1. Human and Electronic Communications Timeline 1. Early Attempt to Record Information or Early Art?

Circa 75,000 BCE ± 73,000 BCE 2. The Earliest Examples of Figurative Art Circa 38,000 BCE ± 33,000 BCE 3. The Earliest Zoomorphic / Anthropomorphic Sculpture Circa 30,000 BCE 4. The Advantages of Orally Transmitted Traditions Circa 30,000 BCE 5. The Oldest Known Ceramic Figurine 29,000 BCE ± 25,000 BCE 6. The Venus of Willendorf Circa 24,000 BCE ± 22,000 BCE 7. One of the Earliest Known Realistic Representations of a Human Face Circa 23,000 BCE 8. Horse Domestication Revolutionizes Transportation, Communication, and Warfare Circa 3,500 BCE 9. The Royal Road Circa 450 BCE ± 420 BCE 10. How Herodotus Used Writing and Messages in his Histories Circa 450 BCE ± 420 BCE 11. The Hydraulic Telegraph 350 BCE 12. The Cursus publicus Circa 20 BCE 13. The Earliest Surviving Letter Known to Have Been Written from One Englishman to Another 704 ± 705 14. The Tabula Peutingeriana Circa 1250 15. Carrying the Pope's Response to Kublai Khan 1271 16. The Inca Road System 1453 ± 1533 17. The Beginning of Printing in Venice September 1469 18. The First "Unbreakable" Text Autokey Cipher 1553 19. The First Prepaid Letter Sheets 1608 20. First Transmission of Optical Telegraph March 2, 1791 21. The Chappe Telegraph 1794 22. The First Working Electric Telegraph 1816 23. The Braille System of Printing and Reading for the Blind 1829 24. The Morse Code 1837 25. The Penny Post 1837 26. The Penny Black May 1, 1840 27. Morse Transmits the First Message by Morse Code May 24, 1844

28. Using a Fleet of 45 Carrier Pigeons to Deliver News 1850 29. Using a Fleet of 200 Carrier Pigeons and the Telegraph 1851 30. The True Inventor of the Telephone? October 27, 1861 31. The Pigeon Post into Paris: The First Important Application of Microfilm 1870 ± 1871 32. Bell Invents the Telephone March 10, 1875 33. The First Regular Telephone Line 1877 34. The First Wireless Telephone Communication April 1, 1880 35. Lewis Carroll Wrote or Received 98,000 Letters January 14, 1898 36. A Logarithmic Law for Communication 1924 37. Hartley's Law 1928 38. The First Electronic Speech Synthesizer 1936 ± 1939 39. The Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem 1940 40. Actress Hedy Lamarr Invents Spread-Sprectrum 1940 41. Communication by Geosynchronous Satellites Predicted October 1945 42. A Mathematical Theory of Communication July ± October 1948 43. The Hamming Codes 1950 44. After 1954 More News Was Distributed Electronically than on Paper 1950 45. Sputnik is Launched October 4, 1957 46. An Improved Modem 1958 47. The U.S. Launches Explorer-1 January 31, 1958 48. The First Voice Transmission from the First Communications Satellite December 19, 1958 49. Human Versus Machine Intelligence and Communication 1959 50. Technical Basis for the Development of Phreaking November 1960 51. Precursor of Word Processing and Email 1961 52. The Gutenberg Galaxy 1962 53. The First Satellite to Relay Signals from Earth to Satellite and Back June 10, 1962 54. The First Geosynchronous Communications Satellite July 26, 1963 55. The First Geostationary Communication Satellite August 19, 1964 56. Email Begins 1965 57. The First "Actual Network Experiment" October 1965

58. The First Message Sent Over the ARPANET October 29, 1969 59. The First Email Management Program July 1971 60. First Public Computerized Bulletin Board System 1973 61. First Electronic Pagination System, Forerunner of Email and Instant Messaging 1973 62. The Network Nation 1978 63. The First Dial-UP CBBS February 16, 1978 64. The First Cellular Telephone Service in the United Sates December 16, 1982 65. The First Commercial Network-Based Groupware Program 1988 66. The First Gateways Between Private E-Mail Carriers and the Internet 1989 67. The First SMS Text Message December 3, 1992 68. The Web's First and Longest Continuously Running Blog 1993 69. More Email is Sent than Paper Mail 1996 70. The Average Person Receives 733 Pieces of Paper Mail Each Year, Half of Which is Junk 1998 71. The Growing Spam Problem April 1998 72. Origins of Cyberspace 2002 73. The First U.S. Standards for Sending Commercial E-Mail December 16, 2003 74. The First Intelligible Word from an Extinct South American Civilization? August 12, 2005 75. Like Teleporting in Star Trek June 2006 76. Twitter: "What Are You Doing?" October 2006 77. Change.gov November 5, 2008 78. First Reported Case of ZZZ-Mailing December 15, 2008 79. Reinventing Email and Internet Communication May 28, 2009 80. "The Web Pries Lid off Iranian Censorship" June 23, 2009 81. After the Earthquake in Haiti, Donating by SMS Text January 13, 2010 82. Introduction of Apple's iPad January 27, 2010 83. Cell Phones Are Now Used More for Data than Speech May 13, 2010 2. List 10 applications of electronic communications

