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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
General Physics: Chapter 1
Measurement




























Physical Quantities
Derived quantities (combining suitable base quantities) E.g. Velocity
Base quantity Name of SI unit Symbol
Length Metre M
Mass Kilogram Kg
Time Second S
Electric current Ampere A
Thermodynamic
temperature
Kelvin K
Luminous intensity Candela Cd
Amount of substance Mole mol


Measurement of Length
Very short
(diameter of small
wire)
Micrometer
Screw
Gauge
0.01mm
(0.001cm)
Short (diameter of
coin)
Vernier
Calipers
0.01cm
Medium (Length of
pendulum)
Metre Rule 0.1cm
Long (Length of
vehicles)
Measuring
tape
1cm

Vernier Calipers: Total the values of the main scale and vernier scale readings to obtain
the correct reading. Remember to take note of zero error.

Micrometer Screw Gauge: Total the values of the main scale (1mm) and circular scale
readings (0.01mm) to obtain the correct reading. Take note of zero error.
Measurement of Time: Time can be measured with a
pendulum, clock or stopwatch.
1.) The time taken for 1 complete oscillation is called the
period.
2.) The number of complete oscillations per second is
called the frequency.
3.) The period increases with the length of the pendulum.


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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
General Physics: Chapter 2
Kinematics




























Types of Quantities
Scalar Quantities are fully described by a magnitude only.
Vector Quantities are quantities described by a magnitude and direction.

Displacement: The distance measured along a straight line in a stated direction with respect to the
original point (vector).
Velocity: Rate of change of displacement Displacement (m)
Velocity
Time Taken (m/s)
=
Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity
Note: Negative Acceleration = Retardation
Final Velocity Initial Velocity
Acceleration
Time Taken (m/s)
÷
=

Distance (m)
Displacement – Time Graphs (xt Graphs)
3.) Used to show displacement over time.
4.) Horizontal line: Body at rest.
5.) Straight line with positive gradient: Uniform
Velocity.
6.) Straight line with negative gradient: Uniform
velocity in the opposite direction.
7.) Curve: Non – uniform velocity.
8.) The gradient of the tangent of this graph gives the
instantaneous velocity of the object.

Velocity – Time Graphs (vt Graphs)
1.) Used to show velocity over time.
2.) Such a graph can be used to find:
a. Velocity
b. Acceleration: Gradient
c. Distance travelled: Area under the
graph.

Acceleration of Free – Fall
2. The acceleration of free-fall near the surface of the Earth is constant and is approximately 10m/s
2
. It is
derived from the gravitational force felt by objects near the Earth surface and independent of the mass of any
object.

3. Speed of a free-falling body (experiencing no other forces other than gravity) increases by 10m/s every
second or when the body is thrown up, it decreases by 10m/s every second.

4. The higher the speed of an object, the greater the air resistance.

5. Terminal Velocity: When an object is moving at constant velocity, acceleration is 0.

6. As an object falls, it picks up speed, increasing air resistance. Eventually, air resistance becomes large enough
to balance the force of gravity where the acceleration of the object is 0, reaching constant velocity.



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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
General Physics: Chapter 3
Forces




















Newton’s 3
Law of Motion
Law of Inertia
F = ma
Every action has an equal and
opposite reaction
Force Is a push or a pull. SI unit: Newton (N)
Effects of Forces
on Motion
How reluctant an object
is to change. The greater
the mass the more
reluctant it is.
An object at rest will
remain at rest and an
object at motion will
remain at a constant
speed with an absence of
a resultant force.
Resultant Force acting
on an object = Product
of mass and acceleration
of object.
Forces always occur in
pairs
Action / reaction forces
act on different bodies.
Balanced / Unbalanced Forces
When forces are balanced,
there is no resultant force,
thus no change will occur to
the object
When forces are unbalanced,
there is a resultant force,
thus object will move towards
the direction with greater
force

Friction
1. It is the net force that slows down moving objects.
2. Acts in the opposite direction of motion of object.
Static Friction: Related
to objects which are not
moving. Amount of force
applied = amount of
friction.
Moving Friction: Applied
force does not affect
friction. It can be
affected by surface /
sudden mass change
Factors affecting the amount
of friction:
1. Material / texture in
contact
2. Proportional to force
pressing surface
3. Independent on area of
contact.
Advantages: Walking / Brakes /
object to remain slanted
Disadvantages: Reduction in
efficiency of machinery / energy
wasted as heat.
Methods to reduce friction:
Lubricants, ball / roller bearings,
moving parts made smoother.
Terminal Velocity
1. The greater the velocity of an object, the higher the air resistance.
2. Definition: The constant maximum velocity reached by a body falling through the atmosphere under the
attraction of gravity.
3. When an object reaches terminal velocity, the force of gravity and air resistance are balanced, the object falls
at a constant speed and doesn’t accelerate.
4. Factors affected: Size, surface area, weight and nature of medium where object is flying.
5. NOTE: If an object is falling through a vacuum, there would be no air resistance, thus acceleration is due to
gravity alone.

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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
General Physics: Chapter 4
Mass, Weight, Density

Mass Weight Density
Definition Mass is the quantity of matter
contained in an object.
Weight is the attractive force exerted
on an object due to gravity.
Density of a substance is defined as its
mass per unit volume.
SI unit Kilogram (kg) Newton (N) kg/m
3
or g/cm
3
Equation W mg =
W: Weight of object (N)
m: Mass of object (kg)
g: Gravitational Acceleration in
m/s
2



Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
General Physics: Chapter 5
Turning Effects of Forces (Moments)

Chapter 5.1: Definitions
1. The moment of a force is the turning effect of a force, or the
ability of the force to make something turn.
2. Moment of a force (M) about a point O is the product of the
force (F) and the
perpendicular distance (D) from the point to the line of
action of the force.
3. SI unit: Newton (N)

4. Moments can be clockwise or anticlockwise.

5. The turning effect of a force depends on:
a. Location of applied force
b. Perpendicular distance between the point of
application of the force and the pivot.



Chapter 5.2: Principle of Moments
The principle of moments state that:




6. When the clockwise moment is not equal to the
anticlockwise moment, there is a resultant moment. The
When a body is in equilibrium, the sum of clockwise
moments about the balanced point is equal to the sum
of anticlockwise moments about the same point
(pivot).
Total clockwise moment = Total anticlockwise moment.

