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Preface

Respected customer of Yuchai:

Thank you for choosing products of Yuchai.

YC6105G and YC6108G series construction machinery diesel engine are developed by
Yuchai based on YC6105QC, YC6108Q type automotive diesel engine to meet the
requirements of the consumer market. YC6108ZG series construction machinery diesel
engine are introduced with exhaust turbocharging based on YC6105G, which may
enhance power and economy further, lower its noise and emission. The series have the
advantages of the original vehicle diesel engine, such as compact structure, convenient
maintenance operation security and reliability, quick start, guaranteed power, high fuel
efficiency and so on. The governor performance, cooling system, lubrication system,
intake and exhaust system, power output system, exterior installation and connection of
the sets can be changed according to the special requirements of mechanical engineering.
They cover a wide power range from 63 to 118Kw, speed from 1500-2800r/m. it is an
excellent choice to loader, excavator, forklift, bulldozer, crane, truck-mounted concrete
two-axis towing tractor, mobile air compressor, combine harvest and so on. The manual
presents the technical specifications, the main technical structure and basic knowledge
about operating and maintaining the engine. Meanwhile, it also illustrates some of the
primary troubles and troubleshooting methods. The user can understand and master the
operation and maintenance of the diesel engine by reading the manual in detail, which
would increase its economic benefit. The diesel engine series include many models which
will increase continually, and so the manual can not enumerate all the models. The
manual only presents the commonness in detail, and so the actual structure, connection
dimensions, performance parameter, its accessories of other models may differ from this
model. Along with the development of the consumer market and production techniques,
the diesel engine will be improved and modified continually. In general, the manual will not
be changed. Please pay special attention to the differences.

Yuchai Machinery Co. Ltd.

August 2002
Contents

Fig. I. Outline of model YC6105G, YC6108G diesel engine.................................................... ()


Fig. II. Outline of model YC6108ZG turbocharged diesel engine............................................. ()
Fig. III. Speed regulation and full load curves of model YC6105G diesel engine ..................... ()
Fig. IV. Speed regulation and full load curves of model YC6108G diesel engine ..................... ()
Fig. V. Speed regulation and full load curves of model YC6108ZG diesel engine ................... ()
1. Engine and accessories specifications.......................................................................... 1
1.1 Engine specifications ..........................................................................................................7
1.2 Accessories specifications...................................................................................................7
1.2.1 Fuel injection pump..................................................................................................7
1.2.2 Fuel injector assembly..............................................................................................8
1.2.3 Fuel filter..................................................................................................................8
1.2.4 Oil filter....................................................................................................................8
1.2.5 Air cleaner ................................................................................................................8
1.2.6 Thermostat................................................................................................................8
1.2.7 Oil pump ..................................................................................................................8
1.2.8 Water pump ..............................................................................................................8
1.2.9 Fan............................................................................................................................9
1.2.10 Starter .....................................................................................................................9
1.2.11 Charging generator .................................................................................................9
1.2.12 Air compressor .......................................................................................................9
1.2.13 Belt .........................................................................................................................9
1.2.14 Turbocharger ..........................................................................................................9
1.3 Oil capacity (L): 17.5 (14 in oil sump) .........................................................................9
1.4 Fuel, oil, coolant and auxiliary material in diesel engine....................................................9
1.4.1 Fuel ..........................................................................................................................9
1.4.2 Oil ..........................................................................................................................10
1.4.3 Coolant ...................................................................................................................10
1.5 valve and injection timing.................................................................................................10
1.5.1 Valve timing diagram (at crankshaft angle) shown in figure 1-1 ...........................10
1.5.2 Static fuel supply advance angle ............................................................................10
1.6 Various pressure and temperature range............................................................................11
1.6.1 Oil pressure (MPa) .................................................................................................11
1.6.2 Various temperature range () ..............................................................................11
1.7 Main parts fit clearances and wear limits..........................................................................11
1.8 Tightening torques and methods of main bolt and nuts.....................................................13
2 Main components and adjustment ............................................................................... 13
2.1 Cylinder block...................................................................................................................13
2.2 Cylinder head and valve train ...........................................................................................14
2.3 Timing gear and belt driving .............................................................................................18
2.4 Crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism.............................................................................19
2.5 Fuel system .......................................................................................................................21
2.6 Lubricating system............................................................................................................28
2.7 Cooling system..................................................................................................................30
2.8 Starter, electrical system and indicators ............................................................................32
2.9 Air compressor ..................................................................................................................34
2.10 Turbocharger ...................................................................................................................34
2.11 Steering pump ...................................................................................................................1
3. Operation of diesel engine ............................................................................................ 1
3.1 Preparation of diesel engine before starting ........................................................................1
3.2 Starting the diesel engine. ...................................................................................................1
3.3 Operating the diesel engine.................................................................................................1
3.4 Stopping the engine.............................................................................................................2
4. Maintenance of the diesel engine.................................................................................. 2
4.1 Daily maintenance...............................................................................................................3
4.2 First order maintenance.......................................................................................................3
4.3 Second order maintenance ..................................................................................................3
4.4 Third order maintenance .....................................................................................................4
5 Troubleshooting.............................................................................................................. 5
5.1 Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................................5
5.1.1 Diesel engine can not start .......................................................................................5
5.1.2 Insufficient power output .........................................................................................6
5.1.3 Abnormal noise during engine operation .................................................................7
5.1.4 Exhaust with black smoke........................................................................................7
5.1.5 Exhaust with white smoke .......................................................................................8
5.1.6 Exhaust with blue smoke .........................................................................................8
5.1.7 Too low oil pressure ...............................................................................................10
5.1.8 Too high oil pressure ..............................................................................................10
5.1.9 Too high oil temperature and oil consumption.......................................................10
5.1.10 Too high cooling solution temperature.................................................................11
5.2 Common trouble and troubleshooting remedies for injection pump.................................11
5.2.1 Injection failure ......................................................................................................11
5.2.2 Uneven injection ....................................................................................................11
5.2.3 Insufficient fuel supply...........................................................................................12
5.3 Common trouble and troubleshooting remedies for governor ..........................................12
5.4 Common trouble for fuel supply pump .............................................................................13
5.5 Common trouble and troubleshooting remedies for injector.............................................13
5.6 Common trouble for electrical system ..............................................................................14
6 Appendix 1 ................................................................................................................... 15
6.1 Note for the rated power, maximal torque and minimal fuel consumption efficiency ......15
6.2 Common units conversion.................................................................................................15
Appendix 2 Anti-freeze solution and application guide .................................................... 15
Respected customers of Yuchai
In order to enhance engine operation and safety and increase its economic benefit, please
pay special attention to following the precautions for safe driving:

1) Check the level of the lubricating oil and cooling water before starting the diesel
engine, add to adequacy if necessary, or else the crankshaft, the plunger, the cylinder
gasket and cylinder head would be damaged due to the lack of oil and water.

2) Check the water temperature, the oil pressure, the transmitters and the instruments,
determine the location of the troubles and eliminate them if necessary.

3) If the oil filter element is cleaned or replaced during maintenance, it should first be
filled with oil and then re-installed. Moreover, after installation it is necessary to start
the engine and run it at idle speed, and then to get out of the drivers cab and check
carefully for leakage. If leakage occurs, repairs should be performed immediately,
otherwise this will cause crankshaft failure due to lack of oil.

4) For the diesel engine which has not run for a long time or the main engine which
needs to be started in the morning, every time before driving the vehicle, the diesel
engine should be started first and run at idle speed for 10 minutes to warm-up and
make all instruments function at normal status. Do not press the accelerator pedal
abruptly when the engine is cold. Increasing speed rapidly may damage all kinds of
instruments and their corresponding parts, accelerate wear of moving parts, and
shorten the engines life.

5) Whenever the vehicle or diesel engine experiences a problem stop it promptly and
perform repairs immediately. Forbid running a malfunctioning vehicle.

6) The new engine should perform the break-in together with the main engine. The
power and speed should be changed from low to high, and the maximum should not
be more than 80 percent of the rated power and the break-in time not less than 50
hours. After break-in, replace the oil, the filter element of the oil filter, the injection
pump and the oil in the governor.

7) For the turbocharged engine, idle for 3 minutes and then increase the speed before
starting and stopping to avoid the damage of the turbocharger due to the lack of oil or
overheat.

8) As lubricating oil for diesel engines, please use high quality lubricating oil Yuchai
brand XC-500 series 20W/50CD, 100W/40CD, Yuchai brand YC-800 series
20W/50CF-4/SC, 10W/40CF-4/SC exclusively sold by Yuchai Premium Lubricating Oil
Co. Ltd.. to guarantee operation performance, working reliability and endurance of
diesel engines.

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9) Be sure not to refit the oil pressure transmitter or too low oil pressure warner without
permission by using oil hose to connect mechanical meter, or else injection due to the
crack of the oil hose or oil hose touching the exhaust pipe would lead to fire.

10) Check for looseness or losing of the bolts of the connecting flange between the
exhaust pipe and muffler. Check for gas leaks of the seal ring, eliminate it completely
to avoid fire if necessary.

11) Check for looseness or losing of the connecting bolts between the exhaust manifold
and cylinder head. Check for gas leaks of the seal gasket, eliminate it completely to
avoid fire if necessary.

12) Make sure there are no damage and gas leaks around the connecting pipe between
the exhaust manifold and muffler, replace or repair it if necessary. Eliminate the gas
leaks completely to avoid fire. The inflammable components, such as board, rubber
hose and wires should not be close to exhaust pipe line. The minimum safe distance
between the flammables and exhaust pipe line is 50 mm.

13) During daily maintenance, especially before starting the engine or after stopping the
engine, check for fuel or oil leaks of the engine, eliminate it completely to avoid
environmental pollution or fire if necessary.

14) Do not dismantle the parts of the engine at will to avoid unexpected calamity, because
any parts have its special performance.

15) Please go to exclusive shop for Yuchai diesel spare parts to purchase the original
accessories, especially high and low pressure oil hose of fuel system, to assure the
quality and avoid the troubles and damage.

16) Refitting the engine for other special purpose should be done under the agreement
and instruction of Yuchai technical service station or marketing department to avoid
the troubles or accident.

17) When engine is running:

a) Do not touch the high temperature components to avoid scald.

b) Be not close to the rotating components, such as the fan, the belt, the generator,
the advancer and so on to avoid the damage.

c) Do not open the filter cap of the oil tank to add oil.

d) Do not add the cooling water.

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e) Do not open the filter cap of the water tank.

f) Do not stay too long in unventilated place to avoid suffocation due to engine
exhaust sediment.

g) Do not make the tools close to the moving components.

18) A diesel engine can run normally only under definite environmental conditions. The
required temperature range is from 15 to 40, and the altitude should be below
2000m. It is prohibited to make it run submerged under water and in fire conditions. If
the environment is of heavy sand or dust, please pay more attention to cleaning the air
filter element and if the filter element is damaged, replace it at once. When the
temperature is lower than -15 or higher than 40 or the altitude is higher than
2000m, the user should consult with a technical Yuchai service station and measures
should be taken to ensure the normal operation of the engine.

19) Please operate and maintain the diesel engine correctly. Otherwise, noise, exhaust
soot, and pollutant emission of the diesel engine may increase, causing environmental
problems.

20) The coolant of the cooling system must be an anti-freeze solution; otherwise, trouble
caused by this cannot be remedied under warranty.

