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Logbook

Roy Stewart BA LBP


14/02/2017
Commercial Construction
Completed for a Diploma in Construction Management

Bonus image: NorthEast view of MASS 2. BIM 3D generated image.


A floor is highlighted to give an idea of scale.

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Summary
Overview

Bonus image: Site plan showing the location of MASS2 with


surrounding buildings. This plan also shows previous buildings outlined
inside the site.

Scope of the project


MASS2 aka M2 is the new building on Toi Ohomai
Windermere campus. It was built in 2016 by Marra
construction. The building features modern
concepts such as integrated fire control to
moisture, humidity and sound control. It features
internet, WIFI lounges and lecture rooms, as well as purpose based sound studios, media and a radio
station.
The steel skeleton structure incorporates a open plan concept which allows a high degree of design
freedom and space inside. (As opposed to exoskeleton, which puts all the structural steel on the
outside of the building) The sound studios use a box-in-box concept with no windows, suspended
independently from the main structure, which means that design sophistication is required for the
control of vibration, humidity, fire and air.

Sharpac is the other building


mentioned in this log book. (In
order to differentiate between
projects this current font will be
used.) This six story building
features a double floored carpark
in the stories below grade. With
retail on the ground floor, and
offices upstairs. It was
completed in april 2012, by Watts
and Hughes Construction.

Bonus Image of Sharpac as visualised in a 3d rendering, from the Sharpac drawings by Jasmax as of
June 15th, note the pile wall as part of the structure underground.

Purpose
The purpose of this report is to illustrate and explain each of the stages of commercial construction,
with an attention to nomenclature.
In this Logbook the images to be considered for the purpose of marking are labelled with the word fig.
e.g. : (fig. 4), some other bonus images have been added for clarity.

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Table of contents
Discussion
1.1 Substructure
1.1.2 Enabling works
1. (Enabling works Fig.1 M2 Image) taken from the Site Establishment plan published by
Chow Hill Architects
2. (Enabling works Fig 1 M2 ii) Image taken from the same as above Site establishment
plan drawn by Chow Hill Architects
3. (Enabling works Fig 2 M2) Image taken from the Site establishment plan drawn by Chow
Hill Architects:
4. (Enabling works Fig 3 M2): The red spot marks the location of a NZAA archeological
site. Map from Mapi, Tauranga city Council (Site of proposed building is blue and
marked with M)

5. (Enabling works Fig 4, M2): Image from M2 Raft foundation Construction By Chow Hill
Architects.
6. (Enabling works Fig 5 M2): Image from Mapi TCC showing spot heights of the proposed
site.
7. (Enabling works Fig 6 M2). Building set out plan by Chow Hill Architects
Enabling works 2: Sharpac

8. (Enabling works Fig 1b Sharpac). Image from Mapi TCC, services to the site.
9. Enabling works Fig 2 Sharpac, Image from MApi TCC, flooding risk.
10. (Enabling works Fig 3 Sharpac) demolition: Image from Mapi TCC with aerial shot from
2007.
11. (Enabling works Fig 4 Sharpac): image from the TCC Mapi- surveyed heights.

1.1.3 Excavation
1. (Excavation Fig 1, M2) Mapi map showing that the MASS 2 building is located in an area
requiring a stormwater specific design.
2. (Excavation Fig 2, M2) Drawing from Chow Hill Architects of a cross section of M2,
3. (Excavation fig 3, M2) Detail Drawing from Chow Hill architects M2 Site works temporary
site works sheet 009 A
4. (Excavation fig 4 i, M2) Image taken from the M2 Site services for Raft construction
issue by BECA, annotated.
5. Excavation fig 4 ii M2) Image taken and annotated from the M2 site plan for Rib raft by
BECA,

Excavation Sharpac
6. (Excavation Fig 1b, Sharpac) Image from TCC Mapi showing land information:
7. (Excavation Fig 2b Sharpac) Image from Sharpac building excavation provided by Tony
Bosnich:
1.1.4 Foundations

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8. Excavation/ enabling works fig 4 ii M2) Photo by Roy Stewart Driven Pile
wall on North Eastern corner of M2

1. Foundations Fig 1 M2) Image taken from detail drawing on Chow Hill Architects
temporary site works Sheet 009 A
2. (Foundations Fig 2. M2) Image screengrab from is a video on youtube showing a CAD
drawing of a typical steel column attached to reinforced concrete footings, annotated.
3. (Foundations Fig 3 M2) Image from Services Module on Moodle showing service pipes
being placed in foundations of MASS 2
4. (Foundations Fig 4 M2) Image from Services Module on Moodle showing lift pit with
drainage hole.
5. (Foundations Fig 5, M2) Image from Firth Concrete with annotations by Roy Stewart.
6. (Foundations Fig 1b,Sharpac)

1.1.5 Substructure
1. (Substructure Fig 1 Sharpac)Image closeup of Architect release of Sharpac from 15 Jun.
2. (Substructure Fig 2 Sharpac) Image taken from Jasmax Architects release Jun15.
Annotated.
3. (Substructure Fig 3 Sharpac) Image from level B1 Jasmax Sharpac release as at Jun 15,
4. (Substructure Fig 4 Sharpac) Photo from the Sharpac building site supplied by Tony
Bosnich, annotated
5. (Substructure Fig 4b Sharpac)Detail from Sharpac drawings by Jasmax Architects

1.1.6 Ground floor slab


1. (Ground floor Slab Fig 1 Sharpac) Highlighted crop from plans by Jasmax Architects
released Jun15
2. (Ground floor Slab Fig 2 Sharpac) Photo of plans of the Sharpac building taken from site
copy from. Photo supplied by Tony Bosnich.
3. (Ground floor Slab Fig 3 Sharpac) Images from Sharpac Current as on 15th June
drawings.
4. (Ground floor Slab Fig 4 Sharpac) Images from Sharpac Current as on 15th June
drawings.

1.2 Structure

1.2.1 Columns
1. (Columns Fig 1. M2) Photo taken by Roy Stewart
2. Columns Fig. 2 Screenshot from M2 slideshow in class. Annotated.
3. (Columns Fig 3. M2) Image from www.detallesconstructives.net
4. (Columns Fig 4, M2) Annotated screenshots of slideshow in class: The array of columns
ties together with K braces and beams; plus closeup of hinge joint.

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1.2.2 Walls exterior
1. (Walls Exterior Fig 1) Image supplied on Moodle of M2 during construction.
2. (Exterior wall structure Fig 2): Image from photos supplied on moodle.
3. Exterior wall structure Fig 3: M2 construction image from moodle.
4. Exterior walls Fig 4: Image from M2 construction pictures on moodle.

1.2.3 Walls interior


1. (Interior walls fig 1): Image from M2 plans Ground floor plan, from the MASS 2 Fire
Protection Specification pg 164 from Chow Hill Architects.
2. (Walls interior fig 2): Photo from M2 construction series on Moodle.
3. (Wall interior Fig 3): Photo taken by Roy Stewart)
4. (Wall interior Fig4) Photo by Roy Stewart

1.2.4 Beams
1. (Image Beams fig. 1 ) from screenshot from moodle slideshow. Mass 2 under
construction.
2. (Image Beams fig. 2) from image supplied on moodle: construction shot of M2)
3. (Image Beams fig 3. Photo of M2 construction supplied on Moodle)
4. (Image Beams fig. 4) Simply supported beams usually have a hinge (bolted) joint and a
roller joint (image)
1.2.5 Floor slabs
1. Floor slab fig 1 Image from Tatasteel construction of Comflor 60
2. Floor slabs fig 2: screenshot from online class session. Annotated.
3. Floor slabs fig 3 photo taken by Roy Stewart
4. Floor slab fig 4 annotated from an image by
http://www.steelconstruction.info/Composite_construction

1.2.6 Bracing Provision


1. (Fig Bracing Provision 1) Plan of ground floor showing braces marked in yellow.
2. Image Bracing Provision Fig 2 BIM 3d generated image showing a Braced corner
3. Image Bracing Provision Fig 3 from images on
http://pc.blogspot.co.nz/2010/09/earthquake-engineering-of-day-k-braced.html
4. (Image Bracing Provision 4: photo taken by Roy Stewart)

1.3 Exterior Envelope


1.3.1 Wall cladding
1. (Exterior wall cladding Fig 1) photo by Roy Stewart.
2. (Exterior wall cladding Fig 2): Photo by Roy Stewart
3. (Exterior cladding Fig 3: ) Photo by Roy Stewart
4. (Exterior cladding Fig 4: ) Photo by Roy Stewart

1.3.2 Roof cladding

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1. Roof cladding Fig 1: from photographs supplied on Moodle:
2. Roof cladding Fig 2: Image from M2 Construction Photos supplied on Moodle,
annotated.
3. Roof cladding fig. 3: Image from http://www.dimond.co.nz/products/dimondek-630
annotated.
4. Roof cladding fig.4 :Image from Chow Hill Architects

1.4 Interior Finishes (support & linings/coverings)


1.4.1 Ceilings
1. Ceilings Fig 1: from photos supplied on Moodle. 5311AS ASONA CEILING SYSTEMS
2. Ceilings fig 2: photo supplied on Moodle, FORMAN SUSPENDED TILE CEILING
SYSTEMS
3. Ceilings fig 3: photo supplied on Moodle: Autex Greenstuf insulation
4. (Ceilings fig 4: Seratone sheets stacked in a warehouse. Image from Trademe)

1.4.2 Floors
1. Floors fig 1: Photo by Roy Stewart: 6221J JACOBSEN FLOOR TILING
2. Floors fig 2: Photo by Roy Stewart
3. Floors fig 3: Photo by Roy Stewart
4. Floors fig 4: Photo by Roy Stewart

Accessible areas
Conclusion
Appendices

Discussion

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1.1 Substructure
The substructure is the part of the structure below grade which supports the building. It forms the part
of the foundation which transfers the load of the building to the ground below it. It also isolates the
surrounding ground form the foundations.

1.1.1 Some geotech and environmental background:

(Bonus Image)photo of M2 from Marra Construction

MASS2 or M2 as is now known, is built in a storm water


sensitive area, TCC DS-5 stormwater documentation
states that as a minimum requirement a design shall
provide for a stormwater management system that:

a) Complies with the operative City Plan


b) Is designed to acceptable urban design, landscaping and engineering methods.
c) Minimises, isolates or eliminates health and safety hazards during both its construction
and its use.
d) Minimises, isolates or eliminates any adverse ecological and environmental effects.
e) The stormwater management system shall be located in areas that are geotechnically
suitable for the system proposed.
Note: Where confirmation of this requirement is not clear a certification statement from a
Category 1Geo-Professional may be required. - (TCC DS-5.2)

This means that construction has to be done while keeping the estuary in mind, ensuring that the
paints and finishes are eco-friendly so as not to pollute the harbour. Additionally the soil which is
excavated is soft, deep and holds a lot of water, consisting of a deep pumice ash layer washed down
the river and banked up to deeper than 1m where it settled. information about the soil type can be
found in the appendix. The soil does not comply to the definition of good ground. Even if the
penetrometer tests show 300 kPa there is the jelly like nature which the clay minerals impart to contend
with and the high moisture retaining properties which this soil is known to have, these will reduce the
bearing capacity of the soil.

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This pumice ash has weathered and the pumice has degraded into clay like minerals
which coat the grains and act like a jelly when waterlogged.

