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Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh

Ministry of Communications
Roads and Highways Department

STANDARD TEST PROCEDURES

MAY 2001
INSERT THE NEW

FOREWARD

SIGNED BY

FAZLUL HAQUE
STANDARD TEST PROCEDURES (STP)

Introduction

To enable roads and bridges to be built in accordance with the Roads and Highways
Departments Technical Specifications (Volume 3 of 4 of the Standard Tender Documents), it is
necessary for quality control tests to be carried out at both construction sites and regional testing
centres.

The results of these tests are intended to assist the Engineer in deciding whether or not a
particular item of work is satisfactory and to provide a permanent record to show the work has
been carried out in accordance with the Contract Specification.

To be of use to the field engineer the results of many of the tests detailed must be submitted as
soon as possible after completion of the particular item of work, as any work which does not
conform with the Contract Specification may be rejected by the Engineer.

The Standard Test Procedures detailed in this document are mandatory for the quality control of
roads constructed by the Roads and Highways Department. The RHD Technical Specifications
when including a test make reference to this document and the tests are referred to by their
section number and title, for example, STP 4.3 Standard Compaction of Soil.

Standard Laboratory Test forms have been produced for the tests detailed in this document.
Sample calculations are shown using these forms in the relevant sections of the document and
copies of the blank forms are available for downloading from the Roads and Highways
Departments Internet Web Site at www.rhdbangladesh.org under the section covering Standard
Test Procedures. Alternatively a computer floppy disc containing copies of the forms can be
purchased from the Procurement Circle at RHD Sarak Bhaban, Ramna, Dhaka.

This manual covers all tests which are needed to be carried out at site or regional laboratories;
however, other more specialist or complex tests may be required and these can be carried out at
the Bangladesh Road Research Laboratory and in this respect, or other matters concerning
these Standard Test Procedures, queries should be referred in the first instance to the Director,
Bangladesh Road Research Laboratory, Paikpara, Mirpur, Dhaka.
Roads and Highways Department
Bangladesh Road Research Laboratory

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITIONS, SYMBOLS AND UNITS

1.1 Scope...............................................................................................................1.1
1.2 Terminology......................................................................................................1.1
1.3 Definitions ........................................................................................................1.1
1.4 Greek Alphabet.................................................................................................1.5
1.5 Symbols and Units............................................................................................1.6
1.6 Conversion Factors and Useful Data .................................................................1.6

CHAPTER 2 : SAMPLING

2.1. General ............................................................................................................2.1


2.2 Sampling of Soils..............................................................................................2.1
2.3 Sampling of Bricks............................................................................................2.6
2.4 Sampling of Aggregates....................................................................................2.9
2.5 Sampling of Cement .......................................................................................2.12
2.6 Sampling of Concrete .....................................................................................2.13
2.7 Sampling of Bitumen.......................................................................................2.16
2.8 Sampling of Bituminous Materials ...................................................................2.17
2.9 Preparing and Transporting Samples..............................................................2.17
2.10 Sample Reception ..........................................................................................2.19
2.11 Sample Drying................................................................................................2.19

CHAPTER 3 : CLASSIFICATION TESTS

3.1 Determination of Moisture Content....................................................................3.1


3.2 Determination of Atterberg Limits ....................................................................3.11
3.3 Particle Size Distribution .................................................................................3.22
3.4 Determination of Organic Content...................................................................3.32
3.5 Standard Description and Classifications ........................................................3.34

CHAPTER 4 : DRY DENSITY - MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIPS

4.1 General Requirements ......................................................................................4.1


4.2 Sample Preparation..........................................................................................4.2
4.3 Standard Compaction using 2.5 kg Rammer .....................................................4.8
4.4 Heavy Compaction using 4.5 kg Rammer........................................................4.19
4.5 Vibrating Hammer Method ..............................................................................4.19

I
CHAPTER 5 : STRENGTH TESTS: CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO AND DYNAMIC CONE
PENETROMETER TEST

5.1 California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test..................................................................5.1


5.2 Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) Test........................................................5.21

CHAPTER 6 : DETERMINATION OF IN-SITU DENSITY

6.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................6.1
6.2 Sand Replacement Method...............................................................................6.1
6.3 Core Cutter Method ........................................................................................6.10

CHAPTER 7 : TESTS FOR AGGREGATES AND BRICKS

7.1 Determination of Clay and Silt Contents in Natural Aggregates .........................7.1


7.2 Particle Size Distribution of Aggregates.............................................................7.5
7.3 Shape Tests for Aggregates .............................................................................7.9
7.4 Fine Aggregate : Density and Absorption Tests ...............................................7.15
7.5 Coarse Aggregate : Density and Absorption Tests ..........................................7.21
7.6 Aggregate Impact Value .................................................................................7.26
7.7 Aggregate Crushing Value and 10% Fines Value ............................................7.32
7.8 Tests for Bricks...............................................................................................7.39

CHAPTER 8 : TESTS OF CEMENT

8.1 Fineness of Cement..........................................................................................8.1


8.2 Setting Time of Cement ....................................................................................8.2
8.3 Compressive Strength of Cement .....................................................................8.5

CHAPTER 9 : TESTS ON CONCRETE

9.1 Slump Test .......................................................................................................9.1


9.2 Crushing Strength of Concrete ..........................................................................9.5

CHAPTER 10 : TEST FOR BITUMEN AND BITUMINOUS MATERIALS

10.1 Bitumen Penetration Test ...............................................................................10.1


10.2 Bitumen Softening Test ..................................................................................10.6
10.3 Specific Gravity Test of Bitumen ..................................................................10.12
10.4 Bitumen Extraction Tests .............................................................................10.16
10.5 Flash Point and Fire Point Tests of Bitumen .................................................10.33
10.6 Viscosity Test of Bitumen .............................................................................10.41
10.7 Distillation of Cut-Back Asphaltic (Bituminous) Products ...............................10.51
10.8 Float Test of Bitumen ...................................................................................10.57
II
CHAPTER 10 : TEST FOR BITUMEN AND BITUMINOUS MATERIALS

10.9 Marshall Stability and Flow ..........................................................................10.60


10.10 Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures Test .....................10.76
10.11 Maximum Theoretical Specific Gravity of Paving ..........................................10.81
10.12 Spray Rate of Bitumen .................................................................................10.86

CHAPTER 11 : STEEL REINFORCEMENT TESTS

11.1 General Requirements ...................................................................................11.1


11.2 Tension Test of Steel Reinforcing Bar ............................................................11.8
11.3 Bend Test of Reinforcing Bar .......................................................................11.14

III
CHAPTER 1 Standard Test Procedures
Definitions, Symbols and Units

CHAPTER 1

DEFINITIONS, SYMBOLS AND UNITS

1.1 Scope

This standard sets out the basic terminology, definitions, symbols and units used in the various
parts of the manual, and refers specifically to soils, although some terms may also be applicable
when testing other materials.

Only the terms commonly in use and most likely to be met in the more routine tests on soils have
been included.

Conversion factors and other useful data are also included.

1.2 Terminology

The following terminology applies to the soil testing standards.

1.2.1 Soil. An assemblage or mixture of separate particles, usually of mineral composition


but sometimes of organic origin, which can be separated by gentle mechanical means
and which includes variable amounts of water and air (and sometimes other gases). A
soil commonly consists of a naturally occurring deposit, but the term is also applied to
made ground consisting of replaced natural soil or man-made materials exhibiting
similar behaviour, e.g. crushed brick, crushed rock, pulverised fuel ash or crushed
blast-furnace slag.

1.2.2 Cohesive soil. Soil which because of its fine-grained content will form a mass which
sticks together at suitable moisture contents.

1.2.3 Cohesionless soil. Granular soil consisting of particles which can be identified
individually by the naked eye or by using a magnifying glass, e.g. gravel, sand.

1.3 Definitions

1.3.1 Sample. A portion of soil taken as being representative of a particular deposit or


stratum.

1.3.2 Specimen. A portion of a sample on which a test is carried out.

1.3.3 Sampling. The selection of a representative portion of a material.

1.3.4 Quartering. Reducing the size of a large sample of material to the quantity required for
test by dividing a circular heap, by diameters at right angles, into four more or less
equal portions, removing two diagonally opposite quarters, and thoroughly mixing the
two remaining quarters together so as to obtain a truly representative half of the original
mass. The process is repeated until a sample of the required size is obtained.

1.3.5 Riffling. The reduction in quantity of a large sample of material by dividing the mass
into two approximately equal portions by passing the sample through an appropriately
sized sample divider (riffle box). The process is repeated until a sample of the
required size is obtained. When dividing some coarse-grained materials a combination
of quartering and riffling methods may be necessary on different sized fractions of the
sample.

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CHAPTER 1 Standard Test Procedures
Definitions, Symbols and Units

1.3.6 Dry soil. Soil that has been dried to constant mass at a temperature of 1050C to
1100C. Other drying temperatures. e.g. 600C, may be specified for particular tests.

1.3.7 Moisture content (w). The mass of water which can be removed from the soil, usually
by heating at 105 0C, expressed as a percentage of the dry mass. The term water
content is also widely used.

1.3.8 Liquid limit (LL). The moisture content at which a soil passes from the liquid to the
plastic state, as determined by the liquid limit test.

1.3.9 Plastic limit (PL). The moisture content at which a soil on losing water passes from
plastic state to semi-brittle solid state and becomes too dry to be in a plastic condition
as determined by the plastic limit.

1.3.10 Plasticity index (PI). The numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic
limit of a soil :

PI = LL PL

1.3.11 Non-plastic. A soil with a plasticity index of zero or one on which the plastic limit
cannot be determined.

1.3.12 Liquidity index (IL). The ratio of the difference between moisture content and plastic
limit of a soil, to the plasticity index :

w - PL
IL =
PI
1.3.13 Shrinkage limit (ws). The moisture content at which a soil on being dried ceases to
shrink.

1.3.14 Linear shrinkage (LS). The change in length of a bar sample of soil when dried from
about its liquid limit, expressed as a percentage of the initial length.

1.3.15 Bulk density (). The mass of material (including solid particles and any contained
water) per unit volume including voids.

1.3.16 Dry density (d ). The mass of the dry soil contained in unit volume of undried material :

100
d =
100 + w

1.3.17 Particle density ( s). The average mass per unit volume of the solid particles in a
sample of soil where the volume includes any sealed voids contained within the solid
particles.

1.3.18 Particle size distribution. The percentages of the various grain sizes present in a soil
as determined by sieving and sedimentation.

1.3.19 Test sieve. A sieve complying with a recognised Standard.

1.3.20 Cobble fraction. Solid particles of sizes between 200 mm and 60 mm.

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CHAPTER 1 Standard Test Procedures
Definitions, Symbols and Units

1.3.21 Gravel fraction. The fraction of a soil composed of particles between the sizes of 60
mm and 2 mm. The gravel fraction is subdivided as follows :

Coarse gravel 60 mm to 20 mm
Medium gravel 20 mm to 6 mm
Fine gravel 6 mm to 2 mm

1.3.22 Sand fraction. The fraction of a soil composed of particles between the sizes of
2.0 mm and 0.06 mm. The sand fraction is subdivided as follows :

Coarse sand 2.0 mm to 0.6 mm


Medium sand 0.6 mm to 0.2 mm
Fine sand 0.2 mm to 0.06 mm

1.3.23 Silt fraction. The fraction of a soil composed of particles between the sizes of 0.06 mm
and 0.002 mm. The silt fraction is subdivided as follows :

Coarse silt 0.06 mm to 0.02 mm


Medium silt 0.02 mm to 0.006 mm
Fine silt 0.006 mm to 0.002 mm

1.3.24 Clay fraction. The fraction of a soil composed of particles smaller in size than
0.002 mm.

1.3.25 Fines fraction. The fraction of a soil composed of particles passing a 63 m test sieve.
Note that this includes all material of silt and clay sizes, and a little fine sand. For most
practical purposes, the limiting sieve size can be taken to be 75 m.

1.3.26 Voids. The spaces between solid particles of soil.

1.3.27 Voids ratio (e). The ratio between the volume of voids (air and water) and the volume
of solid particles in a mass of soil:

s
e = - 1 (see 1.3.16 and 1.3.17)
d

1.3.28 Porosity (n). The volume of voids (air and water) expressed as a percentage of the
total volume of a mass of soil.

e
n = x 100 (%)
l + e

1.3.29 Saturation. The condition in which all the voids in a soil are completely filled with
water.

1.3.30 Degree of saturation (Sr ). The volume of water contained in the void spaces between
soil particles, expressed as a percentage of the total voids:

w s
Sr = (%) (see 1.3.7; 1.3.17; 1.3.27)
e

1.3.31 Compaction. The process of packing soil particles more closely together by rolling or
other mechanical means, thus increasing the dry density of the soil.

1.3.32 Optimum moisture content. The moisture content at which a specified amount of
compaction will produce the maximum dry density.

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CHAPTER 1 Standard Test Procedures
Definitions, Symbols and Units

1.3.33 Maximum compacted dry density. The dry density obtained using a specified amount
of compaction at the optimum moisture content.

1.3.34 Relative compaction. The percentage ratio of the dry density of the soil to the
maximum compacted dry density of a soil when a specified amount of compaction is
used.

1.3.35 Dry density / moisture content relationship. The relationship between dry density
and moisture content of a soil when a specified amount of compaction is used.

1.3.36 Percentage air voids (Va). The volume of air voids in the soil expressed as a
percentage of the total volume of the soil :

w
Va = 1 - d w + 100 (%)
w s 100

(see 1.3.7; 1.3.16; 1.3.17; 1.3.37)

1.3.37 Air voids line. A line on a graph showing the dry density / moisture content
relationship for soil containing a constant percentage of air voids. The line can be
calculated from the equation :

Va
1 - 100
d = w
1 w
+
s 100

where, d is the dry density of the soil (Mg/m3);


w is the density of water (Mg/m3);
Va is the volume of air voids in the soil, expressed as a percentage of the total
volume of the soil;
s is the particle density (Mg/m3);
w is the moisture content, expressed as a percentage of the mass of dry soil.

1.3.38 Saturation line (zero air voids line). A line on a graph showing the dry density /
moisture content relationship for soil containing no air voids. It is obtained by putting Va
= 0 in the equation given in definition 1.3.37.

1.3.39 Limiting densities. The dry densities corresponding to the extreme states of packing
(loosest and densest) at which the particles of a granular soil can be placed.

1.3.40 Maximum density (dmax). The maximum dry density at the densest practicable state
of packing of particles of a granular soil.

1.3.41 Minimum density (dmin). The minimum dry density at the loosest state of packing of
dry particles which can be sustained in a granular soil.

1.3.42 Maximum (minimum) porosity or voids ratio. The porosity or voids ratio
corresponding to the minimum (maximum) dry density as defined above.

1.3.43 California bearing ratio (CBR). The ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the force
required to cause a circular piston of 1935 mm2 cross-sectional area to penetrate the
soil from the surface at a constant rate of 1 mm/min, to the force required for similar
penetration into a standard sample of crushed rock. The ratio is determined at
penetrations of 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm, and the higher value is used.

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CHAPTER 1 Standard Test Procedures
Definitions, Symbols and Units

1.3.44 Penetration resistance. The force required to maintain a constant rate of penetration
of a probe, e.g. a CBR piston, into the soil.

1.3.45 Consolidation. The process whereby soil particles are packed more closely together
over a period of time by application of continued pressure. It is accompanied by
drainage of water from the voids between solid particles.

1.3.46 Pore water pressure (u w). The pressure of the water in the voids between solid
particles.

1.3.47 Excess pore pressure. The increase in pore water pressure due to the application of
an external pressure or stress.

1.3.48 Swelling. The process opposite to consolidation, i.e. expansion of a soil on reduction
of pressure due to water being drawn into the voids between particles.

1.3.49 Swelling pressure. The pressure required to maintain constant volume, i.e. to prevent
swelling, when a soil has access to water.

1.3.50 Permeability. The ability of a material to allow the passage of a fluid. (Also known as
hydraulic conductivity.)

1.3.51 Piping. Movement of soil particles carried by water eroding channels through the soil,
leading to sudden collapse of soil.

1.3.52 Erosion. Removal of soil particles by the movement of water.

1.3.53 Dispersive (erodible) clays. Clays from which individual colloidal particles readily go
into suspension in particularly still water.

1.3.54 Shear strength. The maximum shear resistance which a soil can offer under defined
conditions of effective stress and drainage.

1.4 Greek Alphabet

A number of the symbols traditionally used in soils testing are taken from the Greek alphabet.
This is reproduced below for reference purposes:

Capital Small Name Capital Small Name


A alpha N nu
B beta xi
gamma O omicron
delta pi
epsilon P rho
Z zeta sigma
H eta T tau
theta Y upsilon
I iota phi
K kappa X chi
lambda psi
M mu omega

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CHAPTER 1 Standard Test Procedures
Definitions, Symbols and Units

1.5 Symbols and Units

The following symbols are used in the standards in the manual. The symbols generally conform
to international usage. The units are those generally used. An asterisk indicates that no unit is
used.

