Nf.0E+04 1. 3 to obtain a relationship between stress amplitude and life. R fect included on the Nf side of the equation. 19 can be any of Eqs. 6(a).E+04 1. in view of the discussion above.E+02 1.E+07 1.E+03 1. .0 Fit Morrow. Figure 13(b) – SWT life correlation for titanium 6A1-4V. Fit neither is mathematically consistent with their parent σar equations expressed in terms of stress. 1000 1000 SWT 7075-T6 Al σar. with the mean stress ef- σar.713. 5 to 8. Cycles Nf.0 Fit -1.Morrow ~ σf B life correlation for titanium stress quantities on the right side of the equation to be 6Al-4V.78 first combine Eqs. Fracture σ ar = f (σa .1 to 0.0 0. 2. σar = f (σa .2 0. Combining this with Eq.5 σ max εa = (2 N f )2b + σ ′f ε ′f (2 N f )b (18) 69 103 E -34. so that Eq. 16 gives the following relationship for determining life. 16 gives only the life for zero mean can extend the σar equations such that the strain-life curve stress.5 -1. MPa Approx. by replacing σa in Eq.E+04 1.E+02 1.5 σar. MPa Approx.0 0 to -0. MPa 34. 1000 Walker 0 (σ ′f )2 + c SAE 1015 Steel Mean Stress. Also.Since Eq.E+04 1.0E+05 1.E+08 Nf. σm ) (19) σ′f ⎛ σm ⎞⎟ εa = ⎜1 − ( 2 N f ) b + ε′f ( 2 N f ) c (17) ⎜ E ⎝ σ′f ⎟⎠ Simple substitutions based on the definitions of the various stress variables of Fig.0 Fit 100 10 1. 6(b). MPa -69 Although Eqs. 1000 Figure 14 – Walker life correlation for SAE 1015 steel with γ = 0.E+07 1. or in terms of Another is an extension of the SWT relationship.78 0. To proceed. -1. it needs to be generalized to include mean stress ef.37 SWT 0. σ m ) -1. MPa σar. σm ) = σ a = σ ′f (2 N f )b (20) 100 Ti-6Al-4V σa 1.

and then Nf as affected by steels. σ m ) ⎠ 2024-T4 Al Prestrained The effect on life must be the same regardless of 0. σ m ) ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0.001 whether one employs a stress-life or a strain-life curve. 8. Eq.100 1. Strain Amplitude Figure 15 – Walker life correlation for 2014-T6 207 -207 aluminum with γ = 0. .E+01 1. εa. 1000 6(a). Strain Amplitude 140 to 230 by solving Eq. 22 for Nf . 2014-T6 Al 100 0. within brackets with Nf .480. σm ) .45 1/ b 0. data plotted as εa versus the equivalent life 1/ b ⎛ σm ⎞ N* are expected all fall together along the curve for zero * N mi = N f ⎜⎜1 − ⎟ ⎟ (26) mean stress. Cycles σu = 1172 MPa 414 εa.010 Fit −1/ b ⎛ σa ⎞ Nf = N* ⎜ ⎟ (23) ⎝ f (σ a . 22 yields the nonzero mean stress is obtained from Eq.E+07 1. Also. 22 gives Approx.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+08 permits Eq. cases of σ ar = f ( σ a . Eq. E where N* is the life calculated from the strain amplitude εa Where σ′f ≈ ~σf B might be a good approximation. substitution into Eq.Now let us consider particular life N*. as affected by a nonzero mean stress. respectively. one can determine the life N* that is expected for a 0. This is demonstrated in Figs.E+06 1.010 0 Fit 1/ b ⎤ b ⎡ ⎛ σa ⎞ σa = σ ′f ⎢ 2 N f ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = σ ′f (2 N *)b (21) γ = 0. R 0. MPa AISI 4340 Steel 621 Nf. Walker Equivalent Cycles σ′f Figure 17 – Strain amplitude versus Walker equivalent life εa = (2 N *)b + ε′f (2 N *)c (24) N*w for 2024-T4 aluminum with γ = 0. 0.0E+03 1.505 0 Mean Stress.E+07 1. 290 -70 to -135 0. as for as if the mean stress were zero. 16 to be generalized to N*w. σm ) is in this case based on the Walker The added subscripts now indicate Morrow and intercept.650 ⎢ ⎝ f (σ a . This 1.E+03 1. 23.650.505. MPa -1 ⎝ σf B ⎠ Fit Note that subscripts mf are added to N* to specify the Mor- Walker row equation based on the true fracture strength. where the f ( σ a .E+02 1.E+04 1. on a strain-life plot.E+08 An explicit expression for N* is thus N*w . expression.0E+07 Mean Stress.E+06 1.E+02 1.0E+05 1.E+05 1. For the Morrow form of Eq. ⎝ f (σ a . and Eq. σ m ) ⎠ Hence. Walker Equivalent Cycles 1/ b Figure 16 – Strain amplitude versus Walker equivalent life ⎛ σa ⎞ N* = Nf ⎜ ⎟ (22) N*w for AISI 4340 steel with γ = 0. 24 and 26 combined are not the same as Eq.0E+04 1.100 given stress amplitude σa under zero mean stress.37 N mf f ⎜1 − ~ ⎟ (25) σar. 16 and 17 ⎝ σ′f ⎠ for AISI 4340 steel and 2024-T4 aluminum.05 ⎛ σm ⎞ * =N ⎜ ⎟ -0.001 1. Note that Eqs. 16. as the latter has no mean stress adjustment for the second term. 6(b) applies. 17. and then γ = 0. Eq. allowing us to define an equivalent PARTICULAR CASES .E+03 1.0E+06 1. MPa 72 estimate the life Nf .