21) Hoist and transport according to the precautions on the package. Diesel engines
should be stored in a ventilated, dry, and clean place free of corrosive material.
Expiration of the safe-keeping seal is 12 months from the date of leaving the
manufacturer.

Yuchai Machinery Co. Ltd.

2002, 8

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1. Engine and accessories specifications

1.1 Engine specifications


Model code Vertical, in-line, liquid-cooled and four-stroke engine
Type Direct injection
Combustion chamber
Cylinder number 6
Cylinder bore (mm) 105 for YC6105G series engine
108 for YC6108G series engine
Stroke (mm) 125
Displacement (L) 6.494 for YC6105G series engine
6.871 for YC6108G series engine
Compression ratio 16.5:1 for YC6105G series engine
17.5:1 for YC6108G series engine
Rated power /speed (kW/r/min) 63~118/1500~2800
Max torque/speed (N.m/r/min) 390~560/1400~1600
Min. specific fuel consumption at 228.5
full-load (g/kW.h)
Oil consumption (g/kW.h) 2
Exhaust temperature () 650(normal) or 550 (turbocharged)
Soot (BSU) 4.0
Fire order 1-5-3-6-2-4
Rotation direction of crankshaft Counterclockwise (face to flywheel end)
Lubrication system Combination of splash and pressure
Cooling system Pressurized circulating liquid cooling
Start system Electric
Net weight (kg) 60050

1.2 Accessories specifications

1.2.1 Fuel injection pump


Model code: YC6105G series: 6A95
YC6108G series: 6AD95
Type in line plunger pump
Plunger diameter YC6105G series: 9.5 (right)
YC6108G series: 9.5 (right)
Plunger stroke(mm) YC6105G series: 8
YC6108G series: 10

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Delivery valve diameter(mm) 6
Governor type mechanical variable-speed governor or
mechanical minimum-maximum governor
Injection advance unit type: mechanical centrifugal type
Automatic injection advance angle: 56
Fuel supply pump type: plunger
Fuel supply pressure (MPa): 0.1
Fuel supply quantity (100r/min) (mL/min): 1000

1.2.2 Fuel injector assembly


Model code: YC6105G series: PF68S19
YC6108G series: CKBL68S004
Type: long multi-hole nozzle
Precision pair model code: YC6105G series: ZCK154S9
YC6108G series: ZCK155S52
Opening pressure (MPa) YC6105G series: 200.2
YC6108G series: 230.5

1.2.3 Fuel filter


Model code: 2CS0712A
Type: paper element and rotation

1.2.4 Oil filter


Model code: J1012 or JS0818
Type: paper element

1.2.5 Air cleaner


Model code: KW 1833A15 or KW2139A2 or
KD2410 or KW2337B
Type: paper element

1.2.6 Thermostat
Model code: 145
Type: wax(single valve)
opening temperature(): 702
full opening temperature(): 782

1.2.7 Oil pump


Rotor model code: JZX2528
Type: rotor
Displacement (0.45MPa, 2000rpm) (L/min): 47

1.2.8 Water pump


Type: centrifugal

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Flow rate (3560rpm, lift=12m) (L/min): 300

1.2.9 Fan
Type: axial flow suction or blowing
Flow rate (3560rpm, lift=12m) (L/min): 490, 500, 540, 560,
580, 600, 630, 670

1.2.10 Starter
Model code: ST614A(QD275)
Voltage (V): 24
Power (kW): 5.1

1.2.11 Charging generator


Model code: JFW25 or JFW27
Type: brushless excitation
Voltage (V): 28
Power (kW): 0.5 or 0.75
Earth type: negative ground

1.2.12 Air compressor


Model code: Z-0, 15/8
Type: air-cooled single cylinder piston
Working pressure: 0.8
Displacement (1400rpm) (m3/min) 0.165

1.2.13 Belt
Model code: C1450 or C1500

1.2.14 Turbocharger
Model code: H1C

1.3 Oil capacity (L): 17.5 (14 in oil sump)

1.4 Fuel, oil, coolant and auxiliary material in diesel engine

1.4.1 Fuel
Summer 0# model code RC-0 GB252-81
Winter -10# model code RC-10

When temperature in winter is -20, 20# diesel fuel is acceptable and its model code is
RC-20. If the temperature reaches to -30, -35# should be chosen and its model code is
RC-35.

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1.4.2 Oil
The high quality oil 15W/40CD/SF(acceptable ambient temperature -1540) is
recommended. It is produced and saled by Yuchai High Quality Oil Ltd. Co. 5W30CD/SF
(ambient temperature -2525) is suitable for plateau and cold area. The oil may also
be class as required by GB11122-89L-ECC. In summer, 40# should be chosen, in winter
30#. The bad oil should be forbidden, otherwise it will detriment the diesel.

1.4.3 Coolant
The coolant should be clean soft water. The liquid with anti-freeze and anti-rust is better
(The normal anti-freeze liquid's specifications, operation, replacement and requirement
are shown in Appendix 2). The quantity in the coolant container is 25L.

1.5 valve and injection timing

1.5.1 Valve timing diagram (at crankshaft angle) shown in

figure 1-1
(Cold valve clearance: where intake valve 0.4mm, exhaust valve 0.45mm)

Intake valve advance open angle: 17 before TDC


Exhaust valve lag close angle: 43 after BDC
Exhaust valve advance open angle: 61 before TDC
Intake valve lag close angle: 18 after BDC

Figure 1-1 Valve timing diagram

1.5.2 Static fuel supply advance angle


YC6105G series: 182
YC6108G series: 152

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1.6 Various pressure and temperature range

1.6.1 Oil pressure (MPa)


High speed 0.6
Idle speed 0.1

1.6.2 Various temperature range ()


Water Outlet temperature (): 95
Oil temperature (): 100
Exhaust temperature (): 650

1.7 Main parts fit clearances and wear limits


Table 1
Assembly Wear
No. Description Prescribed dimensions Type of fit
tolerance limit

Exhaust valve seat insert/outer diameter +0.025 +0.122


1 40.5 0 /40.5 + 0.097 interference fit 0.072~0.122
of exhaust valve seat
Intake valve seat insert/outer diameter +0.025 +0.122
2 48 0 /48 + 0.097 interference fit 0.072~0.122
of intake valve seat
Valve guide/cylinder head valve guide +0.018 +0.046
3 16 0 /16 + 0.028 interference fit 0.010~0.046
hole

+0.022 0.040 radial


4 Valve guide/exhaust valve stem 9.5 0 /9.5 0.062 0.040~0.084 0.30
clearance

+0.022 0.025 radial


5 Valve guide/intake valve stem 9.5 0 /9.5 0.047 0.025~0.069 0.25
clearance
6 Valve recession height clearance 0.8~1.2 2.5

+0.021 0.020 radial


7 Rocker arm bush/ rocker arm shaft 25 0 /25 0.041 0.020~0.062 0.20
clearance

+0.052 0.020 radial


8 Valve tappet/cylinder block tappet hole 28 0 /28 0.041 0.020~0.093 0.20
clearance
Camshaft bearing bush/camshaft +0.03 0.060 radial
9 55.5 0 /55.5 0.079 0.06~0.109 0.25
journal clearance

+0.025 0.025 radial


10 Timing idle gear bush/idle gear shaft 30 0 /30 0.050 0.020~0.066 0.12
clearance
Thickness of timing idle gear /idle gear 0 +0.17 axial
11 28 0.08 /28 + 0.07 0.07~0.25
shaft clearance

Top ring groove height/top gas ring +0.11 axial


YC6105G

0
12 3 + 0.09 /3 0.015 0.09~0.125
series

height clearance

Second ring groove height/second +0.07 0 axial


13 3 + 0.05 /3 0.015 0.050~0.085
gas ring height clearance

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Oil ring groove height /oil ring +0.06 0 axial
14 5 + 0.04 /5 0.015 0.04~0.075
height clearance

End gap when ring inserted in the top gas ring 0.45~0.60
15 gauge with a 105mm inner second gas ring end gap 0.30~0.45 2.5
diameter oil ring 0.25~0.40

Cylinder sleeve/max. diameter of +0.035 0 radial


16 105 0 /104.87 0.03 0.130~0.182 0.42
piston skirt clearance

Top ring groove height/top gas ring +0.07 0.01 axial


17 2.85 + 0.05 /2.816 0.03 0.094~0.134
height clearance
Second ring groove height/second +0.07 0 axial
18 2.5 + 0.05 /2.5 0.015 0.050~0.085
gas ring height clearance
YC6108G series

Oil ring groove height /oil ring +0.06 0 axial


19 5 + 0.04 /5 0.015 0.040~0.075
height clearance
End gap when ring inserted in the top gas ring 0.45~0.60
20 gauge with a 108mm inner second gas ring end gap 0.30~0.45 2.5
diameter oil ring 0.25~0.40

Cylinder sleeve/max. diameter of +0.035 0 radial


21 108 0 /107.87 0.03 0.130~0.195 0.42
piston skirt clearance

+0.016 0 radial
22 Connecting rod bearing /crankpin 70 + 0.06 /70 0.03 0.06~0.146 0.20
clearance

+0.036 0 radial
23 Connecting rod bush/piston pin 38 + 0.025 /38 0.011 0.025~0.047 0.12
clearance
Cylinder block main bearing /crankshaft +0.115 0 radial
24 85 + 0.05 /85 0.035 0.05~0.15
journal clearance

0.013 0
25 Piston pin/pin boss 38 0.024 /38 0.011 interference fit 0.002~0.024

axial
26 Clearance of crankshaft thrust face 0.10~0.30
clearance

+0.12 0.04 axial


27 Spacer /camshaft thrust washer 5 + 0.06 /5 0.08 0.10~0.20
clearance

28 Backlash of gear in mesh gear backlash 0.07~0.3

29 Compression clearance clearance 1.0~1.2

Adjust
Width of oil pump rotor /depth of bore in 0.02 +0.098
30 28 0.041 /28 + 0.065 clearance with 0.085~0.139
oil pump body
washer.
Diameter of the bore in oil pump +0.046 0.100 radial
31 67 0 /67 0.146 0.1~0.192
body/outer diameter of outer rotor clearance
Oil pump shaft/diameter of the oil pump 0 +0.059 radial
32 18 0.011 /18 + 0.032 0.032~0.070 0.12
body bushing clearance

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1.8 Tightening torques and methods of main bolt and nuts
Table 2
Tightening Tightening
No. Description No. Description
torque(Nm) torque(Nm)
1 Main bearing cap nut 220-260 6 Dampener bolt of pulley 300
(starting-crank jaw)
2 Main bearing blot 150-170 7 Flywheel housing bolt 100-108
3 Connecting rod bolt 170-210 8 Flywheel bolt 170-210
4 Cylinder head bolt 210-250 9 Injector assembly bolt 20-30
(or nut)
5 Camshaft timing gear bolt 160-200 10 Cast iron sump bolt 27-34
Pressed-steel sump bolt 20-30

Except for special declaration, the tightening torques prescription of the bolts, which dont
be included in Table 2, are shown in Table 3.

Table 3
Tightening Tightening
Screw thread Screw thread
torque(Nm) torque(Nm)
M6 8-12 M12 61-68
M8 16-20 M14 115-129
M10 27-34 M16 176-197

Sealant should be spread on the inner and outer threads for the plugs used in the water
passage and oil gallery. The recommended tightening torques are shown in table 4.