This kind of soil can suggest using a Ribraft foundation for a shallow excavation. This type of
foundation embodies a concrete raft like structure with a network of solid reinforced beams interspersed
with Polystyrene. Firth have developed these flat slabs as alternative for traditional grade slabs, for
sandy earthquake zones prone to liquefaction. Much of the work has been done since the Canterbury
Earthquakes. Although earthquakes are not as common in the Tauranga as they are in the Eastern
Bay, due of proximity to a fault zone, earthquakes can happen anywhere in NZ, even if a fault has not
been mapped there before and the sandy soil, which exhibits clay like characteristics often described
as pudding or jelly over various sources.
The Mass 2 (M2) building foundation is anchored to lowered reinforced concrete footings which float
underneath the main grade slab and provide sub grade anchors for steel bolts well enough inserted into
these footings to bolt on and support full length 3 story steel pillars.

Bonus Image from Watts and Hughes construction

The Sharpac building is also built in a


stormwater sensitive area, which then floods
occasionally. It has been designed with two
floors underground, the flooding of which will
need monitoring after construction. The
foundation floor is also a Concrete Raft, but
additionally reinforced Concrete Columns hold
up subsequent floors. The Site is prepared by
creating a replacement piled retaining wall before excavating. This
effectively stabilises the ground behind the retaining wall, and outside
the foundations of the building, protecting foundations of neighbouring
buildings, and roads with large sewers underneath on two sides of the
building, which might have been undermined by such a deep hole otherwise.
The soil on this site has an ash pumice layer as its top soil, but as it
was excavated revealed a harder, more solid layer which looks to be older
subsoil, which cuts to a gravelly stream bed or an ancient cliff face
beach. The building footprint is isolated from the surrounding ground and
stabilised via the piling wall.

1.1.2 Enabling works

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Enabling works 1: Mass2

Site preparation which takes place before the works of the main construction. Enabling works cover:
creation of access routes,
security fencing,
ramps
placing of signs
logistics;
hazardous material removal;
archaeological and heritage investigations;
environmental approvals;
utilities isolations and security.
demolition
land surveying

Having a good and comprehensive plan for enabling works will allow construction teams to enter and
begin work safely. It will also allow materials to be delivered efficiently without impeding the function of
neighbouring buildings or surrounding infrastructure. Enabling works are usually carried out by civil
engineering and construction contractors, and sometimes demolition contractors. (Demolition
contractors are used when there is a continuum between site clearance and bulk removal excavation.)
Land surveying and engineering surveying will be included in enabling works, to provide not only
topographic surveys, but also boundary control; grid setouts for earthworks and access ramps and
location of archaeological or heritage sites.

1.1.2.1 Security fencing:


(Enabling works Fig.1 M2 i Image) taken from the Site
Establishment plan published by Chow Hill Architects

Key:

Yellow line = Security fence


Red arrow = Protective sheeting on barrier to
prevent pedestrians being affected by Wash up
area.

The fence and Pedestrian barrier are to be at 2m


high with removable sections to enable
delivery/access to Site and Dangerous Goods
Store.
As the building is built during term time the security fence is to keep idle traffic out, as well as keeping
materials and tools secure from theft. As can be seen from the above plan the Architect designed the

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plan to include a double security fence at the ramp near the dangerous goods, generators
and fuel stores.

1.1.2.3 Logistics, Utilities isolations, Ramps and security

(Enabling works Fig


1 M2 ii) Image taken
from the same as above
Site establishment plan
drawn by Chow Hill
Architects:

Red = Dangerous
Goods
Purple = Generator
Orange =
Flammables
Green = Gas
Black = Ramps
Black arrows =
Access into site

Ramp to be
provided for
accessible access -
pedestrian route
2.5M wide
minimum. There is
also an emergency
pedestrian access
2m wide on the
North perimeter fence at least 2m wide. This is stated on the plan, but not marked, presumably the
contractor will put this in where it will be convenient.
This includes providing space for goods needed on the site. There are some plans drawn in the case of
M2 for dangerous goods stores, Flammable gas, Gas, and the Generator, All allocated spaces and
fencing planned and doubled for pedestrian traffic. Access has been planned with drive at Southern
end marked with bold black arrows.
The landscaping has to be done when the foundations are laid so that there is minimal damage and
runoff according to the Stormwater sensitive rules D5 from the Tauranga City council. Thus a
landscaping check is carried out by the inspector at the site inspection carried out before pouring
concrete.

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1.1.2.4 Archaeological remains
Archaeological remains will have to be avoided during the demolition and excavation phases especially,
but also during the construction phase. In the case of the soil on this site remains are small finds like
mussel shells or isolated bone fragments. However they are likely to show up. The NZAA sites listed
will need consultation to ensure that they remain intact by law, although the type of finds in this area are
likely to show up with any excavation, this makes a good argument for the Ribraft foundations which
were planned for the M2 building, as less soil is excavated before commencing the build.

Archeological artifacts are known to pop up in notifiable zones. Each time a bone or a midden or some
other form of human remains is discovered the archeologist societies and governmental departments
need to be notified, consulted and sometimes the find needs to be sensitively exhumed, which might
involve even more parties. This can mean a serious down time in a schedule for a contracting company
who might struggle to pick up short notice work to fill the gap. The Heritage New Zealand Pouhere
Taonga Act 2014 provides for the identification, protection, preservation and conservation of the historic
and cultural heritage of New Zealand. It is an offence under this Act to:

destroy,damageormodifyanyarchaeologicalsitewithoutanauthorityfromHeritageNewZealandPouhere
Taonga.Anarchaeologicalsiteisdefinedasaplaceassociatedwithpre-1900humanactivitywheretheremaybe
evidencerelationtohistoryofNewZealand.Archaeologicalfeaturesmayincludeoldwhalingstations,
shipwrecks,shellmiddens,hangiorovens,pitdepressions,defensiveditches,artefacts,orkoiwitangata(human
skeletalremains),etc.

Due to the fact that Rib Rafts sit on the ground


rather than in the ground less bulk is removed at
the excavations stage. In terms of degenerating
the excavation into an accidental archeology dig,
removing less soil makes sense.

(Enabling works Fig 3 M2): The red spot marks the


location of a NZAA archeological site. Map from Mapi, Tauranga
city Council (Site of proposed building is blue and marked with M)

1.1.2.5 Demolition

The proposed new building will be sited on the site of existing buildings which will need to be
demolished:

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(Enabling works Fig 4, M2): Image from M2 Raft foundation Construction
By Chow Hill Architects.

Red crosses indicate building demolition or removal and


white crosses indicate tree removal or relocation.
Pink line is Fire Hydrant main which will need to be laid and
the
Yellow line in the Gas main.
Blue lines indicate the buildings which will continue
functioning and are right on the security fence boundary.

Except for identified retained vegetation or features, cut


down all growth, grub up all major roots and remove from the site. Identify perennial weeds to be
removed. Where regrowth can occur from residual plant material, ensure all plant material (including
roots) is completely removed. Dispose of safely at authorised refuse transfer station. 2221 Removing
Vegetation 2.6 Chow Hill Architects specification for construction.

The image shows the building footprint of M2 superimposed on an aerial shot from Mapi (2015) of the
Polytech.
For small buildings, such as prefab units, demolition can be a rather simple process. The building is
pulled down either manually or mechanically using large hydraulic equipment: elevated work platforms,
cranes, excavators or bulldozers. Before any demolition activities can take place, there are many steps
that must be carried out beforehand, including:
performing asbestos abatement,
removing hazardous or regulated materials,
obtaining necessary permits,
submitting necessary notifications,
disconnecting utilities,
rodent baiting
the development of site-specific safety and work plans.

The demolition project manager will determine where undermining is necessary, so that the demolition
is controlled.
Safety and cleanup considerations must also taken into account in determining how the building is
undermined and ultimately demolished. Buildings N3A, N3,N2 and N6A,N7 will have exposed ends
and will have to be capped and protected by the contractor ( Site Establishment Plan Chow Hill
Architects). Thus part of the enabling works is to provide tarps and fences to protect these buildings in
close proximity to the site. (of course these buildings have since been removed, but the correct
procedure had been followed.)

1.1.2.6 Land Surveying

(Enabling works Fig 5 M2):


Image from Mapi TCC showing spot heights of the proposed site.

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The approximate surveyed heights above mean high water mark in meters. Most of the surveyed marks
are in fact below the level of the proposed ground height of the new building which is has the top of the
concrete slab at 11.4m (source Chow Hill Architects, Prelim/Dev Design CO-ORD section E-E)
The ground slopes gently upwards from the North Western corner (10.9m ) to the South Eastern corner
(11.6m)
Because the excavation is going to be 3m below the existing ground level see image (Excavation fig 3,
M2) the lowest heights of the excavation face in the NW corner will be only 2.5m down, and the
building, and the floor level there will be above the existing ground height.

The architect instructed that A Cadastral Surveyor is to set out the building as per coordinates
provided and the datum. Coordinate datum is BOP 2000; Local Origin BDXP; Level Datum is Moturiki
and Local Origin BM 360, 362 and 363. (Source: Chow hill Architects MASS 2 proposed site plan)

(Enabling works Fig 6 M2).


Building set out plan by Chow Hill Architects

Survey points include corners of buildings and


a conic seating arrangement.

Photos have been inserted to demonstrate


which corners (red arrows) are meant to be
used. Bearing lines are attached to crucial
points in the floor plan of M2 to set out the site.

Enabling works 2: Sharpac

(Enabling works Fig 1 b Sharpac). Image from Mapi TCC, services to the
site.

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The Sharpac building utilities map show several points of
interest for the contractor responsible for excavation: namely that there
are three water nodes; a water service line and a private water main which
will have to be avoided and/or capped. There is an underground utility
buffer which flows from the road on the Northern and Western sides of the
property directly into the estuary, If silty or subsoil runoff is to be
avoided, some sort of filtering might be advantageous at the culverts
(marked in green) on the road side. Additionally the neighbouring site on
the Eastern side has a private water main and stormwater drain very close
to the boundary, which could possibly be damaged by heavy machinery.

(Enabling works Fig 2 Sharpac)


Flooding risk. Image from Mapi TCC

The Devonport and First Ave roads


will flood during storms, which may
be of some concern to contractors,
especially those involved with
excavation, and subgrade
construction. Pumps may be needed to
keep the excavation dry, as flood
waters could flow into the site. Even
if the site is excavated during the dry season, a freak rain storm could
potentially inundate the site, as the basement floor is two stories below
ground. Additionally this surface water can potentially carry silt or soil
straight into the harbor overland. Barriers should be used for runoff onto
the road, and any excavation material should be moved directly

(Enabling works Fig 3 Sharpac)


demolition: Image from Mapi TCC with aerial
shot from 2007. See an updated 2016 image
of Sharpac here:

The site was occupied by several


buildings and a carpark as well as a
large tree. Note the driveways which
are located to the North of the
buildings which will drain into
culverts (see fig 2b Sharpac) nearby.
The runoff coming down these driveways may impact the stormwater runoff
during initial stages of excavation. The demolition of this site will have
specific problems such as the fact that it has neighbours on two sides and

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busy city centre roads on the other two sides. Safety
considerations include pedestrian traffic on the adjacent footpaths, and
the debris from demolition will need to be taken away promptly to allow
works to proceed smoothly due to
the limited space available.

mage from
(Enabling works Fig 4 Sharpac): i
the TCC Mapi- surveyed heights.

The Sharpac building is placed on


ground that slopes upwards from
the Northwest corner at 15.7m
above mean high water to 16.3m in
the Southeastern corner. The
building will have a double story
basement and the entire site will
be dug down.

1.1.3 Excavation

Excavation is forming a cavity in the ground by digging and cutting.


There are two stages to excavation: Bulk removal and precision excavation. The bulk removal aims at
removing most of the soil from the designated foundation space, while the precision excavation aims to
dig the pile holes, strip footings drainage trenches, lift pit or any other smaller specific parts of the site.