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object will rotate in the direction of resultant moment.
7. Therefore, if there is no resultant moment, the object is
balanced!
Chapter 5.3: Centre of Gravity (c.g.)
8. Definition: The centre of gravity (CG) of a body is an
imaginary point where the whole weight of the body
seems to act in any orientation.
a. The CG of a regular object is at the centre.
b. The CG of an irregular object is determined using a
plumb line.
9. If a body is hanging freely at rest, its centre of gravity is
always vertically below the pivot, thus the plumb line
method works. It can only be used for flat, irregular objects.
Chapter 5.4: Stability
10. Stability is a measure of the body’s ability to maintain its
original position.
11. There are 3 types of stability:
Stability Type Effect Explanation
Stable
Equilibrium
Object will return into
original position after slight
disturbance
Weight will generate an anticlockwise moment by bringing the cone back to
its original position (done by the restoring moment).
These types of objects usually have low CG and big/heavier bases.
Unstable
Equilibrium
Object will topple/fall after
slight disturbance
The weight of the cone will generate a clockwise moment outside the base
area of the cone, thus there is a resultant moment and the object will fall.
Neutral
Equilibrium
Object remains in new
position after slight
disturbance
The centre of gravity neither rises nor falls, it remains at the same level. The
lines of action of the 2 forces always concide and there is no moment
provided by weight to turn the cone.

12. Ways to improve stability of an object:
a. Lowering the CG (A lower CG will allow the line of action to act within the base area of an object)
b. Area of its base should be as wide as possible (allow line of action to act within base area)










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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
General Physics: Chapter 6
Energy, Work, Power

Work Energy Power
Definition Work done on an object is when
a constant force is applied on
the object producing a distance
moving in the direction of the
force.
Energy is the capacity to do work.
There are many different types of
energy like translational, rotational and
vibrational kinetic energy.
Power is defined as the rate of doing
work (Rate of energy transfer /
conversion)
SI unit Joule (J) Joule (J) Watt (W)
Definition
of SI unit
One joule of work is done when
a force of one Newton moves
through a distance of one metre
in the direction of the force.
One joule of work is done when an
object with 1kg moves at 1m/s.
One watt is produced when 1 joule of
work is done for 1 second.
Equation
W FS =
W: Work done by constant force
(J)
F: Constant Force (Newton)
S: Displacement of force
2
1
. . :
2
K E mv
K.E: Kinetic Energy, m = mass (kg)
v = velocity (m/s)
. . : P E mgh
m = mass (kg), g = Gravity Field
Strength, h = height of object (m)
or W E
P
t
=
P: Power (W)
W: Work done (J)
E: Energy (J)
t: Time taken (seconds)
Other Info. Work is done on an object only
when the force applied on it
produces motion.
The principle of conservation of energy
states that energy cannot be created or
destroyed, but can only change from
one form to another.
Efficiency
Useful energy output
= 100%
Total energy input
×


Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
General Physics: Chapter 7
Pressure

Pressure in a solid Pressure in a liquid Pressure in a gas
Definition Pressure is the force acting normal or perpendicularly per unit area.
SI unit Pascal (Pa) or N/m
2

Equation
Force
Pressure =
Area



Pressure = h g p

h: Depth of the liquid (m)
p: Density of liquid (kg/m
3
)
g: Gravitational field strength

The air surrounding us exerts a
pressure in all directions which is
about 10
5
Pa.
Other Info. This formula can only
be used for solids.
1. A liquid exerts pressure because of
its weight.
2. Liquid pressure acts equally in all
directions. This is because particles
of the water can flow and wrap
around the object.
Hydraulics Systems
Purpose: Increase the output force
from an input force. However the
height which the object can be
increased is reduced.
Properties used: Liquids are
incompressible and if pressure is
applied to trapped liquid, it is
transmitted to all parts of the liquid.

1. A barometer is used to measure
pressure. It consists of an inverted
tube in a dish of mercury. The
space above the mercury in the
tube is vacuum.
2. Liquid mercury is used as its
density is very high and a shorter
barometer can be used to show
atmospheric pressure.
3. An object can be bent/sucked in
due to the production of vacuum
and due to the difference in
pressure; the atmospheric
pressure will press on the object.


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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
Thermal Physics: Chapter 8
Temperature




























Temperature It is a measure of the degree of hotness of a body.
Physical Properties :
1. Expansion of column of liquid
in capillary tube
2. Voltage of thermocouple
3. Expansion of a bimetallic strip
Desirable Features
1. Easy to read scale
2. Safe
3. Sensitive to temperature
changes
4. Wide range of temperature
Measured using a thermometer
Temperature Scale
The Celsius Scale
Ice Point: Temperature of pure melting ice at
standard atmospheric pressure (0
o
C).
Steam Point: Temperature where boiling
water changes to steam at standard
atmospheric pressure.
The Kelvin Scale
Zero: Absolute Zero (where object
has nothing in the body)
Unit: Kelvin (K).
( ) 273 K C K u = +
1
o
C increase = 1 K increase.
General Equation
Measured Physical Property
Total Range of Physical Property
u =
Types of Thermometers

Clinical Thermometer, Liquid in Glass Thermometer, Thermocouple
Difference between Mercury / Alcohol
thermometer

Mercury Alcohol
Uniform
Expansion
Yes No (Out of
Range)
Stick to Glass No (visible
meniscus)
Yes
(Transparent)
Reaction to
temp. changes
Quick Slow
Range Measure
Higher Temp.
Measure lower
temp.
Cost Expensive Cheap
Poisonous Yes No

Thermocouple

1. Consists of 2 wires of different materials
joined together to form 2 junctions.
2. A voltage is produced when the junctions are
at different temperatures. It increases as the
temperature increases.
3. Suitable for measuring wide temperature
differences, which vary rapidly due to its
quick response and temperature at a point as
wire junctions are small.
4. Can be connected in series to increase
sensitivity.

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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
Thermal Physics: Chapter 9
Kinetic Model of Matter



Molecular Model of the 3 states of matter

Solid Liquid Gas
Forces between Molecules Balanced, strong As strong as solid Negligible
Distance between
molecules
Small, arranged in regular
pattern
Slightly further apart, no
pattern
Far apart, mainly empty
space
Motion of molecules Vibrate about fixed
positions
Vibrate to and fro Move randomly with high
speed, colliding with one
another and walls.
Compression No No Yes
When heated Molecules gain energy
and vibrate more,
separation between
molecules increase
slightly
Molecules vibrate and
move about more
vigorously, separation
between molecules
increase slightly
Move at higher speed,
collision with one another
and walls increases.
Expands the most.

