Term Symbol Unit


Moisture content w %
Liquid limit LL %
Plastic limit PL %
Shrinkage limit ws %
Plasticity index PI %
Liquidity index IL *
Bulk density Kg/m3
Dry density d Kg/m3
Particle density s Kg/m3
Density of water w Kg/m3
Voids ratio e *
Porosity n %
Degree of saturation Sr %
Percentage air voids Va %
Maximum dry density dmax . Kg/m3
Minimum dry density dmin. Kg/m3
Maximum voids ratio emax . *
Minimum voids ratio emin. *
California bearing ratio CBR %
Mean particle diameter D mm or m
Percentage by mass finer than D K %
Elapsed time t minutes or second
Unconfined compressive strength qu kPa

1.6 Conversion Factors and Useful Data

1.6.1 General. The modern form of the metric system is known as the SI system.

SI is the accepted abbreviation for Systeme International dUnites (International System


of Units), the system finally agreed at an international conference in 1960.

1.6.2 Conversion factors. Conversion factors for SI and imperial units are given in
Table 1.6.1.

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CHAPTER 1 Standard Test Procedures
Definitions, Symbols and Units

Table 1.6.1 CONVERSION FACTORS, IMPERIAL AND SI UNITS.

Imperial to SI SI to Imperial
Length 1.609 km : mile 0.6215
0.3048 m : foot (ft) 3.281
25.4 mm : inch (in) 0.03937
Area 0.4045 hectare (ha) : acre 2.471
0.09590 m2 : square foot 10.76
645.2 mm2 : square inch 0.001550
Volume 0.764 m3 : cubic yard 1.3089
0.02832 m3 : cubic foot 35.34
4.546 litre : gallon (UK) 0.2200
3.785 litre : gallon (USA) 0.2642
28.32 litre : cubic foot 0.03531
16.39 ml : cubic inch 0.06102
16387 mm3 : cubic inch
Mass 1.016 Mg (tonne) : ton 0.9842
0.4536 kg : pound (lb) 2.205
453.6 g : pound
28.35 g : ounce (oz) 0.03527
Density 0.01602 Mg/m3 (g/cm3) : pound per cubic foot 62.43
Force 9.964 kN : ton force 0.1004
4.448 N : pound force 0.2248
Pressure 0.04788 kN/m2 (kPa) : lb f/sq ft 20.89
6.895 kN/m2 : lb f/sq in 0.1450
47.88 N/m2 (Pa) : lb f/sq ft 0.02089
NOTE

1 litre (L) = 1,000 cm3 1 tonne = 1,000 kilograms 1 Megagram (Mg)/m3 = 1,000 kg/m3
= 1,000 mL (kg) 1 Megagram/m3 = 1 g/cc
1 kg = 1,000 grams (g)
1 kN = 1,000 N 1 kgf = 9.81 N
1 tonne f = 9.81 kN
1MN/m2 = 1 N/mm2

Examples

To convert imperial to SI, e.g. to convert feet to metres, multiply number of feet by 0.3048.

To convert SI to imperial, e.g. to convert metres to feet, multiply number of metres by 3.281.

1.6.3 Useful data and information

1.6.3.1 Standard gravity. The international standard acceleration due to the earths gravity is
accepted as;

g = 9.80665 m/s2

although it varies slightly from place to place. For practical purposes g = 9.81 m/s2, the
conventional reference value used as a common basis for measurements made on the
Earth.

1.6.3.2 Mass. The kilogram (kg) is equal to the mass of the international platinum prototype
kept by Bureau International des Poids et Measures (BIPM) at Sevres. It is the only
basic quantity to be a multiple unit :

1 kg = 1,000 g (grams)

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CHAPTER 1 Standard Test Procedures
Definitions, Symbols and Units

There is no SI unit of weight. When weight is used to mean the force due to gravity
acting on a mass, the mass (kg) must be multiplied by g(9.81 m/s2) to give the force in
Newtons (N).

1.6.3.3 Density. The megagram per cubic metre (Mg/m3) is the density unit adopted for soil
mechanics. It is 1000 times larger than the kilogram per cubic metre, the basic SI unit,
and is equal to one gram per cubic centimetre :

1 Mg/m3 = 1 g/cm3
= 1,000 kg/m3

The density of soil particles (particle density) is expressed in Mg/m3, which is


numerically equal to the specific gravity (now obsolete). Using Mg/m3, the density of
water is unity.

1.6.3.4 Force. The Newton (N) is that force which, applied to a mass of 1 kilogram, gives it an
acceleration of 1 metre per second per second.

1 N = 1 kg m/s2

The kilonewton (kN) is the force unit most used in soil mechanics:

1 kN = 1,000 N
= approximately 0.1 tonne f or 0.1 ton f

1.6.3.5 Pressure and stress. The Pascal (Pa) is the pressure produced by a force of 1
Newton applied, uniformly distributed, over an area of 1 square metre.

The Pascal has been introduced as the pressure and stress unit, and is exactly equal
to the Newton per square metre:

1 Pa = 1 N/m2

In dealing with soils the usual unit of pressure is kilonewton per square metre (kN/ m2),
or kilopascal:

1 kN/m2 = 1 k Pa = 1,000 N/m2

The bar is not an SI unit but is sometimes encountered in fluid pressure:

1 bar = 100 kN/m2 = 100 k Pa = 1000 mb (millibars)

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CHAPTER 1 Standard Test Procedures
Definitions, Symbols and Units

1.6.3.6 Comparison of BS and ASTM sieve sizes

BS sieve aperture size Sieves to ASTM D422


Nearest designation Aperture size
75 mm 3 inch 75 mm
63 21/2 inch 63.5
50 2 inch 50.8
37.5 11/2 inch 38.1
28 -
- 1 inch 25.4
20 inch 19.05
14 -
3
10 /8 inch 9.52
6.3 -
5 No. 4 4.75
3.35 No. 6 3.35
- No. 8 2.36
2 No. 10 2.00
1.18 No. 16 1.18
- No. 20 850 m
600 m No. 30 600
425 No. 40 425
300 No. 50 300
- No. 60 250
212 No. 70 212
150 No. 100 150
- No. 140 106
75 No. 200 75
63 No. 230 63

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
Sampling

CHAPTER 2

SAMPLING

2.1 General

This standard deals with the sampling of soils, bricks, aggregates, cement, concrete, bitumen
and bituminous materials. A sample is a small quantity of material which represents in every way,
a much larger quantity of material. In taking a sample we are not usually attempting to select the
best or worst examples of the materials used but the typical material as used in the works.
Sampling should therefore be done on a completely random basis and personal preferences
should not be allowed to interfere with the selection.

2.2 Sampling of Soils

Samples are of one of two main types: disturbed or undisturbed.

2.2.1 Disturbed samples. Usually taken with a pick and shovel, scoop or other appropriate
hand tool, care should be taken to prevent coarse material from rolling off the sides of
the tool, which will leave behind too fine a sample.

Disturbed samples can be taken in test pits, trenches or similar excavations, auger
holes and boreholes. Disturbed samples can also be taken from stockpiles of material
and from material laid during road construction. Small disturbed samples can also be
available as the result of carrying out other work, e.g. samples from the Standard
Penetration Test (SPT) shoe, and samples from the cutting shoe of undisturbed sample
tubes.

2.2.1.1 Techniques. The sampling technique employed will be influenced by factors such as
the type and quantity of material being sampled, the equipment available, physical
constraints of the sampling location, the intended use of the material being sampled.

2.2.1.1.1 Test pits. Based upon the changes in moisture condition, colour consistency, soil type,
structure etc., the sides of the test pit are inspected to their full depth and any
observable change is recorded with depth. Any vegetation growing around the upper
edge of the test pit should be removed. Now every distinguishable gravel, soil or sand
layer should separately sampled by holding a spade or canvas sheet at the lower level
of the layer against the side of the pit and by cutting a sheer groove to the full depth of
the layer with a pick or spade. If the test pit had been dug sometimes before, then
weathered material should be removed from the surface before sampling. The material
obtained in this way should be placed in sample bags. The canvas sheet may also be
spread out on the floor of the test pit if this is more convenient. Once all the layers have
been sampled, all of the material from a particular layer must be combined on either a
clean, hard, even surface or on a canvas sheet and properly mixed with a spade. The
material sampled should not be contaminated with other material.

Samples should preferably be sealed in airtight tins and should fill the tin completely.
Duplicate or even triplicate samples should be taken. If the bulk sample is too large,
quarter or riffle out into sample bags a representative sample of the layer as explained
earlier. The sample bags must be clearly and indelibly marked, so that the samples can
be identified in the laboratory. All test pits should be properly fenced to safeguard
villagers and animals.

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
Sampling

Caution: It is recommended that in any case no excavation deeper than 1.5m should be
made unless:

a) It is properly propped and braced


b) The gradient of the sides is at least equal to the natural angle of repose of the soil.
c) It is in firm rock.

2.2.1.1.2 Stockpiles. When sampling from a stockpile the material on the top and sides of the
pile must not be used as this is generally coarser than the interior of the stockpile. The
correct procedure is to dig small holes in the stockpile (Figure 2.2.1) and sample the
material from the base of these holes. At least ten holes must be made at different
places on the stockpile and the materials obtained should be thoroughly mixed
together. However, stockpiles are often scraped together in natural material with
bulldozers, in which case it is better to wait until the stockpile has been completed
before taking samples. Samples will be carried out using hand tools. Sampling can also
be done using a mechanical loader-digger (in large stockpiles). Samples may be
collected by using two shovels perpendicularly, one to prevent material falling on to the
samples and one to clean off and take the sample (Figure 2.2.2). Samples may also be
collected by digging a groove from the top to the bottom of the stockpile (Figure 2.2.3).

Table 2.2.1
Type of Test Soil Group*
Fine- Medium- Coarse-grained
grained grained
Moisture content 50 g 350 g 4 kg
Atterberg limits 1 kg 1.5 kg 2.5 kg
Particle size distribution (sieving) 150 g 2.5 kg 17 kg
Particle size distribution (sedimentation) 250 g 100 g** 100 g**
Particle density 1.5 kg 2 kg 4 kg
MDD test 80 kg 80 kg 80 kg
California bearing ratio 6 kg 6 kg 12 kg
pH value 150 g 600 g 3.5 kg
Mass of sample required for each test on disturbed samples is given in Table 2.2.1.
These masses include some allowance for drying, wastage and rejection of stones
where required. Multiply these masses by the number of tests required. Where
appropriate, these masses assume that soils are susceptible to crushing.

** Sufficient to give the stated mass of fine-grained material.


* Soil group

i) Fine-grained soils: Soils containing not more than 10% retained on a 2 mm test
sieve.
ii) Medium-grained soils: Soils containing more than 10% retained on a 2 mm test
sieve but not more than 10% retained on a 20 mm test sieve.
iii) Coarse-grained soils: Soils containing more than 10% retained on a 20 mm test
sieve but not more than 10% retained on a 37.5 mm test sieve.

A soil shall be regarded as belonging to the finest-grained group as appropriate under


the above definitions.

2.2.1.1.3 Road pavement layers. When sampling from a partly constructed road pavement, for
example in crushed brick consolidation work, several small areas should be marked out
and all the material must be collected from the excavated holes or trenches of each
area. Care must be taken to ensure all the fine material is collected by using small tools
like brushes. Undisturbed samples are not generally taken in roadwork layers. Core-
cutters used primarily in fine grained soils for in-situ density determination can also
provide an undisturbed sample.

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2.2.2 Undisturbed samples. It is extremely difficult to obtain a truly undisturbed sample.


Samples generally described as undisturbed can be taken in the form of excavated
blocks, from which test specimens are later prepared, or in metal tubes fitted with
sharpened cutting shoes. Sample tubes of this type are driven or jacked into the ground
using a variety of methods and the sample are more frequently taken in boreholes
using machine-operated equipment, but can also be obtained in test pits using hand-
operated equipment.

2.2.2.1 Techniques

2.2.2.1.1 Block samples. Cohesive material in test pits or other locations can be sampled in
blocks by carefully cutting away surrounding material and then undercutting the block
to remove it.

2.2.2.1.2 Samples in moulds and tubes. Metal tubes for taking undisturbed samples are
commonly 75 mm or 100 mm and 450 mm long (known as U3 or U4 tubes) or 38 mm
and 230 mm long. The latter are convenient for use in test pits, when they can be
driven by using a hammer or preferably by a driving dolly. On ejection and trimming,
the samples are suitable sizes for triaxial testing. The larger sample tubes are fitted
with detachable cutting shoes and are generally driven using mechanised equipment or
hand-operated hammering device. Considerable care is required to maintain the
verticality of the tube when driving it. Samples in tubes or block sample should be
carefully waxed after removing just enough of the top of the sample with a palette knife
to form a flat surface.

2.2.3 Labeling sample. The sample must be comprehensively labeled. The label should
include information from the following list, as appropriate;

a) Name of the project


b) Name of the sampler
c) Date and time of sampling
d) Location within project: chainage; offset; carriageway; construction area, etc.
e) Depth of sample below reference datum, e.g. finished road level
f) Sample number
g) Description of the layer
h) Description of the material
i) Test pit; borehole; auger hole number
j) Type of sample
k) Sampling method
l) Suppliers name
m) Source of material
n) Number and type of container(s), and the number(s) with which the containers are
marked
o) How samples are being sent
p) Registration number of sampled truck
q) Additional information, e.g. how the material was processed before sampling.

Metal tubes should be labeled on the side of the tube and not on the end cap. The end
of the metal tube marking the top of the stratum should be so marked (i.e. with a T).
The present system uses pre-printed Sample Record Cards, shown as Form 2.2.1.

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2.3 Sampling of Bricks

2.3.1 Scope. The scope of this standard is to provide methods of sampling bricks without
bias and to give guidance as to the frequency and size of samples required for testing.
The physical form of the consignment of bricks will normally dictate the choice and
method of sampling.

No special equipment is required for sampling bricks.

2.3.2 Sampling methods. The sample may be drawn either by a) random sampling; or b)
stratified sampling.

1. Sampling in motion

Whenever practicable a sample shall be taken whilst the bricks are being moved for
example during loading or unloading. The lot shall be divided into a number of
convenient portions (not less than ten) such that when equal number of bricks are
drawn from each of these portions the number of bricks required for the inspection and
testing is provided.

2. Stacked materials

The number of bricks required for the tests should be sampled from a consignment of
not more than 15,000 units for machine-made bricks and 5,000 units for hand-made
bricks. The number of bricks required for all the various tests is detailed in Table 2.2.
The bricks should be sampled at random so that each brick in the stack or stacks has
an equal chance of being chosen, including those bricks within the stacks. This may
require the dismantling of part of the stack in order to reach the bricks inside. This will
be difficult unless the stacks are small. If possible, an equal sub-sample of not more
than 4 bricks should be taken from at least 6 real or imaginary similarly-sized sections
of the consignment.

3. Brick soling

Bricks laid as whole bricks such as in herring bone paving or in shoulder work should
be sampled from an area of one square metre marked on the road. All whole bricks
within the marked area should be returned to the laboratory as one sample. Several
such areas may require to be marked out in order to collect the number of bricks
required for the various tests.

4. Crushed brick

Crushed brick laid as a road pavement layer should be sampled in accordance with
2.2.1.1.3. It is most important that all fine material is removed from the test hole.

2.3.3 Treatment of samples. When the sample is to provide bricks for more than one tests
the total number shall be collected together and then divided by taking bricks at random
from within the total sample to form each successive sub-sample. Crushed bricks may
be riffled or quartered if necessary before transportation, provided that the
requirements for minimum test sample weights are met.

2.3.4 Number of bricks required

Table 2.3.1 gives a guide as to the number of brick required against the specified test.

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
Sampling

Table 2.3.1 Number of bricks required for testing

Purpose Number of bricks required for sample

Dimensional checks 24
Soluble salt content 10
Compressive strength 12
Water absorption 10

2.3.5 Sample identification. The following information should be clearly indicated on the
sampling certificate by the sampling personnel.

a) Sampling agent
b) Contract name / work name
c) Client name
d) Where the bricks will be used
e) Supplier of bricks
f) Date of manufacture
g) Type of brick
h) Size of consignment
i) Type of test required.

A sampling certificate is shown as Form 2.3.1.

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Sampling
Form 2.3.1

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
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2.4 Sampling of Aggregates

2.4.1 Definitions

a) Batch. A definite quantity of some commodity manufactured or produced under


conditions which are presumed uniform.
b) Sampling increment. A quantity of material taken at one time from a larger body of
material. When sampling aggregates, the material taken by single operation of a
scoop should be treated as a sampling increment.
c) Bulk sample. An aggregation of the sampling increments.
d) Laboratory sample. A sample intended for laboratory inspection or testing.
e) Test portion. The material used as a whole in testing or inspection.