In the case of M2:

1. Before the compacted sand fill is placed under the slab, an engineer is to inspect the subgrade i.e.
the bottom of the cut for any soft spots or organic fill which is to be removed. The site is to be
prepared before inspection by being rolled at least six times and kept dry .1
2. 150mm of fill is then placed and compacted.
3. As excavation nears completion it is interspersed with piling, raising poles or columns to the
point that there is a blurred line between excavation and the first permanent foundation
placement. Often the same construction crew will do the tasks simultaneously.

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Laying substrates is not seen as excavation but rather filling graded rock, or metal or
pumice, back in. However they are akin to preliminary foundation works which happen during and post
excavation, and most of the excavation crews will also contract to fill. Ideally these activities are done
quickly and covered from rain as waterlogging would require re-excavation. This would involve
checking weather reports before starting.

Mass 2 (M2)

(Excavation Fig 1, M2)


Mapi map showing that the MASS 2 building is located in an area requiring a
stormwater specific design.

Horizontal Excavation will have to be carried out while


being mindful of possible runoff into the estuary. This
means taking away any soil excavated as it would leach
freshly unearthed minerals into the stormwater, which can
theoretically be carried into the estuary, especially during a
storm, when the existing surrounding soil is waterlogged, and the runoff starts running overland.

As the building is in a public place safety for both the work crew and the public is paramount.
Section 2.5.2.c in the Resource management Act 1991 states that:
sustainable management means managing the use, development, and protection of natural and physical resources in a way,
or at a rate, which enables people and communities to provide for their social, economic, and cultural well-being and for their
health and safety while avoiding, remedying, or mitigating any adverse effects of activities on the environment.

Excavation brings minerals which have been buried to the surface where they will suddenly encounter
oxygen. This starts a decaying process which will often release unwanted by-products, one of which
can be natural radiation. Additionally fine silt can wreak havoc on organisms in waterways because of
the oxygen hungry chemical breakdown of the minerals present in the soil. The organisms whether they
are plants or creatures will also suffer the lack of light as the water turns opaque. It can be
apprehended that tailings from an excavation are best kept from entering the harbour.

In the case of the M2 horizontal open excavation, the scope of the project would mean that
Section71.(2) b of the New Zealand Building Act 2004, which states that: Council will not pass the
application for consent if there has been no evidence of an intention to restore any damage to that land
or other property as a result of the building work.. Thus the architect has drawn landscaping drawings
for the BECA contractors which is to be inspected.

The soil was excavated and a harder layer was replaced, this was levelled to take the Ribraft floor. A lift
pit was dug to make room for the undercarriage of the lift when it is on the ground floor

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(Excavation Fig 2, M2)
Drawing from Chow Hill Architects of a cross section of M2,

Drawing with levels marked for each story including the Ground level. The level of the top of the
Foundation slab at 11400 mm above MHWS (Black arrows) It also shows a lift pit,(blue arrow), which
will need to be precision excavated after the subfloor site concrete has been laid. This image gives a
good idea of the scale of excavation required which validates the Firth statement that the Raft is built
on the ground rather than in the ground

(Excavation fig 3, M2)


Detail Drawing from Chow Hill architects M2 Site works
temporary site works sheet 009 A

Cross section excavation profile for use


during excavation. This architect's detail
shows that the site will be dug to 3m
subgrade with a step at 1m deep. This is
where the soft soil is stated to harden
according to the Land survey soil depth map.
The soft soil is given a ledge to crumble onto
where the harder layer is benched. This
keeps the general excavation tidy, as the
friable material can collect on the middle
bench. This drawing, therefore corresponds
with research, however it also clearly states
that the benching and battering dimensions
are to be confirmed on site.
Benching, Battering and shoring are done for
safety reasons. If an excavation is deeper than 1.5 metres, (the height of the excavation edge is
generally high enough to reach up to a persons chest.) then the weight of the collapsing soil in a case
of failure could suffocate a person due to the weight of material on the chest.
Benching will terrace the cut into maximum 1.5m steps, and making sure that the upper terrace
in the event of a collapse does not roll onto into the lower excavation.
Battering involves cutting the excavation with a sloping angle of repose. A combination of
Benching and Battering can work, as is the case with both the excavation sites mentioned
(Shoring means that the side of the excavation in retained with sheets of ply or even steel which
are propped into place. These can be moved as necessary.
Sheet piling is a form of shoring, as steel sheets are driven into the ground before excavating.
These may be propped back as well.)

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(Excavation fig 4 i, M2) Image taken from the M2 Site services for Raft construction issue by BECA, annotated.

Services which will need inspections include:


Stormwater 13 checks
Waste water 13 checks
Manholes 14 checks
Trench compaction Backfill test 2 checks
Final inspection of Stormwater and Wastewater, 14 checks altogether, 8 pre-meeting and 6 at
the site meeting.
Water reticulation pipe laying 8 pipe laying checks and 4 fitting checks
Final inspection of Water reticulation Engineer to attend 7 pre-meeting checks and 3 at meeting.
Landscaping 6 checks for the contractor and 4 at the site meeting with Council, engineer and
contractor.
Work Clearance for Network operators *From BECA specifications

(Excavation fig 4 ii M2)


Image taken and annotated from the
M2 site plan for Rib raft by BECA,

This plan shows the final


state of the site before Rib
Raft is created. New
services are in bold,
existing services shown
with a fine line. Also shown
is a line of piles on the
North Eastern corner,
designed to protect the
foundations of the
neighbouring buildings
during excavation.
Annotated are the areas of
particular interest to the
excavation crew including
manholes, redundant drain
that needs capping, a new
pull pit for electrical trades
and a lift pit. Furthermore
the pile wall is shown on the North Eastern corner of the site.

18
Sharpac

(Excavation Fig 1b, Sharpac)


Image from TCC Mapi showing land information:

The Sharpac building is also in a designated stormwater specific design


area, being situated only a hundred meters or so from the estuary edge.
Section 5.A.1 of the regulatory documents published by the Tauranga city
council states that the primary goal of a stormwater specific design is to
prevent nuisance flooding onto the neighbouring property as well as into
the municipal stormwater drains, which end up in the harbour. During
construction, excavation earthworks can pose a significant risk to
underground sewers, and in this case a municipal drain, due to vibration
from piling. The design of the building will also require adequate gravity
fed drainage with secondary systems for unusual flows (a 50 year storm,
for example)

(Excavation Fig 2b
Sharpac)

19
Image from Sharpac building excavation provided by Tony Bosnich:

Enabling works shown here are a retaining wall, a temporary (becomes


permanently part of basement slab) work platform used for materials and
workers, and security fencing. In the background a perimeter beam (black
text on white background) is seen with a gap underneath. This beam is
capping a replacement pile wall, which although technically is seen as
part of the foundation substructure it is grouped into enabling works, as
it stabilises the soil on the perimeter, which will prevent the
undermining of neighbouring properties, and is the first work done on the
site.
Replacement piles are drilled and then filled with a pile whether it is
lowered in, or poured insitu, thus replacing the void. This was done to
prevent excessive vibration for the tenants in neighbouring properties.
(Driven piles would have been too intrusive.) When the site is excavated
fully, these piles will be treated with shotcrete to make the wall
contiguous, against water ingress. (see assignment 3)

The bulk excavation is the first time the project gets to see the actual
geology of the area (unless they have conducted a complete seismic survey
which would model the underground layers.) The site photo shows that there
were two distinct layers with the upper layer displaying a lower angle of
repose i.e. it will crumble and collapse under its own weight at a lower
angle. This meant it had to be excavated further back on the first
excavation, using a benching technique, for safety reasons, even though
all the works would have to be eventually excavated away to the pile wall.
The lower layer effectively forms a temporary type of ledge to catch small
avalanches of gravelly pumice ash.
In the image some of the first concrete slab has been laid. This provides
a temporary platform which will later be covered with a further 50mm to
come to the full height. The platform thus becomes a permanent submerged
part of the structure.

1.1.4 Foundations

The structural element of a building which connects it to the ground. Foundations transfer loads from the
main structure to the ground. They can also isolate the space below the building from the ground and
groundwater much like a pool or underground bunker or cellar. Foundation design varies from building to
building as requirements vary, there are many approaches dictated by :
soil conditions,
slope,
earthquake requirements,
high wind requirements,

20
sensitive design such as those requiring resource consent for:
storm water,
archeological remains
Proximity to flood prone areas
High water table levels

For each of these categories there are concepts which need to be approached in an engineering sense. This
means not only using 3d spaces to place the concept, (i.e. in the mind as well as in 3D CAD programming),
but adding other dimensions such as movement and harmonic resonance.

The New Zealand earthquake loadings standard, NZS 1170.5 (SNZ 2004) requires consideration of
foundation deformations when calculating building deflections (refer Clause 7.1.2).It is stated that:
Foundations, including piles, and the supporting soils with which they interact should be treated as part of
the overall building structure and analysed as such.
Flexibility of foundations affects the response characteristics of the building by affecting period, drift and the
like, and affects the relative participation between dissimilar systems in the resistance of lateral loads, such
as between walls and frame.

(Excavation/ enabling works/foundation fig 4 ii M2)


Photo by Roy Stewart
Driven Pile wall on North Eastern corner of M2

(notice the fraying ends on the tops of the wooden piles which
indicate a pile driver has hit the wood) as shown in the plan above
as a retaining wall designed to keep the integrity of the foundations
on neighbouring properties. Security fencing is still in place.

Classification Conundrums:
Even though this pile wall is permanent, the piles are driven in
before excavation and are seen as a type of enabling works as they
prepare the site for building. Also they are part of the foundations,
even if they are not under the building.

Bonus Image screenshot from class slideshow of M2 construction pictures

Here the piles are readied for the pile driver. Notice how
close the pile wall is to the neighbouring building. This is
one of the first jobs done, excavation has started, as can
be seen in the foreground.

21
(Excavation Enabling works Bonus image)
Map from Mapi TCC showing that the
foundations shall need a specific design
due to the unstable allophanic soil present.

M2 is an example of a Rib Raft concrete floor chosen for


its compatibility with a jelly like soil, which has a
tendency to crumble or subside, (additionally some
artifacts have been known to appear when digging in this
soil in this area so a
Ribraft is compatible for this as well, as it is less intrusive). The deep pyroclastic sand has partially
broken down and has left a greasy layer of clay particles in the soil, additionally it is close to the mean
high water level (only 11m). As a 10m tsunami or climate change induced sea level rises are
considered, the Territorial Authority has designated this area for a specific design foundation. Rib rafts
are especially tested to handle subsidence due to washout, and are able to be monitored by a BLM
management system, which will alert the occupants when remedial works need to be carried out in
such an event.

(Foundations Fig 1 M2)


Image taken from detail drawing on Chow Hill Architects
temporary site works Sheet 009 A
This image shows that the driven pile retaining
wall consists of 6m long poles which are
driven into 3m augured holes.
Approximately 80 poles are driven in.

To underside of concrete floor, fill with pit


shingle or other proved material in layers not
exceeding 150mm and properly compacted
with mechanical vibrating rollers and watered
as required to obtain optimum compaction.
Blind filling under the floor slab with 50mm of
top course BECA

22
Bonus image from M2 site services by BECA, showing location of footings
under the RibRaft. Pg 11
The subgrade foundations under the RibRaft of M2
consist of strip footings which are to support the rows
of columns. These are then buried under fill and a rib
raft is laid on top, with threaded bolts protruding to
which the columns are attached .