a.i. Simplex Transmission Mode 1. Doorbell, 2. Radio, 3.TV, 4. Automatic meter reading, 5. Ground water monitoring, 6. Biotelemetry, 7. HVAC, 8. Transceiver, 9. RFID tags, 10. GPS a.ii. Duplex Transmission Mode 1. Telephone system, 2. Mobile phone, 3. Two-way radios, 4. Ethernet, 5. Wireless local area networks, 6. Bluetooth, 7. WiMax, 8. W-CDMA, 9. PACTOR, 10. TD-CDMA b.i. Analog Signals 1. Radiant energy, 2. Light energy, 3. Sound, 4. Position, 5. Pressure, 6. Mechanical energy, 7. Electricity, 8. Magnetic field, 9. Electromagnetic field, 10. Weather b.ii. Digital Signals 1. Unit-step signal, 2. Unit impulse, 3. Cisoids, 4. Sinusoids, 5. Linear system, 6. LSI system, 7. Digital video interface, 8. JPEG pictures, 9. GIF pictures, 10. Computer data c.i. Baseband Signals 1. Serial cables, 2. LAN¶s, 3. 10BASE5, 4. 100BASE-T, 5. 1000BASE-SX, 6. Sound waveform, 7. Telephony, 8. Television, 9. Data, 10. Electromagnetic field c.ii. Modulated Signals 1. AM signals, 2. cable TV systems, 3. public switched telephone network, 4. Changing voices, 5. FM signals, 6. Pulse width switches, 7. Electronic filters, 8. Semiconductor switches, 9. Voltage regulator, 10. Amplifiers 3. Enumerate the electromagnetic spectrum used in electronic communications, its characteristics and application of each segment.

RADIO. We use the radio portion of the electromagnetic spectrum for many things, including television and radio broadcasting, telephones and other wireless communications, navigation and radar for a variety of measurements including police speed traps, and even microwave cooking ovens.

Our AM broadcast stations transmit signals in what is referred to as the medium-wave portion of the spectrum. FM music stations use very high frequency (VHF) transmitters. Television stations use the VHF and ultra high frequency (UHF) regions of the spectrum. INFRARED LIGHT. Infrared light is on the spectrum at frequencies above radio and just below the range of human vision. Infrared light is heat. Three-quarters of the radiation emitted by a light-bulb is IR. We use infrared transmitters to remotely control our TV sets. We can record infrared light on photographic film and we have equipment that can see hot bodies in deep space in the infrared light they send out. VISIBLE LIGHT. Visible light, which we receive with our eyes, is along the spectrum between infrared and ultraviolet light, which we can't see. Of course, we can collect visible light with photographic film. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. On the spectrum, ultraviolet light is above visible light. UV is dangerous to living organisms. So, it is used to sterilize medical instruments by killing bacteria and viruses. We have photographic film that can capture ultraviolet light. Ten percent of the energy radiated by our star, the Sun, is ultraviolet light. X-RAYS. Farther along the spectrum are X-rays. Their invisible energy is produced when gas is heated to millions of degrees. X-ray energy is absorbed by matter it penetrates depending upon the atomic weight of that matter. Because X-rays can change a photographic emulsion just as visible light does, we use them to take pictures of the insides of people and things.

Frequency User atomic clocks

Approximate Frequency 60 kHz

professional communications receivers AM radio shortwave radio WWV time

0.500-2000 MHz

0.535-1.7 MHz 3-30 MHz 2.5 MHz 5.0 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20.0 MHz 3.330 MHz 7.335 MHz 14.670 MHz 27 MHz 49 MHz 50-1300 MHz 49 MHz 900 MHz 2400 MHz 54-88 MHz 72 MHz 75 MHz 88-108 MHz 174-220 MHz 215 Mhz 800 MHz 2400 MHz 902 MHz 2400 MHz 5800 MHz

CHU time

CB radio baby monitor surveillance tracking radios cordless phones

TV channel 2-6 radio-control planes radio-control cars FM radio TV channel 7-13 wildlife tracking collars cell phone

video transmitter

air traffic control radar

960 MHz 1215 MHz 1227 MHz 1575 MHz 2300 MHz 10.525 GHz

GPS

deep space radio radar gun x-band

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