2.4.2 Equipment

a) A small scoop, to hold a volume of at least 1 L (about 1.5 kg). This scoop is used
for sampling aggregates of nominal sizes less than 5mm.
b) A large scoop, to hold a volume of at least 2 L (about 3 kg.). This scoop is used for
sampling any grading of aggregate but is required particularly for aggregates of
nominal sizes greater than 5mm.
c) Containers, clean and non-absorbent for collecting the increments of a sample.
d) Containers, clean and impervious for collecting samples for sending to the
laboratory. They should be durable and at least 100 micron thick.
e) A sample divider, appropriate to the maximum size to be handled. A riffle box is
suitable or a flat shovel and a flat metal tray for use in quartering.

2.4.3 Procedure for sampling coarse, fine and all-in aggregate

a) Only an experienced person should be allowed to sample.


b) Obtain a bulk sample by collecting, in the clean containers, sufficient number of
increments to provide the required quantity of aggregate for all the tests to be
made. However, the number of increments should be not less than those given in
Table 2.4.1.

Table 2.4.1 Minimum number of sampling increments

Nominal size of Nominal size of Nominal size of Approximate minimum


aggregate sampling sampling mass for normal density
increments increments aggregate kg.
Large scoop Small scoop
28 mm and larger 20 - 50
5 mm to 28 mm 10 - 25
5 mm and smaller 10 half scoops 10 10

c) Take increment from different parts of the batch in such a way as to represent the
average quality.
d) When sampling from heaps of aggregates, take the required number of increments
from positions evenly distributed over the whole surface of the heap.
e) When sampling from ground level, care should be taken to avoid contamination of
the material.
f) When sampling form material in motion, calculate the sampling times to give the
required number of sampling increments, ensuring that they are randomly
distributed throughout the batch of aggregate.
g) When sampling from a falling stream of aggregate, take increments from the whole
width of the stream.
h) When sampling from a conveyor belt, stop the conveyor at appropriate times and
take all the material from a fixed length of the conveyor.

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Sampling

i) Combine all the increments and either dispatch the bulk sample or reduce it and
then dispatch the smaller sample for testing.
j) Never sample manually form a moving conveyor.

2.4.4 Reduction of sample. It is sometimes necessary to reduce the mass of bulk sample at
site substantially. This shall be done in such a way to preserve at each stage a
representative part of the bulk sample. The reduction of sample should be done in
accordance with 2.9.1.1.

2.4.5 Dispatching of samples. The samples should be transferred completely to containers


which shall then be sealed for dispatch. Individual packages should preferably not
exceed 30 kg.

a) Information accompanying the samples.

Each sample should contain a card, suitably protected from damage by moisture
and abrasion, giving details of the dispatcher and the description of the material.

b) Sampling certificate

Each sample, or group of samples from a single source, shall be accompanied by a


certificate, from the person responsible for taking the sample. The certificate shall
include as much as is appropriate of the following information.

i.) Name of testing agent


ii.) Client name
iii.) Contractors name
iv.) Contract name
v.) Name and location of source
vi.) Date and time of sampling
vii.) Method of sampling
viii.) Identification number
ix.) Description of sample
x.) Tests required
xi.) Any other information that may be useful to the tester
xii.) Name and signature of sampler

A sampling certificate is shown as Form 2.4.1.

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2.5 Sampling of Cement

2.5.1 Introduction. In a general sense of the word, cement can be described as a material
with adhesive and cohesive properties which make it capable of bonding mineral
fragment into a compact whole mass. The main components of cement are compounds
of lime. One of the properties of cements is to be able to set under water by virtue of a
chemical reaction with the water. In civil engineering cement is normally confined to
calcareous, hydraulic cement. The variability of the proportions of the individual mineral
content in the cement renders it to different behaviours in both chemical and physical.

Table 2.5.1 lists a number of cements and their designation.

Table 2.5.1 Main types of Portland cement

General description ASTM description


Ordinary Portland Type I
Rapid-hardening Portland Type III
Extra rapid-hardening Portland
Low heat Portland Type IV
Modified cement Type II
Sulphate-resisting cement Type V
White Portland
Slag cement Type S

2.5.2 Scope. This test provides methods for sampling hydraulic cements for testing. The
importance of sampling has already been underlined in the introduction.

2.5.3 Equipment. No special equipment is required for sampling cements other than the
following:

a) Square mouthed shovel; size 2 in accordance with BS 3388.


b) Suitable flexible container capable of collecting cement from the nozzle of a pump.
c) Other suitable sealable containers.

Note. Containers to be used for sampling cement should be watertight and water
resistant in order to prevent water ingressing into the sample.

2.5.4 Methods

2.5.4.1 Sampling from concrete batch plant

2.5.4.1a Bulk cement

a.1 The flexible container is fitted around the discharge nozzle of the silo and cement
is allowed to flow into it.
a.2 The flexible container is fitted around the discharge nozzle of the cement haulage
truck and cement is allowed to flow into it before discharge into the silo.

2.5.4.1b Bagged cement

Using the random numbers method of sampling decide on the size of a lot and take at
random one bag of cement to represent that lot.

2.5.5 Rate of sampling. The rate of sampling is governed by the particular tests required by
the specification. Normally the manufacturer delivers cement in batches. One sample is
normally taken from each batch.

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2.5.6 Test type requirement. For pre-construction approval of cement all tests such as
chemical composition, physical properties of: fineness, setting times and compressive
strengths are normally required. Upon approval of the cement type, the supplier and
manufacturer, cement is procured. The tests required to be carried out to confirm
continuous quality during construction are limited due to the length of the tests,
however, samples from each batch, for each type of cement, from each supplier from
each delivery are taken for routine testing:

a) compressive strength
b) initial and final setting times
c) fineness modulus

Other physical tests and chemical tests are normally required once per month from
each manufacturer, for each type of cement.

2.5.7 Sampling certificates. A sampling certificate should be issued every time samples of
cement are delivered or collected for sampling. The certificate should include at least
the following information:

a) Name of testing agency


b) Client
c) Manufacturer
d) Client
e) Cement type
f) Location of sample
g) Sample unique identification number
h) Name and signature of sampler
i) Purpose of sampling (test types to be performed)
j) Date of sampling
k) Any other relevant information

2.6 Sampling of Concrete

2.6.1 Scope. The purpose of this test is to provide methods which could be used on site for
obtaining from a batch of fresh concrete, representative samples of the quantity
required for carrying out the required tests and for making test specimens.

2.6.2 Definitions

a) Batch. The quantity of concrete mixed in one cycle of operations of a batch mixer,
or the quantity of concrete conveyed ready-mixed in a vehicle, or the quantity of
concrete discharged during 1 min. From a continuous mixer.
b) Sample. The quantity of concrete, consisting of a number of standard scoopfuls,
taken from a batch of concrete.
c) Standard scoopful. The quantity of concrete taken by a single operation of the
scoop, approximately 5 kg mass of normal weight concrete.

2.6.3 Apparatus

a) Scoop, made from minimum 0.8 mm thick non-corrodible metals suitable for taking
standard scoopfuls of concrete.
b) Container for receiving concrete from a scoop, made of plastic or metal, of 9L
minimum capacity.
c) Sampling tray, minimum dimensions 900 mm x 900 mm x 50 mm deep, of rigid
construction made from a non-absorbent material not readily attacked by cement
paste.
d) Square mouthed shovel; size 2 in accordance with BS 3388.

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
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2.5.6 Test type requirement. For pre-construction approval of cement all tests such as
chemical composition, physical properties of: fineness, setting times and compressive
strengths are normally required. Upon approval of the cement type, the supplier and
manufacturer, cement is procured. The tests required to be carried out to confirm
continuous quality during construction are limited due to the length of the tests,
however, samples from each batch, for each type of cement, from each supplier from
each delivery are taken for routine testing:

a) compressive strength
b) initial and final setting times
c) fineness modulus

Other physical tests and chemical tests are normally required once per month from
each manufacturer, for each type of cement.

2.5.7 Sampling certificates. A sampling certificate should be issued every time samples of
cement are delivered or collected for sampling. The certificate should include at least
the following information:

a) Name of testing agency


b) Client
c) Manufacturer
d) Client
e) Cement type
f) Location of sample
g) Sample unique identification number
h) Name and signature of sampler
i) Purpose of sampling (test types to be performed)
j) Date of sampling
k) Any other relevant information

2.6 Sampling of Concrete

2.6.1 Scope. The purpose of this test is to provide methods which could be used on site for
obtaining from a batch of fresh concrete, representative samples of the quantity
required for carrying out the required tests and for making test specimens.

2.6.2 Definitions

a) Batch. The quantity of concrete mixed in one cycle of operations of a batch mixer,
or the quantity of concrete conveyed ready-mixed in a vehicle, or the quantity of
concrete discharged during 1 min. From a continuous mixer.
b) Sample. The quantity of concrete, consisting of a number of standard scoopfuls,
taken from a batch of concrete.
c) Standard scoopful. The quantity of concrete taken by a single operation of the
scoop, approximately 5 kg mass of normal weight concrete.

2.6.3 Apparatus

a) Scoop, made from minimum 0.8 mm thick non-corrodible metals suitable for taking
standard scoopfuls of concrete.
b) Container for receiving concrete from a scoop, made of plastic or metal, of 9L
minimum capacity.
c) Sampling tray, minimum dimensions 900 mm x 900 mm x 50 mm deep, of rigid
construction made from a non-absorbent material not readily attacked by cement
paste.
d) Square mouthed shovel; size 2 in accordance with BS 3388.

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
Sampling

2.6.4 Sampling procedure. Estimate the number of scoopfuls required for the test(s) by
reference to Table 2.6.1.

Note. If a shovel is used or other defined apparatus, correlate between the quantity of
the scoop and the quantity of the shovel.

Note. When sampling from a batch mixer or ready-mixed concrete truck disregard the
very first part and the very last part of the discharge. Preferably sample from the middle
third of the batch.

Note. If the batch to be sampled has been deposited in a heap or heaps of concrete,
the parts should whenever possible be distributed through the depth of the concrete as
well as over the exposed surface.

Table 2.6.1 Quantities of concrete required


Test specimen number of standard scoopfuls
Slump 4
Compacting factor 6
Vebe time 4
Flow index 4
Air content 4
Density 6
2 cubes 100mm x 100mm 4
2 cubes 150mm x 150mm 4
2 beams 100mm x 100 mm x 500mm 6
2 beams 150mm x 150 mm x 750mm 18
2 cylinders 150mm x 300mm 6

2.6.5 Obtaining a sample. Ensure that the equipment is clean. Using the scoop obtain a
scoopful of concrete from the central portion of each part of the batch and place it in the
container or containers. When sampling from a falling stream pass the scoop through
the whole width and thickness of the stream in a single operation. Take the container(s)
to the area where the sample is to be prepared for testing or moulding.

Sampling from a heap of concrete. Ensure that the shovel is driven into the heap and
that concrete is taken to represent the whole mass of the heap by taking a sub-sample
from different areas of the heap well spaced over its entire surface area. Combine all
sub-samples, agitate and mix well and prepare the sample for testing or moulding.

2.6.6 Protection of samples. At all stages of sampling, transport and handling, the fresh
concrete shall be protected against gaining or loosing water and against excessive
temperatures.

2.6.7 Certificate of sampling. Each sample shall be accompanied by a certificate of


sampling from the person responsible for taking the sample and the certificate shall
include at least the following information:

a) Testing agency
b) Client
c) Contract name
d) Location within the structure of concrete
e) Sample identification number
f) Delivery batch note number or any other means of identifying the batch
g) Concrete temperature

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
Sampling

h) Ambient temperature and weather conditions


i) Name of sampler
j) Signature of sampler

A sampling certificate is shown as Form 2.6.1.

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Sampling

2.7 Sampling of Bitumen

Bitumen is normally contained either in metal drums or heated bulk tanks and different
methods should be used for sampling each type.

2.7.1 From metal drums the sample must be taken by cutting holes in the side of the drum
and removing a sample of bitumen from these holes. Samples should not be taken
from the top and bottom of the drum as this may be contaminated during storage and
transport.

2.7.2 From a heated bulk tank it is necessary to obtain a sample from the full depth of the
tank. This is best done from the top access opening using a purpose-made tube with a
closing plug at the bottom, as shown in Figure 2.7.1. The tube is pushed into the full
depth of the bitumen, the flap closed and the tube withdrawn. The sample obtained
from the tube must be fully mixed before removing a portion for test.

Handle

Cone

Figure 2.7.1 Bitumen Sampling Tube

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
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2.8 Sampling of Bituminous Materials

Pre-mixed bituminous materials may be sampled at the asphalt plant or at the site
where the material is being laid.

2.8.1 When sampling at the asphalt plant, the whole batch should be discharged into a lorry
and then a sample taken from the material in the lorry. This is done in a similar way to
sampling from a stockpile with fractions of the sample being taken from at least five
different points of the material.

2.8.2 Sampling at the laying site may either be from the paving machine or the laid material.

a) When sampling from a paving machine, material should never be taken from the
front hopper as segregation often takes place here. Samples should always be
taken from the rear screws, a scoop being used to collect material from the ends of
the screw. Samples must only be taken when the screws are fully loaded and
samples should be taken from both ends.
b) When sampling the as laid material, an area to be sampled is marked out and all
the material within that area, to the full layer thickness should be removed.
Generally it is better to obtain a sample from a number of smaller areas than one
big area. On completion of sampling, care must be taken to ensure the areas are
repaired to the standard of the original material.

Samples of bituminous materials are best transported in a closed tin or small drum.
The details of the sample should be recorded, including sample number, date,
origin of material, type of material, time of mixing, time of laying, chainage of laid
material and weather conditions. It is also necessary to record the temperature
after mixing, the temperature at the time of laying and the temperature at the time
of rolling.

2.9 Preparing and Transporting Samples

2.9.1 Sample preparation

Many samples will require some preparation before being sent to the laboratory for
testing, particularly if their large sizes makes them difficult to handle or because they
require special protection.

2.9.1.1 Sample reduction. If the sample is delivered larger than required for a particular
testing programme, it must be divided to obtain a sample of the required size. In order
to ensure the test sample represents the original material, it is necessary to divide the
original sample either by quartering or by using a sample divider (Riffle box).

2.9.1.1.1 Quartering. In this method the original sample is placed on a hard clean surface
(preferably concrete) and made into a neat circular pile. Using a shovel, this pile is then
separated into quarters by making two lines at right angles through the centre of the
pile. Two opposite quardrants should then be put aside and the remaining two
quadrants should be mixed together to give a smaller sample. If the divided sample is
still too large, the procedure should be repeated. Figure 2.9.1 shows the procedure
diagrammatically.

2.9.1.1.2 Sample divider. A sample divider, or riffle box, is a purpose-made tool for splitting
samples and a riffle box is shown in Figure 2.9.2. The box consists of a number of slots
or chutes, alternate ones leading to two separate containers. The total sample is placed
into the top hopper and passes down the chutes, half of the sample being collected in
each container. The width of the chutes shall be appropriate to the maximum particle

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2.8 Sampling of Bituminous Materials

Pre-mixed bituminous materials may be sampled at the asphalt plant or at the site
where the material is being laid.

2.8.1 When sampling at the asphalt plant, the whole batch should be discharged into a lorry
and then a sample taken from the material in the lorry. This is done in a similar way to
sampling from a stockpile with fractions of the sample being taken from at least five
different points of the material.

2.8.2 Sampling at the laying site may either be from the paving machine or the laid material.

a) When sampling from a paving machine, material should never be taken from the
front hopper as segregation often takes place here. Samples should always be
taken from the rear screws, a scoop being used to collect material from the ends of
the screw. Samples must only be taken when the screws are fully loaded and
samples should be taken from both ends.
b) When sampling the as laid material, an area to be sampled is marked out and all
the material within that area, to the full layer thickness should be removed.
Generally it is better to obtain a sample from a number of smaller areas than one
big area. On completion of sampling, care must be taken to ensure the areas are
repaired to the standard of the original material.

Samples of bituminous materials are best transported in a closed tin or small drum.
The details of the sample should be recorded, including sample number, date,
origin of material, type of material, time of mixing, time of laying, chainage of laid
material and weather conditions. It is also necessary to record the temperature
after mixing, the temperature at the time of laying and the temperature at the time
of rolling.

2.9 Preparing and Transporting Samples

2.9.1 Sample preparation

Many samples will require some preparation before being sent to the laboratory for
testing, particularly if their large sizes makes them difficult to handle or because they
require special protection.

2.9.1.1 Sample reduction. If the sample is delivered larger than required for a particular
testing programme, it must be divided to obtain a sample of the required size. In order
to ensure the test sample represents the original material, it is necessary to divide the
original sample either by quartering or by using a sample divider (Riffle box).