(Foundations Fig 2.
M2)
Image screengrab from is a
video on youtube showing a
CAD drawing of a typical steel
column attached to reinforced
concrete footings, annotated.

The footing is
constructed firstly by
laying unreinforced
site concrete, which
allows work to be tidy
and mud-free, this
does the same job as
compacted fill. The
site concrete creates
a solid flat surface
which can be worked
upon.

The blue reinforcing


bars on this diagram
run fore and aft into

23
the diagram. This footing is tied in steel. The footings are necessarily large and have
many reinforcing steel bars running along the length. Mesh is added at the bottom and top of the
footing, which creates a steel cage inside the concrete cover.

The anchor bolts for the columns are held in place with a template while footings are cast. Reinforcing
pods for the columns, are placed with templates and falsework supports to hold them in place.
The subgrade footing is thus well reinforced to support the weight of the columns. The templates are
removed after the slab has been laid.

The place marked fill on the diagram is


pumice: This is marked on the BECA site
services plab with hand drawn circles:

Bonus image from BECA M2 site services,


pg13

(Foundations Fig 3 M2)

Image from Services Module on Moodle showing service


pipes being placed in foundations of MASS 2

Image taken from the South West corner.


Foreground and Left hand side of picture is
outside the building footprint while Centre
Right is the concrete site slab with services
and structural steel being readied for
Concrete.

24
(Foundations Fig 4 M2) Image from Services
Module on Moodle showing lift pit with drainage hole.
This is an example of precision
excavating which comes at a later stage
in excavation.The lift pit has to be
created to take the undercarriage of the
lift cubicle. This pit need to be drained as
the machinery attached to the bottom of
the lift needs to remain dry. So a drain is
required to be installed before the pit
floor is poured.
The pit is excavated after site concrete is
poured, thus it can be seen that
excavation and site concrete
construction happen simultaneously.

(Foundations Fig 5, M2) Image from Firth Concrete with annotations by Roy Stewart.

25
The edge Beams for the Slab are 300mm with 3 bars of reinforcing while the internal ribs are only 100mm
wide with one bar. This image shows how a Rib Raft is prepared before the concrete is poured. A damp
proof course is laid upon compacted sand fill. (services are projected through and sealed) 300mm of
reinforced concrete is built up around the perimeter and single bars of steel are laid in the concrete ribs
between the styrofoam pods. Proprietary spacers are placed between the pods to maintain distance and
provide cover for the single bars between them. Steel mesh is placed over the pods to provide
reinforcement for the floor.

(Bonus Image from Firth Concrete) The pods are laid between a lattice of crossed reinforced beams of
concrete and are surrounded by a reinforced
edge of tied Steel rods. The concrete is poured to
go between the pods and makes a waffle style
reinforced floor. Options include installing heating
elements on top of the polystyrene. The slab on
top is insulated from the substrate yet tied into a
slightly flexible coherent structure.

Sharpac

(Foundations Fig
1b,Sharpac)Image
annotated by Roy Stewart
on a photo supplied by
Tony Bosnich

Sharpac also has a


Ribraft floor in
the foundation
but technically
the two carpark
floors underground
are also to be
viewed as
Foundation Hence
the distinction
has been made
between
substructure and foundation. The image shows a partial foundation, which
is one of the earlier stages of foundation construction. The middle part

26
of the foundation floor is laid, which will eventually be
covered with a further 50mm of concrete. The central pillar and the piles
on the left hand side are part of the foundation. As can be seen only the
first excavation has been performed at this stage, hence the pencilled in
correction as the first excavation is certainly not a final one.
1.Piles forming the perimeter/retaining wall are augured and filled
insitu.
2.The first excavation lowers only the center of the excavation works to
the level of the basement floor, much of the excavating is benched and
battered.
3. A piece of the footing is poured to support the central columns.
5,6.The central platform is temporarily shored while the partial basement
( sub)floor is constructed.
4. Central columns are raised to take the beams spanning from the
perimeter beams.

7. The second excavation is 50mm higher than the level of the footing. (At
the level of the site concrete.

8.(Prestressed Beams are laid across the columns early on as they act as
struts holding the pile walls apart. When the site is fully excavated
there are enormous pressures building up behind these walls. Some
construction sites use tie backs or cross-lot bracing to achieve this.

1.1.5 Substructure

Sharpe Tudhope Building

The distinction between foundations and substructure are blurred as beams


and pillars in double story foundation such as the one in Sharpac. Deep
foundations are necessary where the bearing capacity of the surface soils
is not adequate to support the loads imposed by a structure. Those loads
need to be transferred to deeper layers with higher bearing capacity. The
soil in the shallow foundation region of the Sharpac footprint is loose
and friable, and the deeper layers also have river gravel in parts. This
leads to the necessity of a deep foundation. An added benefit is of course
the car parking capacity, which comes at a premium in downtown Tauranga.

27
Thick RibRaft lowered lift pit

(Substructure Fig 1 Sharpac)Image closeup of Architect release of Sharpac from 15 Jun.

Foundations are built in stages. The substructure building process


necessarily overlapped into the setting out and pouring of slabs. Thus we
see the above diagram with the basement slab, i.e the bottom slab, is a
thick RibRaft suited for live loading, and earthquake resistance in sandy
soils . (This is poured in stages, as a sacrificial site concrete is
poured and added into the final floor.)

The internal columns and beams marked in yellow denote substructure, there
to reinforce the live-loading traffic ramps. These interior and exterior
columns are added in, early on in the works, in order to support
subsequent floor slabs.

A Pile wall is constructed on the perimeter of the building footprint.


Technically this construction element is part of the enabling works but
becomes, or is, part of the permanent foundations as the excavation
progresses and the substructure is completed. The replacement pile wall is
contiguous in order to become a sealed unit against the ingress of
groundwater, which is likely, due to the underground drain which is under
the road on both the North and West sides of the building. The pile holes
are drilled, fitted with steel reinforcement and filled with self
levelling concrete. Then the gaps are infilled with shotcrete, to make the
wall contiguous. The plans show another timber framed ply-lined wall built
inside the pile wall.

28
(Substructure Fig 2 Sharpac)
Image taken from Jasmax Architects release Jun15. Annotated.

Piled retaining walls give an economic and efficient way of constructing.


Permanent, or temporary, piled retaining walls are ideally suited for deep
basement construction such as Sharpac, as they can be bored and cast in
restricted access like that of a building in a high traffic area where:
adjacent structures require support; roads present live loading forces;
neighbouring properties need retaining and giving the client maximum under
ground space.

(Substructure Fig 3
Sharpac)
Image from level B1 Jasmax
Sharpac release as at Jun 15,
A double pile (Blue) is
noted in this detail
crop from the plans,
which is actually a
single wall but is
represented as doubled
as it is the jagged
West face of the
building presenting a
lightning bolt pattern
for the pile formation.

29
Bonus image Sharpac building completed by Watts and Hughes construction in April 2012.
Sharpac is a six level office building, with two levels of underground
carpark.
The high spec exterior finishes required included ceramic rainscreen, textured
precast panels, aluminium composite cladding and glazed curtain walling. Watts
and Hughes website.

^^(Substructure Fig
4b Sharpac)Detail from
Sharpac drawings by Jasmax
Architects

(Substructure Fig 4 Sharpac)


Photo from the Sharpac building site supplied on moodle,
This image shows both the outer pile wall foundation with a lightning bolt
pattern clearly laid out by the capping beams, and the floor getting
readied for site concrete, which is actually the ribraft basement floor,
but will still receive another layer of concrete.

30
The substructure will be revealed with more excavation. As the
project progresses vehicular ramps are built and more excavation takes
place. The odd jagged appearance which makes the pile caps look misaligned
is the Western Wall which is designed to catch more North Westerly sun but
then shade out the (Hot) Westerly sun and incidentally the road noise.
On the sidebar there is a detail showing the structure ringed in blue on
the main image. Here the height of the perimeter capping beam is lowered
in a rebate in order to provide light to the subgrade B1 staircase.

1.1.6 Ground floor slab

Sharpac.

The ground floor slab is situated on the ground floor, which is the floor at ground level. The ground floor
slab is suspended on a substructure, which all forms part of the foundations. The event of the ground
floor slab completion means that construction of the building above ground can be started. It is
sometimes marked level 1 on plans, (not to be confused with the first floor which is above ground
floor).

(Ground floor
Slab Fig 1
Sharpac)
Highlighted crop from
plans by Jasmax
Architects released
Jun15

Purple =Double T ground floor slab.


Green = Reinforced pre-cast Concrete Beams
Red= Perimeter capping beams
Faded purple = Pile wall
Orange = External pillar
Yellow = Internal pillar
Blue = Ribraft basement floor

31
The pillars in the basement are raised while the basement slab is excavated further so
that construction can commence by placing beams from Pillar to capping beam. Girders complete the
substructure.
A Metal profiled deck
is placed on this
Basement ceiling
structure which can
then be filled with a
layer of reinforced
concrete.
The ground floor slab
is a Double T floor is
placed and concreted
over.

(Ground floor Slab


Fig 2 Sharpac)

Photo of plans of the Sharpac


building taken from site copy
from. Photo supplied by Tony
Bosnich.
Ground floor slab. Is
highlighted.

(Ground floor Slab Fig 3


Sharpac)
Images from Sharpac Current as on
15th June drawings.
The ground floor slab is
highlighted.
The cross section view is
from the South.

32
(Ground floor Slab Fig 4 Sharpac)
Image from wikipedia by User:Z22. Annotated by Roy
Stewart with colours.

A double T concrete floor consists of


precast concrete pieces resembling
Two T beams connected together. It
can withstand great stresses and can
span long lengths. The beams are
prestressed, and are made off site,
which can reduce construction times, as
the beams are delivered, stored on site,
and craned into place. A layer of concrete is added on top.
The concrete pieces can be lifted into place and walked upon immediately by workers, as they are
stable. The strong bond of the flange and the two webs, which is cast into the shape, creates a
structure that is capable of withstanding high loads while having a long span: the webs effectively
create a beam that is much thicker than just the thickness of the flange.

The resulting beam has the strength of a beam as thick as the height of the webs, without the weight.
Thus long spans can be achieved. The typical sizes of double tees are up to 4.6 m for flange width, up
to 1.5 m for web depth, and up to 24 m or more for span length.
Double Ts were first used in 1961 in a double story office building for an Architect named Gene Leedy.
Since then applications have expanded to bridges, highways, carparks buildings and more.

1.2 Structure

Bonus image BIM 3D generated image Northwest


corner.
The steel structure forms the
skeleton frame to the building.
NZBC B1.3.1 states that buildings
shall have a low probability of
rupturing, deforming or collapsing
during construction and
throughout their lives. Indeed
NZBC B1.4.1 goes on to say that:
the structure must also withstand
deformation, vibratory response and degradation throughout its life starting during construction. This
means that the steel columns have to be able to hold shear loads imposed on them by the bearers and
girders, ( as would be the case in a floor by floor, single floor column build.) This also means that steel
33
members such as columns, beams and girders have to be protected from the elements
with a water resistant finish.

Bonus image BIM 3D generated image of MASS 2: South East


corner.

1.2.1 Columns
(Columns Fig 1. M2) Photo taken by Roy Stewart

These steel columns are erected onto bolts attached to


subgrade footings, (the Ribraft floor is laid afterwards.)
Three story high pillars are erected by bolting them onto
cast-in anchor bolts attached to the subgrade footings.

This will create an array of columns erected on site, to which


beams, girders and bracing units are attached. This forms
the basis of a superstructure. The columns run through the
entire building at full height, (unlike some more traditional
columns which merely support one floor at a time.)