The kinetic theory of matter states that all matter is made up of large number of tiny atoms or molecules which are
in continuous motion.
Diffusion

It is the spreading of molecules on their own
accord without any external aid.
Occurs in liquids and gases
Occurs as particles are in random motion
Depends on temperature and density
(concentration) of fluid. The lower the
density, the more space for particles to
move into.
Pressure exerted by a gas

When a gas molecule hit the walls of the container, it
exerts a force on the container.
Pressure increases when:
1. Volume of container decreases at constant
temperature
2. Temperature of gas increases at constant volume
3. Number of gas molecules increase, total pressure
exerted increases.

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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
Thermal Physics: Chapter 10
Transfer of Thermal Energy















Transfer of Thermal Energy: When 2 objects are placed in contact with one another, their
temperature eventually becomes the same, known as thermal equilibrium. Note: Heat
travels from a region of high temperature to low temperature.
Conduction
Heat is transmitted layer by
layer through a medium from
one particle to another.
Collision
between
neighbouring
particles
Flow of free
electrons
(conductors
only)
Convection
Process where heat is
transmitted from one
place to another by the
movement of heated
particles of a gas/liquid.
Mechanism:
Change in
Density.
Radiation
A method of heat transfer
wher ethe source of heat
transmit energy through
electromagnetic waves. A
medium is not required.
Factors: Temperature of object,
surface of object, surface area of
object. Good emitters are also
good absorbers of radiation.
Conduction:
1. Collisions between neighbouring particles.
a. Particles nearer to heat source gain energy and vibrate faster.
b. Particles collide into less energetic neighbouring particles which gains kinetic energy.
c. The less energetic particles vibrate faster, collides into other particles.
d. Process continues layer by layer to spread the heat to cooler parts.
2. Flow of free electrons (conductors only)
a. Electrons near heat source gain energy, move faster.
b. Free electrons can move between the particles and collide with other electrons, allowing the less
energetic electrons to gain energy and move faster.
c. Process continues to spread the heat to cooler parts.
Convection
3. Fluid nearer to heat source gains heat and expands.
4. Expansion causes decrease in density for the fluid nearer to heat source, causing it to rise.
5. The hotter fluid rises over the cooler fluid while the cooler fluid rushes in to take the space.
6. The process continues and a convection current is formed.
7. Convection is faster than conduction as there is bulk movement (all the molecules get hot and move up,
thus it is faster than conduction.


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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
Light, Waves and Sound: Chapter 12
Light























Regular Reflection
Occurs at smooth surfaces.
Parallel light rays incident
on the surface are reflected
in one direction only (all rays
have the same incident/
reflected ray). The normals of
all points of incidence are equal.

Characteristics of image formed by plane mirror
Same size as object
Laterally inverted
Upright
Virtual (not real, cannot be captured on screen)
The distance of the image from the mirror = distance of
object from the mirror.
Applications of Mirrors:
Optical Testing (Mirrors can make letters appear further
away, saving space)
Blind Corners (for drivers)
Periscopes

Light
Speed: 3 x 10
8
Path it travels is a light ray. Can be parallel beam, converging beam or
diverging beam.
Objects which give out light are luminous objects, those which doesn’t are non-luminous.
Chapter 12.1: Reflection of light

Important terms:
Incident Ray: Light ray hitting the reflecting
surface.
Reflected Ray: Light ray reflected from the
reflecting surface.
Normal: The perpendicular to the reflecting
surface at the point of incidence.
Angle of incidence (i): The angle between the
incident ray and the normal.
Angle of reflection (r): The angle between the
reflected ray and the normal.


Laws of Reflection:
The incident ray, reflected ray and the normal of the reflecting surface lie on the same plane.
Angle of incidence = Angle of Reflection
Diffuse Reflection
Occurs at rough surfaces (sandpaper, burnt
boots). Parallel light rays incident on the
surface is reflected in all directions. The
normals are not parallel.



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1




































Chapter 12.2: Refraction of light

Refraction is the bending effect of light as it passes through another
medium of different density.
Refraction occurs as the speed of light varies in different media.
Conditions for refraction:
The light must pass from one optical medium to another of different
optical density
Angle of incidence more than 0°.
Laws of Reflection:
The incident ray, the normal and the refracted ray all lie on the
same plane.
For 2 particular transparent media, the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle
of refraction is a constant. Constant
sin
sin
=
r
i

When light travels from a less dense medium to a denser medium, the ray of light moves towards the normal.
Likewise, when light travels from a denser to a less dense medium, the ray of light moves away from the
normal.
When light enter a medium perpendicularly, regardless of its density, no deviation of the ray is observed.

Refractive Index
The value of the constant ratio sin i/sin r
for a ray passing from air/vacuum to a
give medium is known as the refractive
index of the medium.
The greater the value of the refractive
index, the greater the bending of light,
the more the light is slowed down and
the denser the medium is.
Medium Refractive Index,
Diamond 2.5
Glass 1.4 – 1.9
Water 1.33
Air 1.00








When angle of
incidence < Critical
Angle: Normal
Refraction

When angle of incidence = Critical
Angle: Travels perpendicular to the
surface (90°)
As i is made bigger, the refracted ray
gets closer and closer to
the surface of the glass.

Can be found by taking
1
1
sin c
n
÷
| |
=
|
\ .

When angle of incidence > Critical Angle: Total
Internal Reflection.
Refracted ray cannot escape from the glass.
Refraction cannot happen and light is reflected at
the glass / air boundary.
Total Internal Reflection occurs when a ray of light
which is incident on the boundary between 2
medium is totally reflected back into the first.
Applications of Total Internal Reflection:
Periscope and Binoculars
Optical Fibres










Daily Phenomena of Reflection
Swimming pool appears shallower than it actually is.
To find the refractive index of the medium, take


.

Bent objects in liquids. To find refractive index use same
formula as above.

Dispersion of white light. This is due to different colours
travelling different speeds in glass.
Red deviates (slows down) the least.
Violet deviates (slows down) the most.


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2


























Chapter 12.3: Converging Lens
Features of a converging lens
Optical Centre (C): The midway point between the lens surface on the principal axis
Principal axis: The line passing symmetrically through the optical centre of the lens
Principal focus (F): Point on the principal axis where rays of light converge after passing through the lens
Focal length (f): Distance between the optical centre, C and the principal focus F.
Focal plane: Plane which passes through F and P. It is perpendicular to principal axis.