2.9.1.1.1 Quartering. In this method the original sample is placed on a hard clean surface
(preferably concrete) and made into a neat circular pile. Using a shovel, this pile is then
separated into quarters by making two lines at right angles through the centre of the
pile. Two opposite quardrants should then be put aside and the remaining two
quadrants should be mixed together to give a smaller sample. If the divided sample is
still too large, the procedure should be repeated. Figure 2.9.1 shows the procedure
diagrammatically.

2.9.1.1.2 Sample divider. A sample divider, or riffle box, is a purpose-made tool for splitting
samples and a riffle box is shown in Figure 2.9.2. The box consists of a number of slots
or chutes, alternate ones leading to two separate containers. The total sample is placed
into the top hopper and passes down the chutes, half of the sample being collected in
each container. The width of the chutes shall be appropriate to the maximum particle

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
Sampling

size of the sample and in general should not be smaller than 1.5 times the maximum
particle size of the sample

If the sample is still too large, one of the containers may be put aside and the material
from the other container is passed through the sample divider again.

2.9.2 Sample transportation

All samples should be carefully packed and labeled before transporting them to the
laboratory. Sample bags must be strong enough to withstand rough handling and be of
a type which prevents loss of fines or moisture from the sample, e.g. thick polythene
bags inside jute bags. The use of steel drums for large bulk samples could also be
considered. Water samples in glass or plastic containers will require particular care in
handling.

Undisturbed samples should be placed in wooden boxes and packed in sawdust or


similar material to provide added protection. Collision between tubes in transit can
easily damage sensitive samples.

2.10 Sample Reception

2.10.1 Registration. Full details of the sample, as written on the label is checked and
amended and weighed and must be entered in the laboratory register. A unique
number is allocated to the sample and this number is used subsequently on all test
sheets for the sample. A copy of the formalised testing programme should accompany
the sample through the various stages of testing.

2.10.2 Initial treatment

a) Natural moisture content samples should be taken first, as quickly as possible.


b) Air drying should be done by leaving the soil spread out in trays or on a hard, clean
floor in the laboratory for 2-3 days.
c) Oven drying must be done at the correct temperature (11050C).
d) No attempt should be made to quarter down or riffle material which is in lumps or is
larger than the size of the riffle-box chutes.

2.10.3 Storage. Storage of all samples should be in an orderly and systematic manner so that
they can be subsequently located easily. The storage facility itself should be a secure
area, free from the risk of contamination or other harmful influences.

Undisturbed samples may be damaged by vibration or corrosion of tubes and should


be stored with especial care. Tubes containing wet sandy or silty soils should be stored
upright (suitably protected against being knocked over), to prevent possible slumping
and segregation of water. The end caps of tube samples which are to be stored for long
periods should be sealed with wax, in addition to the wax seal next to the sample itself.

Samples which have been tested should not be disposed of without the authority of the
laboratory section head.

2.11 Sample Drying

Many tests require the material to be drier at the start of the test than the sample as
obtained from the field. Some means of drying the sample must, therefore, be utilised.

In the case of liquid and plastic limit tests, it is essential that the material is air dried
and, as a general rule, it is preferable to dry samples in the air as opposed to drying in

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
Sampling

size of the sample and in general should not be smaller than 1.5 times the maximum
particle size of the sample

If the sample is still too large, one of the containers may be put aside and the material
from the other container is passed through the sample divider again.

2.9.2 Sample transportation

All samples should be carefully packed and labeled before transporting them to the
laboratory. Sample bags must be strong enough to withstand rough handling and be of
a type which prevents loss of fines or moisture from the sample, e.g. thick polythene
bags inside jute bags. The use of steel drums for large bulk samples could also be
considered. Water samples in glass or plastic containers will require particular care in
handling.

Undisturbed samples should be placed in wooden boxes and packed in sawdust or


similar material to provide added protection. Collision between tubes in transit can
easily damage sensitive samples.

2.10 Sample Reception

2.10.1 Registration. Full details of the sample, as written on the label is checked and
amended and weighed and must be entered in the laboratory register. A unique
number is allocated to the sample and this number is used subsequently on all test
sheets for the sample. A copy of the formalised testing programme should accompany
the sample through the various stages of testing.

2.10.2 Initial treatment

a) Natural moisture content samples should be taken first, as quickly as possible.


b) Air drying should be done by leaving the soil spread out in trays or on a hard, clean
floor in the laboratory for 2-3 days.
c) Oven drying must be done at the correct temperature (11050C).
d) No attempt should be made to quarter down or riffle material which is in lumps or is
larger than the size of the riffle-box chutes.

2.10.3 Storage. Storage of all samples should be in an orderly and systematic manner so that
they can be subsequently located easily. The storage facility itself should be a secure
area, free from the risk of contamination or other harmful influences.

Undisturbed samples may be damaged by vibration or corrosion of tubes and should


be stored with especial care. Tubes containing wet sandy or silty soils should be stored
upright (suitably protected against being knocked over), to prevent possible slumping
and segregation of water. The end caps of tube samples which are to be stored for long
periods should be sealed with wax, in addition to the wax seal next to the sample itself.

Samples which have been tested should not be disposed of without the authority of the
laboratory section head.

2.11 Sample Drying

Many tests require the material to be drier at the start of the test than the sample as
obtained from the field. Some means of drying the sample must, therefore, be utilised.

In the case of liquid and plastic limit tests, it is essential that the material is air dried
and, as a general rule, it is preferable to dry samples in the air as opposed to drying in

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CHAPTER 2 Standard Test Procedures
Sampling

an oven or by other artificial means. The frequent need to dry samples quickly is more
often a sign of bad planning than of an efficient laboratory.

2.11.1 Air drying. This is essential for liquid and plastic limit tests and is the preferred
procedure for all other tests.

The sample should be spread out in a thin layer on a hard clean floor or on a suitable
metal sheet. Ordinary corrugated galvanised roofing sheets are perfectly satisfactory
for this purpose. The material should be exposed to the sunlight and should be in a
layer not more than 20 mm thick. Cohesive materials such as clays, require breaking
by hand or with a rubber mallet into small pieces, to allow drying to take place without
too much delay. The soil should periodically be turned over and a careful check should
be made to ensure the material is removed to a sheltered place if it starts to rain.

In the case of soft stone or gravels, care should be taken to ensure only lumps of
cohesive fines are broken up and that the actual stone particles are not destroyed.

In the case of fine-grained materials, it is generally beneficial to the later stages of


testing to pass the dried particles through a No. 4 sieve.

Air drying should not normally take longer than 2 to 3 days if carried out correctly.

2.11.2 Oven drying. Oven drying should only be employed where air drying is not possible.
Oven drying will not normally have any detrimental effect on the results for sound
granular materials such as sand and gravel, but may change the structure of clay soils
and thus lead to incorrect test results. Oven drying must never be used in the case of
liquid and plastic limit tests.

In oven drying the temperature should not exceed 1100C and the material should be
dried as quickly as possible by spreading in thin layers on metal trays. Periodically, the
material should be allowed to cool before testing is commenced.

2.11.3 Sand-bath drying. In certain cases an oven may not be available but the sample must
be dried quickly; sand bath drying may then be utilised.

The sand-bath consists simply of a strong metal tray or dish which is filled with clean
coarse sand. The sand bath is placed on some form of heater such as a kerosene
stove, a gas ring or an electric ring. The sample to be dried is placed in a heatproof
dish which is embedded in the surface of the sand. A low heat should be applied so
that the sand becomes heated without causing damage to the bath. The sample should
be stirred and turned frequently to ensure the material at the base does not become too
hot. The material should be allowed to cool before testing is commenced.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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CHAPTER 3

CLASSIFICATION TESTS

3.1 Determination of Moisture Content

3.1.1 General requirements

3.1.1.1 Scope. Water is present in most naturally occurring soils and has a profound effect in
soil behaviour. A knowledge of the moisture content is used as a guide to the
classification. It is also used as a subsidiary to almost all other field and laboratory tests
of soil. The oven-drying method is the definitive method of measuring the moisture
contents of soils. The sand-bath method is used, where oven drying is not possible,
mainly on site.

3.1.1.2 Definition. The moisture content of a soil sample is defined as the mass of water in the
sample expressed as a percentage of the dry mass, usually heating at 1050C, i.e.

moisture content, w = M W x 100 (%)


MD

where, M W = mass of water


M D = dry mass of sample

3.1.1.3 Sample requirements

3.1.1.3.1 Sample mass. The mass required for the test depends on the grading of the soil, as
follows;

a) Fine-grained soils*, not less than 30 grams


b) Medium-grained soils*, not less than 300 grams
c) Coarse-grained soils*, not less than 3 kg

*Soils group
i) Fine-grained soils: Soils containing not more than 10% retained on a 2 mm test
sieve.
ii) Medium-grained soils: Soils containing more than 10% retained on a 2 mm test
sieve but not more than 10% retained on a 20 mm test sieve.
iii) Coarse-grained soils: Soils containing more than 10% retained on a 20 mm test
sieve but not more than 10% retained on a 37.5 mm test sieve.

3.1.1.4 Accuracy of weighing. The accuracy of weighing required for test samples is as
follows;

a) Fine-grained soils: within 0.01 g.


b) Medium-grained soils: within 0.1 g.
c) Coarse-grained soils: within 1g.

3.1.1.5 Safety aspects

a) Heat-resistant gloves and / or suitable tongs should be used to avoid personal


injury and possible damage to samples.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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b) If glass weighing bottles are used they should be placed on a high shelf away from
heating elements.
c) A heat-insulated pad should always be used to place hot glassware of any
description.

3.1.2 Oven-drying method (standard method)

3.1.2.1 Apparatus

1) Thermostatically controlled drying oven capable of operating to 10550C.


2) Glass weighing bottles or suitable metal containers (corrosion-resistant tins or
trays).
3) Balance (to the required sensitivity).
4) Dessicator containing anhydrous silica gel.
5) Scoop, other small tools as appropriate.
Optional: Test sieves - 2 mm, 20 mm, 37.5 mm (to check classification of sample,
in order to confirm required sample size).

3.1.2.2 Test procedure

a) One clean container with the lid (if fitted) is taken and the mass in grams is
recorded (m1) together with container number.

Note: The container plus lid or bottle plus stopper should have the same
number and be used together.

b) The sample of wet soil is crumbled and placed in the container. The container with
the lid on is weighed in grams (m2).
c) The lid is removed and both lid and container are placed in the oven. The sample is
then dried in a thermostatically controlled drying oven which is maintained at a
temperature of 10550C. A period of 16 to 24 hours is usually sufficient, but this
varies with soil type. It will also vary if the oven contains a large number of samples
or very wet samples. The soil is considered dry when the differences in successive
weighings of the cooled soil at 4 hour intervals do not exceed 0.1% of the original
mass.

Note. 1) For peats and soils containing organic matter a drying temperature of
600C is to be preferred to prevent oxidation of organic matter.
2) For soils containing gypsum a maximum drying temperature of 80 0C is
preferred. The presence of gypsum can be confirmed by heating a small
quantity of soil on a metal plate. Grains of gypsum will turn white within a few
minutes, but most other mineral grains will remain unaltered.

d) The container is removed from the oven. For medium and coarse-grained soils, the
lid should be replaced (if fitted) and the sample allowed to cool. For fine-grained
soils, the container and lid, or bottle and stopper if used, should preferably be
placed in a dessicator and allowed to cool. After cooling, the lids or stoppers should
be replaced and the container plus dry soil weighed in grams (m3).

3.1.2.3 Calculation and expression of results

mass of moisture
Moisture content, w = x 100%
mass of dry soil

( mass of container + wet soil) - (mass of container + dry soil)


= x 100%
(mass of container + dry soil) - (mass of container)

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
Classification Tests

m2 m 3
i.e. w= x 100%
m3 m1

For values up to 10% the moisture content should be expressed to two significant
figures, e.g. 1.9%, 4.3%, 9.8%. For moisture contents above 10% express the result to
the nearest whole number, e.g. 11%, 27%.

Note. If the moisture content is to be related to the Atterberg limits, e.g. for determining
the liquidity index, and the soil contains material retained on a 425 m sieve, the
measured moisture content, w (in %), can be corrected to give the equivalent
moisture content, wa (in %), of the fraction passing the 425 m sieve, using the
equation :

100
wa = w
pa

where, pa is the percentage by dry mass of the portion of the soil sample passing the
425 m test sieve.

If the particles retained on the 425 m sieve are porous and absorb water, the amount
of absorption should be determined and the value of water calculated from the
equation.

100 w 100 p a
wa = wr
pa pa

where; wr, is the moisture content of the fraction retained on the 425 m test sieve.

3.1.2.4 Report. The test report shall contain the following information:

a) the method of test used;


b) the moisture content;
c) the temperature at which the soil was dried, if less than 105 0C;
d) the comparison with Atterberg limits, if required (see Note to 3.1.2.3);
e) full details of the sample origin.

The operator should sign and date test sheet. An example of the calculations made is
shown in Form 3.1.1.

3.1.3 Sand-bath (subsidiary method)

3.1.3.1 Apparatus

i) Strong metal heatproof tray or dish containing clean sand to a depth of at least
25mm (sand-bath).
ii) Moisture content containers for fine soils (excluding glass containers), as used for
oven drying. For coarser soils heat-resistant trays 200-250 mm square and
50-70 mm deep, the size depending on the quantity of soil required for test.
iii) Heating equipment, such as a bottled gas burner or paraffin pressure stove, or
electric hot plate if mains electricity is available.
iv) Scoop, spatula, appropriate small tools.

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Classification Tests
Form 3.1.1

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
Classification Tests

3.1.3.2 Test procedure

a) A clean dry container with the lid (if fitted) is weighed, in grams (m1). The number of
the container is recorded.
b) The sample of wet soil is crumbled, placed in the container and weighed in grams
(m2).
c) The sand-bath is placed on some form of heater such as a kerosene stove, a gas
burner or an electric heater. The sample in its container is embedded in the surface
of the sand in the sand-bath. Care should be taken to ensure that the container is
not heated too much. The sample should be stirred and turned frequently so that
the sample does not burn. Small pieces of white paper will act as an indicator and
turn brown if over-heated. To check that the sample is completely dry it should be
weighed and returned to the sand-bath for another 15 minutes. If the loss in mass
after heating for a further period of 15 min does not exceed the following, the
sample may be considered to be dry :

Fine-grained soils 0.1g


Medium-grained soils 0.5g
Coarse-grained soils 5g

d) After drying, the sample is removed from the sand-bath, the container lid (if fitted) is
firmly secured in place and the sample is allowed to cool. When cool, the container
and the dry soil is weighed in grams (m3).

Note. Do not place hot trays onto the unprotected pan of a balance.

e) Normally, more than one determination of moisture content is made and the
average value is taken.

3.1.3.3 Calculation and expression of results. Calculation and expression of results are
identical to those for oven-drying method.

3.1.3.4 Report. Report is also identical to that for oven-drying method.

3.1.4 Speedy Moisture Test

3.1.4.1 General

3.1.4.1.1 Introduction. A rapid test method for determination of moisture in soils is by the use of
a calcium carbide gas pressure moisture tester - commonly called the Speedy moisture
tester. Soil samples are used in 6, 26 and 200 gram sizes.

3.1.4.1.2 Apparatus. The basic apparatus includes the moisture tester, a scale for weighing the
sample, a cleaning brush, a scoop for measuring the calcium carbide reagent and a
sturdy carrying case. For the 26 gm sample test, steel balls are used to break down
cohesive materials.

Calcium carbide reagent is available in cans. This may be a finely pulverized material
and should be of a grade capable of producing at least 2.25 cu.ft. of acetylene gas per
pound of calcium carbide.

In performing the test, in the 26 gram sample unit, three scoops of reagent
(approximately 24 grams) and two balls are placed in the large chamber of the tester.

When using the 6 gram sample tester, place on level scoopful (approximately 8 grams)
of calcium carbide in the larger chamber of the tester. Steel balls are not used with the
6 gm sample tester.

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Speed moisture tester is shown in Figure 3.1.1.

3.1.4.1.3 Preparation of the material. The speedy moisture test gives consistently accurate
results in approximately 3 minutes. The material should be prepared for test as follows:

a) Sands and fine powders : No preparation necessary.


b) Clays, soils and other coarse materials: Use steel ball speedy moisture test.
c) Aggregates: No preparation necessary.

3.1.4.1.4 Pre-caution. Five rules should be noted before testing. Make sure that:

a) The body or cap, whichever is being used for the material, is perfectly clean and
contains no active absorbent from a previous test.
b) The material is truly representative of the bulk and carefully weighed.
c) The material and the absorbent are kept separate until the cap is tightly secured to
the body.
d) The material has been thoroughly prepared ground or pulverized or mixed with
sand (if necessary) so that the absorbent can act freely on the material.
e) Make sure that the steel ball pulverizes are used when testing clays, soils etc.

