You are on page 1of 6



Chapter 5:
Mission Analysis

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 1

Orbit Selection

Orbital Motion

Co-Planar Orbit Transfers

Impact on Spacecraft

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 2

J.Parking orbit b) LEO. S.Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits a) LEO (Low Earth Orbit). near equatorial: .Space stations . circular orbit of radius 6.Communications Astronautics . Walker 3 Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits d) GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit): .Shuttle .Earth observation .J.I. Walker 4 .Mission Analysis Dr.Mission Analysis Dr. S.Communications .Observatories .6 RE  Orbital period ~ 24 hr  S/C appears stationary . near-polar: .Chapter 5 .Observatories Astronautics .Equatorial.Chapter 5 .Field/particle explorers .Earth observation c) HEO (Highly Eccentric Orbit): .I.

J. mobile terminals  LEO polar 3) Provision of high resolution astronomical imaging (orbiting observatory) There are such S/C in LEO. Orbit selection in each case is driven by p/l operation and system issues.Mission Analysis Dr.J. Duration) Uninterrupted source observation    Sky viewing efficiency    Radiation exposure   Ease of orbit acquisition   In-orbit servicing   Choice of orbit derived by trade-off of p/l and system issues. S. Orbit Favoured Parameter LEO HEO GEO Observation mode operation    (Ground comms. Walker 5 Orbit Selection Orbit Trade-off for Orbiting Observatory P/l Sys.I. Walker 6 . Astronautics .Chapter 5 .I. Examples: 1) Provision of global environmental monitoring at high resolution  LEO polar 2) Provision of global communications .Chapter 5 .using large fixed ground stations  GEO . S. HEO and GEO. Astronautics .using small.Orbit Selection Orbit selection is dominated by the mission objectives (payload requirements and (to a lesser extent) by system requirements).Mission Analysis Dr.

S.I.Chapter 5 . The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. (1609) Astronautics . direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law (called the force-mass- acceleration method) 2. solution by impulse and momentum methods. Walker 8 . Walker 7 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 1. Each can be applied to translational or rotational motion.Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.J.Orbital Motion Forms of Analysis There are 3 general approaches to the solution of kinematics problems: 1.I. Astronautics .Mission Analysis Dr.Chapter 5 . use of work and energy principles 3.

Orbital Motion Elliptical orbit locations ‘Apogee’ ‘Perigee’ Astronautics .I. Walker 10 .Mission Analysis Dr. S.Chapter 5 .Chapter 5 .I.Mission Analysis Dr.J.J. Walker 9 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 2. The line joining the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. S. (1609) Astronautics .

Chapter 5 . S. (1619) Astronautics .Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 3.I. Walker 11 . The square of the period of the planet is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the Sun.Mission Analysis Dr.J.