The steel columns rely on their circular symmetry and the


inherent strength of steel.

Some sites fill the circular columns with concrete. The Steel
is painted to prevent rust, and will be repainted before
commissioning the building.

34
Columns Fig. 2 Screenshot from M2
slideshow in class. Annotated.

The steel Columns is are


indicated in the picture. Also of
interest is the cellular beam.
The holes are at the neutral axis
and do not affect the integrity of
the beam. They lighten the
beam somewhat, and are useful
to pass services through. The
beam behind in the background
is not cellular, so not all beams
are specified thus by the
architect.

(Columns Fig 3. M2)


Image from www.detallesconstructives.net

Before the Floor slab is laid, the columns are erected with the aid of a
crane over the anchor bolts, which should fit as planned and templated.
The tops of the anchor bolts, which are fully threaded, will protrude just
enough to take a tightening bolt nut to hold the base plate securely in
place.

Stiffeners are then welded on from the baseplate to the column to hold
the column vertical upright and in place.

35
(Columns Fig 4, M2) Annotated screenshots of slideshow
in class: The array of columns ties together with K
braces and beams; plus closeup of hinge joint.

The bolts are tensioned (preloaded) by


the application of a torque to either the
bolt head and/or the nut. The applied
torque causes the bolt to "climb" the thread causing a tensioning of the bolt and an equivalent
compression in the components being fastened by the bolt. When a fastener is torqued, a tension
preload develops in the bolt and an equal compressive preload develops in the parts being fastened.
These are hinge joints,which ard designed to pivot, but not break.

1.2.2 Walls, exterior.

(Walls Exterior Fig 1) Image supplied on


Moodle of M2 during construction.

The doubled steel perimeter


beams are the structure to
take motorised vertical louvres
with rotating fins, which are
operated by motor. Light
sensors will be monitored by
computer for the convenience
of controlling the temperature
inside the building.
Additionally the louvres act as
a rain shield: a primary
defence against the weather,
which is mounted outside the
cladding.

36
(bonus image for fig 1: from 3d rendering, showing the vertical
louvres )

(Bonus image for fig 1: from Chow Hill architects section E-E)

(Exterior wall structure Fig 2): Image


from photos supplied on moodle.

The exterior walls are not


load bearing, as this is the
function of the steel
skeleton structure. The
exterior walls are added in,
after the building is already
standing. Thus the main
function of the exterior walls
is to hold cladding, to keep
out the elements and to
support interior lining, to
insulate and make the
building comfortable. Here
timber framing is erected to
take building wrap and
horizontal battens, which will eventually be covered with Cedar Vertical board and batten cladding.

37
Exterior wall structure Fig 3: M2
construction image from moodle.

H1.2 treated radiata pine


frames are built lying flat
(onsite or offsite) and erected
afterwards. They are held with
temporary braces until they
are fixed. This speeds up
construction, as the
carpenters do not have to
place each stud and nog
insitu. The wall is divided into
manageable panels. Some
nogs (on the edges) are still
cut and placed individually, as
the image shows that some of
the nogs are missing and still
need to be fixed. Timber
framing must be separated from the concrete with a full length polyethylene damp-proof membrane
overlapping timber by at least 6mm; Chow Hill 14071 Specifictaion for construction, 3821 TIMBER
FRAMING 3.3
This image is taken on the top floor.

Exterior walls Fig 4: Image from M2


construction pictures on moodle.

Note that the concrete blocks


are an interior wall and are
there for fireproofing the lift
shaft. (see pg175 of electrical
specs by BECA)
The exterior wall is wrapped
with environmentally friendly
Greenguard building wrap.
Building wraps are an essential
part of water managed walls: if
water passes through the

38
exterior cladding, which is the primary defence against moisture, the weather-resistive
building wrap serves as the secondary layer of moisture protection, deflecting water away from framing
and keeping the water from further penetrating the wall. Unlike some of the plastic wraps, the
Greenguard wrap is designed to breathe to allow moisture vapor to escape, facilitating the drying
process. When combined with butyl flashing and tape, building wraps help reduce the potential for rot,
mold, and mildew caused by external water sources and condensation within the wall. The wraps also
serve as a barrier to air infiltration, (i.e. wind blowing through the cracks) improving energy efficiency.
The Specifications for construction pg29, 4161 underlays, foils and DPC products 2.3 by Chow Hill
state that it should be Absorbent, breathable, fire retardant polyolefin (polyethylene) woven into sheet
form with micro sized pores that allow the membrane to breathe with a fire retardant flammability index
of 1, tested to NZS/AS 1530.2.

Bonus image from M2


construction photos:

Precast concrete
panels need wooden
framing around the
window openings so
that windows fins can
be attached.
Also of interest in this
picture is the other
cladding which
overlaps the precast
panels. Large
buildings are often
designed with multiple
types of cladding for
aesthetic reasons: the
different types of
cladding break up the
otherwise monotone expanses of wall. This creates areas which will need special attention for
construction companies, as dissimilar materials will make junctions which could potentially be a point of
ingress for water.

39
1.2.3 Walls interior


(Interiorwallsfig1):Image
fromM2plansGround floor
plan, from the MASS 2 Fire
Protection Specification pg
164 from Chow Hill Architects.

KEY:

(42.02 Precast
panels: Precast
panels used on the
exterior cladding.)

Interior walls not


highlighted feature
standard GIB.

IP4: This wall has two


layers of 13mm of
GIB superline.on both
faces with acoustic
insulation.

IP5: This type of


acoustically insulated
wall has a 13mm layer of GIB Superline and a layer of MDF on the
outside of the photography (Dark room and exposure rooms, facing the
Studio space. E-F between 7-8).

IP6: This type of wall is double framed to isolate the sides of the wall
from vibration, and insulated with acoustic insulation. It is lined on both
sides with two layers of 13mm GIB Superline. The lining materials and
the insulation will make this function as a firewall. It is located between
the stairwell and the male toilets.
(bonus image from GIB website)

IP7: This type of wall has three layers of 13mm GIB superline on both
sides. This is mainly to aid in Noise reduction, as it is placed between
sound recording studios in a cell design.

40
IP8: This double wall is a concrete block and a timber
framed wall with a 50mm air gap and has three layers of 13mm GIB
noiseline on the timber sides. It is effectively a double wall. It surrounds
the sound studios mentioned for IP7.

IP9: This wall is a double wall, with precast concrete on one side, a 50mm
gap and and timber frame with three layers 13mm Noiseline. It faces the
exterior from the sound studios, but is protected on the west side by the
rain shield. The windows in this wall will have to comply similarly to the
sound rating.

IP10: This is a very highly fire rated (240 minutes) solid filled concrete
block wall for around the lift shaft. (see C/AS 4.11 Protected Shafts )
Because lifts shafts can act as a conduit for fire to travel vertically
between floors, the shaft and the surrounding stairwells need to be
fireproof.


(Walls interior fig 2): Photo from M2 construction series on
Moodle.

GIB products are extensively used in the
construction of M2. This includes: Noiseline;
Superline and Standard GIB.

All paint finish gib board surfaces generally


shall be stopped to a Level 4 Finish, Refer
to Winstones Gib manufacturer's
recommendations for details of fixing and
finishing etc. Lengths of Gib in excess of
12m are to have proprietary Gib Control
joints included. Location of each to be as
noted on the drawings or as directed by the
Architect. Wall and floor types plans by
Chow Hill architects

Standard GIB is only used in a few places, as most of the walls are either Fire rated walls, or Noise
reducing walls, or both.
GIBs superline is a five-in-one GIB which incorporates the qualities of Noise reduction, fireproofing,
increased strength, which one normally expects in GIB braceline, as well as having a silver infused
coating which is ideal for institutions such as hospitals, as it discourages bacterial and fungal growth.
Extensive use has been made of Superline in M2 (IP4, IP5, IP6, IP7). Where Superline is specified any
of the above qualities can be expected in that wall.

41
Note that IP9 makes an exception to the rule of using Superline in a sound reducing wall:
it is specified as Noiseline, as opposed to Superline. This wall is an outside wall, which has precast
panels on the exterior. Bracing was not necessary in this case, so the architect specified the less
expensive Noiseline, as it does not have the fibreglass mesh, such as is incorporated into Braceline,
and possibly Superline would have been over-specified in that case.


BonusimagefromGIBNewsJuly2014,demonstratingthe5in1capabilitiesofsuperline


(WallinteriorFig3):PhototakenbyRoyStewart)

This wall is at the South East entrance on M2. It flanks the Recording
studio and is labelled IP9 on the plans. It is a double wall with precast
concrete on one side, a 50mm gap and has a timber frame with three
layers 13mm Noiseline on the other. It faces the exterior from the
sound studios as well as some of the hallway. As can be seen the
wall is simply carried through the entrance with the same surface
visible both inside and outside the glass door structure.

Upstairs, on the first floor, it has an IP5: This type of acoustically


insulated wall has a 13mm layer of GIB Superline with a layer of MDF
on the outside.

The IP9 wall has a higher noise reduction rating because it is a


recording studio. (note that the viewing window will have to be double
glazed to continue the sound reduction rating of the wall).

Upstairs on level 1 is the projector alcove, which does not need as


critical a specification as the recording studio. The change in interior
lining has the added benefit of adding aesthetic beauty to an otherwise boring expanse of concrete.

42

(Wall interior Fig4) Photo by Roy Stewart

An interesting alcove where the Dimond


Profiled cladding is carried into the interior.

Some of the more obscure points to watch


as a construction contractor, or as a
designer, is the fact that steel cladding does
not mix well with other surfaces such as
concrete, treated timber, zinc alloys or even
copper: Isolate dissimilar materials in close
proximity as necessary by painting the
surfaces or fitting separator strips of
compatible or inert materials. Place isolators
between metals and treated timber and
cement based materials. Do not use
unpainted lead sheet or copper in contact
with or allow water run-off onto galvanized
and aluminium/zinc-coated metals, or
mixing of aluminium sheet with steel mesh.
Bituminous separator strips must not be
used with aluminium/zinc products. Chow
Hill Specifications for Construction 4241D
Dimond Profiled Cladding 3.5.

In this case the piece of wall was small and


would have possibly have caused an
awkward junction with spacers and
possibilities for air or water to leak through,
so maybe it was simpler to keep going in
the Dimond cladding. The detail looked
interesting to the interior decorators point of
view, as can be seen by the modern chair
placed in front of the wall, making this a
feature.

Also note the viewing strip on the glass, to stop people walking through the glass.

43
1.2.4 Beams


(ImageBeamsfig.1)fromscreenshot
frommoodleslideshow.Mass2under
construction.

Traditionally Beams were
made of solid squared off
pieces of timber. Nowadays
timber is still used, as glulam,
or even solid large dimension
timbers, but steel, and
concrete are also used.
Beams resist loads at 90
degrees to their primary
(longitudinal) axis.

(Image Beams fig. 2) from image supplied on


moodle: construction shot of M2)

Beams transfer loads to columns,


walls or girders (collector beams),
which will in turn transfer loads to
adjacent structural members, and
eventually into the foundations, where
the load is dispersed into the earth.

Forces which apply to beams are: their


own weight; span and external forces
such as wind or earthquake. The
reaction to these forces is called
bending moment.

When beams bend, they will compress


along the top and stretch along the bottom. This sets up shear stresses which can be destructive.
Vertically oriented beams resist bending better than horizontally oriented beams, due to the fact that the
top and bottom faces are further apart in a vertically oriented beam. The resistance to bending goes up
with the square of the distance of the face from the neutral axis. (One can test this with a ruler, which is
easy to bend on its flat but not so easy when trying to bend it downward, with it on its edge.)
These two principles led to the invention of the I-beam, which has flanges on the top and bottom,
resisting the bending moment at the extremes, and are connected by the web, which resists shear

44
forces (like the ruler on its edge). Relatively little material is needed around the Neutral
axis, where the beam does not experience compression or tension. The I beam revolutionised steel
building.