3.1.4.2 Procedure

a) Weight the desired 6, 26, or 200 gram test sample on the scale.
b) Place the soil sample in the cap of the tester. Then, with the pressure vessel in
approximately horizontal position, insert the cap in the pressure vessel and seal the
unit by tightening the clamp, taking care that no calcium carbide comes in contact
with the soil sample until a seal is achieved.
c) Raise the moisture tester to a vertical position so that the soil in the cap falls into
the pressure vessel.
d) Then shake the tester vigorously so that all the lumps will be broken up, permitting
the calcium carbide to react with all the available free moisture. When steel balls
are used in the tester, the instrument should be shaken with a rotating motion. This
will prevent damage to the instrument and eliminate the possibility of soil particles
becoming embedded in the orifice leading to the pressure diaphragm.
e) Continue shaking for approximately one minute for granular soils and up to three
minutes for other soils, to allow for complete reaction between the calcium carbide
reagent and free moisture. Time should be permitted to allow dissipation of the heat
generated by the chemical reaction.
f) When the dial indicator stops moving, read the dial while holding the instrument in a
horizontal position at eye level.
g) Record the sample weight and the dial reading.
h) With the cap of the instrument pointed away from the operator, slowly release the
gas pressure. Empty the pressure vessel and examine the material for lumps. If the
sample is not completely pulverized, the test should be repeated using a new
sample.
i) The dial reading is the percent of moisture by wet weight and must be converted to
dry weight percent.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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Clamping
screw

Small weight

Helicol

Stirrup Small brush

Measuring
scoop

Cap

Large wire
Rubber cap gasket handled
brush

Bushing to hold

Nylon Adapter nut and filter


Stirrup washer
side
screw Rubber gauge gasket

Standard
tester
body

Gauges

Figure 3.1.1 a) Speedy moisture tester

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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Knife-edge(square shape)

Scale pan

Knife edge
(pear shape)

Scale link

Scale cradle
Agates

Platform base

Figure 3.1.1 b) Speedy moisture tester

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
Classification Tests

3.1.4.3 Expression of results and report

Moisture content should be expressed to two significant figures, e.g. 1.9%, 4.3%. Wet
weight / dry weight conversion Chart (when steel ball pulverizes are not used) is
presented in Table 3.1.1 and the conversion chart (when using steel ball pulverizes) is
shown in Figure 3.1.2. The test report shall contain the following information:

a) Method of test used,


b) The moisture content
c) Full details of the sample origin.

Table 3.1.1

Wet Weight / Dry Weight Conversion Chart


Not Applicable When Steel Ball Pulverizes Used See Figure 3.1.2
With Calibration Curves on Reverse Side

SPEEDY READING SPEEDY READING SPEEDY READING


Wet Weight Dry Weight Wet Weight Dry Weight Wet Weight Dry Weight
1.0% 1.0% 20.5% 25.8% 35.5% 55.0%
2.0% 2.1% 21.0% 26.5% 36.0% 56.2%
3.0% 3.2% 21.5% 27.4% 36.5% 57.4%
4.0% 4.3% 22.0% 28.2% 37.0% 58.7%
5.0% 5.4% 22.5% 29.0% 37.5% 60.0%
6.0% 6.5% 23.0% 29.8% 38.0% 61.2%
7.0% 7.6% 23.5% 30.7% 38.5% 62.6%
8.0% 8.7% 24.0% 31.5% 39.0% 63.9%
9.0% 9.8% 24.5% 32.4% 39.5% 65.2%
10.0% 11.0% 25.0% 33.3% 40.0% 66.6%
10.5% 11.7% 25.5% 34.2% 40.5% 68.0%
11.0% 12.3% 26.0% 35.3% 41.0% 69.4%
11.5% 13.0% 26.5% 36.0% 41.5% 70.9%
12.0% 13.6% 27.0% 36.9% 42.0% 72.4%
12.5% 14.2% 27.5% 37.9% 42.5% 73.8%
13.0% 14.9% 28.0% 38.8% 43.0% 75.4%
13.5% 15.6% 28.5% 39.8% 43.5% 76.9%
14.0% 16.3% 29.0% 40.8% 44.0% 78.5%
14.5% 16.9% 29.5% 41.8% 44.5% 80.1%
15.0% 17.6% 30.0% 42.8% 45.0% 81.8%
15.5% 18.3% 30.5% 43.9% 45.5% 83.4%
16.0% 19.0% 31.0% 44.9% 46.0% 85.1%
16.5% 19.7% 31.5% 45.9% 46.5% 86.9%
17.0% 20.4% 32.0% 47.0% 47.0% 88.6%
17.5% 21.2% 32.5% 48.1% 47.5% 90.6%
18.0% 21.9% 33.0% 49.2% 48.0% 92.3%
18.5% 22.7% 33.5% 50.3% 48.5% 94.1%
19.0% 23.4% 34.0% 51.5% 49.0% 96.0%
19.5% 24.2% 34.5% 52.6% 49.5% 98.0%
20.0% 25.0% 35.0% 53.8% 50.0% 100.0%

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3.2 Determination of Atterberg Limits

3.2.1 Scope. As the moisture content of a soil decreases the soil passes from the liquid state
to the plastic state to the solid state. The range of moisture contents over which the soil
is plastic is used as a measure of the plasticity index. The points at which a soil
changes from one state to another are arbitrarily defined by simple tests called the
liquid limit test and plastic limit test. These tests are known as the Atterberg limits. The
Atterberg limits are empirical tests which are used to indicate the plasticity of fine
grained soil by the differentiation between highly plastic, moderately plastic and non-
plastic soils. The tests enable classification and identification of the soil to be carried
out and give a rough guide to the engineering properties.

3.2.2 Sample preparation. It is preferable not to dry the soil before preparation for the test.
Two preferred methods of preparation are described, depending on whether the soil
contains a significant proportion of particles larger than the 425 m sieve.

3.2.2.1 Method for fine soils. If the soils contains few or no particles retained on a 425 m
sieve, take a representative sample weighing about 500 g, chop it up and mix
thoroughly for at least 10 minutes with distilled water to form a thick homogeneous
paste. Seal in an airtight container (e.g. a corrosion-resistant tin or a polythene bag) for
24 hours before testing. Mixing should be carried out on a glass plate with two palette
knives. The required 24 hour maturing period may be shortened for soils with low clay
contents.

If only a few particles larger than 425 m are present, these can be removed by fingers
or with tweezers during mixing. If coarse particles are present determine their mass
and the mass of the sample used. These weighings enable the approximate proportion
of coarse material to be reported if required.

3.2.2.2 Wet preparation method. This is the preferred method for soil containing coarse
particles, and should be used for all such soils that are sensitive to the effects of drying.

Procedure

1. Take a representative specimen that will give at least 350 g passing a 425 m
sieve, and weigh it (m grams). This quantity should be sufficient for a liquid limit
and a plastic limit test. Weighings should be carried out to an accuracy of within
0.01 g.
2. Take another representative sample for determination of moisture content (w %).
Calculate and record the mass of dry soil in the test sample (mD ) from the equation:

100m
mD =
100 + w

3. Cut up the weighed sample in a beaker and just cover with distilled water. Stir to
form a slurry. Do not use a dispersant.
4. Pour the slurry through a 2 mm sieve nested on a 425 m sieve. Use the minimum
amount of distilled water to wash clean the particles retained on both sieves.
Continue until the water passing the 425 m sieve is virtually clear. Collect all the
washings.
5. Dry (at 1050C to 1100C) and weigh the retained material (mR grams) to an accuracy
of within 0.01 g.
6. Allow the collected wash water to stand undisturbed, and pour or siphon off any
clear water. A settling time of several hours may be required. It is important no to
lose any soil particles during the siphoning procedure (see Note).

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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7. Allow the suspension to partially dry in warm air, or in an oven at not more than
500C, or by filtration under vacuum or pressure, until it forms a stiff paste. But
prevent local drying at the surface or edges, by repeated stirring.

Note 1. A suitable consistency for the paste corresponds to not less than 50 blows of
the Casagrande apparatus.

Note 2. When using this method, care should be taken with samples containing
soluble salts. These samples should be allowed to dry by evaporation only,
and not by siphoning or pouring off excess water.

3.2.2.3 Dry preparation method. If the use of a dry preparation method is unavoidable then
the procedure should be followed as shown schematically in Figure 3.2.1.

3.2.3 Liquid limit test (Casagrande method)

1. Apparatus

a) Equipment for the determination of moisture content (weighing to 0.01 g).


b) Soil mixing equipment (glass plate, spatulas, distilled water).
c) Timer clock.
d) Casagrande liquid limit device (Figure 3.2.2).
e) Grooving tool and height gauge (Figure 3.2.3).

2. Calibration of apparatus

The height of the underneath of the cup when fully lifted should be such that the
10 mm gauge will just pass between it and the base. Some grooving tools
incorporate a block of the correct thickness. The locking nuts must be adjusted to
maintain the correct height of drop.

The device should be checked to make sure that the cup falls freely, that there is
no side play in the cup, that the screws are tight, that the cup and base are not
worn and that the blow counter works correctly and is set to zero. Details of the
liquid limit device and how the cup fall is set are shown in Figure 3.2.4.

The dimensions of the grooving tool are important and a reference (unused) tool
should be available to check the tool being used against. When the tip of the tool
being used becomes worn to a width of 3 mm it should be re-ground to the
correct dimensions.

3. Test Procedure

a) Mix about 300 g of the prepared soil (after 24 hours maturing) with a little
distilled water if necessary, using two spatulas, for at least 10 minutes. At this
point the first blow count should be about 50 blows. If a plastic limit test is
required it is convenient to set aside a portion of soil for this purpose.
b) With the cup resting on the base, press soil into the cup being careful to avoid
trapping air. Form a smooth level surface parallel to the base giving a
maximum thickness of 10 mm (see Figure 3.2.5).
c) Beginning at the hinge, and with the chamfered edge of the tool facing the
direction of movement, make a smooth groove with a firm stroke of the
grooving tool, dividing the sample into two equal parts. The tip of the grooving
tool should lightly scrape the inside of the bowl, but do not press hard.

When using the tool, apply a circular motion so that it is always normal to the surface of
the cup (see Figure 3.2.5).

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locking screw
locknut
pivot
adjusting screw
cup cam
follower 10 mm

direction
or rotation
base
handle
a) b)

Figure 3.2.4 a) The parts of the Casagrande device.


b) The fully raised cup set to the specified height.

position of 2
level surface grooving tool 1 3

thickness when cutting


10 mm

Figure 3.2.5 a) Soil placed in Casagrande bow b) Use of the grooving tool

d) Rotate the handle at a speed of two turns per second check with a seconds
timer.

Stop turning when the bottom of the groove closes along a continuous length
of 13 mm (use the back of the grooving tool as a gauge). Record the number
of blows.

e) Add a little more soil from the mixture on the glass plate to the cup and mix in
the cup. Repeat stages (b) to (d) stated above until two consecutive runs give
the same number of blows for closer. Record the number of blows.
f) Remove a portion of about 10 g of the soil adjacent to the closed gap with a
clean spatula, transfer to a weighed container and fit the lid immediately.
Record the container number and determine the moisture content.
g) Repeat steps (b) to (f) stated above after adding increments of distilled water,
mixing the water well in. At least two determinations should give more than 25
blows, and two less than 25, in the range of about 10 to 50 blows. Do not
add dry soil to the soil paste. Protect the soil on the glass plate from drying
out at all times. Each time the soil is removed from the cup for the addition of
water, wash and dry the cup and grooving tool.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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4. Calculation and Expression of Results

After determining the moisture contents plot each moisture content against the
number of blows on the printed test sheet. A line of best fit is drawn through the
plotted points. This is called the flow curve. The liquid limit is defined as the
percentage moisture content that corresponds to 25 blows as determined from
where the ordinate at 25 blows intersects the flow curve. Record this value of
moisture content to the nearest 0.1%. An example is given on the attached test
sheet (see Form 3.2.1)

5. Report

The full report will include the sample details, method of preparation of the
sample and the percentage passing the 425 m sieve. The operator should sign
and date the test form.

3.2.4 Plastic limit test

1. Apparatus

a) Equipment for the determination of moisture content (weighing to 0.01 g).


b) Soil mixing equipment (glass plate, spatulas, distilled water).
c) Smooth glass plate free from scratches, for rolling threads on.
d) A length of rod, 3 mm in diameter and about 100 mm long.

2. Test Procedure

a) Prepare and mature the test sample using wet or dry preparation method or
take the sample previously set aside from the liquid limit test.
b) Take about 20 g of the soil and allow it to lose moisture until it is plastic
enough to be shaped into a ball without sticking to the fingers. Mould into a
ball between the fingers and roll between the palms of the hands until slight
cracks appear on the surface. Moulding and kneading is necessary
throughout the test to preserve a uniform distribution of moisture and to
prevent excessive drying of the surface only.
c) Divide the sample into two roughly equal portions and carry out a separate
test on each portion.
d) Divide the first portion into four pieces. Mould one piece into a cylinder about
6 mm diameter between the first finger and thumb.
e) Roll the cylinder under the fingers of one hand on a smooth glass surface,
applying enough pressure to reduce the diameter to about 3 mm in about 5 to
10 complete forward and backward movements. Maintain a uniform pressure.
Do not reduce pressure as the 3 mm diameter is approached. Use a metal
rod of 3 mm diameter to judge the thread diameter.
f) Pick up the soil thread, mould further and repeat the above. Repeat until the
thread shears both longitudinally and transversely at a diameter of 3mm.
Crumbling may consist of one of the forms shown in Figure 3.2.6 depending
on the nature of the soil.
g) Crumbling can usually be felt by the fingers. The crumbling condition must be
achieved, even if greater than 3 mm diameter. If smooth threads of 3 mm
diameter (like noodles) are formed, the soil is not dry enough, as illustrated in
Figure 3.2.5. The first crumbling point is the plastic limit, do not attempt to
continue reforming and rolling beyond this point.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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i) Shearing and cracking both


longitudinally and transversely.
ii) Falling apart in small pieces.
iii) Forming an outside tubular layer
which splits at both ends.
iv) Breaking into barrel-shaped
pieces. Heavy clay requires
considerable pressure to reduce
the diameter to 3 mm.
v) No crumbling soil too wet (like 3
noodles).
mm
Figure 3.2.6 Some forms of crumbling in the plastic limit test

h) Gather the crumbled soil quickly, place in a small weighed container, and fit
the lid immediately. Repeat the above process on second, third and fourth
pieces of soil and place all fragments in the same container. Weigh it as soon
as possible.
i) Carry out the same operations on four pieces from the second portion,
placing the fragments in a second container, and weigh.

3. Calculation and Expression of Results

Dry the specimens at 1050C 1100C, weigh and calculate the moisture contents
to the nearest 0.1%. If the two values differ by more than 0.5% moisture content
repeat the whole test on another portion of soil. Otherwise, the average of the two
values is the plastic limit. If it is not possible to determine the plastic limit this fact
should be reported.

4. Report

The plastic limit is reported to the nearest whole number. The test sheet must be
completed in full to give sample details, method of preparation and the
percentage of material passing the 425 m sieve. The test sheet should be
signed and dated by the test operator. An example of a completed test sheet is
attached (Form 3.2.1).

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3.2.5 Determination of the plasticity index

1. Procedure

The Procedure is a simple calculation and requires the determination of the liquid
and plastic limits for the soil. The Casagrande method is to be used to determine
the liquid limit.

The plasticity index of a soil is the numerical difference between the liquid
limit and the plastic limit: PI = LL PL

2. Report

The plasticity index is reported to the nearest whole number. If both the liquid and
plastic limits cannot be determined the soil is described as non-plastic (NP). Two
special cases may be found. If it is possible to determine the liquid limit but not
the plastic limit, the soil is reported as non-plastic. If the plastic limit is found to be
equal to or greater than the liquid limit (as with some highly micaceous soils), the
sample is also reported as non-plastic.

3.2.6 Determination of linear shrinkage

1. Apparatus

a) A drying oven capable of operating at 600C 650C and 1050C 1100C.


b) Soil mixing equipment (glass plate, spatulas, distilled water).
c) Vernier calipers measuring up to 150 mm and reading to 0.1 mm.
Alternatively, a steel rule graduated to 0.5 mm.
d) Silicone grease or petroleum jelly.
e) Evaporating dish (approx. 150 mm ).
f) Moulds made of brass or other non-corrodible material. They shall be semi-
circular in cross section with an internal radius of 12.5 0.5 mm and 140 mm
long, with square end pieces attached as supports which also serve to
confine the soil (see Figure 3.2.7).