As light rays can pass through the lens from both sides, each lens has 2 principal foci and 1 focal length on
each side of the lens.

A thicker lens has a shorter focal length and bends light rays to a greater extent whereas a thinner lens has a
longer focal length and bends light rays to a shorter extent.

Linear magnification, m, is defined as
Object of Height
Image of Height
or
Distance Object
Distance Image

.





Action of a thin converging lens on a
parallel beam of light parallel to the
principal axis.


Action of a thin converging lens on a
parallel beam of light NOT parallel to
the principal axis.

Object
distance
Properties of
Image
Image
Distance
Uses
Object
distance is
infinity
(parallel rays)
Inverted, real,
diminished
(smaller)
Focal length
opposite of
lens
Object lens of a
telescope
Object
distance is
more than 2
focal lengths
Between 1
and 2 focal
length
opposite lens
Camera, eyes
Object
distance is 2
focal length
Inverted, real,
same size
2 focal length
opposite lens
Photocopier
(equal sized
copy)
Object
distance
between 1 and
2 focal length
Inverted, real,
magnified
More than 2
focal length
opposite lens
Projector,
photograph
enlarger
Object
distance is 1
focal length Upright,
magnified,
virtual
Infinity, same
side of lens
Spotlight
Object
distance is less
than 1 focal
length
Image behind
object, same
side of lens
Magnifying
glass


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3

Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
Light, Waves and Sound: Chapter 13
Waves

































A wave is a phenomenon in which energy is transferred through vibrations.
Waves
Properties of waves:
1. The source of any wave is a vibration or oscillation.
2. Waves transfer energy from 1 point to another.
3. In waves, energy is transferred without the medium being transferred.


1. Transverse waves are waves that travel
perpendicular to the direction of motion.
2. Examples of such waves include rope waves and
water waves.
3. The crest is the highest points of the wave
whereas the trough is the lowest points of the
wave.

1. Longitudinal Waves are waves that travel parallel
to the direction of motion.
2. Examples are sound wave and pressure waves.
3. They form compressions and rarefactions.
4. Compressions are region where the air particles
are close together, creating high pressure.
5. Rarefactions are areas where the air particles are
far apart, creating low pressure.

Wave Terms


1. A wavelength is the shortest distance between any 2
corresponding points in a wave. SI unit: metre.
2. Symbol: ì
3. Amplitude is the maximum displacement from the rest
or centre position (high of a crest or depth of a trough).
SI unit: metre.
1. Wavefront: This is an imaginary line on a live
that joints all points that are in the same phase.
2. It is usually drawn by joining the wave crests.

1. Frequency (f):It is the
number of complete
waves per second. In
other words, the
number of occurrences
within a given time
period.
2. When there is a higher
frequency, more waves
are produced in 1
second, thus the period
will be shorter.
3. SI unit: Hertz (Hz).

4. Period (T): This is the time taken for 1 point on
the wave to complete 1 oscillation. In order
words, it is the time taken to produce 1 wave.
5. The SI Unit is seconds (s).


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1. Wavespeed: It is the distance of the
wave moved in 1 second in the medium.
It is dependent of the medium itself. For
example, for sound, the wavespeed is
always the same unless the medium is
changed from solid to liquid.
2. Real life example: If the crest of an ocean
wave moves a distance of 20 meters in 10
seconds, then the speed of the ocean wave is 2
m/s. On the other hand, if the crest of an ocean
wave moves a distance of 25 meters in 10
seconds (the same amount of time), then the
speed of this ocean wave is 2.5 m/s. The faster
wave travels a greater distance in the same
amount of time.
3. It is measured in metre per second.

Chapter 13.6: Graphical Representation of Waves



A displacement-position graph shows how high or low a
wave is at a particular position.
A displacement-time graph shows the displacement
of a single particle at a particular position o the
particle as time changes
Both graphs can be used to represent a longitudinal or transverse wave.

Chapter 13.7: Refraction and Reflection of Waves


1
It only changes if the source of the waves is changed (e.g. vibrating faster)

2
This is due to the wave having more energy in deep water (more space)

1.) When water waves get reflected, the only thing
that changes is the direction. The wavelength,
frequency and speed remains the same
throughout. Sponges are used to absorb the
reflections of the water waves.

2.) When water waves get refracted (move from
deep to shallow water), the speed and the
wavelength changes. The frequency of the wave
does not change
1
.
Deep water
Shallow
water
Faster
speed
2

Slower speed
Longer
wavelength
Shorter
wavelength
Similar Frequency









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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
Light, Waves and Sound: Chapter 14
Electromagnetic Spectrum

1.) Electromagnetic waves are transverse
waves. They are electric and magnetic fields
that oscillate at 90° to each other.

2.) They transfer energy from one place to
another.

3.) They can travel through vacuum (do not
require any medium to travel)

4.) They travel at 3.0 x 10
8
per second in
vacuum. They will slow down when
travelling through water or glass.

5.) The wave equation is applicable here too.

6.) They obey the laws of reflection and
refraction.

7.) They carry no electric charge (they are
neither positively or negatively charged)

8.) Their frequencies do not change when
travelling from one medium to another. Only
their speeds and wavelength will change.


Uses of Electromagnetic Waves

Wave Uses Dangers
Radio Waves
Radio transmitters
Radar
Television
None
Microwaves
Microwave ovens
Communication system
Internal heating of body tissue
Infra-red
Thermal imaging
Remote controls
Burns skin
Light
Optic fibres
Seeing!
Strong light causes damage to vision.
Ultra-violet
Washing powder (whiter than
white)
Security marking
Skin cancer and blindness
X rays Taking images of the skeleton Mutations in cells and severe burns to the skin.
Gamma Rays
Cancer treatment
Sterilisation of equipment
Cancers and cell mutation





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Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes
Light, Waves and Sound: Chapter 15
Sound
































Sound is a form of energy. The energy is passed from 1 point to another as a wave.
Sound
Sound is an example of longitudinal wave.
Sound is produced by vibrating sources placed in a medium (air).
It travels in air through a series of compressions or rarefactions.
Compressions: Air molecules are close together, forms high pressure.
Rarefactions: Air molecules are far apart, forms low pressure.