Table 4
Screw thread Z1/8 Z1/4 Z3/8 Z!/2 Z3/4
Tightening torque (Nm) 8-14 24-34 47-68 47-68 68-95

2 Main components and adjustment

2.1 Cylinder block


The cylinder block forms a mono-block with crankcase which has an extending skirt down
to below the crankshaft axis, and is cast in alloyed gray cast iron. Strengthened by evenly
distributed ribs, the cylinder block has sufficient strength and stiffness.

The cylinder block is designed to wet liner type, and has good wear resistance. In case of
leak and cavitation, two oil resistant rubber seals are mounted under a liner.

There are 26 threaded holes in the top surface. In YC6105G series engines, the cylinder
heads are fastened through cylinder head studs and nuts. In YC6108G, YC6108zG series

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engines, the cylinder heads are fastened through cylinder head bolts.

The exhaust manifold, starting motor and oil cleaner are mounted on the right of the
cylinder block (as seen from the output end).

The intake manifold and high pressure fuel pipe are mounted on the top left of the cylinder
block. The oil dipstick is mounted on the lower left and there are two mark lines on it. The
oil level should be close to the top mark before starting the diesel engine and between the
two marks during the operation.

The flywheel is mounted on the front end of the cylinder block.

The back end of cylinder block and the timing gear housing cover form the timing gear
housing in which timing gears are mounted. The oil pump is driven by the lower idle gear.
The corresponding marks on the timing gear housing cover and damper belt pulley are
used to check fuel supply timing and valve timing.

The oil pan to store lubricating oil is mounted on the bottom of the cylinder block. It is
forged from cast iron or pressed from steel plate, which is according to different inquires.
Because the customers need different gradient, the oil pans are of different type. The oil
pan gasket is made of oil resistant rubber. During the oil pan installation, the bolt
tightening torque should be accordance with Table 2. If the tightening torque is too small, it
will leak; but if the tightening torque is too large, the pressure will make the gasket break.
The tightening studs should be tightened in a diagonal order. The oil drain plug is mounted
under the oil pan to drain the oil when exchanging it.

2.2 Cylinder head and valve train


Cylinder head The cylinder head is made of alloyed cast iron. Every three cylinders
share one cylinder head. There are 26 cylinder head studs (which in YC6108G series are
bolts), 14 studs (bolts) per cylinder, 2 of which are shared by the two neighboring cylinders.
Because the preloaded torque put on the cylinder studs (bolts) is a little big, the tightening
order of the nuts (bolts) should be controlled strictly to reduce the distortion and ensure
the sealability. The final tightening torque is 23020N.m and completed in three times
(Figure 2-1).

First: tighten to 80~90 N.m;

Next: tighten to 140~180N.m;

Finally: tighten to
210~250N.m.
Figure 2-1 The tightening order of the cylinder head nuts

All the nuts (bolts) should be tightened in prescribed torque and order after wear-in.

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Cylinder gasket The cylinder gasket is located between the bottom of the cylinder
head and the top of the cylinder block and made of steel skeleton asbestos plate, which
seals cooling water, oil and the high pressure air in combustion chamber. Sticking
resistant dope has spread on the gasket surface, so when reinstalling the cylinder head
the gasket should be changed.

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Valves Every cylinder has one intake valve and one exhaust valve in the cylinder
head, and intake and exhaust ports are arranged on opposite sides of the cylinder head
respectively. Valve seat inserts made of high quality heat resistant steel are mounted in
the intake and exhaust ports of the cylinder head to form durable valve-seat pairs and can
be replaced after wearing out. In the YC6105CA series diesel engine, The valve face
angle of the intake valve is 30, and the angle of the exhaust valve is 45; and in the
YC6108CA series diesel engine, The valve face angles of both the intake valve and the
exhaust valve are 45. The valve recession height should be 10.20mm (Figure 2-2).

Valve guides can also be replaced. After the valve guide pressing into the cylinder head,
the distance between the valve guide bottom surface and cylinder head bottom surface
should be 350.5mm for ensuring the performance (Figure 2-3).

Figure 2-3
Figure 2-2 Valve recession checking

The valve train The engine overhead valve mechanism is composed of the valve
assembly and its driving train. The valve assembly includes the valves, valve springs,
spring seats, and lock halves, valve guides and valve seats. The valve driving train
contains the camshaft, tappet, push rod, rocker arm, and camshaft timing gear.

The components of the valve assembly are mounted on the cylinder head. The intake and
exhaust valves are frictionally welded with two alloys respectively. Their stems are made
of the same silicon-chrome alloy, and alloy F203 is welded onto the valve face of the
exhaust valves.

In order to ensure the diesel engine work normally, the user should check and adjust the
valve clearances in regular. When the engine is in a cold state, the intake valve clearance
is 0.40.05mm, and the exhaust valve clearance is 0.450.05mm. The method of
checking and adjusting valve clearances is as follows: Rotate the crankshaft to the
position that the first piston is on the compression TDC, when the No. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 10
valves can be adjusted; and then rotate the crankshaft 360, when the No. 4,5,8,9,11
and 12 valves can be adjusted. The adjustment can be achieved through adjustment bolts.
First, loose the tightening nut of the adjustment bolt and screw the adjustment bolt out and
in. Then check the clearance between rocker arm and the end of valve stem with feeler

16
gauge. If it is accordance with the requirement, fasten the tightening nut (Figure 2-4).

The camshaft has 7 bearing journals and 12 cam lobs. There are holes in the second an
fifth bushings to deliver oil to the cylinder head, so it is important to make sure the oil
passage is unobstructed during installation.

The axial clearance of the camshaft controlled by thrust washer must be between
0.10~0.20mm (Figure 2-5).If the clearance is too small, the camshaft timing gear and
thrust washer will be seized. If the clearance is too large, the camshaft will move axially
and the valve timing will not be exact and be easy to make the oil hole which deliver the oil
to the cylinder head obstructed and then cannot feed the oil.

Figure 2-5

Figure 2-4 checking and adjustment of the valve


clearance

There are 6 rocker arms for the intake and exhaust valves respectively in a diesel engine.
During manufacture, the rocker arm head contacting the push rod end is embedded with
an insert which is case hardened by carbonitriding to ensure a high degree of hardness
and wear resistance.

Every three cylinders share one rocker arm shaft. Every rocker arm shaft is supported by
three rocker arm shaft supports. During the installation after examine and repair, connect
the oil passage in the cylinder head to the center rocker arm shaft support with an oil pipe.
There is a oil passage in the center of rocker arm shaft, through which oil is feed to the
other two rocker arm shaft supports.

Removing and installing valve springs requires use of a special tool, shown in Figure 2-6.

17
Figure 2-6
The intake manifold is made of cast aluminum. Depending on different type of engine, the
intake manifolds are divided into three types. In first type, an intake manifold is shared by
three cylinders. So, there are two intake manifolds in one diesel engine, which are
accompanied by cyclone separator and paper element of two levels air filter, KD2410.
Every intake manifold has its own air filter. The second type intake manifold is integral and
accompanied by cyclone separator and paper element of single level or two levels air filter,
KW1833A or KW2139A2. The filter is directly amounted on the top surface of the intake
manifold through bracket and connecting with the intake manifold through the soft intake
pipe and intake elbow. The third type intake manifold is also integral but used by
turbocharged engine and accompanied by cyclone separator and paper element of single
level or two levels air filter, KW1833A, KW2193A2 or KW2337B16. The filter connects with
the intake pipe of the turbocharger through the joint pipe. The turbocharged air flows into
the cylinder from the outlet port of the turbocharger, through joint pipe and intake elbow,
and enters into cylinders. In order to make sure that the diesel engine can operate
properly and extend its life span, clean the filter core of the air cleaner after 50~100
operating hours. If the diesel engine operates under dusty conditions, reduce the cleaning
period. Cleaning procedures: Open the cap of the air cleaner and take out the filter core;
clean the dust and dirt off the case and cavity of the air cleaner; clean it with diesel fuel
and dry it by blowing. As for the core, brush the dust off the exterior case with soft brush
and blow inside out with compressed air ( watch out not to break the filter core). Then blow
the dust off the exterior case and assemble them back. After long time use, if the filter core
is worn out, replace it timely to guarantee the life span of the diesel engine.

2.3 Timing gear and belt driving


The camshaft is driven by gears. The crankshaft timing gear is the driving gear. It drives
the injection pump gear and camshaft timing gear upwards through a large idle gear and
drives the oil pump gear downwards through a small oil pump idle gear. There are timing
marks on the crankshaft timing gear, the timing idle gear, injection pump gear and the
camshaft timing gear. Make sure their relative positions are correct to prevent their
performance from being affected.

18
The backlash should be 0.07mm~0.30mm, Figure 2-7.

1, camshaft timing gear; 2, timing idle gear; 3, high pressure fuel pump;
4, crankshaft timing gear; 5, oil pump idle gear; 6, oil pump driving pump
Figure 2-7

2.4 Crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism


The crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism is the engines main working mechanism. It
converts the reciprocating motion of the piston to the rotary motion of the crankshaft, the
force exerted on the piston to the torque on the crankshaft and then the power output. It
consists of the piston-connecting rod assembly and the crankshaft-flywheel assembly.

The piston-connecting rod assembly is composed of the piston, piston pin, piston pin
retainer, connecting rod and connecting bolts.

The piston and piston pin are interference fit. During installation, heat the piston to 100
~120 (YC6108G reinforce series not have to be heated), and then install the piston pin
and connecting rod. The orientation of connecting-rod bevel joint should be the same as
the displacement orientation of the combustion chamber on the piston top. There are two
compression rings and an oil ring on per piston. To YC6108G series diesel engine, the top
ring is a keystone barrel face ring and of good anti-sticking snap ring function. During
installing the ring, the marked surface should be upward. The second ring is a taper twist
ring and of good sealing air and fuel function. The chamfer should be downwards during
installation. The third ring is a coil spring expanded oil scraper ring. Those are shown in
Figure 2-8(a). To YC6105G series diesel engine, the top ring is a rectangle barrel face ring.
The second ring is a taper face twist ring. Those are shown in Figure 2-8(b). During the
ring installation, the inner gap should be upward. The third ring is a coil spring expanded
oil scraper ring. In order to seal well, the axial clearance and end gap must be accordance
with the prescript shown in table 1.5.1. The means of measure the end gap is: horizontally
position the rings into the liner bore (it can be achieved by pushing the rings with piston),

19
and then measure the end gap with feeler gauge as shown in Figure 2-8(c).

1, piston; 2, top compression ring; 3, second compression ring


Figure 2-8

During piston-connecting rod assembly installation, the orientation of the piston ring gap is
shown in Figure 2-9, which can guarantee good sealability. The orientation of the piston
crown should be accordance with the high pressure injection pumps position, namely, the
forward mark on the connecting-rod body should point to the front end of the diesel engine.
The tightening torque should be between 20020N.m and completed in three steps. First,
tighten to 60~80N.m; then, tighten to 110~130N.m; last, tighten to 180~220N.m (Figure
2-10). After tightening, the crankshaft should be able to rotate freely and the axial
clearance of connecting rod end should be checked.