(Image Beams fig 3. Photo of M2 construction


supplied on Moodle)

A variation is the cellular beam and


the castellated beam. These beams
can be deeper for their comparable
weight to solid beams, and therefore
stronger. Essentially material is
further removed at the neutral axis.
The circle is a geometric shape which
has the smallest circumference to
area ratio, and does not have any
corners for stresses to build up at,
thus cellular beams are arguably
stronger than castellated beams,
which have edges and corners in the
cavities.

Cellular beams can be useful for passing services through, thus reducing the thickness of the interfloor
ceiling space. In the photo above, services can be seen to pass through the circular voids in the beam.

(Image Beams fig. 4) Simply supported beams usually have


a hinge (bolted) joint and a roller joint (image).

Beams can be supported in several ways:

1. Simply supported -(SSB) A simply


supported beam is a type of beam that has
pinned support at one end, and roller
support at the other end. The pinned
support attaches the beam to the column
via bolts, while the other end must remain
free to roll on the support to allow for
thermal dimensional changes. Temperature
changes cause elongation or contraction in
the beam and one end is thus supported on
a roller support.

45
2. Fixed/ Built-in Beam/ Encastre Beam- a type of SSB, where both ends are pinned.
The beam is supported on both ends and restrained from rotation, this means dimensional
stresses due to thermal changes are allowed to occur.
3. Single sided Overhanging beam - a simple beam extending beyond its support on one end.
4. Double sided Overhanging beam- a simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports
on both ends.
5. Continuous - a beam extending over more than two supports.
6. Propped Cantilever beam - a projecting beam fixed only at one end.
7. Trussed - a beam strengthened by adding a cable or rod to form a truss.
8. Girders are a type of beam, also known as collector beams. They are larger and span from
column to column.

1.2.5 Floor slabs

ImageFloorslabfig1ImagefromTatasteelconstructionof
Comflor60
ThefloorslabsinM2arecompositefloors,
consistingofprofileddeckingwhichis
coveredwithalayeroflightlyreinforcedin
situconcretecastoverthedeck.Thedeck
actsaspermanentshutteringorboxing.
Primaryandsecondarybeamsarerigidly
connectedbyshearstuds,using
through-deckweldingtechniques.Profiled
deckingprovideworkingplatformsduring
constructionwhichcanspeedconstruction
time,additionallyitneedsminimal
propping.AsM2isahighlyserviced
building,flatsoffitsarepartofthedesign
inordertoaccommodatethevolumeof
services.Longspansarealsopartofthe
design.Steelframeconstructionhaslongbeenrecognisedforitsabilitytospanlongdistances.Open
floorspacescanbecreatedandnonloadingwallscanbemaderemovabletocreateindividual
spaces.Adaptabilitycreatesafutureproofbuilding.

46

ImageFloorslabsfig2:screenshotfrom
onlineclasssession.Annotated.

Bundles of trapezoidal profiled
steel decking are lifted into place
on the steel structure, for
distribution by hand. This
reduces the number of crane
lifts needed, when compared
with the precast alternative (see
assignment 3). The ability to
stack the pieces of decking into
bundles also reduces transport
time and costs. By stacking
together, the individual pieces
are protected from damage
during transport.
Because the decking is laid by
hand once it is in the right general area of the building, less time is spent craning than if the floor was
constructed from precast concrete floor slab members such as T beams or Double T beams, for
example.
Individual pieces are moved into place by hand after a bundle is lifted to the appropriate floor.

Image Floor slabs Fig 3 photo taken by Roy Stewart

Services can be placed in the space under the floor which


is created by the structural members supporting the
profiled decking.

Leaving the steel, which acts as boxing or shuttering,


without having to remove it, shortens the critical path,
which makes it attractive for construction companies, who
can offer faster construction times, which is essential in the
case of a building needing to be completed over the
summer break, i.e a fixed completion date, such as is the
case in M2. The building will be lighter overall, the size of
foundations can be reduced, because there is the reduced
amount of concrete necessary, for the slab depth required,
as the profile displaces a large percentage of it, without
reducing the strength of the slab.

The reason why composite slab construction works so well


can be explained in this way: - concrete works well in
compression while steel works well in tension. As the
bottom of the floor is more often in tension and the top is more often in compression, the design of the
system combines the opposing qualities of the two materials in a composite.

47

ImageFloorslabFig4annotatedfromanimagebyhttp://www.steelconstruction.info/Composite_construction

Becauseconcretefailsundertension,steelhasbeentraditionallybeencombinedwithit,howeverit
hashadtobecoveredtoavoiditdeteriorating(rusting)andeventuallyfailing,leavingthestructure
vulnerable.Thistraditionalsystemplacedthesteelessentiallynearerthecentreofthestructure,and
closertotheneutralaxis,whichdoesnotexperiencetensionorcompression,whichdefeatsthe
purposeoftryingtousethetensilenatureofsteelinthefirstplace,asthemosttensionisexperienced
atthebottomskin.
Inthecaseofacompositefloor,thesteel,whichhasbeengalvanised,takesthetension,howeverit
someofithasbeenmovedtothebottomskinofthestructure,whereitcanexperiencemaximum
tension.Thereisnocoverofconcreteunderneath,whichwouldhavehadtoexperiencetensioninthe
structure,andessentiallybecomesacrificial.Inorderforthissystemtowork,thetwodissimilar
materialshavetobefirmlyattachedtogether.Thisisachievedbytheshearstuds,whichmustbe
weldedatthebase.

1.2.6 Bracing Provision

(Fig Bracing Provision 1) Plan of ground floor showing


braces marked in yellow.

Note that all but one of these have been


marked on the plans with the word
BRACE. Braces often come in pairs at 90
to each other, such as the three pairs in the
image.

48
Bonus Image from the BIM 3D generated software
showing K Brace Frame Bracing units.

K Braces (and D braces and V braces) have been


designed by New Zealand engineers, who are among
the world leaders when it comes to earthquake
design. This simple solution uses the rigidity of
triangulation, and the movement of an earthquake. By
calculating the movement via geometry a small
movement vertically is translated to a large movement
at the sacrificial link, which means that crucial
elements of the building will remain standing, and
often will be re-usable. These are known as eccentric braces due to the end points of the diagonals,
which do not meet up in the middle (as opposed to concentric braces which make a stiff truss like unit),
which allows for the addition of a ductile unit between the diagonal end points. Greater energy
dissipation is exhibited by eccentric braces than concentric braces.

Image Bracing Provision 2 BIM 3d generated image showing a Braced corner

There are two parts to a K brace frame: the triangulation and the sacrificial link.
Triangulation introduces a way of anchoring the beam to the column so that the angle remains 90 at
the ceiling corner. The triangle is far stronger than two sides of a triangle without a hypotenuse. Adding
a diagonal component to a vertical and horizontal design is a well known bracing design, knee braces,
for example have been used for millennia.

The sacrificial link is a way of introducing a mobile section in an otherwise rigid system.

49
The link is designed to dissipate energy by yielding via shear. It uses the ductility of steel
as well as the rigidity. The tiny struts in the sacrificial link will vibrate at such a high amplitude that they
rub themselves into a plasticised fatigued steel and fail. Until then, the beam will act as a normal steel
beam.

A continuous low vibration such as an earthquake, which can last minutes, can destroy steel members,
especially when the vibration is amplified via harmonics along a structural member such as a column or
beam. It is these harmonic amplifications which will cause catastrophic failure. If, for example, there is a
discrepancy in length, between two members at a joint holding the building upright, the different lengths
of steel will have individual harmonic nodes and amplitude eccentricities. The joint can become the
focus of the energy, and fail. It is these joints which hold the building in a way where humans will not be
crushed. Without those crucial joints, upper floors could pancake onto lower floors.

By placing a link that will fail between triangulated members, one can control where the building will
break, and save the destructive energy from an earthquake from doing far more damage.

Image Bracing Provision fig 3 from images on http://pc.blogspot.co.nz/2010/09/earthquake-engineering-of-day-k-braced.html

The formula expressed in the diagram shows a direct relationship between the link movement angle
and the angle of movement from the vertical, which a building experiences. (remember that this is
describing one instance in time, the building is moving, not stationary as pictured). If there was no
sacrificial joint the angle of movement in the vertical would equal the angle of movement from the
horizontal. Essentially the triangle would tip.

There is, however, also an inverse relationship between the length of the sacrificial joint and how much
the building moves, due to the ratio used. I.e. L/e (Length of the brace divided by length of sacrificial
joint): the shorter the sacrificial length compared to the overall length of the brace, the more that joint
will move.

50
(Image Bracing Provision 4: photo taken by Roy Stewart)

Here the upper beam of the K Brace has been gibbed in. The
pieces of GIB are only small and will not impede the
movement of the sacrificial link if it needs to move.

A D brace can be seen in the background, which only has a


single diagonal member.
Note that the steel has now been painted black over a Alkyd
oil zinc chromate priming paint.

Note:
Not seen in any pictures but equally important to mention is the bracing provision mentioned in the
Chow Hill Architects specifications for construction: 3827E ECOPLY PLYWOOD BRACING
SYSTEM. The ecoply complies with NZBC B1 structure, and AS/NZS 2269.0 for plywood. The plywood
is fitted as part of wind bracing, and is fixed according to NZS3604.

1.3 Exterior Envelope

51
Bonus Image from Marra website

Bonus image West elevation: BIM 3D generated image.

52
1.3.1 Wall cladding

Bonus image South Elevation. BIM 3D generated image

Bonus image East elevation BIM 3D generated image

53
(Exterior wall cladding Fig 1) photo by Roy Stewart.

The precast concrete panels used on the exterior cladding


have been surfaced complying to NZS3114 Specification for
concrete surface finishes. The surface is cast on timber with
an accentuated grain, to make the panels look like they have
an interesting wood grain texture.

This is merely a surface finish however, and the panels are


otherwise structurally the same as a smooth concrete panel.
The Chow Hill specifications (3130 Precast concrete) state
that the panels must be handled with care, transported and
stored with plastic liners so as not to damage the surface, and
that the architect will reject any panels that have been
damaged. Thus the grainy surface, which may seem like a
small detail, gains importance in the construction process. The
otherwise bulky and heavy panels have to be thoughtfully
handled, with the architect demanding inspection notifications
during installation and before they are surface finished.
(3130.1.11 Chow Hill specifications)

(Exterior wall cladding Fig 2: Photo by Roy Stewart)


Dimondek 630 Pre finished hot dipped Aluminium/zinc
coated steel
(Formability steel sheet, G550 for roll forming or G300 for
flashings, coated to AS 1397.)

Dimondek 630 is a concealed clip profile, which can be


manufactured onsite in lengths of up to 100m. The on site
manufacturing allows for full length sheets. The greater span
capability means fewer attachment points are required
making it faster to install although they still have to be
fastened to every stud. With no screw holes through the
cladding, leaks are virtually eliminated. Fastenings and clips
are all proprietary and supplied by Dimond. The cladding is
fitted over spacers which allow room for insulation and a
25mm air gap These steel panels, like the precast concrete,
also have to be handled with care, so as not to damage the
coating, which would allow rust to start degrading the
cladding.