2.) Speed of sound differs in different medium.
Air: 330 - 340m/s
Water: 1500m/s
Glass:5000m/s

3.) Speed of sound differs because:
Differences in strength of interatomic forces
Closeness of atoms in the 3 states
Temperature

4.) The Wave Equation can also be used to find the speed of
sound (refer to page 11)

5.) The speed of sound is solids like metals are so fast that
we can assume/ignore the time it takes to travel a
distance.

Echoes
6.) Echoes refer to the repetition of a sound
resulting from reflection of the sound
waves.
7.) Echoes are formed when a sound is
reflected off a hard and flat surface.
8.) Reverberation occurs when the surface is
too close, causing any reflected sound to
follow closely behind the direct sound and
prolonging the original sound.

Ultrasound
9.) The range of frequencies which a person can hear is
known as the range of audibility.
Human: Between 20 Hz and 20 kHz
1

Dog: <20 kHz
Bats: Between 10 kHz and 120 kHz.

10.) Ultrasound is the sounds with frequencies above
the upper limit of the human range of audibility. Its
small wavelength means less diffraction and the
echo formed is more precise in direction.

11.) Applications for ultrasound include:
Determining depth of seabed
Locating sunken ships / shoals of fish
Cleaning small dirt from jewellery.
Quality control (checking for cracks) in concrete
Medical applications (development of foetus)

Loudness and Pitch

12.) Loudness is a factor distinguishing between
various sounds.
The larger the amplitude of vibration, the louder
the sound
Sound is measured by decibels (dB).

13.) Pitch is a factor distinguishing various sounds
The higher the frequency of a note, the higher
the pitch
Pitch is measured in hertz (Hz).

Terminal Velocity: When an object is moving at constant velocity.Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes General Physics: Chapter 2 Kinematics Types of Quantities Scalar Quantities are fully described by a magnitude only. 7. air resistance becomes large enough to balance the force of gravity where the acceleration of the object is 0.) Such a graph can be used to find: a. it picks up speed. 3. It is derived from the gravitational force felt by objects near the Earth surface and independent of the mass of any object. Velocity – Time Graphs (vt Graphs) 1. 8. it decreases by 10m/s every second.) Straight line with negative gradient: Uniform velocity in the opposite direction. 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes 2 . 5. Velocity: Rate of change of displacement Displacement (m) Velocity  Time Taken (m/s) Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity Final Velocity  Initial Velocity Acceleration  Note: Negative Acceleration = Retardation Time Taken (m/s) Displacement – Time Graphs (xt Graphs) 3. The acceleration of free-fall near the surface of the Earth is constant and is approximately 10m/s2.) The gradient of the tangent of this graph gives the instantaneous velocity of the object. 4. 4. increasing air resistance. Acceleration: Gradient c.) Curve: Non – uniform velocity. Distance travelled: Area under the graph. As an object falls. Acceleration of Free – Fall 2. Velocity b. acceleration is 0. 6. Distance (m) Vector Quantities are quantities described by a magnitude and direction. 6. 2. Speed of a free-falling body (experiencing no other forces other than gravity) increases by 10m/s every second or when the body is thrown up. the greater the air resistance. Displacement: The distance measured along a straight line in a stated direction with respect to the original point (vector). 5.) Used to show velocity over time.) Straight line with positive gradient: Uniform Velocity.) Horizontal line: Body at rest. reaching constant velocity. Eventually.) Used to show displacement over time. The higher the speed of an object.

Definition: The constant maximum velocity reached by a body falling through the atmosphere under the attraction of gravity. An object at rest will remain at rest and an object at motion will remain at a constant speed with an absence of a resultant force. thus object will move towards the direction with greater force Effects of Forces on Motion Newton’s 3 Law of Motion F = ma Resultant Force acting on an object = Product of mass and acceleration of object. When an object reaches terminal velocity. 4. thus no change will occur to the object When forces are unbalanced. Amount of force applied = amount of friction. It can be affected by surface / sudden mass change Every action has an equal and opposite reaction Forces always occur in pairs Action / reaction forces act on different bodies. The greater the mass the more reluctant it is. 5. Terminal Velocity 1. Independent on area of contact. Balanced / Unbalanced Forces When forces are balanced. 3 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes . ball / roller bearings. Law of Inertia How reluctant an object is to change. surface area. Static Friction: Related to objects which are not moving. NOTE: If an object is falling through a vacuum. there would be no air resistance. there is no resultant force. Factors affected: Size. Acts in the opposite direction of motion of object. the object falls at a constant speed and doesn’t accelerate. Moving Friction: Applied force does not affect friction. the higher the air resistance. Proportional to force pressing surface 3. The greater the velocity of an object. moving parts made smoother. Methods to reduce friction: Lubricants. 3. there is a resultant force. thus acceleration is due to gravity alone. Factors affecting the amount of friction: 1. It is the net force that slows down moving objects. Advantages: Walking / Brakes / object to remain slanted Disadvantages: Reduction in efficiency of machinery / energy wasted as heat. Friction 1. the force of gravity and air resistance are balanced. Material / texture in contact 2. 2.Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes General Physics: Chapter 3 Forces Force SI unit: Newton (N) Is a push or a pull. 2. weight and nature of medium where object is flying.

or the ability of the force to make something turn. Location of applied force b. Weight. The 4 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes . Newton (N) Density Density of a substance is defined as its mass per unit volume. 3 3 kg/m or g/cm W  mg W: Weight of object (N) m: Mass of object (kg) g: Gravitational Acceleration in m/s2 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes General Physics: Chapter 5 Turning Effects of Forces (Moments) Chapter 5. The turning effect of a force depends on: a. Total clockwise moment = Total anticlockwise moment. SI unit: Newton (N) Moments can be clockwise or anticlockwise.2: Principle of Moments The principle of moments state that: When a body is in equilibrium. 6.1: Definitions 1. Moment of a force (M) about a point O is the product of the force (F) and the perpendicular distance (D) from the point to the line of action of the force. When the clockwise moment is not equal to the anticlockwise moment. 2. Density Mass Definition SI unit Equation Mass is the quantity of matter contained in an object. Chapter 5. 5.Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes General Physics: Chapter 4 Mass. there is a resultant moment. 3. Perpendicular distance between the point of application of the force and the pivot. Kilogram (kg) Weight Weight is the attractive force exerted on an object due to gravity. The moment of a force is the turning effect of a force. 4. the sum of clockwise moments about the balanced point is equal to the sum of anticlockwise moments about the same point (pivot).