Figure 2-9

Figure2-10

20
The bearing shell of the connecting rod is made of copper-lead alloy, and its bearing face
is plated with lead-tin-copper alloy and the outer face is tin-plated to prevent corrosion.

The crankshaft-flywheel assembly is composed of the crankshaft, flywheel and crankshaft


belt pulley (damper). The crankshaft is forged from spherical graphite cast iron (some
turbocharged engine is forged from cast steel), and there is a main bearing between each
pair of cylinders. There are seven main-bearing shell, whose material is same as that of
connecting-rod bearing shell. The crankshaft idle gear has a thrust shell to prevent the
crankshaft from endwise movement. The axial clearance of the crankshaft must be
between0.1~0.3mm (Figure 2-11). The tightening torques of all the main-bearing nuts are
between 24020N.m, and should be completed from the center one in three steps.

1, crankshaft 2, the forth main bearing 3, connecting rod


Figure 2-11

The flywheel is fixed on the front end flange of the crankshaft with seven bolts which
should be tightened symmetrically in three steps, and the tightening torque should be
accordance with the script in Table 2. The flywheel is a connecting component through
which the power can be exported. The connecting sizes are different and up to different
customers require. They will follow the technical agreements.

2.5 Fuel system


The diesel fuel system must inject the right amount of clean fuel to each cylinder at the
correct time with a controlled rate and pressure, adequately atomize the fuel and rapidly
mix it with the air in the cylinder for good combustion. The diesel power output and fuel
economy are dependent on the fuel system. The fuel system used in YC6105G, YC6108G
and YC6108ZG series construction diesel engine consists of fuel tank (prepared by
customer), fuel inlet and return lines, fuel filter, fuel injection pump, high pressure fuel lines,
fuel injector and so on. The system is shown in Figure 2-12.

21
1. fuel injection pump; 2. fuel injection advance mechanism; 3. fuel supply pump;
4. fuel tank; 5. governor; 6. fuel filter; 7. fuel injector;
Figure 2-12

The fuel injection pump is of in-line plunger pump and its schematic is shown in Figure
2-13. Please pay attention to these items during operation:

Figure 2-13

22
(1) Check the oil quantity in the fuel injection pump. Please fill oil if the oil is insufficient.

(2) Eliminate the air in the fuel supply lines and fuel injection pump.

(3) Check the fuel supply advance angle. Please adjust it if necessary.

(4) Check the fuel shut-off unit. Please repair it if necessary.

The static fuel supply advance angle: YC6105G series 182and YC6108G series 15
2. If the advance angle is not correct, please adjust it. This can be done through the
adjustment to the fuel injection pump coupling (with fuel injection advance unit). During
the check, unscrew the nut which connects the high pressure fuel line for the No.1 cylinder
and fuel injection pump, crank the crankshaft slowly until the fuel level in the delivery valve
holder begins to fluctuate, and at this time the value indicated by the timing pointer on the
belt pulley damper is the fuel supply angle, Figure 2-14. In some engines there are pointer
on flywheel housing and scale on the flywheel. Please pay attention to it.

Figure 2-14 Adjustment for the fuel supply advance angle

23
The fuel supply automatic advance unit is of mechanical centrifugal type. Its working
speed is 5001400r/min and the advance angle is 56. There is a scale on the
outer surface of the advance unit which indicates the beginning of fuel supply. When the
scale is aligned to the scale on the pump body, the fuel pump begins to delivery fuel to the
NO.1 cylinder. Users should check the oil quantity in advance unit periodically and fill in
time, Figure 2-15.

Figure 2-15 Fuel supply automatic advance unit

The construction of the fuel supply pump


on the fuel injection pump is shown in
Figure 2-16. There is a hand priming
pump on the fuel supply pump which can
eliminate the air in the fuel line. During
operation, unscrew the knob and it will
increase. Then press the knob
repeatedly, the diesel fuel can be sucked
from the fuel tank to flow into each fuel
chamber in the fuel lines. At the same
time, unscrew the de-aeration screw
plug, eliminate the air the fuel lines. After
operation, the knob should be fastened
to prevent the air from entering the fuel
system during engine running.
Furthermore, there is a small filter
screen in the fuel inlet bolt. After a period
of time, it should be removed to clean to Figure 2-16
avoid the blockage.

24
The governor is of mechanical centrifugal variable-speed type or maximum-minimum
speed type (RFD). The former is suitable for the engine used in the large scale
construction such as loader and excavator. The latter is suitable for the engine used in
vehicle such as crane and truck-mounted concrete. The principle for the mechanical
centrifugal variable-speed governor is shown in Figure 2-17 and that for the mechanical
centrifugal maximum-minimum speed governor in Figure 2-18.

Figure 2-17

25
Figure 2-18

There are two limiting position screw for high speed and idle speed at the housing of
centrifugal variable-speed governor. During operation, the control lever can locate
arbitrary position between the two screws. The diesel engine can stabilize at any speed
between the idle speed and rated speed. There is a stop lever on the governor housing.
Pushing the lever to the dead position can stop the engine.

The difference between the mechanical centrifugal variable-speed governor and the
maximum-minimum speed governor lies in that the maximum-minimum governor has an
additional speed control function at the same time. The second speed control lever is
added on the governor housing besides the two levers same as that on the variable-speed
governor. When the second speed control is used (during the vehicle running), please
push the speed control lever to the maximum speed position and connect the pedal with
the second speed control lever. Then the engine with it can be considered as the vehicle
engine. When the engine should be used as construction engine (such as crane working),
please push the second speed control lever (pedal) to the maximum fuel supply position,
adjust the speed control lever, the engine can be considered as that with a variable-speed
governor.

26
The engine's performance is dependent on the working status of the fuel injection pump
and governor. They have been adjusted correctly before the engine leaving the factory, so
they should not be adjusted randomly. If the engine has run for a long time and a problem
occurs, they should be sent to the maintenance center authorized by YUCHAI or adjusted
by specialists to avoid troubles.

The fuel filter is of two


levels of paper element
and rotation. The model
code is 2CS0712A (Figure
2-19). The whole filter
element should be
replaced every 400 hours
of engine running. The
reason is the filter
element's resistance will
be too much and results in Figure 2-19 Fuel filter
the insufficient fuel supply.

The injector is of long multi-hole type. The model code of the injector precision pair used in
YC6105G is ZCK154S430. The opening pressure of injector is 220.5MPa. The model
code of the injector precision pair used in YC6108ZG is ZCK155S529. The opening
pressure of injector is 240.5MPa. As the injector precision pair has high machining
accuracy, the needle and nozzle body should not be interchanged.

The injection pressure can be adjusted.


The adjusting method is as follows:
remove the pressure-adjusting screw
thimble, screw clockwise or
counterclockwise the pressure-adjusting
screw as required. Screwing clockwise
means the increase of the injection
pressure, on the contrary, screwing
counterclockwise means the decrease of
the injection pressure. The fuel injection
pressure can be adjusted on special test Figure 2-20 Illustration of adjusting the
rig, (Figure 2-20). injection pressure

The spray should be uniform. Its atomization should be good, that is the granularity should
be small and uniform and the sound should be with high frequency and the dripping
should be avoided, (Figure 2-21).

The injector is installed on the cylinder head. The height over the bottom surface of the
cylinder head should be guaranteed with 3.50.1. It can be adjusted through the copper

27
shims at the front of the injector. The height should not be changed randomly, otherwise it
will detriment the engine's performance, Figure 2-22.
Figure 2-21

Figure 2-22 Installation of injector


1. cylinder head; 2. injector; 3. copper shim

2.6 Lubricating system


The task of the lubrication
system is to deliver the
friction surfaces with clean
oil that has suitable press
and temperature, which
can make every
component work well. The
Lubricating system of
YC6105G and YC6108G
series natural intake
engine is as shown in
Figure 2-23 and of
turbocharged engine is as
shown in Figure 2-24.

1, oil pump; 2, oil filter; 3, oil cooler; 4, oil catcher;


Figure 2-23 the lubrication system of the normal diesel engine

The oil pump deliver the oil in oil pan into the main oil gallery through the oil catcher
screen. The main oil gallery is located longitudinally along the cylinder block. Oil pipe
deliver the oil to the water-cooled oil filter via oil filter bottom section, and then the oil
filtrated by the oil strainer is delivered to the sub-oil galleries to be fed into the main gallery.
The oil lubricates the connecting-rod bearing and camshaft bearing through the oil
passage in the crankshaft and then is imported periodically into the rocker arm shaft
assembly via the second and fifth camshaft bearings and correlative oil pipes to lubricate
rocker arm shaft bush and valve clearance adjusting bolts. After that, the oil flows
downwards to the tappets along the pushrods. The remaining oil returns to the oil sump
through the pushrod holes in the cylinder head and the cavity in the cylinder block. Gears

28
and other moving components are splash-lubricated through the oil splashed by the
crankshaft motion. The turbocharger is lubricated by the oil delivered by the oil pipe from
the main oil galleries, and then the oil returns to the oil pan through the oil pipe.

1, oil pump; 2, oil filter; 3, oil cooler; 4, oil catcher; 5, turbocharger;


Figure 2-24 The lubrication system of the turbocharged engine

The level of the oil in the


oil pan should be checked
in regular, which should be
between top and lower
marks on the oil dipstick
(Figure 2-25). The oil drain
plug is designed at the
bottom of oil pan to train
used oil.

Figure 2-25 Oil level checking

The oil cooler is a water cooler, and include finned plate type and copper pipe type. After a
period using, the oil cooler will produce scales and dirt in it, which will affect negatively the
cooling and oil pressure, especially when using bad water. The method of washing the
cooler is: first, remove the intake and out let pipes, then remove the cooler from block.
Now, dissemble the cooler cover, take out the core platesand wash its inner cavity
through diesel to clean the sludge. Then clean the scale on its surface and in its cavity to
improve the cooling. After cleaning the scale, wash it through clean diesel and wipe it. The
method of washing copper pipe type cooler is: remove the both end covers, lash a piece of
iron wire with a piece of clean cotton yarn or cloth and dip some clean diesel, through
which the copper pipes can be cleaned. After that, rinse again with clean diesel. Two end
covers and the housing should be washed also. When assembling the washed oil cooler,

29
the seal gasket should be changed and the bolts should be tightened in a diagonal order
to ensure no leakage.

The oil filter is of paper element type. In according to different customers, all the oil filter
are divided in to two type. The one is of screw-on type, JS0818. To this type, if the element
will be replaced, the cover should be replaced together. The other is J1012, whose
element can be reused after washing. After the engine works accumulative total 250 hours,
the filter element should be replaced (JS0818) or washed through clean diesel or gasoline,
and then blew dry with compression air. During installation, fill it with clean oil at first, next
lubricate the rubber seal washer with a little clean oil, and finally new filter can be
mounted.