27. 16 and 17 correspond to the usual form of strain-life equation for zero mean stress. 24 and 28 give the corresponding form for the SWT equation. in which b w and where γ from Table 2 are employed. but new values of the fitting constants are employed. Letting γ = 2024-T4 Al4 0. 15. indicating suc- cess for Eq. employ the cyclic stress-strain curve. The constants used with Eq. 24 and 27 for the Walker relationship. 27 for each data point. strain-life correlations based on the Taking logarithms of both sides of this equation gives Walker mean stress equation are given in Figs. Eq.131 Steel3 where subscript w of course specifies Walker. 2 22 give Material ⎛1− R ⎞ (1− γ ) / b ε'fw cw Ε H' n' * Nw = Nf ⎜ ⎟ (27) AISI 4340 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 0. * cw σ ′fw * bw P = ε ′fw (2 N w ) = εa − (2 N w ) (31) σ ′f ⎡ 1/(2b) ⎤ b ⎡ 1/(2b ) ⎤ c E ⎛ 1− R ⎞ ⎛1− R ⎞ εa = ⎢2N f ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + ε ′f ⎢ 2 N f ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ (30) E ⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎦ where the values of the plastic strain term are denoted P as a convenience. P Cyclic σ-ε Curve1. In 1 1 each case. 2Values from [6] for AISI 4340 and [17] for 2024-T4. ε′fw = 10 − dcw = 10 − d / m (36) of ε ′fw and c w to the test data needs to be described. 4Fit to 1/( 2b) P > 1.Additional Constants for Strain-Life Curve For the Walker relationship.100 738 0.5 × 10−4 and Nw < 104. m .858 73. to estimate strain amplitudes εa from stress amplitudes σ a for It is useful to write as a single equation the form provided by any tests in the data set where strain was not measured. Table 2.) Next. Correlation of the data for various mean stresses is achieved by plotting on the horizontal axis y = mx + d (34) * Walker equivalent lives N w from Eq.080 0. Now do a least squares fit using these P and Note that the latter is not the same as Eq. 24. 24 Once the fitting constants m and d have been determined. σ ′fw and b w from desired values are easily obtained. 7. 18.5 × 10−4 and Nw < 5 × 105. Eqs. the form of Eq. Then use εa and E ⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ * (29) Nw to calculate values of the second (plastic strain) term of Eq. * Fit N w vs. respectively. 1/ c Eq. as previously described. Eq.632 -0. the are the Walker stress-life fitted values. Eqs.624 -0. 27. using b w and γ . Fitting 1 cw = . ⎛ P ⎞ w * 2N w = ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎟ (32) CORRELATION OF STRAIN-LIFE DATA ⎝ ε′fw ⎠ As already noted. Similarly. the data points are seen to agree closely with the * log (2 N w )= log P − log ε′fw (33) cw cw strain-life curve for zero mean stress. represents a different generalization of the strain-life equa- tion that is consistent with SWT expressed in terms of stress. 16 and 17 for AISI 4340 steel and 2024-T4 aluminum. x = log P The curves shown in Figs. calculate values σ ′f ⎡ ⎛1− R ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 1− R ⎞ εa = ⎢2 N f ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + ε ′f ⎢ 2 N f ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ * of N w from Eq. TABLE 3 . * ⎛ 1− R ⎞ N swt = Nf ⎜ ⎟ (28) ⎝ 2 ⎠ First.620 207. d =− log ε ′fw This is done to take advantage of the ability of the Walker cw cw equation to include all of the data at all mean stresses in the fit. 3Fit to P > 1. Note that the strain values plotted are simply A linear regression can now proceed using strain amplitudes. 