20
3

R=12.5 0.5
40

140 1.0
6
All dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 3.2.7 Mould for linear shrinkage test

2. Test Procedure

a) Preparation of apparatus. Clean the mould thoroughly and apply a thin film of
silicone grease or petroleum jelly to its inner faces to prevent the soil
adhering to the mould.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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b) Prepare and mature the test sample using wet or dry preparation method.
Place a sample of about 150 g on the flat glass plate or in the evaporating
dish.
c) Add distilled water if necessary and mix thoroughly using the palette knives
until the mass becomes a smooth homogeneous paste with a moisture
content at about the liquid limit of the soil.

Note. The required consistency will require about 25 bumps of the


Casagrande apparatus. This moisture content is not critical to within a
few percent.

d) Place the soil / water mixture in the mould such that it is slightly proud of
sides of the mould. Gently jar the mould to any air pockets in the mixture.
e) Level the soil along the top of the mould with the palette knife and remove all
soil adhering to the rim of the mould by wiping with a damp cloth.
f) Place the mould where the soil / water can air-dry slowly in a position free
from draughts until the soil has shrunk away from the walls of the mould.
Then complete the drying, first at a temperature not exceeding 65 0C until
shrinkage has largely ceased, and then at 1050C to 1100C to complete the
drying.
g) Cool the mould and soil and measure the mean length of the soil bar. If the
specimen has become curved during drying, remove it carefully from the
mould and measure the lengths of the top and bottom surfaces. The mean of
these two lengths shall be taken as the length of the oven dry specimen.

Note. Should a specimen crack badly, or break, such that measurement is


difficult, the test should be repeated at a slower drying rate.

3. Calculation and expression of results

Calculate the linear shrinkage of the soil as a percentage of the original length of
the specimen, LO (in mm), from the equation:

LD
Percentage of linear shrinkage = 1 - 100
LO

Where, L D is the length of the oven-dry specimen (in mm).

4. Report

The linear shrinkage is reported to the nearest whole percentage. The test sheet
(see Form 3.2.2) must be completed in full to give sample details, method of
preparation and the percentage of material passing the 425 m sieve. The test
sheet should be signed and dated by the test operator. An example of the
calculation is shown in Form 3.2.2.

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Form 3.2.2

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3.3 Particle Size Distribution

3.3.1 Introduction. The determination of the particle size distribution of soil is an important
part of classification. The particle size distribution of a granular material such as road
base or a concrete aggregate, is an essential guide to the stability of the material for
use in the works, as the engineering properties of the material are strongly dependent
upon the grading.

In the case of fine grained cohesive soils which contain only a small percentage of
sand and silt, it is not generally necessary to carry out a particle size distribution, as the
Atterberg limits will provide sufficient guide to the properties of the soil. Particle size
distribution can be done by dry sieving or wet sieving. Wet sieving may be used on any
material and is more accurate than dry sieving but takes slightly longer to perform.

3.3.2 General requirements

3.3.2.1 Sample mass. Mass of soil sample required for sieving is shown in the Table 3.3.1.

Table 3.3.1 Mass of soil sample for sieving

Maximum size of material Minimum mass of sample


present in to be taken for
substantial sieving
proportion (more
than 10%)
Test sieve aperture
mm kg
63 50
50 35
37.5 15
28 6
20 2
14 1
10 0.5
6.3 0.2
5 0.2
3.35 0.15
2 or smaller 0.1

3.3.2.2 Accuracy of weighing. The accuracy of weighing required depends on the size of the
sample or sub-sample and the following values should be used.

Minimum accuracy of weighing


Fine grained soils 0.1 gms
Medium grained soils 1 gms
Coarse grained soils 10 gms

3.3.2.3 System of sieve sizes. Different systems of sieves are used at present time. Anyone
of these sieve systems may be used in the test, provided all sieves in one set are of the
same system. Slight differences in aperture (mesh) sizes can easily be accounted for
when the results are plotted on a logarithmic grading chart. Sieves designation and
their sizes are shown in the Table 3.3.2.

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Table 3.3.2 Sieves designation and their sizes

BS sieve aperture size Sieves to ASTM D422


Nearest designation Aperture size
75 mm 3 inch 75 mm
63 21/2 inch 63.5
50 2 inch 50.8
37.5 11/2 inch 38.1
28 -
- 1 inch 25.4
3
20 /4 inch 19.05
14 -
3
10 /8 inch 9.52
6.3 -
5 No. 4 4.75
3.35 No. 6 3.35
- No. 8 2.36
2 No. 10 2.00
1.18 No. 16 1.18
- No. 20 850 m
600 m No. 30 600
425 No. 40 425
300 No. 50 300
- No. 60 250
212 No. 70 212
150 No. 100 150
- No. 140 106
75 No. 200 75
63 No. 230 63
* Sieves marked with * have been proposed as an International (ISO) Standard. It is
recommended to include, if possible, these sieves in all sieve analysis data or reports.

3.3.2.4 Care and use of sieves

a) If too much material is placed on a sieve at any one time, some of the fine material
will not reach the mesh and will be retained on the sieve, thus giving errors. It is
therefore important to ensure the sieves are never overloaded. Table 3.3.3 gives
the maximum mass of material to be retained on each sieve at the completion of
sieving.

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Table 3.3.3 Maximum mass of material to be retained on each sieve at the


Completion of sieving

Test sieve Maximum mass on sieve of diameter


Aperture size
450 mm 300 mm 200 mm
mm kg kg g
50 (2 in) 10 4.5 -
37.5 (11/2 in) 8 3.5 -
28 6 2.5 -
20 (3/4 in) 4 2.0 1000*
14 3 1.5 -
10 (3/8 in) 2 1.0 500*
6.3 (1/4 in) 1.5 0.75 350*
5 (4) 1.0 0.5 -
3.35 (6) - - 300
2 (10) - - 200
1.18 (16) - - 100
m
600 (30) - - 75
425 (40) - - 75
300 (50) - - 50
212 (70) - - 50
150 (100) - - 40
75 (200) - - 30

Note 1. Numbers in brackets indicate equivalent ASTM sieve sizes or numbers.


Note 2. *It may be more appropriate to use a larger diameter sieve for material of
this size, depending on the size of the fraction in the sample.

1 mm = 1000 microns (1000 m)

b) The fine sieves must not be overloaded, because this not only leads to inaccuracy
but also reduces the life of the sieve.
c) It is very difficult to prevent overloading, when using mechanical sieve shakers and
mechanical sieve shakers are not recommended except for coarse grained
materials.
d) Particles larger than 20 mm may be placed through the sieve by hand, but must not
be forced through. All smaller sizes must be shaken through the sieves.
e) The sieves must be kept clean by brushing with a brass or camel hair brush and
washing through all sieving. Fine sieves should be inspected for holes in the mesh
before use. Care in the use of sieves and prevention of overloading will lead to
longer lives.

3.3.3 Wet sieving method

3.3.3.1 Scope. When a perceptible amount of clay or silt or if fine particles are found
connected with the larger particles, then wet sieving must always be used.

3.3.3.2 Apparatus.

(1) A typical range of aperture or mesh sizes would be : 75 mm, 63 mm, 50 mm,
37.5 mm, 28 mm, 20 mm, 14 mm, 10 mm, 6.3 mm, 5 mm, 3.35 mm, 2 mm, 1.18
mm, 600 = m, 425 m, 300 m, 212 m, 150 m, 75 m. Lids and receives
of appropriate size are required.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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Notes a) The aperture sizes to be used will vary from sample to sample. Only
the necessary aperture sizes should be used, except that, for
convenience or to prevent overloading, additional sieves may be used
so that the requirements of Table 3.3.3 are complied with.
b) The defining size separating fine sand and silt grades is 60 m. The
aperture size normally found closest to this is 63 m. However, in
practice the 75 m sieve is more commonly used because it is more
robust and less time-consuming to use. This standard suggests the
continued use of the 75 m sieve as the washing sieve. Some
manufacturers offer a special washing sieve which is of 200 mm
diameter and 200 mm deep with a 75 m mesh.
c) It can be useful to have two sets of sieves, one for the wet sieving
and one for the dry sieving processes.

(2) A balance readable to 1.0 g.


(3) A balance readable to 0.1 g.
(4) Sample divider(s) of appropriate slot width (riffle boxes).
(5) Thermostatically controlled drying oven capable of maintaining 10550C.
(6) An evaporating dish about 150 mm diameter.
(7) A corrosion-resistant tray, a convenient size being about 300 mm square and 40
mm deep.
(8) Two or more large corrosion-resistant metal or plastics watertight trays with sides
about 80 mm deep, or a bucket of about 12 L capacity.
(9) A scoop.
(10) Sieve brushes, and a wire brush or similar brush.
(11) Sodium hexametaphosphate (dispersing agent).
(12) A quantity of rubber tubing about 6 mm bore.
(13) A sprayer such as a small watering can use.
(14) Appropriate number of enamel or porcelain dishes.
(15) A mechanical sieve shaker (optional).

3.3.3.3 Test procedure

(1) The representative riffled sample is oven-dried at 10550C to give a minimum


mass complying with Table 3.3.3. If separation of the silt and clay fractions is to
be carried out, or if the particle size distribution is to be extended below 75 m, a
second riffled sample shall be obtained for a fine analysis.
(2) Weigh the cooled oven-dried sample to 0.1% of its total mass (m1).
(3) Sieve the sample through all required sieve sizes of 20 mm size and larger. The
mass retained is recorded on the test sheet in each case. Any fine particles
adhering to the retained material should be removed with a stiff brush during
sieving. The brushing should be done carefully to avoid losing material. Take
care with soft materials to ensure that the brushing does not remove parts of the
large particles.

Note. If adhering fine material cannot be removed easily by brushing, the


following procedure may be followed.

a) Remove the fine material from the coarse particles by washing.


b) Dry and weigh the coarse particles to 0.1% of their mass.
c) Dry the washings, add them to the material passing the 20 mm test sieve,
and mix thoroughly.

(4) The mass passing the 20 mm sieve is determined to 0.1% of its total mass (m2)
and the sample is then divided (riffled) so that about 2 kg of material remains.
The mass of this sub-sample is then determined to 0.1% of its total mass (m3).

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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(5) The sample shall then be placed in a large tray, enamel or porcelain bowl or in
the bucket, and covered with water. If the soil is cohesive add sodium
hexametaphosphate first at the rate of 2 grams per litre of water and stir until
dissolved. Sodium hexametaphosphate is a dispersing agent and helps to
prevent fine particles sticking together.
(6) The sample should be soaked for a minimum of 1 hour and frequent stirring
should be given during this time.
(7) The sample is then washed through the 75 m (No. 200) sieve with a 2 mm
mesh sieve placed on top of it to protect it. Washing is most easily done by the
decantation method. In this method, water is slowly added to the bowl or tray
and the contents are vigorously stirred. Allow the contents to settle for a few
seconds before pouring. The excess water is decanted carefully over the side of
the bowl through the 2 mm sieve and into the 75 m sieve, making sure all the
water passes through the 75 m sieve before running to waste. This process is
continued until the water leaving the bowl is perfectly clear and all clay and silt
particles have been washed through the sieve. Make sure that the fine sieve
does not become overloaded, either by retained soil or by water.

Note. During this process DO NOT rub the material on the 75 m sieve with
your fingers or otherwise. This is likely to damage the sieve and give
errors in the test results.

(8) On completion of washing place the washed sample in a tray or evaporating dish
and place in the oven to be dried at 10550C.
(9) After drying and cooling, weigh the sample to 0.1% of its total mass before
commencing sieving (m4).
(10) Fit the largest size test sieve appropriate to the maximum size of material
present to the receiver and place the sample on the sieve. Fit the lid to the sieve.

Note. If the sieve and receiver assembly is not too heavy to handle, several
sieves, in order of size, may be fitted together and used at the same
time.

(11) Agitate the test sieve so that the sample rolls about in an irregular motion over
the sieve. Particles may be placed by hand to see if they will fall through but
they must not be pushed through. Make sure that only individual particles are
retained. Weigh the amount retained on the test sieve to 0.1% of its total mass.
Keep each fraction separate so that check weighings may be carried out at a
later date if required.
(12) Transfer the material retained in the receiver to a tray and fit the receiver to the
next largest sized sieve. Place the contents of the tray on the sieve and repeat
the operation in (11). Be careful not to lose fine material by using a brush to
clean the sieve mesh and the receiver. Use of the lid helps to reduce loss of
fines.
(13) Sieving is then continued through progressively smaller sizes until the sample
has been passed through the 6.3 mm sieve. The mass of soil passing the 6.3
mm sieve is determined to 0.1% of its total mass (m5). If the mass of material
passing the 6.3 mm sieve is too big (i.e. substantially more than 150 grams),
the actual mass passing should be recorded and the sample divided again by
riffling to give a reduced sample of about 100 to 150 grams. The mass of the
sub-sample is then determined to 0.1% of its total mass (m6).

Sieving is now continued through the remaining sieve sizes. The mass retained
on each sieve is recorded to 0.1% of its total mass. The mass passing the 75
m sieve should be determined (ME). This mass will be very small if washing
has been carried out thoroughly. If any of the sieves are in danger of becoming
overloaded the sample should be sieved a little at a time and the material

MAY 2001 Page 3.26


Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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retained each time placed in a clean porcelain or enamel dish ready for
weighing.

Note 1. If a mechanical sieve shaker is available this may be used to perform


the sieving operation provided that all the sieves are the same
diameter and that they are not overloaded during the process. A
minimum shaking time of 10 minutes is required.

2. Sample dividing is carried out to prevent having to sieve large


amounts of material through the fine sieve sizes with the consequent
risk of overloading. If only one or two fine sieves are to be used it may
be quicker not to divide the sample and to sieve the total sample
through these sieves a little at a time. If 20 mm or 6.3 mm sieves are
not being used, dividing may be carried out for convenience at the
sieve closest to 20 mm and 6.3 mm.

3.3.3.4 Calculation and expression of results

(1) Summation Check. The first stage in the calculation is to check that all the
weights retained add up to those of the original sample or sub-samples making
due allowance for the weights passing the smallest sieve and any sieve where
the sample has been divided. If these weights are not close to the correct total
(i.e. within 1%) it is then possible to re-weigh the containers and to locate any
errors before the sample is discarded. If this check is left until a later date it will
be necessary to repeat the complete test if any error is found.

(2) Calculation of correction factors

a) It is necessary to calculate the correction or riffle factor for the first sieve size
where the sample has been divided:

Original mass passing sieve size


Correction factor, f1 =
Mass of sub - sample after dividing

m2
=
m3

b) The correction factor is then applied to each sieve smaller than the one where
the sample was divided until the sample is again sub-divided. Where a
second sub-division takes place the new correction factor is given by :

Original mass passing sieve size


New correction factor, f2 = f1 x
Mass of sub - sample after dividing

m2 m
= x 5
m3 m6

c) The adjusted mass retained MAR is then obtained for each sieve size by
multiplying the actual mass retained MR by the respective correction factor.

Adjusted mass retained MAR = f x MR

d) The percentage retained is obtained by dividing the adjusted weight retained


by the total sample weight and expressing the result as a percentage:

MAY 2001 Page 3.27


Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
Classification Tests

M
AR
% Retained = x 100%
m1

e) The cumulative percentage passing is then obtained by deducting the


percentage retained on the largest sieve size from 100% and then deducting
the percentage retained for each smaller size from the previous cumulative
percentage.
f) The percentages retained on each sieve and cumulative percentages passing
each sieve should be calculated to the nearest 0.1%. The values can be
expressed in tabular form and / or in graphical form.

An example of a sieve test calculation is shown in Form 3.3.1, and the results
are shown plotted on a semi-logarithmic chart in Form 3.3.3.

3.3.3.5 Report. The report should include the tabulated results of the test calculated as
cumulative percentages passing to the nearest whole number. The results should be
plotted on a semi-logarithmically form (see Form 3.3.3). The method of test should be
reported and the operator should sign and date the test sheet.

3.3.4 Dry sieving method

3.3.4.1 Scope. This method covers the quantitative determination of the particle size
distribution of a soil down to the fine sand size. It should only be used with clean, free
running or washed sands and gravels.