If the oil pressure is too low when


the diesel engine is running, the
pressure can be adjusted to
0.4MPa by the oil pressure screwdriver
limiting valve adjusting bolt. If the
bolt is screw in, the pressure will
rise. If the pressure is still low,
adjust again through the oil filter
pressure limiting valve adjusting
bolt. If the bolt is screw in, the
pressure will rise; If the bolt is
screw out, the pressure will drop. Figure 27 Adjustment of oil pressure
If that do not work, the lubrication 1, oil filter; 2, oil filter pressure limiting valve adjusting
line have to be checked (Figure bolt; 3, oil pressure sensor; 4, cylinder block;
2-27). 5, warning device for overlow oil pressure;
6, oil pressure limiting valve adjusting bolt

2.7 Cooling system


This series engine
adopts the closed
water cooling system
with pressurized
circulation engine. It
consists of radiator
(water tank), water
pump, fan, thermostat,
oil cooler, coolant
inlet and outlet hose
and so on. Its 1. coolant outlet hose; 2. small circulation hose; 3. thermostat;
schematic is shown is 4. radiator; 5. fan; 6. water pump; 7. oil cooler; 8. water drain;
Figure 2-28. 9. heater; 10. temperature sensor plug;
Figure 2-28 Schematic of cooling system

30
The coolant outlet port at the bottom of the radiator is connected to the coolant inlet port of
the oil cooler through the coolant hoses and the coolant outlet port of the oil cooler is
connected to the water pump through coolant hoses. The water pump pressurizes the
coolant to the water jackets in the cylinder block. The coolant flows through the water
jacket in the cylinder block in order to cool the cylinder, up through the cylinder head, and
back through the hose to the thermostat. When the coolant temperature is below 70, the
thermostat closes and all coolant bypasses to the water pump inlet. At this time, the
coolant circulates only between the cylinder block and the cylinder head to accelerate the
vehicle warm-up. When the coolant temperature reaches 70, the thermostat begins to
open and some of the coolant flows to the top inlet of the radiator to enter the radiator and
is cooled by the radiator fan. When the coolant temperature exceeds 78, the thermostat
opens fully and the bypass hole is closed. At this time all the coolant is cooled by the
radiator.

The coolant should be anti-freeze. Please


refer to "Anti-freeze solution and its
application guide" (Page 45). During the
normal operation, the outlet coolant
temperature is generally controlled from 80
to 95 . Oil temperature is generally
controlled from 85 to 100.

The water pump and fan are the main parts


in the cooling system and their constructions
are shown in Figure 2-29. Generally
speaking, every 50 hours, lubrication grease
should be injected into the water pump's
bearing chamber through the filler.

Figure 2-29 Construction of water pump fan

The water pump, fan and charging generator are driven by the crankshaft pulley with the
same belt. The tension of the belt should be proper. Insufficient tension or excessive
tension must be avoided. The belt deflection by pushing on the belt midway between
pulleys with 40~50N should be 10~15mm (Figure 2-30). The belt's type is C type. There
are many specifications dependent on the engine type. Please purchase the belt
according to the specifications indicated on the old belt during replacement. The tension
of the belt can be adjusted through the relative position between the charging generator
and the adjusting plate. When the charging generator is swung outwardly, the tension
increases, and inwardly decreases, Figure 2-31

31
Figure 2-30 Check of belt driving looseness

Figure 2-31 Tension adjustment of the belt


1. adjusting plate; 2. charging generator;
3. belt; 4. generator bracket

The thermostat is of wax


type and is mounted in the
water outlet hose. During
the engine operation, the
thermostat should not be
removed randomly,
otherwise it will detriment
the engine's normal
operation (Figure 2-32).

Figure 2-32 Local view of coolant outlet hose assembly

2.8 Starter, electrical system and indicators


Wiring diagram of the electrical system is shown in Figure 2-33.

1. start motor; 2. generator; 3. ampere-meter; 4. voltage regulator; 5. pre-heater


Figure 2-33 Wiring diagram of the electrical system

32
The start motors used on the diesel engine are ST614A or QD275 types of 4-brush
series-excited DC motor. Both of the start motors mentioned above have a DC 24V
operating voltage, a maximum output power of 5.1kW and their negative posts are
grounded. The mesh between the driving pinion and the toothed ring of the flywheel is
mechanical-driven and is controlled by electromagnetism. To avoid the motor roller from
over-speeding, roller overrunning clutch is installed. When pushing the start button cannot
start the engine, wait until the driving pinion returns to the original position. Then, start the
engine for a second time. The pause between the two starts should be more than 1
minutes. The time of a single start cannot be longer than 10 seconds in order to prevent
the motor from damage by over-heating. Never push the start button when the diesel
engine and the start motor have not stopped operating, which will lead to damage to the
gear and the toothed ring by intensive crash. After the engine is started, release the start
button to let the driving pinion return.

The generator is of JF brushless silicon rectified type. It has a 28V operating voltage and
has two types of power: 0.5kW and 0.75kW and cannot operate under overload condition.
The negative post of the generator is grounded. Do not make mistake in connecting the
ground wire, otherwise will lead to burning of the motor. Do not contact the leads of the +,
F and - posts of the generator, otherwise will lead to damage to the voltage regulator.

The function of the voltage regulator is to automatically stabilize the output voltage of the
generator when the rotating speed of the generator changes. Then, the output voltage
supplies the power to electrical equipment and charge the storage battery. Voltage
regulator is of a precision instrument and cannot be adjusted. When its malfunction is
confirmed, we should take off its cap and check whether its contact is in good condition.
The contact spring can only be used to adjust the voltage. Stretch the spring longer, the
charging voltage will be higher and vice verse. After every 350 hours, check the voltage
value and adjust the contact point. The clearance between armature and the core should
be 1.4mm~1.5mm.

The inlet air heater is installed at the interface of the intake manifold and the intake
bending pipe. The heater is a secondary start device, and will make it easier to start the
diesel engine when the ambient temperature is low. The fundamental of the heat is: When
the air goes through the heater from the air cleaner to the intake manifold, the electrical
heating plate that has been heated by the current in it will heat up the air. The heated-up
air will enter into cylinders of diesel engine. Machines that have an diesel engine with
pre-heater should be installed with a start button for pre-heating start. Do not make the
two terminal leads of the pre-heat to contact the diesel engine case to prevent from
malfunction by shortcut. If pre-heating start is needed, switch the start switch to pre-heat
position. Pre-heating time should be controlled within 40 seconds. Then, switch the start
button to start position to start the diesel engine.

Indicators and sensors can be selected to install on the diesel engine according to

33
demands of customers. Main indicators include capillary expansion type water
temperature indicator, oil temperature gauge, direct-connected oil meter, DC
ampere-meter, warner for low oil pressure, oil temperature sensor, coolant temperature
sensor, electrical tachometer, electrical tachometer with timer, warner for high coolant
temperature. Wiring diagram of the electrical tachometer is shown in Figure 2-34.

1. tachometer; 2. plug with six wires; 3. socket with six wires; 4. ground wire (black); 5.
battery wire (red); 6. light wire (white); 7. signal wire (connect with the neural point "N" on
the charging generator) (blue)
Figure 2-34 Schematic of tachometer wiring

2.9 Air compressor


Because of the brake need for the wheel vehicle, some of series engine install air
compressor to provide the compressed air for pneumatic brake. It is series-connected to
the fuel injection pump advance unit at the front end and driven by gear. The air
compressor is of air-cooled, single cylinder and piston type. The air compressor consists
of a case, cylinder sleeve, cylinder head, intake and exhaust valve, piston and connecting
rod, crankshaft and so on. The air used by the air compressor comes from the engine
intake manifold to get the filtered air. The lubricating oil of the air compressor comes from
the oil gallery through the oil pipe and lubricates every moving part pairs in the air
compressor. The normal pressure of the air compressor is 0.8MPa, maximum 1.0MPa. If
the air pressure exceeds 1.0MPa, please adjust the safety valve on the gas tank to make
it normal. Overloading will result in early wear. If the air pressure is not enough, check the
seals of the intake and exhaust valves, ring gaps, and cylinder sleeve wear. If the air
compressor works abnormally, please repair it promptly.

2.10 Turbocharger
The YC6108ZG series engine adopts turbocharger. Its working principle is shown in
Figure 35. The exhaust pipe 1 is connected to the turbine housing 4. The exhaust gases
from cylinders are of high temperature and some pressure and enter into the nozzle ring 2
through turbine housing 4. Because the passage area in the nozzle ring decreases
gradually, after passing the nozzle ring 2, the pressure and temperature of the exhaust
gases decrease, but speed increase immediately. The high speed gas flow impinges the
turbine impeller 3 with a certain direction to make it spin with high speed. The higher
pressure, temperature and velocity of the exhaust gases are, the higher speed does the
turbine impeller spin. The exhaust gases through the turbine are emitted to the
environment. Since the turbine impeller 3 is mounted on the same shaft as the
compressor impeller 8, the compressor is forced to spin with same speed. The

34
compressor pulls the air cleaned by the air filter into the compressor housing. The air
pressurized by spinning compressor impeller goes into the cylinder. The increased density
can make more air go into the cylinder and under the good matching with the fuel injection
system, increase engine power output and improves fuel economy.

Figure 35 The working principle of turbocharger diesel engine


1. exhaust pipe; 2. nozzle ring; 3. turbine impeller; 4. turbine housing; 5. rotation shaft;;
6. bearing; 7. diffuser; 8. compressor impeller; 9. compressor housing; 10. intake pipe

The turbocharged diesel engine is dependent on the turbocharger. The changing of the
turbocharger's performance will affect the engine's performance. In order to guarantee the
turbocharged engine with good performance, the turbocharger must be used correctly and
maintained well during operation. As the leakage at the joints in the intake and exhaust
system will affect the turbocharger operation, the outer joint's fasten condition must be
often checked.

The turbocharger's troubles and troubleshooting methods are as follows:


Possible causes Remedies
Intake blocked Check the pipes between the air cleaner and the
compressor, between the intake pipe and the compressor
outlet. Clear them.
Intake leaky Check the leakage at the connections between the air
cleaner and compressor, between the compressor outlet
and the intake pipe, between the engine and the intake
pipe. Replace the seal gasket and fasten the locking bolt
if necessary.
Exhaust blocked Maintain or replace the related parts.
Exhaust leaky Check the leakage at the connections between the

35
exhaust pipe and engine, between the turbine inlet and
the exhaust pipe, between the turbine housing and the
middle housing, between the turbine outlet and the
exhaust pipe. Replace the seal gasket and fasten the
locking bolt if necessary.
Turbocharger bearing is Replace assembly
damaged and impellers
touch housing
Fuel supply and return Replace
line leaky

Because the turbocharger


belongs to a high precision
assembly and has strict assembly
requirement, in order to increase
the life span of the turbocharger,
When a problem occurs for the
turbocharger itself, send it to an
authorized service center by
Yuchai, otherwise the quality
maintenance will not be
guaranteed.

When replacing the oil, cleaning


the oil filter or engine not running
for a long time (above a week),
please unscrew the
turbocharger's oil supply joint, fill
in clean oil. Figure 36 Turbocharger

36
2.11 Steering pump
1. The steering pump has a screen filter, located in the valve seat.

2. Please clean the screen filter during maintenance after the break-in period. After that,
clean the screen filter every 5000 km. If the vehicle is difficult to steer, the screen filter
of the steering pump might not be clean. Dismantle the valve seat to clean it. When
cleaning, please keep the pump body and valve seat clean.

3. Other maintenance should be the same as that of the pump without installing the
screen filter.

3. Operation of diesel engine

3.1 Preparation of diesel engine before starting


z Check the coolant level in the radiator (coolant tank). If the volume of coolant is not
enough, add coolant as detailed in 1.4.3.

z Check the oil level in the sump. If the volume of oil is not enough, add oil to the level
set by the oil gauge. The grade of the oil should be in compliance with the
requirements in 1.4.2.

z Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. If the quantity of the fuel is not enough, add fuel
as detailed in 1.4.1.

z Check the electrical system to see whether it works properly or not. Check the
storage battery to see whether it is fully charged. If there is not enough electrolyte,
add some as required.

z For new engine or the one that just after reparations or is stored for a long time,
de-aerate the fuel pipe. The procedures can be referred in 2.5.

3.2 Starting the diesel engine.


Put the transmission in neutral gear and keep the throttle stay in middle position. If the
engine has no transmission, it should operate without load. Then, push the start button to
start the diesel engine. After the engine successfully starts, release the start button
immediately. Do not crank the engine for more than 10 seconds at a time. And if the
engine fails to run after the cranking, the cranking should not be repeated within at least
one minute. If the engine fails after cranking for three times successively, troubleshoot and
crank again.

3.3 Operating the diesel engine


After the engine starts, keep the engine warm-up at low and medium speed without load.
Only when the coolant temperature is above 60C and oil temperature is above 45C, can

1
the engine run with load. Pay attention to the following points:

z Do not keep the diesel engine idling for a long time.

z Oil pressure should not be below 0.1MPa at idle speed.

z Oil temperature, oil pressure and water temperature should be at normal level when
the engine is running.

z If there are abnormal noises and vibration, stop the engine and determine the
problem.

z Check the fuel system, lubricating system and cooling system for leakage. If there is
any leakage, troubleshoot it immediately.

z A new engine, or an engine after overhaul, should not run at high speed and under
heavy load. In its first 50 hours, run the engine at loads not exceeding 80% of the
maximum power load in order to break the engine in properly.

3.4 Stopping the engine


Avoid stopping the diesel engine abruptly. The engine should be running for 3~5 minutes
at low speed before stopping to allow it to cool down. Then keep the engine idling at high
speed for 2~3 seconds to make every part of the engine get enough oil. After that, stop the
engine.

If the ambient temperature is below 5C, and the coolant of the engine is either water or
anti-freezer that does not have sufficient freezing-resistance, please discharge the coolant
immediately to avoid damage to the engine by frost crack.

If the ambient temperature is below -30C, keep the storage battery indoors, otherwise it
is difficult to start the engine.

4. Maintenance of the diesel engine


Proper, timely and careful maintenance of the diesel engine can keep it in proper working
condition, avoid malfunctions, reduce parts wear, and extend its lifespan. Maintenance
procedures should follow the description in this chapter. They are classified as follows:

1. Daily maintenance (every day)

2. First order maintenance (every 50~100 hours)

3. Second order maintenance (every 200~250 hours)

4. Third order maintenance (every 1200~1500 hours)

2
4.1 Daily maintenance
z Check fuel level. Add fuel as required.

z Check oil level in the oil sump. Add oil as required.

z Check if there is leakage of water, oil, fuel or gases and fix it if necessary.

z Check gauges and instruments to see whether the readings are normal or not.
Malfunctions of or damage to instruments should be fixed.

z Check that every accessory is secure.

z Check coolant level in radiator (or coolant tank). Add coolant as required.

z Keep the diesel engine clean, especially the electrical equipment.

4.2 First order maintenance


Besides the maintenance work given in Daily Maintenance, the following items should be
added after 50~100 hours.

z Check the tension of the drive belt, and adjust it if necessary.

z Check the clearance of intake and exhaust valves, and adjust it if necessary.

z Check electrolyte level, and add it as required.

z For a new engine (or an engine after Third order maintenance), replace the oil during
the first First order maintenance.

z Clear the air cleaner and the inlet screen of the oil pump.

4.3 Second order maintenance


In addition to the maintenance work given in First Order Maintenance, the following tasks
should be included after 200~250 hours. (As for a new engine or an engine after Third
Order Maintenance, the first Second Order Maintenance should be performed after 125
hours.)

z Check the injector opening pressure. Adjust it if necessary.

z Check static fuel injection advance angle. Adjust it if necessary.

z Replace the filter element of the oil filter every other Second Order Maintenance
(400 hours).

3
z Replace the filter element of the oil filter every three other Second Order
Maintenance (800 hours).

z Check the sealing of intake and exhaust valves and grind them if necessary.

z Add oil grease to the water pump.

z Check conditions of every connecting point of the electrical system.

z Check if the main components, such as main bearing bolts, cylinder head bolts
(or nuts), and connecting rod bolts are secure. If loose, tighten them with
required torque.

z Clean the filter screen of the PCV.

z Replace oil.

z If the coolant temperature is too high, remove the scaling in the cooling system. If
the oil temperature is too high, remove the scaling in the lubricating system

4.4 Third order maintenance


During Third Order Maintenance, the engine assembly should be taken apart, cleaned,
checked and adjusted in order to eliminate malfunction possibility. Besides the Second
Order Maintenance, following tasks should be performed:
z Dismantle and clean the engine assembly. Remove carbon deposit, sludge and
varnish. Clean all oil pipes and galleries.

z Check wear conditions of valves, valve seats, valve guides, valve springs, push rods,
and rocker arms, and grind or replace them if necessary.

z Check wear conditions of piston rings, cylinder bores, bushings and bearings of
connecting rods. Replace them if necessary.

z Check wear conditions of the main bearings (including the fifth flanged thrust main
bearing). Replace them if necessary.

z Check wear and mesh backlashes of gears. Replace them if necessary.

z Check the fuel injection pump, adjust it if necessary.

z Check the atomization of fuel injectors. Grind or replace injector nozzle precision
pairs if necessary.

4
z Check the inner and outer rotors of the oil pump, replace them if necessary.

z Check generator, starter and air compressor. Clean components, bearings, and add
new lubricating grease. Replace the parts that have been worn out.

z Check the clearance of the turbocharger bearings. Replace the roller asembly if
necessary.

z Replace every sealing gasket and washer.

5 Troubleshooting

5.1 Troubleshooting

5.1.1 Diesel engine can not start


Possible causes Remedies

1. Air exists in the injection system Check for looseness and damage of the
joints of the feed line, remove it if necessary.
And then eliminate the air in the oil line.
2. Fuel pipe clogged Determine the location of the clog and clear
it.
3. Fuel cleaner choked Replace the filter element of fuel filter.
4. Too much oil deposit in cylinder Close the throttle, rotate the crankshaft by
starter, drain excess oil deposit in cylinder,
and especially par more attention to
overhauled engine.
5. Insufficient fuel injection, without Check the injector atomization and inspect
fuel injection or low injection whether the injector plunger and delivery
pressure valve are worn-out or seized, and if the
plunger spring and delivery valve spring are
broken. Check and adjust injection pressure
to the prescribed range.
6. Starting system problems;
Incorrect terminals connection or Check the connection to be correct and
bad contact; reliable.

Insufficient battery charge; Charge or replace the battery.

Bad contact between the brush Repair or replace the brush and clean the
and communicator of the starter surface of communicator with soft sand
paper and blow off.
7. Starter damage Replace it.

8. Insufficient compression Replace the piston ring


pressure;

5
Piston ring worn-out: Replace the cylinder sleeve
Cylinder sleeve worn-out: Check the valve clearance and seal of valve.

Blow-by valve Grind or readjust the valve.


9. Incorrect valve timing For the overhauled engine or the engine after
third order maintenance, pay attention to the
timing marks alignment on timing gears.

5.1.2 Insufficient power output


Possible causes Remedies

1. Intake blocked Check the air cleaner, intake pipe, and clean
or replace the air cleaner filter elements.
2. Too high exhaust back pressure Check the valve timing, adjust it if necessary;
clean exhaust pipe.
3. Overheat diesel engine Check the level of cooling water, add enough
water if necessary; check for the leakage of
the water pump or the looseness of the belt,
remove or require it if necessary; check for
thickness of scale in water passage, remove
it if necessary.
4. Fuel line blocked or leaky Check the seal of fuel line and fuel filter
choking, or replace the filter element
5. Faulty injection pump Check for leakage of the delivery valve and
inspect whether plunger is worn-out, and if
the plunger spring and delivery valve spring
are broken, replace the damaged parts,
cylinder gasket and readjust oil pump if
necessary.
6. Incorrect intake and exhaust Check and adjust the valve clearance
valve clearance or bad seal of according to prescription; check the seal of
valve the valve, grind it if necessary.
7. Cylinder gasket leakage Tighten cylinder head bolts (or nuts) in order
to prescribed torque or replace cylinder
gasket.
8. Overheat engine or too high Check and repair the radiator, thermostat,
coolant temperature and adjust fan belt tension.
9. Piston ring worn-out or broken Replace it.

10. Cylinder sleeve worn-out Replace it.


11. Insufficient boost pressure of Check and eliminate the leakage in the pipe
turbocharged system for the and joints.
turbocharged model

6
12. Turbocharger is out of order; Clean or replace the compressor casing and
Compressor and turbine turbine housing.
passages are polluted, clogged
or damaged;
Bearing failure; Replace it.
Carbon deposit and sludge in the Clean or replace it.
back of turbine and compressor
impellers.

5.1.3 Abnormal noise during engine operation


Possible causes Remedies

1. High frequency metal knock nois Adjust the static injection advance angle.
cylinder: too-advanced injection timing
2. Low frequency, dull knock in Adjust the static injection advance angle.
cylinder: retarded injection timing
3. Knock in cylinder due to injector Check the injector, replace the needle
stuck precise pair if necessary.
4. Clash due to too large clearance Check if the bearing bushing and crankshaft
between connecting rod bearing are much worn out, replace or press in the
bushing, main bearing bushing and oversized bearing bushing if necessary.
journal
5. Clash due to too large crankshaft Check the wear of the thrust platereplace it
axial clearance if necessary.
6. Clash due to too large clearance Check the wear of the piston and cylinder
between piston and cylinder sleeve sleeve, replace them if necessary.
7. Knock due to valve touching Check and adjust the valve clearance.
cylinder
8. Transmission gears worn-out and Check gear backlashes and replace them if
too large clearance. Slap can be necessary.
heard near timing gear housing
9. Abnormal knock due to valve spring Stop immediately to check and replace the
crack damaged parts.
10. Turbocharger surging for the Clear the carbon deposit and contaminants in
turbocharged diesel engine the compressor and exhaust passages.
11. Turbocharger bearing is damaged Replace the turbocharger assembly.
and impellers touch housing

5.1.4 Exhaust with black smoke


Possible causes Remedies

1. Intake clogged Check and clean the air cleaner and intake
passage.
2. Poor fuel quality Use prescribed fuel.

7
3. Incorrect injection or valve timing Adjust according to prescription.

4. Bad atomization of injector Check and repair or replace.

5. Too much fuel supply of injector Check and adjust according to prescription

6. Insufficient boost pressure of Check and repair leak in the pipe line and
turbocharged system joints.
7. Faulty turbocharger Check and recondition the turbocharger or
replace the assembly.

5.1.5 Exhaust with white smoke


Possible causes Remedies

1. Poor quality fuel and too much Replace fuel.


water in fuel
2. Water in cylinder Check for damage of the cylinder head and
gasket which may cause water leaks, replace
the damaged ones if necessary.
3. Too low coolant temperature Check the working temperature of the
thermostat, replace it if necessary.
4. Incorrect valve timing and Check and adjust.
injection timing
5. Bad atomization of injector Check and adjust or replace it.
6. Low compression pressure and Check the piston rings, cylinder sleeve and
incomplete combustion due to the cylinder gasket, if necessary, replace the
much wear of the piston ring or damaged one.
cylinder sleeve and cylinder
gasket blow-by.