24 by subtracting the first (elastic strain) term from εa .000 1655 0.5 gives us the special case of this for the SWT equation. (35) 1 1 24. (This is often the case for tests run in stress control at rela- (1− γ ) / b ⎤ b (1− γ ) / b ⎤ c tively long lives. along with ε ′fw and c w as listed in Table 3. * y = log (2 N w ). Eq. m= . but instead * * Nw values by first solving for 2 N w . ε a . Notes: 1Units are MPa for E and H'. 8(c) and Eq.

For example. available. as well as the par- cal study to develop estimates of this quantity from other ticulars for those studied. An empiri. and causing fB The following conclusions are drawn from the discus- the highly inaccurate behavior. Thus. (Note that if γ = 0. equation is a good choice for general use. which tensile properties would enhance its usefulness. timate tensile strength σu is inaccurate. specifically. for steels.65. It should be further evaluated and com- is seen to be highly inaccurate and nonconservative. If it is desired to choose 2) The Morrow mean stress equation using the true frac- one simple stress amplitude-mean equation for all metals. but has the disadvan- fB use are not mathematically consistent with their parent stress-based equations. higher strength steels are generally more sensitive to mean stress that lower strength ones. so that it may be possi- DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY ble to develop a correlation between γ and say ultimate tensile strength. It is quite ac- ied.50. both of which had to be satisfied for a data point to be used. each fit was re- stricted to the region of well behaved data by a dual crite. Where γ is known. curate for aluminum alloys. However. SWT would be the preferred choice. where Morrow with σ ′f case for γ = 0. 30. the Walker equation appears to be quite 4) The Smith. . stress amplitude-mean relation is given. The Morrow equation using the manner.) For steels.50 may be a good rion. This pared to experimental data. good results for all cases studied. * this method is equivalent to SWT. If the Morrow equation is instead employed with the in- tercept constant σ ′f . See the notes to Table 3 for the actual values chosen neric value appears to be appropriate.50 exactly. Watson. tive for materials with log-log stress-life behavior that erty. Accordingly. σ ′f CONCLUSIONS values may be quite large. a lower limit on P and an upper limit on choice for aluminum alloys. the results are still quite good for Similarly extending the Walker mean stress relation gives an entirely new version of the strain-life equation. Additional study may allow generic values of γ to be hibited extreme scatter at low P values corresponding to developed for various classes of alloy. with stress-life curves that tend to flatten at short lives. However. and Topper (SWT) equation gave sively conservative for tensile mean stresses. in particular. it should not be used for that γ values are not generally known unless fatigue data at aluminum alloys. steels. But it is highly inaccurate and nonconserva- which may be considered to be an additional materials prop. fit a power law very well. on the limited study done so far. far exceeding ~ σ . As a result. In performing these fits. and for steels it is accept- able. and Topper (SWT) mean stress accurate and is the best mean stress equation of those stud. Also. Data fits for a steel and for an difficulty is associated with stress-life behavior that does not aluminum alloy give excellent results. as for steels. various mean stresses are available for a given material. γ ≈ 0. The Walker equation has the advantage of enhanced 3) The Morrow mean stress equation with σ ′f works well ability to fit data by its use of the adjustable parameter γ . Watson. (Some strain-life or related equations in common true fracture strength ~σ works well. is a new strain-life extension of the SWT mean stress equa- tion. there is the accompanying disadvantage in flattens at short lives. This logic leads to Eq. Hence. so that any disadvan- * tage of the Walker equation is removed. based long equivalent lives N w . This strain-life equation includes SWT as the special for the one titanium alloy studied. for these limits. Eq. being exces- The Smith. We have compared various stress amplitude-mean equa- tions as to their ability to correlate fatigue data. perhaps γ ≈ 0. It is clear Stress amplitude-mean equations may be incorporated that the Goodman equation employing the ultimate tensile into strain-life equations in a mathematically consistent strength σu is inaccurate. it was found that the data ex. Morrow with σ ′f sion above: should not be used for aluminum alloys or for other metals 1) The Goodman mean stress equation employing the ul- where such stress-life behavior occurs. this is not the case for aluminum alloys or 29. but has be to use SWT except where Morrow with σ ′f is known to the disadvantage that values of ~ σ are not always fB give good results. Another option would ture strength ~ σf B works well for various metals. although not quite as good as Morrow with σ ′f . a higher ge- Nw .) The procedure for doing so for any tage that values of ~ σf B are not always available.

E. [12] Gallagher. E. of ASM International. Informa- sity of Illinois." WADC TR 52-307.. 271-287.. J. “Fatigue Life and Inelastic Strain Landgraf and W. eration of the Life Range from 2 to 10. (HCF) Life Predictions. 1989. OH. 159-175. ASTM. 1939. R. IL. Fatigue Strength of Metals. 631. West Conshohocken. Am.5) The Walker mean stress equation with adjustable con. Jan. Y. IL.. “Simplified Analysis of Helicopter Fatigue Loading Spectra. “The Stress Distribution at the Neck ties of Aluminum Alloys at Various Direct Stress Ra.. ASTM STP 462. and B. Washington. W.. PA.. D. “Cyclic Stress-Strain and The Journal of the Australian Institute of Metals. T. Journal of Materials. T. Development of tigue Strengths of Aircraft Materials: Axial-Load Fa. Dec. “Effect of Mean Stress on the Fa- tigue Behavior of a Hard Steel. Part Vol. “The Effect of Range of Stress on the Patterson Air Force Base. N. J. Dec. Society of Automotive Engineers. N. [9] Illg. “The Historical Development of Re- search on the Fatigue of Materials and Structures. Feb. K. Jan. B. pp. ASTM. Engineering Experiment Station. M. such as identifying Alloys and of SAE 4130 Steel with Special Consid- generic values of γ for various classes of metal. W." NACA TN 2324. pp. J. Am. Mechanics Applied to Engineering.. Watanabe. [13] Knipling. Sandor. eds. et al. Blacksburg. 1952. T. H. J.. be estimated. pp. R. 316. Blatherwick. pp. [2] Goodman. or de.” Bulletin No. O. SAE Paper No.” Report No.. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. Brose. and A. A. H.” Journal of Testing and Evaluation..” J. Materials Data Book: Monotonic and Cyclic Proper- 778. 1970.. 767. 1. Wright Air Development Center. London. See also L. Steel.." veloping correlations for estimating γ from tensile NACA TN 3866. 2001. 1958. 