3.3.4.2 Apparatus. The apparatus used in the wet sieving method are also used in the dry
sieving method.

3.3.4.3 Test procedure

(1) Oven dry the riffled sample at 10550C to give a specified minimum mass and then
cool and weigh to 0.1% of its total mass (m1).
(2) Sieve the sample through all required sieve sizes of 20 mm size and larger. The
mass retained is recorded on the test sheet in each case.
(3) The mass passing the 20 mm sieve is determined to 0.1% of its total mass (m2)
and the sample is then divided so that about 2 kg of material remains. The mass of
this sub-sample is then determined to 0.1% of its total mass (m3).
(4) Then sieve the dried and weighed sample through the largest sieve size required
and the mass of the sample retained is recorded on the data sheet. Use of the lid
will help to reduce loss of fines.
(5) Sieving is then continued through progressively smaller sizes until the sample has
been passed through the 6.3 mm sieve (m4). If the weight of the material passing
the 6.3 mm sieve is too big (more than 150 gms). The actual mass passing should
be recorded and the sample is divided to give a reduced sample of about 100 to
150 gms. The mass of the sub-sample is then determined to 0.1% of its total mass
(m5).
(6) Sieving is now continued through the remaining sieve sizes. The mass retained on
each sieve is recorded to 0.1% of its total mass. The mass passing the 75 m sieve
should be determined (ME). If any of the sieves are in danger of becoming
overloaded the sample should be sieved a little at a time and the material retained
each time is placed in a clean porcelain or enamel dish ready for weighing. If a
mechanical sieve shaker is used, a minimum shaking time of 10 minutes is
required.
3.3.4.4 Calculation and expression of results. The procedure is the same as of wet sieving
method (section 3.3.3.4).
An example of a sieve test calculation is shown in Form 3.3.2.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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Form 3.3.1

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
Classification Tests
Form 3.3.2

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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Form 3.3.3

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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3.4 Determination of Organic Content

3.4.1 Scope. The Loss on Ignition: method for the determination of organic content is most
applicable to those materials identified as peats, organic mucks, and soils containing
relatively undecayed or undecomposed vegetative matter or fresh plant materials such
as wood, roots, grass or carbonaceous materials such as lignite, coal, etc. This method
determines the quantitative oxidation of organic matter in these materials and gives a
valid estimate of organic content.

3.4.2 Apparatus

3.4.2.1 Oven-Drying oven capable of maintaining temperatures of 1105 C (2309 F). Gravity,
instead of blower convection may be necessary when drying lightweight material.
3.4.2.2 Balance-(to required sensitivity)
3.4.2.3 Muffle Furnace-The furnace shall be capable of maintaining a continuous temperature
of 44510 C (83318 F) and have a combustion chamber capable of accommodating
the designated container and sample. Pyrometer recorder shall indicate temperature
while in use.
3.4.2.4 Crucibles or Evaporating Dishes-High silica, alundum, porcelain or nickel crucibles of
30 to 50 ml capacity or Coors porcelain evaporating dishes approximately 100 mm top
diameter.
3.4.2.5 Desiccator-A desiccator of sufficient size containing an effective dessicant.
3.4.2.6 Containers-Suitable rustproof metal, porcelain, glass or plastic coated containers.
3.4.2.7 Miscellaneous Supplies-Asbestos gloves, tongs, spatulas, etc.

3.4.3 Sample preparation

3.4.3.1 A representative sample weighing at least 100 grams shall be taken from the
thoroughly mixed portion of the material passing the 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve.
3.4.3.2 Place the sample in a container and dry in the oven at 1105 C (2309 F) to constant
weight. Remove the sample from the oven, place in the desiccator and allow to cool.

Note 1. This sample can be allowed to remain in the oven until ready to proceed with
the remainder of the test.

3.4.4 Ignition procedure

3.4.4.1 Select a sample weighing approximately 10 to 40 grams, place into tared crucibles or
porcelain evaporating dishes and weigh to the nearest 0.01 gram.

Note 2. Sample weights for lightweight materials such as peat may be less than 10
grams but should be of sufficient amount to fill the crucible to at least
depth. A cover may initially be required over the crucible during initial phase
of ignition to decrease possibility sample being blow out from the container.

3.4.4.2 Place the crucible or dish containing the sample into the muffle furnace for six hours at
a temperature of 44510 C. Remove the sample from the furnace, place into the
desiccator and allow to cool.
3.4.4.3 Remove the cooled sample from the desiccator and weigh to the nearest 0.01 gram.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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3.4.5 Calculation

3.4.5.1 The organic content shall be expressed as a percentage of the mass of the oven dried
soil and shall be calculated as follows:

A - B
Percent Organic Matter = x 100
A - C

where:
A = Weight of crucible or evaporating dish and oven dried soil, before ignition
B = Weight of crucible or evaporating dish and dried soil, after ignition.
C = Weight of crucible or evaporating dish, to the nearest 0.01 gram.

3.4.5.2 Calculate the percentage of organic content to the nearest 0.1 percent.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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3.5 Standard Description and Classifications

3.5.1 Scope. The description of soils is an important stage in the process of sampling and
testing of soils for civil engineering purposes.

In order to be readily understood, the descriptions should be carried out in a standard


and methodical manner. The terms soil description and soil classification are
sometimes confused. Although interconnected, the use of the two terms can be
separated and definitions are given in 3.5.2 below. Given individually, both a
description and a classification may be useful. When used together, a greater
understanding of the likely engineering characteristics of the soil can be obtained.

3.5.2 Definitions

3.5.2.1 Soil description. A full description gives detailed information on the grading, plasticity,
colour, moisture and particle characteristics of a soil, as well as on the fabric and
strength condition in which it occurs in a sample, borehole or exposure.

3.5.2.2 Soil classification. A classification places a soil in a limited number of groups on the
basis of grading and plasticity of a disturbed sample. These characteristics are
independent of the particular condition in which a soil occurs, and disregard the
influence of the structure, including fabric, of the soil mass.

3.5.3 Soil groups and field identification methods

3.5.3.1 Coarse soils (over 65% sand and gravel sizes)

(1) Sands and gravels are coarse soils. Cobbles and boulders are very coarse soils.
(2) Coarse soils are visible to the naked eye. A small hand-lens may be useful for
the examination of finer sands or the surface of larger particles.
(3) If required, a set of sieves may be used to determine approximate proportions
(as judged by eye) of gravel sizes, e.g. 60 mm 20 mm, 6 mm and 2 mm.
(4) Sands, particularly those mixed with clay or silt fines, may usefully be examined
mixed with a little water in the palm of the hand or in a small enamel bowl.
(5) Observations on the ease of excavation will be helpful. Whether the soil can be
easily excavated with a spade, or requires a pickaxe or hoe for excavation will
determine the consistency aspect of its description. If may also be useful to have
available a wooden peg approximately 50 mm square with one sharpened end.
The ease with which this can be hammered into the ground is an indication of the
density of the soil.

3.5.3.2 Fine soils (over 35% silt and clay sizes)

(1) Fine soils require to be examined by hand to obtain an adequate description,


preferably with the aid of a plastic was bottle containing water. This should readily
aid the distinction of the soil between a clay and a silt.
(2) Silts can be detected by carrying out a test for dilatancy. A small sample of soil is
mixed with water so that it is soft but not sticky, and held in the palm of the hand.
The edge of the hand is jarred gently with the other hand and the sample
observed. The appearance of a shiny film of water on the surface indicates
dilatancy. Squeeze the soil by pressing with the fingers, and the surface will go
dull again as the sample stiffens and finally crumbles. These reactions indicate
the presence of predominantly silt-sized material or very fine sand, provided that
the amount of moisture is not excessive. Moist silt is difficult to roll into threads
since it crumbles easily.
(3) The most significant properties of clay are its cohesion and plasticity. If when
pressed together in the hands at a suitable moisture content the particles stick

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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together in a relatively firm mass, the soil shows cohesion. If it can be deformed
without rupture (i.e. without losing its cohesion), it shows plasticity. Clay dries
more slowly than silt and sticks to the fingers; it cannot be brushed off dry. It has
a smooth feel, and shows a greasy appearance when cut with a blade. Dry lumps
can be broken, sometimes with difficulty, between the fingers, but cannot be
powdered. A lump placed in water remains intact for a considerable time.
(4) Clay does not exhibit dilatancy. Lumps shrink appreciably on drying, and show
cracks which are the more pronounced the higher the plasticity of the clay. At a
moisture content within the plastic range, clay can easily be rolled into threads of
3 mm diameter (as in the plastic limit test) which for a time can support their own
weight. Threads of high - plasticity clay are quite tough; those of low-plasticity
clay are softer and more crumbly.
(5) If it is important to know the composition of fine soils accurately then a particle
size distribution test should be carried out subsequently in the laboratory.

3.5.3.3 Organic soils

(1) Organic soils may be organic clay, silt or sand, or may be a form of peat.
(2) Examination in the field will be by visual and manual inspection in the same way
as for other soils, paying particular attention to compactness and structure. Peat
often has a distinctive smell and low bulk density. Laboratory testing will be
necessary to accurately determine relative proportions of organic and mineral
matter.

3.5.4 Methodology of description

3.5.4.1 General. In describing a soil, attention is given to a number of different aspects in a


methodical manner, determined using the techniques outlined in Section 3.5.3 above.
These aspects are summarised as follows, and are used in the order given, as far as is
practicable. Descriptions made in the field may require to be modified subsequently in
the light of the results of laboratory tests, or when better facilities are available for
inspection. The preferred order of description is conveniently remembered as
MCCSSO :

a) Moisture condition
b) Consistency (compactness/strength)
c) Colour
d) Structure
e) Soil type
f) Origin

Examples of test forms 3.5.1 and 3.5.2 for use in the field are included at the end of this
section. The test forms refer to the various elements of description as explained in
detail in 3.5.4.2 below.

3.5.4.2 Descriptive terms

(1) Moisture condition. The moisture condition of the sample can be indicted by
use of the following terms:

a) Dry : Soil will require the addition of water to


b) Slightly moist : attain the optimum moisture content for
compaction (OMC).
c) Moist : Near OMC for compaction
d) Very moist : Will require drying to achieve OMC
e) Wet : From below water table.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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(2) Consistency. Consistency or compactness/strength of the soil is described using


different terms for different soil types. These terms and the field tests for them are
given in Tables 3.5.1 to 3.5.5.

Table 3.5.1 Very coarse soils -boulders and cobbles


Term Field test
Loose By inspection of voids and
Dense particle packing

Table 3.5.2 Coarse soils - gravels and sands


Term Field test
Very loose Crumbles very easily when scraped with
geological pick.
Loose Can be excavated with a spade; 50 mm
wooden peg can be easily driven.
Medium dense Between loose and dense.
Dense Requires pickaxe or hoe for excavation; 50
mm wooden peg hard to drive.
Slightly cemented For sands. Visual examination; pickaxe or
hoe removes soil in lumps which can be
abraded.

Table 3.5.3 Fine soils - silts

Term Field test


Soft or loose Easily moulded or crushed in the fingers.
Firm or dense Can be moulded or crushed by strong
pressure in the fingers.
Very soft Exudes between fingers when squeezed in
hand (like toothpaste).

Table 3.5.4 Fine soils - clays

Term Field test


Very soft Comes out between fingers (like
toothpaste) when squeezes in hand.
Soft Moulded by light finger pressure.
Firm Can be moulded by strong finger pressure.
Stiff Cannot be moulded by fingers. Can be
indented by thumb.
Very stiff or hard Can be indented by thumbnail.

Table 3.5.5 Organic soils

Basic Soil Type Term Field test


Organic Clay, silt or sand Firm Fibres already
compressed together
Spongy Very compressible and
open structure
Peats
Plastic Can be moulded in
hand, and smears
fingers.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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(3) Colour. The colour of soil samples should be assessed in a freshly excavated
condition. This colour may be different from a dried sample, and from the sample
mixed with water. Under some circumstances it may be important to know these
differences.

It is preferable to use a standard colour chart such as that developed by Munsell.

If standard colour charts are not available, use colour descriptions which are
readily understood, e.g. red, brown, green, yellow, white black, pink etc. These
can be supplemented by the use of words like: light, dark etc. Soils can also be
one colour mottled with another, or one colour blotched or veined with another.

(4) Structure. The soil being sampled may have a distinct structure and if so this
should be recorded in the description. Tables 3.4.6 to 3.4.10 present guidelines
for the descriptive terms to be used.

Table 3.5.6 Coarse and very coarse soils.


Boulders, cobbles, gravels and sands

Term Field identification


Homogeneous Deposit consists essentially of one type.
Interstratified Alternating layers of varying types or with bands or
lenses of other materials. Interval scale for bedding
spacing may be used (see Table 3.5.7).
Heterogeneous A mixture of types.
Weathered Particles may be weakened and may show concentric
layering.

Table 3.5.7 Scale of bedding spacing (see Table 3.5.6)

Term Mean spacing, mm


Very thickly bedded Over 2000
Thickly bedded 2000 to 600
Medium bedded 600 to 200
Thinly bedded 200 to 60
Very thinly bedded 60 to 20
Thickly laminated 20 to 6
Thinly laminated Under 6

Table 3.5.8 Fine soils silts and clays

Term Field identification


Fissured Break into polyhedral fragments along fissures. Interval
scale for spacing of discontinuities may be used (see
Table 3.5.9).
Intact No fissures or joints.
Homogeneous Deposit consists essentially of one type.
Interstratified Alternating layers of varying types. Interval scale for
thickness of layers may be used (see Table 3.5.7).
Weathered Usually has crumb or columnar structure.
Slicken sided Indicates the presence of fissures with polished or
scratched surfaces.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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Table 3.5.9 Scale of spacing of other discontinuities (see Table 3.5.8)

Term Mean spacing, mm


Very widely spaced Over 2000
Widely spaced 2000 to 600
Medium spaced 600 to 200
Closely spaced 200 to 60
Very closely spaced 60 to 20
Extremely closely spaced under 20

Table 3.5.10 Organic soils peats

Term Field identification


Fibrous Plant remains recognizable.
Amorphous (form is lacking) Recognizable plant remains absent.

(5) Soil type

a) The basic soil type to be described, their limiting sizes and visual
identification are given in Table 3.5.11. In the description the predominant soil
type is written in capital letters, e.g. GRAVEL.

Typical grading curves which would be obtained on well graded, uniformly


graded and gap graded coarse soils are shown in Figure 3.5.1.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
Classification Tests

Table 3.5.11 Soil types

Basic soil type Particle size, mm Visual identification


BOULDERS Only seen complete in pit or exposures.
200
Coarse

COBBLES Often difficult to recover from boreholes.


soils
Very

60
coarse Easily visible to naked eye; particle shape can
be described; grading can be described.
20
GRAVELS medium Well graded : wide range of grain sizes, well
(over 65% sand and gravel sizes)

distributed. Poorly graded : not well graded.


(May be uniform : size of most particles lies
between narrow limits; or gap graded : an
6 intermediate size of particle is markedly under-
represented.
fine
2
coarse Visible to naked eye; very little or no cohesion
when dry; grading can be described.
Coarse soils

SANDS 0.6
medium Well graded : wide range of grain sizes, well
distributed. Poorly graded : not well graded.
(May be uniform : size of most particles lies
between narrow limits; or gap graded : an
intermediate size of particle is markedly under-
0.2 represented.
fine
0.06
SILTS coarse Only coarse silt barely visible to naked eye;
exhibits little plasticity and marked dilatancy :
0.02 slightly granular or silky to the touch.
Disintegrates in water; lumps dry quickly;
(over 35% silt and clay sizes)

possess cohesion but can be powdered easily


between fingers.
medium
0.006
fine
0.002
CLAYS Dry lumps can be broken but not powdered
between the fingers; they also disintegrate under
Fine soils

water but more slowly than silt; smooth to the


touch; exhibits plasticity but no dilatancy; sticks
to the fingers and dries slowly; shrinks
appreciably on drying usually showing cracks.
Intermediate and high plasticity clays show
these properties to a moderate and high degree,
respectively. Descriptions should include an
indication of plasticity if possible.
ORGANIC CLAY, varies Contains substantial amounts of organic
SILT or SAND vegetable matter.
Organic soils

PEATS varies Predominantly plant remains usually dark brown


or black in colour, often with distinctive smell;
low bulk density.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
Classification Tests

b) Many (most) soils exist as composite soil types, i.e. mixtures of basic soil
types. Examples would be a slightly clayey GRAVEL, or a silty SAND. In
these examples the clay and silt are secondary constituents. The secondary
constituents are included in the description according to a set scale. This
scale of proportions for secondary constituents for secondary constituents for
coarse soils is set out in Table 3.5.12 and for fine soils in Table 3.5.13.

Table 3.5.12 Scale of secondary constituents with coarse


soils
Term % of clay Remarks
or silt
slightly clayey GRAVEL
or under 5
slightly silty SAND

- clayey GRAVEL Percentage of clay


5 to 15 or silt has to be
or
- silty estimated in the field.
10.5
very clayey GRAVEL
15 to 35
or
very silty SAND
Sandy GRAVEL Sand or gravel and
important second
Gravelly SAND constituent of the coarse
fraction

Note : For composite types described as:


clayey : fines are plastic, cohesive:
silty : fines non-plastic or of low plasticity

Table 3.5.13 Scale of secondary constituents


with fine soils

Term % of sand
or gravel

sandy CLAY
or 35 to 65
gravelly SILT (Assessed by eye)

- CLAY : SILT under 35


(Assessed by eye)

c) Coarse and very coarse soils can be given a supplementary description for
their shape and for the texture of their surface. Standard descriptive terms
for shape are given in Table 3.5.14, and for texture in Table 3.5.15. Figure
3.5.2 shows typical shapes for descriptive purposes.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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Table 3.5.14 Angularity and form of coarse particles

Term Remarks
Angularity Angular Possessing well-defined edges formed at
the intersection of roughly planar faces.
Subangular Corners slightly bevelled.
Subrounded All corners rounded off.
Rounded Fully water-worn or completely shaped by
attrition.
Form Equidimensional All dimensions roughly equal.
Flat (flaky) Having one dimension significantly
smaller than the other two dimensions.
Elongated Having one dimension significantly larger
than the other two dimensions.
Flat and See Figure 3.5.2.
elongated
Irregular Naturally irregular, or partly shaped by
attrition and having rounded edges.