5.1.6 Exhaust with blue smoke


Possible causes Remedies

1. Too much oil in sump Check the level of oil, drain it if


necessary.
2. Oil blow-by and burn in cylinder due to Decrease time of the operation at
operation at zero load and low speed for zero load and low speed.
too long time
3. Oil blow-by and burn in cylinder due to Check and reinstall correctly.
incorrect installing orientation of piston
rings
4. Oil seeps through the gap between valve Check the clearance between the
guide and stem due to valve guide is much valve and guide, replace it if
worn out. necessary.

8
5. Oil seeps through the intake pipe and Check and replace it.
burns in cylinder or turbine casing due to
the wear of thrust bearing and seal ring for
the turbocharged model
6. Oil return pipe of turbocharger blocked for Clean or repair it.
the turbocharged model

9
5.1.7 Too low oil pressure
Possible causes Remedies

1. Diluted or incorrectly selected Select proper oil


brand oil
2. Inner and outer rotors of oil pump Replace the rotors and adjust clearance.
worn-out or too large assembly
clearance
3. Oil filter choked Replace the filter element.
4. Failure or incorrect adjustment of Check and adjust or recondition it.
oil filter pressure control
5. Gear of oil pump damage or wear Replace it
6. Oil cooer and oil inlet leakage or Check, clean and recondition.
block
7. Too large bearing bushings Check and replace it.
clearance
8. Pressure indicator or transmitter Check and replace it.
failure

5.1.8 Too high oil pressure


Possible causes Remedies

1. Too low ambient temperature and Select required grade engine oil.
too high oil viscosity
2. Failure or incorrect adjustment of Check and adjust or recondition it.
oil filter pressure control
3. Oil line clogged Clean it.

5.1.9 Too high oil temperature and oil consumption


Possible causes Remedies

1. Too high diesel engine load. Be careful not to pull out the lead seal on the
injection to avoid engine operating at over load.
Operating at overload for a long time would lead to
the early damage of the engine.
2. Incorrect engine oil grade Select oil according to prescription.
3. Piston ring stuck or seriously worn Check and recondition it, replace it if necessary.

4. Cylinder sleeve much worn-out Replace it.


5. Oil groove, bore of piston and Dismantle and clean, and then reinstall.
piston ring clogged
6. Dad cooling due to too thick scale Clear the scale.
in oil cooler water passage
7. Oil line choked Clean it.

10
5.1.10 Too high cooling solution temperature
Possible causes Remedies

1. Too low radiator level Check for leakage, add cooling solution if
necessary.
2. Too much scale in water passage Clear the scale.
and radiator of the diesel engine
3. Transmission belt of water pump Adjust the tension according to the prescription.
loose
4. Thermostat failure Replace it.

5. Water temperature indicator or Check and replace it.


transmitter failure

5.2 Common trouble and troubleshooting remedies for

injection pump

5.2.1 Injection failure


Possible causes Remedies

1. No oil in oil tank. Check and add oil to adequacy


2. Air in oil line. Check and drain away air, and stop up the
leakage.
3. Oil line clogged. Check and remove the blockage.

4. Fuel pump failure Determine the location of the trouble and repair it.

5. Plunger precision pair stuck Grind and repair or replace it.


6. Plunger spring crack Replace it
7. Loose plunger control gear. Check for the looseness of the plunger control
gear, tighten to the signal if necessary; regulate
the injection pump on test bench better.

5.2.2 Uneven injection


Possible causes Remedies

1. Air in fuel line Drain away air with hand pump


2. Outlet valve spring crack. Replace it.
3. Outlet valve seat surface or outer circle Grind and recondition or replace it.
worn-out
4. Too low inlet oil pressure due to clog of fuel line Check and clean the fuel line.

11
5.2.3 Insufficient fuel supply
Possible causes Remedies

1. Oil outlet valve stuck or oil leak Grind and recondition or replace it.
around its seal surface
2. Plunger precision pair worn-out Replace it.

3. Diesel filter clogged Clean the filter and replace the filter element.

4. Supply pump inlet screen clogged Clean it.

5. Fuel system leakage Check and deal with it.

5.3 Common trouble and troubleshooting remedies for

governor
Possible causes Remedies

1. Unsteady speed (engine hunting):


1) Inflexible flyweight or flyweight Determine the location of the troubles, and then
holder of governor. repair it, replace parts and wash it if necessary.

2) Improper idle adjustment Readjust the idle adjusting screw.


3) Governor components worn out Check and repair it. (By specialist
manufactures)
2. Speed always lower than
calibrated speed.
1) Governor spring deflection. Regulate properly and replace the spring by
professionals, do not do it without authorization.

2) Control lever mis-positioning. Determine the location of the blockage, and


then regulate and remove it.
3) Control rack and control pinion Check and adjust it, then ensure the rack slides
jammed or loose. flexibly and the gear ring is not loose, otherwise
readjust and repair it.
3. Speed rising promptly to abnormal
state (runaway)
1) Control rack or control lever stuck. Regulate and repair it.

2) The pin connecting control rack or Reinstall it and, if necessary, replace the
control lever drops. damaged parts.
3) Governor spring crack. Replace it and then readjust the injection pump
on test bench.

12
5.4 Common trouble for fuel supply pump
Possible causes Remedies
1. Check valve and piston wear or Check and repair, replace it if necessary.
spring crack
2. Fuel leak around joints Tighten or replace the seal gasket.

3. Screen clog at pump outlet Check and clean it.


4. Fuel and air leak around hand Dismantle and repair, replace it if necessary.
priming pump

5.5 Common trouble and troubleshooting remedies for

injector
Possible causes Remedies
1. Bad atomization of injector and
insufficient or without fuel injection
1) Needle precision pair stuck and Clear the carbon deposit and dirt. Clean
injection orifice clogged and grind it, replace if it cannot be
reconditioned.
2) High pressure pipe joints leakage Determine the location of the troubles, and
then recondition or replace it.
2. Low injection pressure
1) Pressure adjusting screw Readjust and tighten the stud.
looseness
2) Pressure adjusting spring crack Check and replace.

3) Pressure adjusting spring deflection Check and replace.

4) Spring seat and stem damage Repair or replace the damaged parts.
5) Needle stuck Clean and grind it.
3. Too high injection pressure
1) Too large preload of adjusting Replace and readjust the washer.
spring
2) Needle stuck Clean and grind, replace it if ineffective.

3) Injection-nozzle orifice clogged Clean or replace it.

4. Injector fuel leak


1) Bad seal of needle precision pair Grind it after cleaning, replace it if
ineffective.
2) Needle stuck Clean and grind, replace it if ineffective.
3) Nozzle retaining nut damage and Replace it.
deflection
4) Sealing surface of injector body and Lap in pair after cleaning, replace if it can
needle body damage not be reconditioned.

13
5.6 Common trouble for electrical system
Possible causes Remedies

1. Starter failure

1) Insufficient storage battery Check and charge re replace the battery.


current
2) Bad contact between terminals Check and repair the circuit.
connection
3) Fuse fuses Replace it.

4) Bad brush contact Clean the surface of the brush or replace it.

5) Starter circuit short Check and repair or replace it.

2. Insufficient starting power of


starter
1) Bearing bushing worn-out Replace it.

2) Bad brush contact Clean the surface of the brush.

3) Dirty or burn of commutator Clear the oily dirt and polish it with sand paper.

4) Terminals drop Weld them.


5) Bad switch contact Check and repair the switch.

6) Bad terminals contact Check and repair the circuit.

7) Too few electrolyte or too old Add electrolyte or replace the battery.
storage battery
8) Clutch slippage Adjust the working torque of the clutch.

3. Generator failure

1) Short, cut and loose circuit Check and repair the circuit, eliminate the
connection in circuit troubles if necessary.
2) Short circuit and breakage in Check and repair it, replace the assembly if
inner winding of the generator necessary.
3) Generator rectifying tube Replace the rectifier diode.
damage
4) Incorrect adjustment or Check and adjust, replace it if necessary.
damage of the voltage
regulator
4. Too large generator charging
current
1) Short circuit in storage battery Replace it.
2) Incorrect adjustment or Check and adjust, replace it if necessary.
damage of the voltage regulator
3) Bad earth of regulator contact Recondition it.

14
6 Appendix 1

6.1 Note for the rated power, maximal torque and minimal

fuel consumption efficiency


The rated power, maximal torque and minimal fuel consumption efficiency listed in engine
specifications are revised value relative to standard intake state. Revision is done
according to performance testing method of the construction machinery diesel engine.
Standard intake state is shown below:

Atmosphere pressure: 100kPa (750mmHg)

Intake temperature: 298K (25)

Dry air pressure: 99kPa (742.5mmHg)

Partial pressure of water vapor: 1kPa (7.5mmHg)

6.2 Common units conversion


Description International unitMetric British unitInternational unit
Force 1N=0.1020kgf 1bf=4.448N
1Pa=1N/M=0.1020mmH2O
1kPa=7.500mmHg
linH2O = 0.2488kPa
Pressure 1bar=750.0mmHg
1bf/in = 6.895kPa
=1.020kg/cm
1MPa=10.2kgf/ cm
Length ft = 0.3048m
Mass 1b = 0.436kg
Power 1kW=1.360Ps 1HP = 0.7457kW
Torque 1Nm = 0.1020kgf 1bft = -1.3558Nm
Brake specific
1g/kWh = 0.7355g/pshh 1/HPh=608.277g/kWh
fuel consumption
in = 0.0164L
Volume
gal = 3.7854L

Appendix 2 Anti-freeze solution and application guide


Water, both hard and soft water, is widely used in water-cooled engines as a coolant.
Water rich in minerals is called hard water and includes river water, well water, and spring
water. After the water is heated, minerals are deposited in the water jacket and the
radiator inner wall can easily form scales. Scaling weakens the heat transfer ability of the
diesel engine and likely will result in cylinder sleeve and piston ring scratching as well as
piston seizure. Scaling in water radiators may also lead to water boiling due to the rise in

15
temperature.

Therefore, only soft water should be used as coolant. The common method for converting
hard water to soft water is to remove sedimentary deposits after boiling. Adding special
additives to hard water is the more thorough method (for example, adding 0.5~1g sodium
carbonate, or pure sodium, or 0.5~0.8g sodium hydroxide, or caustic sodium, to 1L water).

Water as coolant has many disadvantages. 1) It easily forms scales. 2) Water freezes at 0
, and it easily freezes when used in winter which will often lead to cylinder block and
radiator cracking. 3) Water boils at 100. Normal water temperature is 95 to 105
due to the application of turbo-charging in modern engines. Therefore, it easily boils when
used in summer. 4) The cooling system is made up of six kinds of metals, such as cast
iron, cast aluminum, steel, copper, brass, and soldering tin in the water radiator soldering
seam. The use of water, especially that which contains corrosive contaminants, results in
rust and carvitation erosion.

Anti-freeze solution is commonly used in winter, and can prevent the coolant from freezing.
It is an ideal coolant due to overcoming many of the disadvantages of water, and can be
used in all four seasons.