Therefore. Ways to improve stability of an object: a. b.g. The CG of a regular object is at the centre. thus there is a resultant moment and the object will fall. The centre of gravity neither rises nor falls. its centre of gravity is always vertically below the pivot. Definition: The centre of gravity (CG) of a body is an imaginary point where the whole weight of the body seems to act in any orientation. a.4: Stability 10. irregular objects.) 8. It can only be used for flat. The lines of action of the 2 forces always concide and there is no moment provided by weight to turn the cone. Chapter 5. These types of objects usually have low CG and big/heavier bases. The weight of the cone will generate a clockwise moment outside the base area of the cone. 12. the object is balanced! Chapter 5. object will rotate in the direction of resultant moment. it remains at the same level.7. The CG of an irregular object is determined using a plumb line. if there is no resultant moment. Stability is a measure of the body’s ability to maintain its original position. 11. Area of its base should be as wide as possible (allow line of action to act within base area) 5 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes . Lowering the CG (A lower CG will allow the line of action to act within the base area of an object) b.3: Centre of Gravity (c. If a body is hanging freely at rest. 9. thus the plumb line method works. There are 3 types of stability: Stability Type Stable Equilibrium Unstable Equilibrium Neutral Equilibrium Effect Object will return into original position after slight disturbance Object will topple/fall after slight disturbance Object remains in new position after slight disturbance Explanation Weight will generate an anticlockwise moment by bringing the cone back to its original position (done by the restoring moment).

A liquid exerts pressure because of 1. due to the production of vacuum Properties used: Liquids are and due to the difference in incompressible and if pressure is pressure. Other Info. 2. h = height of object (m) The principle of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. rotational and vibrational kinetic energy. Efficiency = Useful energy output 100% Total energy input Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes General Physics: Chapter 7 Pressure Definition SI unit Equation Pressure in a solid Pressure in a liquid Pressure in a gas Pressure is the force acting normal or perpendicularly per unit area. its weight. around the object. Joule (J) One joule of work is done when an object with 1kg moves at 1m/s. but can only change from one form to another. the atmospheric applied to trapped liquid. g = Gravity Field Strength. Pascal (Pa) or N/m2 The air surrounding us exerts a Pressure = h g Force Pressure = pressure in all directions which is h: Depth of the liquid (m) Area 3 about 105 Pa.E: Kinetic Energy. P: Power (W) W: Work done (J) E: Energy (J) t: Time taken (seconds) Other Info. Power Power is defined as the rate of doing work (Rate of energy transfer / conversion) SI unit Definition of SI unit Equation Watt (W) One watt is produced when 1 joule of work is done for 1 second.E. There are many different types of energy like translational. However the atmospheric pressure.Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes General Physics: Chapter 6 Energy. Liquid pressure acts equally in all tube in a dish of mercury. An object can be bent/sucked in increased is reduced. Work is done on an object only when the force applied on it produces motion. pressure. Energy Energy is the capacity to do work. Joule (J) One joule of work is done when a force of one Newton moves through a distance of one metre in the direction of the force. height which the object can be 3. W  FS W: Work done by constant force (J) F: Constant Force (Newton) S: Displacement of force 1 K . Power Work Definition Work done on an object is when a constant force is applied on the object producing a distance moving in the direction of the force. transmitted to all parts of the liquid. This is because particles space above the mercury in the of the water can flow and wrap tube is vacuum. It consists of an inverted 2. it is pressure will press on the object. Liquid mercury is used as its Hydraulics Systems density is very high and a shorter Purpose: Increase the output force barometer can be used to show from an input force. Work. m = mass (kg) v = velocity (m/s) P W or E t P. : mgh m = mass (kg). p: Density of liquid (kg/m ) g: Gravitational field strength This formula can only 1. A barometer is used to measure be used for solids. 6 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes .: mv 2 2 K.E. The directions.

2. Desirable Features 1. Can be connected in series to increase sensitivity. 4. 2. Expensive Yes Alcohol No (Out of Range) Yes (Transparent) Slow Measure lower temp. A voltage is produced when the junctions are at different temperatures. which vary rapidly due to its quick response and temperature at a point as wire junctions are small. 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes 7 . 3. General Equation Measured Physical Property  Total Range of Physical Property Types of Thermometers Clinical Thermometer. Expansion of column of liquid in capillary tube Voltage of thermocouple Expansion of a bimetallic strip The Kelvin Scale Zero: Absolute Zero (where object has nothing in the body) Unit: Kelvin (K). 3. Consists of 2 wires of different materials joined together to form 2 junctions. It increases as the temperature increases. Thermocouple Difference between Mercury / Alcohol thermometer Uniform Expansion Stick to Glass Reaction to temp. 3. Easy to read scale Safe Sensitive to temperature changes Wide range of temperature K   ( C )  273K 1oC increase = 1 K increase. changes Range Cost Poisonous Mercury Yes No (visible meniscus) Quick Measure Higher Temp. 4. Steam Point: Temperature where boiling water changes to steam at standard atmospheric pressure. Cheap No Thermocouple 1. Physical Properties : 1. 2.Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes Thermal Physics: Chapter 8 Temperature Temperature It is a measure of the degree of hotness of a body. Suitable for measuring wide temperature differences. Liquid in Glass Thermometer. Measured using a thermometer Temperature Scale The Celsius Scale Ice Point: Temperature of pure melting ice at o standard atmospheric pressure (0 C).

Volume of container decreases at constant temperature 2. Molecular Model of the 3 states of matter Solid Balanced. total pressure exerted increases. Temperature of gas increases at constant volume 3. arranged in regular pattern Vibrate about fixed positions No Molecules gain energy and vibrate more. Expands the most. the more space for particles to move into. separation between molecules increase slightly Pressure exerted by a gas Diffusion It is the spreading of molecules on their own accord without any external aid. The lower the density. Occurs in liquids and gases Occurs as particles are in random motion Depends on temperature and density (concentration) of fluid. 8 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes . Number of gas molecules increase. Yes Move at higher speed. Pressure increases when: 1. strong Small.Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes Thermal Physics: Chapter 9 Kinetic Model of Matter The kinetic theory of matter states that all matter is made up of large number of tiny atoms or molecules which are in continuous motion. mainly empty space Move randomly with high speed. When a gas molecule hit the walls of the container. Forces between Molecules Distance between molecules Motion of molecules Compression When heated No Molecules vibrate and move about more vigorously. collision with one another and walls increases. no pattern Vibrate to and fro Gas Negligible Far apart. colliding with one another and walls. separation between molecules increase slightly Liquid As strong as solid Slightly further apart. it exerts a force on the container.