54
(Exterior wall cladding Fig 3: Photo by Roy Stewart)

A full length curtain wall, spanning three floors, such as the one
pictured here, which is the West wall of M block, is becoming
popular for commercial buildings. The glazing has to necessarily
become structural as it needs to support its own dead weight, as
well as resist wind and seismic forces.
Structural Glazing is a technique for bonding glass to
frames with silicone sealants. These Four sided systems have
the glass bonded to the frame system and since the frames are
manufactured and supplied in individual units, they are known
as unitisedsystems.
Insulated Glazing units (IGUs) are custom factory made under
controlled conditions and stored in racks. They are then
delivered and can be installed in any weather. This speeds
construction time. The manufacturer also supplies a two part
silicone sealant to the contractor for installation.
4611ME METRO GLASSTECH EXTERIOR GLAZING in the
Chow Hill Architects Specifications for construction states that
Reflective float glass (2.6) is used. The manufacturer explains
that pyrolytic coatings, which are essentially factory tinted, can
reflect short wave as well as long wave radiation, reducing the
cooling bill inside the building, which otherwise would be excessively hot from from the suns radiation
through such a large expanse of glass.

(Exterior cladding Fig 4: ) Photo by Roy Stewart


4221HV HERMAN PACIFIC VERTICAL CEDAR
CLADDING SYSTEM (Chow Hill specifications for
construction)
Herman Pacific Vertical Shiplap Weatherboards.

This timber is from sustainably managed forests of British


Columbia, Canada. and BRANZ appraised. These are fitted
over a building wrap & strap, which is sealed at the window
openings with sealing tape.(Thermakraft Aluband Window
sealing tape system), or James Hardie RAB Board,( 6mm
thick, manufactured from treated cellulose fibre, Portland
cement, sand and water, cured by high pressure autoclaving
manufactured to AS/NZS 2908.2 and, face sealed).

Cavity battens (Vertical Cavity Battens H3.1 - with


bevelled/sloped top and bottom edges) are fitted with vermin
flashing (Aluminium with upstands. Upstand one side 10mm
and the other 75mm. Length and width to suit cavity. To

55
NZBC E2/AS1: clause 9.1.8.3 and figure 66.) along the bottom of the wall, as well as head
flashings along the top of the windows(to NZBC E2/AS1; Table 21). The Shiplap is fixed over the top,
with all the nail fixings pre-drilled. (Lap and Rebate details to BRANZ BU 411 and general design to the
NZS 3617, species and grading to NZS 3602, table 2, reference ) unsound and open split knots are
removed and excluded by cross cut removal prior to fixing into position. The wood is oil finished with a
Factory spray application of solvent based oil stain ( Machinecoat (NZ) ) factory formulation onto the
timber surface. REFER RESENE SPECIFICATION SECTION. 2.11 4221HV Chow Hill architects
specs.

1.3.2 Roof cladding

Bonus image BIM generated image showing the roof.

Roof cladding Fig 1: from photographs supplied on Moodle:

The Chow hill specifications for Construction


section 4311 D specifies Dimond profiled
roofing which is a pre finished hot dipped
Aluminium/Zinc coated profiled steel roofing
material.
This is Dimondek 630, a concealed clip
profile, which can be manufactured onsite in
lengths up to 100m. Onsite manufacturing of
lengths such as this allows for a greater span
capability which means fewer purlins are
required and its faster to install. The
manufacturer states that there will be no
screw holes through the roof, eliminating
leaks. The attachment in the image is for roofers to attach lifelines to.

56
Roof cladding Fig 2: Image from M2 Construction Photos supplied on Moodle, annotated.
It appears from the colour of the roofing steel that the low maintenance option of using the unpainted
Zincalume has been chosen. This is a Replacement option, which means no maintenance other than
regular washing to keep surface clean. The Sheeting and fasteners are then replaced once the
sheeting has reached an advanced state of deterioration, preferably before perforation and leakage
occurs.
The manufacturer has analysed the costing and has found that painting or using colour coated steel
ultimately is more expensive, partly because of the added expense at the beginning of the cycle, and
partly due to the added expense of painting the roof multiple times in its lifetime.
Note that MONKEYTOE WALKWAY, PLATFORM & ACCESS SYSTEMS are used during the
construction of the roof. (4860MT specifications for construction Chow Hill architects.)

Roof cladding fig. 3: Image from http://www.dimond.co.nz/products/dimondek-630 annotated.


The concealed clip profile allows the sheets to be clipped together. Any water will be directed away
from the join by the flipped piece at the end of the overlap, which sits well away from the opening which
is on the other side of the protrusion. Additionally the spaces between the protrusions are profiled
slightly which effectively thickens the sheet and improves rigidity preventing oil canning.
Another advantage is that the colour is reflective, which will help with keeping the building cooler. The
material is also recyclable.

57

Roof cladding fig.4 :Image from Chow Hill
Architects
Mass 2 development architects
issue roof plan, with the run
direction highlighted in green.

Decking areas are clad with


ALLCO CASALI ROOF & DECK
MEMBRANE SYSTEM specified
in 4400 of the specifications for
Construction by Chow Hill
architects.
The smooth torched off
polyethylene sheet membrane,
containing distilled bitumen, is
designed for large surfaces
subject to high thermal stress due
to direct sunlight or high
temperature build up.
This system relies on the use of reinforcement with a continuous non-woven polyester, stabilised by
means of glass strands, which the manufacturer describes as technopolymers (APAO).
The top of this membrane is finished in silica sand, non-woven polypropylene and slate chips.

1.4 Interior Finishes (support & linings/coverings)

1.4.1 Ceilings

58
The following materials are specified by Chow Hill Architects:

Asona ceiling systems

Ceilings Fig 1: from photos supplied on Moodle.


5311AS ASONA CEILING SYSTEMS - the
manufacturer states that: Triton range- acoustic
decorative laminates. sound absorbing ceiling
panels : Triton Duo are made in 35 mm or 60 mm
thick dual layer composite absorber and attenuator
ceiling panel with a Sonatex facer on a 25 mm or
50 mm bio-soluble resin bonded glass fibre core
absorber combined with a 10 mm high mass 740
kg/m glass mat composite faced attenuator
plasterboard backer. Designed for controlling the reverberation and speech privacy between
classrooms, meeting rooms, offices and for the attenuation of rain noise under metal roofing or plenum
ventilation duct noise.
Manufactured in New Zealand.
The advantage of using a modular system like this is that services can be accessed comfortably from
underneath, rather than making access crawl spaces between ceilings and floors above. The ceilings
necessarily have to be acoustic, fire resistant and accommodate a variety of fixtures such as air vents
and lights, which need to have their own type of panels.

Forman suspended tile ceilings


Ceilings fig 2: photo supplied on Moodle, FORMAN
SUSPENDED TILE CEILING SYSTEMS

The Chow Hill Architects specifications


state: 5311F FORMAN SUSPENDED
TILE CEILING SYSTEMS - Armstrong,
Eurocoustic and Parafon ceiling tile range
including Armstrong PeakForm perimeter
trim by Forman Building Systems
And 5313F FORMAN CONCEALED
SUSPENDED CEILING SYSTEMS
The manufacturer states that:
Echostop Perforated Plasterboard offer
the benefits of plasterboard including ease of use and durability, but offer additional decorative
possibilities. It has a 12mm square hole perforation pattern, the sheets are backed with a black acoustic
tissue. Higher acoustic absorption values use an additional insulation above the black tissue.
59
A perforation in acoustic systems acts in two ways: first it breaks up the monotone flat
surface into a bumpy surface, which distorts the reflected sound waves into a more disorganised band
of waves, and therefore not as distinct a sound; and second, it absorbs a component of the sound into
the interior, where it is dissipated into the insulation behind the panel.

Ceilings fig 3: photo supplied on Moodle: Autex


Greenstuf insulation

Chow Hill specifications for construction


has three different Autex products:
4711A AUTEX GREENSTUF
THERMAL INSULATION
4721A AUTEX QUIETSTUF
ACOUSTIC INSULATION
6758AA AUTEX ACOUSTIC WALL
COVERINGS AND PANELS

Autex Greenstuf insulation is an acoustic and/or thermal blanket.


It is made from pure 100% spun polyester, which is fire resistant.
Durable
Fire safe, complies with NZBC including for downlights
Resistant to insect or vermin attack
Safe to touch
Recycled from PET plastics, and recycleable.
Assessed by Asthma NZ to not promote fungal growths so people can Breathe easy
Safe indoor air quality, as there is no formaldehyde used in the product.
Made in New Zealand
accredited in ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 Environmental and Quality Management Systems.
Working towards Greentag certification

6758AA AUTEX ACOUSTIC WALL


COVERINGS AND PANELS

Autex Quietspace

Bonus Image from Quietspace 3d Tiles

The autex acoustic wall coverings and panels


are the Quietspace line are a direct fixed

60
polyester panel which has a three dimensional shape. This baffles the sound into
disorganised waves and has an overall dampening effect. They look interesting and decorative like
modern art and have a functional acoustic surface, and offer durability and stability. They are
lightweight and easy to direct fix.

They also provide an opportunity for the client to have a creative input into the interior decorations.
There is large a variety of shapes and colours.

Each panel square costs $100, so that particular panel in the picture costs $1500.

Seratone:
Specified by the Chow Hill Architects, is: 5133S SERATONE PANEL
LININGS.
(Ceilings fig 4: Seratone sheets stacked in a warehouse. Image from Trademe)

According to BRANZ Seratone complies to the following clauses in the


building codes:
Clause B1 STRUCTURE:
Performance B1.3.1, B1.3.2 and B1.3.4. Seratone meets the
requirements for loads arising from self-weight and impact [i.e. B1.3.3
(a) and (j)]. See Paragraphs 9.1 - 9.3.
Clause B2 DURABILITY:
Performance B2.3.1 (b), 15 years, and B2.3.1 (c), 5 years. Seratone
meets
this requirement. See Paragraphs 10.1 and 10.2.
Clause E3 INTERNAL MOISTURE:
Performance E3.3.4, E3.3.5 and E3.3.6. Seratone meets or
contributes to meeting these requirements. See Paragraphs 14.1 and
14.2.
Clause F2 HAZARDOUS BUILDING MATERIALS:
Performance F2.3.1. Seratone meets this
requirement and will not present a health hazard to people.
Clause G3 FOOD PREPARATION AND THE
PREVENTION OF CONTAMINATION:
Performance G3.3.2 (a) and (b). Seratone will contribute to meeting this
requirement. See Paragraph 15.1.

Seratone is a high density fibreboard coated with a multi-layered paint system, the panels easily
resist marks, stains, steam and moisture. Seratone has a silver impregnated coating which
discourages microbial growth. Silver is antibacterial, while being completely safe for humans to
touch. This makes the wet grade panels ideal for use in wet areas, where the constant damp air
can feed fungal growth. It is also ideal for food preparation areas. The material is smooth and easy
to clean, and promotes hygiene which is especially important in institutional wet areas.

61
The Seratone panels are impervious and lightweight and come in various colours. (There are
also dry panels and perforated panels available.)