1. What is anti-freeze solution

The development anti-freeze solution and its application already have a long history. At
first, inorganic salts were added to water to lower the freezing point and raise the boiling
point. Then, organic alcohols (such as ethanol, methanol, etc) were used. Today, glycol
and glycerol based anti-freeze solutions are in common use. The popularity of glycerol
based solutions is limited by its high price, and so glycol based anti-freeze solutions have
received wide application.

Anti-freeze solution is made up of raw alcohol, water and additives. The alcohol used is
glycol and the water is distilled. Additives include antirust agents, anti-toxicity agents, PH
regulating agents (buffering agents), antifoam agents, and other performing enhancing
chemicals.

Table 1 Physical and chemical property of glycol


Density(@20) 1.113 g/mL
Flash point 116
Freezing point -13
Specific heat capacity(@20) 2349J/(gk)
Boiling point (@760mmHg) 197
Vapor pressure (@20) 8Pa
Vapor pressure (@100) 2133Pa
Thermal conductivity (@20) 0.012W/(cmk)

16
Table 2 Glycol concentration, density and freezing point with anti-freeze solution
Freezing Glycol Density Freezing Glycol Density
point concentration % (@20) Point(@) concentration% (@20)
-10 28.4 1.0340 -40 54 1.0713
-15 32.8 1.0426 -45 57 1.0746
-20 38.5 1.0506 -50 59 1.0786
-25 45.3 1.0586 -45 80 1.0958
-30 47.8 1.0627 -30 85 1.1001
-35 50 1.0671 -13 100 1.1130

There are two types of anti-freeze solution. The first is the direct-use type; the other is the
concentrate type. Concentrate type can not be used directly. It must be diluted to a
particular concentration complying with the specifications in Table 2 according to
temperature.

If a new type of long life anti-freeze solution shows up on the market, it is important to be
able to judge its utility. Glycol is still the basis for long life anti-freeze solutions. Glycol is an
indispensable component in inhibiting water freezing and boiling. Furthermore, it is the
key in keeping the heat transfer capability of the anti-freeze solution. The differences
between types of glycol-based solutions are as follows:

Characteristic Conventional green coolant Long life orange coolant


Color Green or green-blue Orange or red
Standard PH value 10.5 8.5
Adding metal anticorrosion Adding tolyltriazole to organic
agents (e.g. tolyltriazole) to salts, such as Monocarboxylate
Anticorrosion agents
borate, phosphate and and dicarboxylate(e.g. sebacic
silicate. acid and octoic acid)
Sensitivity to pollution Hard water Conventional green coolant
Average maintenance life 2 to 3 years 4 to 5 years

Thus, the differences between them lie in the added anticorrosion agents. Because long
life anti-freeze solution is made up of organic acid salts, it has more chemistry stability and
longer life.

2. Five functions of good anti-freeze solution

1. Anticorrosion Anti-freeze solution contains a group of good, long-lasting


corrosion inhibitors. It can achieve the equilibrium between reagents and metal,
and form a protective film on the surface of the metal. Moreover, it can shell off
the original corrosion in the cooling system and prevent further corrosion.
Experiments indicate that corrosion by anti-freeze solution is 50 to 100 times
lower than that by water.

17
2. Anti-carvitation erosionCarvitation erosion is caused by air bubbles colliding
with metal. Experiments indicate that corroding rate of hard water containing
salts and alkalis is several tens times than that of clean soft water. Anti-freeze
solution does not contain hard water, and anti-foaming agents added can prevent
the formation of foam.

3. High boiling point Anti-freeze solution boils at 105 to 110, which makes it
more difficult to boil than water.

4. Anti-sludge Good anti-freeze solution is composed of distilled water and


contains anti-sludge agents, so scaling is inhibited.

5. Anti-freezeThe freezing point of anti-freeze solution can be adjusted, and is


determined by the ambient temperature in different operating locations. Usually it
freezes from -15 to - 68.

Good anti-freeze solution is transparent, clean and without irritating odor. Performance
criteria are as follows:

1. Good anti-freeze performance.

2. Anticorrosion and antirust performance.

3. No swelling and erosion caused to rubber parts.

4. Prevent cooling system from scaling.

5. Antifoam performance.

6. Low viscosity at low temperatures.

7. Stable chemical property.

3. How to select and use anti-freeze solution correctly

These days, anti-freeze is in common use. Being short of knowledge of its performance in
service, requirements, and methods of application may cause a variety of problems for a
vehicle. Difficulty starting, leaky pipe joints, hose cracks, water not being added, radiator
corrosion, and cylinder sleeve carvitation erosion are some of the troubles which may be
experienced.

1. Guide to anti-freeze solution selection

1) Select an anti-freeze solution with different freezing points with regards to ambient

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temperature. The freezing point of an anti-freeze solution should be approximately
10 lower than the historically lowest temperature in the operating area.

2) Select it in terms of the amount of vehicles to be maintained. Departments which


have many and relatively centralized vehicles can select small packages of
anti-freeze solution concentrate, because it is stable, and small packages are
convenient to transport and store. In addition, the flexible preparation of
operational anti-freeze solutions in light of ambient circumstances and working
requirements is more economical and practical. Conversely, if the number of
vehicles is few or dispersed, the direct-use type can be selected.

3) Select a high-grade anti-freeze solution, and do not use a low-grade anti-freeze


solution. High-grade anti-freeze solution is generally a qualified brand approved by
a national authentification center. It is transparent, clean and without irritating odor.
Detailed producer information, product description and detailed directions for use
are displayed on the external package. Low-grade anti-freeze solutions not only do
not inhibit freezing and boiling, but also accelerate the corrosion of the cooling
system.

4) Select an anti-freeze solution compatible with rubber sealing components.


Anti-freeze solution should not bring undesired side effects, such as swelling,
erosion to rubber, etc.

2. How to use anti-freeze solution correctly.

1) Be sure to wash the cooling system completely before adding anti-freeze solution,
otherwise its antirust effect may be weakened. The washing sequence is as
follows: (1) First, start and then stop the engine when the temperature of
anti-freeze solution rises to the opening temperature of the thermostat. Then,
drain the anti-freeze solution. (2) Make the engine operate at high speed for 5
minutes with a water solution of 10% caustic sodium as coolant, and then drain it
after soaking for an hour. (3) Make the engine operate for 10 minutes after adding
soft water, and then drain. Repeat (3) Several times until the drained water is
uncontaminated.

2) Be sure to check for leakage in the cooling system before adding anti-freeze
solution. Add it only after stopping any leak. Glycol easily seeps through cracks
due to its low surface tension. Therefore, it is necessary to check the whole
cooling system, especially the pipe lines and connection joints to avoid leakage
before replacing the anti-freeze solution.

3) The expansion coefficient of anti-freeze solution is greater than that of water. If


there is no expansion tank, anti-freeze solution can only be added to 95% the
volume of the cooling system.

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4) Be sure not to add anti-freeze solution concentrate directly or mix the solution
with hard water.

5) Periodic checking of the operation of anti-freeze solution is necessary. Anti-freeze


solution may decrease in quantity after being used for a period of time. Its density
should be checked first. If its density has not increased and any decrease is the
result of leakage, the same brand anti-freeze solution should be added. If density
decreases, the same brand solution concentrate should be added. If density
increases, or any decrease is caused by water evaporation, distilled-water or
de-ionized water should be added. After adding distilled water or concentrated
solution, check the density of anti-freeze solution after mixing thoroughly until it
reaches the density corresponding to desired freezing point. Do not use common
water (such as river water, lake water, pool water, well water, tap water, etc),
because these kinds of water contain impurities, which would decrease the
anticorrosion performance of the solution.

6) Do not mix different brands of anti-freeze solution to avoid disabling the action of
complex anti-corrosion agents.

7) The service term for long life anti-freeze solution is generally one to two years.
Replace it when it becomes due. If the PH value is higher than 5.5, it can continue
to be used; if the PH value is lower than 5.5, it should be replaced, otherwise it
would accelerate corrosion in cooling system. A validity extending agent can be
added to anti-freeze solution whose PH value is lower than 5, which can prolong
its use term up to one year.

8) Glycol is poisonous and harmful to the human liver. Do not ingest it. Washing is
necessary if it contacts skin. Sodium nitrite is a carcinogenic substance. Do not
dump the exhausted solution to prevent pollution to the environment.

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Safety cautions

z In order to keep engine low emissions, please pay special attention to the
items shown below:

1. Do not enlarge the operation range of the engine at will, such as increase maximum
limit of the fuel supply per cycle, advance fuel injection, refit engine without
permission.

2. When replacing injector, make sure its copper gasket is corresponding to injector
assembly of each cylinder.

3. Water separator of fuel filter should be drained in time according to the engine
operation manual.

4. The filter element of the air cleaner should be cleared dependent on the operation
conditions. When installing filter element, check it. If it is damaged, replace it and
make sure that the connecting line from air cleaner to turbocharger is absolutely
sealed, otherwise the turbocharger may be damaged and cause engine serious
troubles, such as gas and oil blow-by, leaning shell burning and crankshaft seizure
and etc.

5. Do not let maintainer increase maximum limit of fuel supply per cycle purposely and
especially regulate fuel injection pump by yourself to lead to danger.

z Be sure not to do anything that would injure you.

1. Be careful not to clean the engine and add lubricating oil or regulate engine when
engine is running.

2. Please do not get loose clothes, long hair near moving or rotating components of the
engine, especially do not touch them.

3. Be careful not to touch hot surfaces of the exhaust manifold, the turbocharger and
other components when engine is running or within an hour after engine stop,
otherwise burns will occur.

4. Do not open the filter cap of the coolant radiator when the engine is hot, otherwise the
dangerous hot coolant may spray out and scald you. If the coolant in the engine is
boiling, do not stop promptly the engine to add coolant. Adding coolant should follow
below procedure: Idle engine for at least 5 minutes, then stop the engine to add
coolant and idle again. De-aerate the coolant system by the de-aerating valve. Stop

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the engine and add coolant again. Idle the engine once more. Repeat the procedure
for several times until the coolant in the cooling system is enough to ensure the normal
operation of the engine.
5. Do not open filter cap of the cooling system when engine is hot or the coolant is
pressurized, otherwise the dangerous hot coolant would spray out.

z Be aware of anything that would cause fire even blowup.

1. Before driving the vehicle, check carefully the working conditions of the engine,
especially the fuel leak, oil leak, air or gas leak and water leak, if necessary remove
them in time.

2. When adding fuel, make sure that no cigarette smoking and other fire source close by.

3. The inflammable components, such as wires, fuel hose, rubber or plastic air hoses,
water hoses mounted on engine and vehicle, should not be close to high-temperature
or high-speed rotating components, such as exhaust pipe line, turbocharger and etc.
The minimum safe distance between the flammables and high-temperature
components is 100mm and reliable installing measures should be taken.

4. Do not make the high-pressure and low-pressure pipeline of fuel system collide and
rub with hard items and especially with various electric wires.

5. The original oil pressure induction plug includes electric circuit and meter. Be sure not
to refit it without permission by using rubber or nylon line to connect mechanical meter.
6. Make sure there are no gas leaks around the exhaust manifold and turbocharger. If
the gaskets are damaged, replace them with authentic parts of Yuchai. Make sure that
there are no leaks in connecting flange between exhaust pipe and muffler. If pipeline is
damaged, do not weld. Replace it in time.

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