The less energetic particles vibrate faster. thus it is faster than conduction. 9 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes Conduction: 1. Process continues layer by layer to spread the heat to cooler parts.Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes Thermal Physics: Chapter 10 Transfer of Thermal Energy Transfer of Thermal Energy: When 2 objects are placed in contact with one another. 5. Process where heat is transmitted from one place to another by the movement of heated particles of a gas/liquid. Electrons near heat source gain energy. Collision between neighbouring particles Flow of free electrons (conductors only) Mechanism: Change in Density. Good emitters are also good absorbers of radiation. Factors: Temperature of object. surface of object. The hotter fluid rises over the cooler fluid while the cooler fluid rushes in to take the space. Convection 3. their temperature eventually becomes the same. d. . Collisions between neighbouring particles. A method of heat transfer wher ethe source of heat transmit energy through electromagnetic waves. known as thermal equilibrium. Note: Heat travels from a region of high temperature to low temperature. Particles collide into less energetic neighbouring particles which gains kinetic energy. Particles nearer to heat source gain energy and vibrate faster. 7. Process continues to spread the heat to cooler parts. Conduction Convection Radiation Heat is transmitted layer by layer through a medium from one particle to another. move faster. collides into other particles. 6. causing it to rise. Free electrons can move between the particles and collide with other electrons. A medium is not required. The process continues and a convection current is formed. b. c. 4. b. Fluid nearer to heat source gains heat and expands. Expansion causes decrease in density for the fluid nearer to heat source. Flow of free electrons (conductors only) a. allowing the less energetic electrons to gain energy and move faster. a. Convection is faster than conduction as there is bulk movement (all the molecules get hot and move up. surface area of object. 2. c.

Applications of Mirrors: Optical Testing (Mirrors can make letters appear further away. Path it travels is a light ray. Normal: The perpendicular to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence. those which doesn’t are non-luminous. Characteristics of image formed by plane mirror Same size as object Laterally inverted Upright Virtual (not real. 1 0 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes . Reflected Ray: Light ray reflected from the reflecting surface. Angle of incidence = Angle of Reflection Regular Reflection Occurs at smooth surfaces. Angle of reflection (r): The angle between the reflected ray and the normal. Can be parallel beam. reflected ray and the normal of the reflecting surface lie on the same plane. burnt boots). Chapter 12. Parallel light rays incident on the surface are reflected in one direction only (all rays have the same incident/ reflected ray). Parallel light rays incident on the surface is reflected in all directions. Waves and Sound: Chapter 12 Light Speed: 3 x 108 Light Objects which give out light are luminous objects.Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes Light. cannot be captured on screen) The distance of the image from the mirror = distance of object from the mirror. Angle of incidence (i): The angle between the incident ray and the normal.1: Reflection of light Important terms: Incident Ray: Light ray hitting the reflecting surface. converging beam or diverging beam. The normals of all points of incidence are equal. Laws of Reflection: The incident ray. The normals are not parallel. saving space) Blind Corners (for drivers) Periscopes Diffuse Reflection Occurs at rough surfaces (sandpaper.

the greater the bending of light. This is due to different colours travelling different speeds in glass. Conditions for refraction: The light must pass from one optical medium to another of different optical density Angle of incidence more than 0°. Medium Diamond Glass Water Air Refractive Index.4 – 1. the ray of light moves away from the normal. sin i  Constant sin r When light travels from a less dense medium to a denser medium. Dispersion of white light. To find refractive index use same formula as above. Likewise. Applications of Total Internal Reflection: Periscope and Binoculars Optical Fibres Refractive Index The value of the constant ratio sin i/sin r for a ray passing from air/vacuum to a give medium is known as the refractive index of the medium. For 2 particular transparent media. the more the light is slowed down and the denser the medium is. the normal and the refracted ray all lie on the same plane. when light travels from a denser to a less dense medium.00 Daily Phenomena of Reflection Swimming pool appears shallower than it actually is. Refracted ray cannot escape from the glass. Violet deviates (slows down) the most.Chapter 12. Red deviates (slows down) the least. Refraction cannot happen and light is reflected at the glass / air boundary. regardless of its density.33 1. Can be found by taking c  sin 1 1   n When angle of incidence > Critical Angle: Total Internal Reflection. The greater the value of the refractive index. Laws of Reflection: The incident ray. 1 1 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes . 2.9 1. take . Refraction occurs as the speed of light varies in different media. Total Internal Reflection occurs when a ray of light which is incident on the boundary between 2 medium is totally reflected back into the first. the ray of light moves towards the normal. the refracted ray gets closer and closer to the surface of the glass. Bent objects in liquids. When angle of incidence < Critical Angle: Normal Refraction When angle of incidence = Critical Angle: Travels perpendicular to the surface (90°) As i is made bigger. To find the refractive index of the medium.5 1.2: Refraction of light Refraction is the bending effect of light as it passes through another medium of different density. When light enter a medium perpendicularly. no deviation of the ray is observed. the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant.

photograph enlarger Spotlight Inverted. . virtual Magnifying glass 1 2 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes Inverted. real. Height of Object Object Distance Action of a thin converging lens on a parallel beam of light parallel to the principal axis. A thicker lens has a shorter focal length and bends light rays to a greater extent whereas a thinner lens has a longer focal length and bends light rays to a shorter extent. real. diminished (smaller) Object lens of a telescope Action of a thin converging lens on a parallel beam of light NOT parallel to the principal axis. same size Inverted. magnified Upright. eyes Photocopier (equal sized copy) Projector. m. As light rays can pass through the lens from both sides. C and the principal focus F. same side of lens Image behind object.3: Converging Lens Features of a converging lens Optical Centre (C): The midway point between the lens surface on the principal axis Principal axis: The line passing symmetrically through the optical centre of the lens Principal focus (F): Point on the principal axis where rays of light converge after passing through the lens Focal length (f): Distance between the optical centre. each lens has 2 principal foci and 1 focal length on each side of the lens. same side of lens Uses Camera. real. It is perpendicular to principal axis.Chapter 12. Object distance Object distance is infinity (parallel rays) Object distance is more than 2 focal lengths Object distance is 2 focal length Object distance between 1 and 2 focal length Object distance is 1 focal length Object distance is less than 1 focal length Properties of Image Image Distance Focal length opposite of lens Between 1 and 2 focal length opposite lens 2 focal length opposite lens More than 2 focal length opposite lens Infinity. magnified. Linear magnification. is defined as Height of Image Image Distance or . Focal plane: Plane which passes through F and P.