Other ceiling linings also used in Mass 2:


5113G GIB PLASTERBOARD LININGS
5171G GIB PLASTERBOARD FIRE & SOUND LININGS
5211PP POTTER ALUMINIUM INTERNAL PARTITIONS


Bonus image: Steel Armstrong support system for Asona
ceiling panels with lighting panels installed. Photo of M2
construction supplied on Moodle

Bonus image from Chow Hill Architects: The ceiling plan provided by Chow Hill shows reflective ceilings (the top
icon) which are used in music
areas to dampen sound waves
bouncing off smooth walls. This
especially useful when recording
music as standing waves can
develop which will create
significant distortion which can
not be edited away afterwards.
The ceilings typically have a
pronounced texture which in this
case is a bristled textile finish. As
can be seen the Forman
perforated suspended ceiling in
the main public areas is marked
with a circle pattern. (see
assignment 3 for alternatives)

62
1.4.2 Floors
The flooring which is visible in M2 is not the only flooring specified as can be seen in the Chow Hill
specifications for M2:

Masterspecs for:
5433E ECOPLY FLOORS
5438H JAMES HARDIE FIBRE CEMENT INTERIOR
FLOORING
6122 FLOOR SCREEDS AND TOPPINGS
6125SA SIKA FLOOR FINISHES
6192 FLOORING SUBSTRATE PREPARATION

However the following specified materials are visible:


6221J JACOBSEN FLOOR TILING
6411J JACOBSEN VINYL SURFACING
6512J JACOBSEN CARPET TILES
6612A ADVANCE ENTRY MATS AND CARPET

Floors fig 1: Photo by Roy Stewart


6221J JACOBSEN FLOOR TILING

The Jacobson Basaltina tiles are a porcelain tile with a


natural stone look. They have a matt finish, and are
suitable for heavy foot traffic. There are commercial
cleaning instructions, including periodic heavy duty
cleaning, which is suitable for institutions.

On their website, Jacobsen have several master specs


easily available for download, including one for the tiles,
reinforcing mesh, substrate preparation, underlays,
underfloor heating, waterproofing, glues and fixing, grouts,
and access way specifications (non-slip etc.)

Experienced tilers, with knowledge of Ardex Abacrete


(glue) products, have to provide a two year warranty and
evidence of slip resistance testing ( in accessways) on
completion.

<----- Expansion jointers with rigid PVC plastic sides are


part of the designed foor, these are filled with Ardex
silicone expansion joint compound.

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Tilers also have to agree to use the substrate of an acceptable standard and appropriate
(5.5%) moisture content. This means that their job does not start until then.
There are different underlays including an acoustic underlay (Regupol), and a waterproof membrane for
wet areas.

Floors fig 2: Photo by Roy Stewart


6512J JACOBSEN CARPET TILES

Shaw is the leading retailer for commercial


carpets.
They provide a wide range of innovative,
colourful solutions for high traffic areas in large
buildings, including hospitals, retail outlets and
educational facilities.

This particular carpet in some of the less


trafficked areas and also inside music rooms is
the Shaw Colour Form, which is a rectangular
tile in 36 different colours and can be laid in
patterns.

The colours used here are Charcoal grey(dark)


and Mystic grey(light).

Carpet layers have to be experienced and


familiar with the product.
Fittings and fixtures have to be in place before
starting. The pH of the concrete has to be below
10, and the tiles have to be conditioned to 16
for at least 24hrs, to prevent them from
expanding or contracting in response to
changing moisture levels.

And of course the concrete floor has to be swept


clean, free of rubble etc, with a moisture content
of 8-12%.
The tiles are glued on.

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Bonus image: The Ground floor flooring plan by Chow Hill architect
The architect has planned for:
two types of Shaw Colour Form carpet tiles, a single colour layout (Charcoal) in the Comms
room and the sound proof cubicles, and a dual colour layout(Charcoal and Mystic) is in the
communal areas
A ceramic (Jacobson Basaltine ) tile,
non slip ceramic tiles in the entrances,
standard floor vinyl - planned for the wet areas, the 3d printing area, the learnings areas
including the dark room, and the main rehearsal room
entry matting.

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Floors fig 3: Photo by Roy Stewart
The stairs next to the male toilets are to be kept free of floor
covering and sealed with clear concrete dust sealer instead.
This is for safety reasons. Any carpet will be deemed to be
of some flammable nature, and any fancy tile might be too
slippery. The concrete offers a firm footing, and is not there
to be pretty. It is a functional fire escape.

Floors fig 4: Photo by Roy Stewart

Theaccessareas(i.eexitorentrance,
morelikelytogetslipperywithmudor
waterfromtrafficcominginside)are
laidwithnonsliptileswhichexplains
theirslightlydifferentappearancetothe
JacobsonBasaltinetiles.

Asmentionedbefore,tilershavetobe
experiencedandfamiliarwiththe
products,andprovideevidenceofslip
testinguponcompletion.

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Bonusimage:fromChowhillarchitects,groundfloorfinishessetout.
Ascanbeseenthearchitectsleavenothingtochance,andhaveprovidedaplanforthegeometric
patterninthefloorfinishes.TheNonsliptilesaredarandtheregularBasaltinetilesarelight.The
patternistomergewithoutasharpgradient.
Similarlythecarpettiesareplanned.Withasinglecolourpannedinthesoundsensitiverooms,and
baseandaccentcolourmixesincommunalareas.

1.4.3 Accessible areas

Commercial buildings often have crawl spaces for service technicians to access services. This has
been made obsolete with the panelled suspended ceilings, where panels can simply be removed, and
services accessed from below.
The space between the ceiling and the floor has to be fireproof as a fire can burn here without anyone
noticing, and there are plenty of electrical cables which could catch alight, with a short. The Forman

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Appendices

Soil maps from Land Care Research: These maps show a Well drained soil, which is deep (over
100cm) before it reaches a harder-to-drill layer. The moisture is classed as high.

Location of MASS 2

Map from landcare research showing location of


MASS 2 site located on Well drained soil.

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Soil map from Landcare research showing the depth of the topsoil to a harder layer in the soil is Deep(> 100 cm)

MASS 2

MASS 2

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Soil map from Landcare research showing Moisture levels

Footnotes:
1. The base of the excavation will require inspection by the Engineer. It will require proof rolling
with a self-propelled vibratory compactor of minimum two tonne static weight, with the vibratory
action turned off. The surface should be proof rolled with at least six passes and tested by an
appropriately qualified geotechnical professional. Any local soft areas which show up during
proof-rolling may require excavation and replacement with compacted sand fill as directed by
the Engineer. Any peat or organic rich material exposed will require removal. The subgrade
shall not be left open to inclement weather to avoid possible need for over excavation following
wet weather (at Contractors cost). Construction Specification, BCD group
2. As stated by Firth: Unlike conventional foundation systems, the Firth RibRaft system is not
embedded into the ground. Sliding resistance to horizontal seismic loads is provided by frictional
contact with the soil. 5.1. Earthquake resistance, Firth RibRaft

3. As stated by Dimond: Spacers must be fixed to steel (purlins) to allow insulation to fit between
and to create a 25mm air gap between underlay and insulation. Do not compress the insulation.
Where the building is under the scope of E2/ASI there is a requirement to install horizontal wall
cladding onto a cavity batten system to achieve a 20mm air space between the back of the
cladding and wall framing on all walls in accordance with NZBC E2/ASI.
http://www.dimond.co.nz/products/dimondek-630/general-installation#specifications
4. As stated by Metroglass: Special coatings can be applied to a float glass surface to make it
reflective to short wave radiation from the sun and/or long wave radiation from heat inside or
outside the building. .Pyrolytic Coatings are applied on line at high temperature during the
float manufacturing process. Also known as on line or hard
coatings.http://www.metroglass.co.nz/Catalogue/013.aspx.

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5.

Image from pg 175 BECA electrical, electronic and


communications specifications for MASS 2,
This image clearly shows the lift shaft which is
concrete block with stairwells built around it.

Bibliography:

Soil maps of New Zealand


https://soils-maps.landcareresearch.co.nz/?layername=fsl_nzsc&idcolumn=&idvalue=&mapfile=
fsl&srs=EPSG:2193&mode=normal

Online IFC file viewer (3D)


https://a360.autodesk.com/viewer/#

Improving the Resistance of Structures to Earthquakes by Emeritus Professor R Park


Department of Civil Engineering Canterbury University
http://www.civil.canterbury.ac.nz/pubs/Hopkins_Park_2000.pdf

Section 5 of the regulatory documents Stormwater from Tauranga city Council

71
http://econtent.tauranga.govt.nz/data/documents/regulatory_docs/idc/2006/5/section5.pdf

Firth Rib Raft http://www.firth.co.nz/residential/foundations/ribraft/


Stuff article from 2013: Rib Rafts vs Liquefaction in soft soil
http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/business/8309496/Foundation-system-protects-from-liqu
efaction
Pillar or column? Or are they the same thing!
https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/pillar
Comflor http://www.comflor.co.nz/
Marra construction http://www.marraconstruction.co.nz/construction-company
Piling information https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Pile_foundations
Sharpac building construction company
http://www.whconstruction.co.nz/tga-commercial-sharpac
Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga Act 2014 No 26

Excavation Safety worksafe


http://construction.worksafe.govt.nz/guides/excavation-safety/
Resource Management Act 1991 reprint 16 Dec 2016
New Zealand Building Act
It is the duty of the employer to identify hazards in the workplace, section 7 New Zealand
Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992
Design standard D5 Stormwater from the Tauranga city council
New Zealand Building Code Handbook and Approved Documents section E1 -
Surface Water

Auckland Regional Council - TP10 Stormwater Management Devices, Design


Guidelines Manual)

Auckland Regional Council - TP124 Low Impact Design Manual


Christchurch City Council - Waterways, Wetlands and Drainage Guide
Part B, North Shore City Council Bioretention Guidelines 2008.
New Zealand Ministry for the Environment Climate Change Effects and Impacts
Assessment Publication 2008
Earthquake bracing:
http://pc.blogspot.co.nz/2010/09/earthquake-engineering-of-day-k-braced.html
Earthquake bracing using sliding hinge joints:
http://www.scnz.org/site/scnz/images/Documents/Steel%20Innovations%202013/STEEL
%20MOMENT%20FRAMES%20WITH%20SLIDING%20HINGE%20JOINTS%20LESSO
NS%20LEARNT%20DURING%20IMPLEMENTATION%20Gledhill%20Sidwell%20Khoo
%20Clifton.pdf
Double Tees https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_tee
Steel Cladding http://www.dimond.co.nz/
Glazing http://www.metroglass.co.nz/

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E2 external moisture by MBIE
https://www.building.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/building-code-compliance/e-moisture/e2-ext
ernal-moisture/asvm/e2-external-moisture-amendment-6.pdf
Vertical shiplap Cedar boards:
http://www.hermpac.co.nz/our-products/vertical-weatherboards/shiplap/

Profiled steel decking: http://www.swuksteeldecking.com/advantages-steel-decking/


Greenguard building wrap: https://www.trustgreenguard.com/building-wrap/
Superline GIB https://www.gib.co.nz/products/plasterboard/gib-superline/
Beams https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beam_%28structure%29
Dimondek lifecycle costing
http://www.dimond.co.nz/products/dimondek-630/life-cycle-costing#specifications
Allco Casali decking:
http://www.allco.co.nz/products/decks-and-podiums/casali-dermabit-extra-decking/
Asona Triton: http://www.asona.co.nz/products/triton-duo
Echostop forman ceiling system:
http://www.forman.co.nz/products/Ceilings/Plasterboard-Ceiling-Systems/Echostop-Perf
orated-Plasterboard
Greenstuf: http://www.autexindustries.com/greenstuf/
Seratone http://www.seratone.co.nz/

Companies involved with the construction of M2:


civil BCD - HAMILTON
structural BECA - TAURANGA
mechanical, electrical and hydraulics BECA - TAURANGA
acoustics Marshall Day - HAMILTON
quantity surveyor Kingston Partners- HAMILTON
project managers Greenstone Group- HAMILTON/TAURANGA
Architects - Chow Hill

Aerial photo of the Sharpac building in 2016 from the Mapi TCC:

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Bonus BIM generated image. East elevation.

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