150-171. “High-Cycle Fatigue/Low-Cycle Fa- Urbana. "Fatigue Proper. National Advisory Commit- stant γ gives superior results where γ is known or can tee for Aeronautics. Washington.” AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2001- 4159. No. ASTM STP 1006. MI. Sheet Specimens of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 Aluminum centrate on the Walker relationship. Tucker. Jackson. tigue Tests on Unnotched Sheet Specimens of 24S-T3 Soc. pp. [4] Smith. Landgraf and F. tigue Interactions in Ti-6Al-4V. and A. R. 553-574.” MS Thesis. Green and Co. March 1969. Bishop. F.. Effects of Environment and Complex Load History on Fatigue Life.000 Cycles. for Testing and Materials. [16] Bridgman." Journal of [14] Conle. "Fa. pp.” [11] Endo. 5. OH.. Vol. Richards. Congress Detroit.” Steel. ties of Engineering Materials. Topper. N. 1. Dec. [1] Mann. R. 1. and L. No. S. Jan. P. ASTM. DC.” Nov. P. Virginia Tech. 29. Materials. 1989. Urbana. tios: Part 1. 1956. I. Morrow. West Conshohocken. erties of Wrought Materials. July 1973. 1919. [7] Lazan.” SAE J1099. for Testing REFERENCES and Materials. “Proposed Technical Re- Response under Complex Histories for an Alloy port on Fatigue Properties for the SAE Handbook. "Fatigue Tests on Notched and Unnotched 6) Any future work on mean stress equations should con.. Potter and R. of a Tension Specimen. E. J. 334. M.. Uni- versity of Illinois. DC. R. [6] Dowling.. and 75S-T6 Aluminum Alloys and of SAE 4130 PA. “Improved High Cycle Fatigue 636. H. See also Bulletin No. Materi- Sept. Automotive Engineering Vol. and J. als Science and Engineering Department. 740279. Scien- tific Research Staff. No. Wright-Patterson AFB. "A Stress- Strain Function for the Fatigue of Metals.” should be further evaluated and employed. Khosrovaneh. W. W. K.. Warrendale. [17] Dowling. MI. Ford Motor Co. 662. tion Report. [15] SAE. 1970. pp. Fatigue Behavior of Representative Aircraft Metals. 4. March 1951. Longmans. Eq. 32. VA. 4. 222-241.. Fatigue Loading Spectra. Rolled Alloys. Dearborn. J. [5] Landgraf. and T. “Technical Report on Low Cycle Fatigue Prop- Dept. K. properties. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Wright- [3] Smith. . 1966. Soc. 93-104. Univer. 1974. [8] Grover. PA. A. Vol. 7) The incorporation of the Walker equation into the [10] Topper. 1942. 4. Watson. 1984. Air Force Research Laboratory. W. 1944. “Effects of Mean strain-life curve. pp. is a promising approach that Stress and Prestrain on Fatigue Damage Summation.” Trans. P. 2003.

Gallagher. NJ. Murakami. [22] Dowling. PA. Volume 4. p." [20] Walker. AE-4. W. 1970. Upper Saddle River. Soc. Engineering Methods for Deformation. K. E. tegrity.. “The Resistance of Metals to Cyclic Deformation. West Conshohocken. 1964. Fatigue. No.. Am. and I. E. Pub. Prentice Hall. 2nd ed. and Soc. pp.. ASTM STP 467.2 is a summary of a paper presented eds. PA.2 of Fatigue Design Handbook. N. 1-14.” Achievement of High Fatigue Resis- . Comprehensive Structural In- Load History on Fatigue Life. N.[18] Dowling. "The Effect of Stress Ratio During Crack Chapter 4. and S. E. So. Fracture. “Fatigue Properties of Metals. P. O. Ritchie. West Con- at a meeting of Division 4 of the SAE Iron and Steel shohocken. overall editors. Cyclic Loading and Fatigue.. 1968.. Halford and J. PA. ASTM STP 462. Milne. ciety of Automotive Engineers. R. land. Ritchie and Y.” Section and Discussion of Basic Methodology for Fatigue. Technical Committee. pp. 4. Nov. Warrendale. pp. Am. Eng- PA. 3-36. 1970.. G. J. Propagation and Fatigue for 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 R..03. 2003 [21] Landgraf. Mechanical Behavior of Materials: tance in Metals and Alloys. Oxford. ASTM STP 1389.. R. 3-36. N. B." Effects of Environment and Complex of the 10-volume set. R. Soc." 3. 655. Karihaloo. 1999. volume editors. 2000. part Aluminum. Elsevier Science Ltd. Section 3. for Testing and Materials. [23] Dowling. Am. Thangjitham.. "Local Strain Approach to Fatigue. O. for Testing and Materials. Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics: 31st Volume. for Testing and Materials. "An Overview [19] Morrow. West Conshohocken.

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