Transverse waves are waves that travel perpendicular to the direction of motion. creating high pressure. Symbol:  3. Rarefactions are areas where the air particles are far apart. The crest is the highest points of the wave whereas the trough is the lowest points of the wave. 5. energy is transferred without the medium being transferred. Wavefront: This is an imaginary line on a live that joints all points that are in the same phase. SI unit: Hertz (Hz). more waves are produced in 1 second. 3. The SI Unit is seconds (s). When there is a higher frequency. Frequency (f):It is the number of complete waves per second. 1 3 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes . Compressions are region where the air particles are close together. 2. 4. Waves Properties of waves: 1. 4. 3. 5. It is usually drawn by joining the wave crests. 2. A wavelength is the shortest distance between any 2 corresponding points in a wave. Longitudinal Waves are waves that travel parallel to the direction of motion. 1.Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes Light. 1. thus the period will be shorter. 1. Waves transfer energy from 1 point to another. 3. Amplitude is the maximum displacement from the rest or centre position (high of a crest or depth of a trough). 2. Waves and Sound: Chapter 13 Waves A wave is a phenomenon in which energy is transferred through vibrations. 3. Wave Terms 1. SI unit: metre. In other words. 1. The source of any wave is a vibration or oscillation. They form compressions and rarefactions. Period (T): This is the time taken for 1 point on the wave to complete 1 oscillation. 2. 2. In waves. In order words. 2. Examples of such waves include rope waves and water waves. Examples are sound wave and pressure waves. the number of occurrences within a given time period. SI unit: metre. it is the time taken to produce 1 wave. creating low pressure.

5 m/s. Wavespeed: It is the distance of the wave moved in 1 second in the medium.7: Refraction and Reflection of Waves 1. For example. On the other hand. Real life example: If the crest of an ocean wave moves a distance of 20 meters in 10 seconds. A displacement-time graph shows the displacement of a single particle at a particular position o the particle as time changes Both graphs can be used to represent a longitudinal or transverse wave. the wavespeed is always the same unless the medium is changed from solid to liquid. for sound. Shallow Deep water water Faster Slower speed speed2 Longer Shorter wavelength wavelength Similar Frequency 1 It only changes if the source of the waves is changed (e. then the speed of this ocean wave is 2. 2. 3. vibrating faster) This is due to the wave having more energy in deep water (more space) 2 1 4 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes . the speed and the wavelength changes.g. Chapter 13. It is measured in metre per second. if the crest of an ocean wave moves a distance of 25 meters in 10 seconds (the same amount of time). frequency and speed remains the same throughout.1. Chapter 13. The wavelength.) When water waves get reflected. then the speed of the ocean wave is 2 m/s. The frequency of the wave does not change1.) When water waves get refracted (move from deep to shallow water). It is dependent of the medium itself.6: Graphical Representation of Waves A displacement-position graph shows how high or low a wave is at a particular position. the only thing that changes is the direction. 2. The faster wave travels a greater distance in the same amount of time. Sponges are used to absorb the reflections of the water waves.

) Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves.) They obey the laws of reflection and refraction.) The wave equation is applicable here too.) They can travel through vacuum (do not require any medium to travel) 4. 3. 5. They will slow down when travelling through water or glass. Skin cancer and blindness Mutations in cells and severe burns to the skin. 2.0 x 108 per second in vacuum. They are electric and magnetic fields that oscillate at 90° to each other. Waves and Sound: Chapter 14 Electromagnetic Spectrum 1.) They transfer energy from one place to another. Only their speeds and wavelength will change.) They carry no electric charge (they are neither positively or negatively charged) 8.) Their frequencies do not change when travelling from one medium to another. 7. 6.Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes Light.) They travel at 3. Cancers and cell mutation 1 5 . Uses of Electromagnetic Waves Wave Radio Waves Microwaves Infra-red Light Ultra-violet X rays Gamma Rays Uses Radio transmitters Radar Television Microwave ovens Communication system Thermal imaging Remote controls Optic fibres Seeing! Washing powder (whiter than white) Security marking Taking images of the skeleton Cancer treatment Sterilisation of equipment Dangers None 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes Internal heating of body tissue Burns skin Strong light causes damage to vision.

Compressions: Air molecules are close together. Waves and Sound: Chapter 15 Sound Sound is a form of energy. Air: 330 . Human: Between 20 Hz and 20 kHz1 Dog: <20 kHz Bats: Between 10 kHz and 120 kHz. The energy is passed from 1 point to another as a wave.) Speed of sound differs in different medium. Sound is produced by vibrating sources placed in a medium (air).) The range of frequencies which a person can hear is known as the range of audibility.) The Wave Equation can also be used to find the speed of sound (refer to page 11) 5.) Ultrasound is the sounds with frequencies above the upper limit of the human range of audibility. 11.) The speed of sound is solids like metals are so fast that we can assume/ignore the time it takes to travel a distance.) Applications for ultrasound include: Determining depth of seabed Locating sunken ships / shoals of fish Cleaning small dirt from jewellery. causing any reflected sound to follow closely behind the direct sound and prolonging the original sound. 2.) Pitch is a factor distinguishing various sounds The higher the frequency of a note.) Reverberation occurs when the surface is too close. forms low pressure. 7. Echoes 6. It travels in air through a series of compressions or rarefactions. Quality control (checking for cracks) in concrete Medical applications (development of foetus) Loudness and Pitch 12.) Echoes are formed when a sound is reflected off a hard and flat surface.) Speed of sound differs because: Differences in strength of interatomic forces Closeness of atoms in the 3 states Temperature 4. 8. Sound Sound is an example of longitudinal wave. 1 6 2009 Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes . Rarefactions: Air molecules are far apart.340m/s Water: 1500m/s Glass:5000m/s 3. Ultrasound 9. forms high pressure. 10. Its small wavelength means less diffraction and the echo formed is more precise in direction. the higher the pitch Pitch is measured in hertz (Hz).Pure Physics SA2 Overall Revision Notes Light. 13. the louder the sound Sound is measured by decibels (dB).) Loudness is a factor distinguishing between various sounds. The larger the amplitude of vibration.) Echoes refer to the repetition of a sound resulting from reflection of the sound waves.

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