Table 3.5.15 Surface texture of coarse soils


Typical descriptive terms
rough
smooth
honeycombed
pitted
glassy

(6) Origin. This part of the description consists of information on the geological
formation, age and type of deposit. This information may not always be available
to persons carrying out field descriptions but should be included where it is
available. Examples of the kind of information to be included would be:

a) Girujan Clay
b) Dihing Formation
c) Tippam Group
d) River deposit (alluvium)
e) Beach deposit (littoral)
f) Lake deposit (lacustrine)

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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3.5.4.3 Examples

(1) Coarse soils

An example of a completed test sheet for coarse soils is shown as Form 3.5.1.

Two further examples of descriptions for coarse soils are given below:

Example 1 Example 2
(a) Moisture condition : damp moist
(b) Consistency : loose dense
(c) Colour : dark brown yellow
(d) Structure : homogeneous + thin lenses of soft
grey silty CLAY
(e) Soil Type : sandy rounded smooth Fine and medium (FM)
textured fine medium
SAND
and coarse (FMC)
GRAVEL
(f) Origin : beach deposit Recent Alluvium

Composite description for Example 1 : Damp loose dark brown homogeneous


sandy smooth textured rounded fine medium and coarse GRAVEL. Beach
Deposit.

Composite description for Example 2 : Moist dense yellow fine and medium
SAND with thin lenses of soft grey silty CLAY.

(2) Fine soils


An example of a completed test sheet for fine soils is shown as Form 3.5.2.
Two further examples of descriptions for fine soils are given below:

Example 1 Example 2
(a) Moisture condition : wet dry
(b) Consistency : soft firm to stiff
(c) Colour : blue-grey grey mottled brown
(d) Structure : + closely spaced widely fissured
partings of firm brown
SILT
(e) Soil Type : sandy CLAY silty CLAY
(high plasticity)
(f) Origin : Recent Alluvium -

Composite description for Example 1 : Wet soft blue-grey sandy CLAY of high
plasticity with closely spaced partings of firm brown SILT. Recent Alluvium.

Composite description for Example 2 : Dry firm to stiff grey mottled brown widely
fissured silty CLAY.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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3.5.4.4 Standard symbols. Soils descriptions carried out as part of a site investigation
programme can be shown in borehole and trial pit records in the form of symbols.
Standard symbols for soils are presented in Figure 3.5.3.

Made ground

Boulders and cabbles

Gravel

Sand

Silt

Clay

Peat

Note. Comsite soil types will


be signified by combined
symbols, e.g.

Silty sand

Figure 3.5.3 Standard soils symbols

Note. Made ground means a soil which is artificially placed, e.g. in embankment.

An example of how these symbols might be used in a borrow area investigation is


shown in Figure 3.5.4. Representing soil types in this manner should enable a clearer
picture to be obtained of the soils in the area being investigated. Such a representation
should be accompanied by a scaled plan to enable available quantities to be
calculated.

A second example of the use of standard symbols is shown in Figure 3.5.5. This is
taken from a site investigation report for a road project.

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
Classification Tests

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Chapter 3 Standard Test Procedures
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Classification Tests

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

CHAPTER 4

DRY DENSITY MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIP

4.1 General Requirements

4.1.1 Introduction. Compaction is defined as the process of increasing soil unit weight by
forcing soil solids into a tighter state and reducing the air voids and thus increasing the
stability and supporting capacity of soil. This is accomplished by applying static or
dynamic loads to the soil. Laboratory compaction tests provide the basis for control
procedures used on earthworks, sub-grades and also for pavement works on site.

4.1.2 Scope. Based upon the site conditions, nature of the works, the type of soil and the
type of compaction equipment used, two types of tests are applied (1) Using rammer
methods of compaction and (2) using vibrating methods of compaction.

4.1.3 Definitions and terminology. Definitions for the terminology used in compaction tests
are given in Chapter 1.

The terminology used in compaction tests is illustrated in Figure 4.1.1.

0%
5%
Air void lines for a given
%
10 particle density

Maximum
3

Dry density Mg/m

dry density

Saturation
line

Compaction
moisture content

curve
Optimum

0
Moisture Content

Figure 4.1.1 Terminology used in compaction tests

4.1.4 Choice of compaction procedure

A 1L internal volume compaction mould is used when not more than 5% of the soil
particles are retained on a 20 mm sieve. Both the 2.5 kg and 4.5 kg rammer methods
may be used. If there is a limited amount of particles up to 37.5 mm equivalent tests
are carried out in the larger California Bearing Ratio (CBR) mould.

The second type of test makes use of a vibrating hammer and is intended mainly for
granular soils passing 37.5 mm test sieve, with not more than 30% retained on a 20
mm test sieve. The soil is compacted into a CBR mould.

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

4.2 Sample Preparation

4.2.1 General. For soils containing particles not susceptible to crushing, one sample is
required for test and it can be used several times after progressively increasing the
amount of water.

For soils containing particles which are susceptible to crushing it is necessary to


prepare separate batches of soil at different moisture contents. Consequently, a much
larger sample is required. It may be necessary to carry out a trial compaction to
determine whether the soil is susceptible to crushing.

For stiff, cohesive soils, suggested methods are to shred the soil so that it could pass
through a 5 mm test sieve, or to chop it into pieces, e.g. to pass a 20 mm sieve.

4.2.2 Preliminary assessment of soil. An assessment of the soil is required in order to


determine which method of compaction should be used and the sample size required.

The first assessment is to decide if the soil is susceptible to crushing, i.e. whether it
contains weak particles which will crush during compaction with a 2.5 kg rammer. If
sufficient sample is available it is preferable to use a method which assumes that the
soil susceptible to crushing.

The second assessment is to decide the approximate percentages (to an accuracy of


5%) by mass of particles passing the 20 mm and 37.5 mm sieves. Having determined
the approximate percentages passing the 37.5 mm and 20 mm sieves, the compaction
test sample can be assigned to one of six grading zones. These are numbered 1 to 5
and (x) and defined in Table 4.2.1.

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

Table 4.2.1 Summary of sample preparation methods


Grading Minimum Preparation Minimum mass Type of
zone percentage procedure Table of prepared soil
passing test reference required
sieves

20 mm 37.5 (a) (b) (a) (b)

(1) 100% 100% ) ) kg kg


) ) 6 15 1L
(2) 95 100 ) 4.2 4.3
)
)
(3) 70 100 ) )
) )
(4) 70 95 ) 4.4 4.5 ) 16 40 CBR
) )
(5) 70 90 ) )
(X) Less Less (Tests not applicable)

(a) Soil particles not susceptible to crushing during compaction.


(b) Soil particles susceptible to crushing during compaction.
1L = one-litre compaction mould.
CBR = CBR mould.

Table 4.2.1 also gives the method of sample preparation, the minimum mass of soil
required and the type of mould to be used for the compaction test.

4.2.3 Preparation procedure. The procedure to be adopted depends on the grading zone
into which the sample falls (see Table 4.2.1) and whether the soil is susceptible to
crushing.

The procedures are given hereafter in a series of tables, detailed as follows;

a) Table 4.2.2. Using 1L compaction mould for soils not susceptible to crushing.
Grading Zones : 1 and 2.
b) Table 4.2.3. Using 1L compaction mould for soils susceptible to crushing. Grading
Zones : 1 and 2.
c) Table 4.2.4. Using CBR compaction mould for soils not susceptible to crushing.
Grading Zones : 3, 4 and 5.
d) Table 4.2.5. Using CBR compaction mould for soils susceptible to crushing.
Grading Zones : 3, 4 and 5.

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

Table 4.2.2 Sample preparation procedure Using 1L mould Soils not susceptible to crushing
Grading zone
1 2 3 4 5
Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 95% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 90%
Min. % passing 20mm = 100% Min. % passing 20mm = 95% Min. % passing 20mm = 70% Min. % passing 20mm = 70% Min. % passing 20mm = 70%
If soil is too wet to process, air or oven dry at not more than 500 C.
Avoid drying completely.
Gently break aggregation of soil.
Determine moisture content. Weigh to 0.1% by mass the whole
sample and record the mass.
Riffle/quarter to about 6 kg Remove and weigh to 0.1% by
passing 20 mm. mass the material retained on 20
mm sieve. Discard the material.
Calculate additional water required Determine moisture content.
for 1st compaction point, e.g. 1L mould not suitable for this soil 1L mould not suitable for this soil 1L mould not suitable for this soil
sandy and gravelly soils start at grading grading grading
4%-6%, for cohesive soils start at Riffle/quarter to about 6 kg
8%-10% below plastic limit. passing 20 mm.
Add required water and mix Calculate additional water required
thoroughly. for 1st compaction point, e.g.
sandy and gravelly soils start at
Store mixed material in sealed 4%-6%, for cohesive soils start at
container for minimum 24 h before 8%-10% below plastic limit.
compaction (particularly for
cohesive soils).
Note : Care should be taken in Add required water and mix
drying samples which may suffer thoroughly
irreversible changes as a result.
Store mixed material in sealed
container for minimum 24 h before
compaction (particularly for
cohesive soils)
Note : Care should be taken in
drying samples which may suffer
irreversible changes as a result.
Note : As an alternative, the whole
sample could be compacted in a
CBR mould. In this case, material
retained on 20 mm is not
discarded.

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

Table 4.2.3 Sample preparation procedure Using 1L mould Soils not susceptible to crushing
Grading zone
1 2 3 4 5
Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 95% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 90%
Min. % passing 20mm = 100% Min. % passing 20mm = 95% Min. % passing 20mm = 70% Min. % passing 20mm = 70% Min. % passing 20mm = 70%
If soil is too wet to process, air or oven dry at not more than 500 C.
Avoid drying completely.
Gently break aggregations of soil.
Determine moisture content. Weigh to 0.1% by mass the whole
sample and record the mass.
Riffle/quarter sample into 5 or Remove and weigh to 0.1% by
more representative samples, mass the material retained on 20
each of about 2.5 kg. mm sieve. Discard the material.
Add required water and mix Determine moisture content.
thoroughly (see individual test 1L mould not suitable for this soil 1L mould not suitable for this soil 1L mould not suitable for this soil
methods). Increments of 1%-2% grading grading grading
Riffle/quarter sample into 5 or
are appropriate for sandy and
more representative samples,
gravelly soils, and of 2%-4% for each of about 2.5 kg.
cohesive soils.
Store mixed material in sealed Add required water and mix
container for minimum 24 h before thoroughly (see individual test
compaction (particularly for methods). Increments of 1%-2%
cohesive soils). are appropriate for sandy and
Note : Care should be taken in gravelly soils, and of 2%-4% for
drying samples which may suffer cohesive soils.
irreversible changes as a result.
Store mixed material in sealed
container for minimum 24 h before
compaction (particularly for
cohesive soils)
Note : Care should be taken in
drying samples which may suffer
irreversible changes as a result.
Note : As an alternative, the whole
sample could be compacted in a
CBR mould. In this case, material
retained on 20 mm is not
discarded.

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

Table 4.2.4 Sample preparation procedure Using CBR mould Soils not susceptible to crushing
Grading zone
1 2 3 4 5
Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 95% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 90%
Min. % passing 20mm = 100% Min. % passing 20mm = 95% Min. % passing 20mm = 70% Min. % passing 20mm = 70% Min. % passing 20mm = 70%
If soil is too wet to process, air or oven dry at not more than 500 C. Avoid drying completely.
Gently break aggregation of soil.
Soils of this grading are more Soils of this grading are more Determine moisture content Weigh to 0.1% by mass the whole sample and record the mass.
usually compacted in 1L moulds, usually compacted in 1L moulds, Riffle/quarter to about 15 kg. Remove and weigh the material Remove and weigh the material
except when CBR tests are to be except when CBR tests are to be retained on 37.5 mm. Discard this retained on 37.5 mm. Discard this
carried out. carried out. material. material.
Calculate additional water required Determine moisture content. Replace this material by the same
for 1st compaction point, e.g. quantity of material of similar
sandy and gravelly soils start at characteristics which passes 37.5
4%-6%, for cohesive soils start at Riffle/quarter to about 25 kg. mm and is retained on 20 mm.
8%-10% below plastic limit.
Add required water and mix Calculate additional water required Determine moisture content.
thoroughly. for 1st compaction point, e.g.
sandy and gravelly soils start at
4%-6%, for cohesive soils start at Riffle/quarter to about 15 kg.
8%-10% below plastic limit.
Store mixed material in sealed Add required water and mix Calculate additional water required
container for minimum 24 h before thoroughly. for 1st compaction point, e.g.
compaction (particularly for sandy and gravelly soils start at
cohesive soils) Store mixed material in sealed 4%-6%, for cohesive soils start at
container for minimum 24 h before 8%-10% below plastic limit.
compaction (particularly for
cohesive soils)
Note : Care should be taken in Note : Care should be taken in Add required water and mix
drying samples which may suffer drying samples which may suffer thoroughly.
irreversible changes as a result. irreversible changes as a result.
Store mixed material in sealed
container for minimum 24 h before
compaction (particularly for
cohesive soils)
Note : Care should be taken in
drying samples which may suffer
irreversible changes as a result.

MAY 2001 Page 4.6


Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

Table 4.2.5 Sample preparation procedure Using CBR mould Soils not susceptible to crushing
Grading zone
1 2 3 4 5
Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 100% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 95% Min. % passing 37.5 mm = 90%
Min. % passing 20mm = 100% Min. % passing 20mm = 95% Min. % passing 20mm = 70% Min. % passing 20mm = 70% Min. % passing 20mm = 70%
If soil is too wet to process, air or oven dry at not more than 500 C. Avoid drying completely.
Gently break aggregation of soil.
Determine moisture content Weigh to 0.1% by mass the whole sample and record the mass.
Soils of this grading are more Soils of this grading are more Riffle/quarter sample into 5 or Remove and weigh the material Replace this material by the same
usually compacted in 1L moulds, usually compacted in 1L moulds, more representative samples each retained on 37.5 mm. Discard this quantity of material of
except when CBR tests are to be except when CBR tests are to be of about 6 kg. material. similar characteristics
carried out. carried out. which passes 37.5
mm and is retained on
20 mm.
Add required water and mix Determine moisture content. Determine moisture content.
thoroughly (see individual test
methods). Increments of 1%-2%
are appropriate for sandy and Riffle/quarter sample into 5 or Riffle/quarter sample into 5 or
gravelly soils, and of 2%-4% for more representative samples each more representative
cohesive soils. of about 6 kg. samples each of about
6 kg.
Store mixed material in sealed Add required water and mix Add required water and mix
container for minimum 24 h before thoroughly (see individual test thoroughly (see
compaction (particularly for methods). Increments of 1%-2% individual test
cohesive soils) are appropriate for sandy and methods). Increments
gravelly soils, and of 2%-4% for of 1%-2% are
cohesive soils. appropriate for sandy
and gravelly soils, and
of 2%-4% for cohesive
soils.
Note : Care should be taken in Store mixed material in sealed Store mixed material in sealed
drying samples which may suffer container for minimum 24 h before container for minimum
irreversible changes as a result. compaction (particularly for 24 h before
cohesive soils) compaction
(particularly for
cohesive soils)
Note : Care should be taken in Note : Care should be taken in
drying samples which may suffer drying samples which
irreversible changes as a result. may suffer irreversible
changes as a result.

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

4.2.4 Modifying soil moisture content. When carrying out compaction tests it may be
necessary to change the moisture content of the soil, either to a lower value, or to a
higher value. The required calculations are:

a) To decrease the moisture content from a value of x% to a value of y%, the mass of
water required to be lost is;

x-y
x M grams
100 + x
where, M is the mass of the wet soil

b) To increase the moisture content from a value of x% to a value of z%, the mass of
water to be added is;

z- x
x M grams
100 + x
4.3 Standard Compaction using 2.5 kg Rammer

4.3.1 Scope. This test method determines the optimum moisture content and maximum dry
density of a soil when compacted into a mould in three layers using a 2.5 kg rammer
falling through a height of 300 mm. In this method, 1L mould is used for soils passing
20 mm sieve and CBR mould is used for soils containing not more than 30% by mass
of material on the 20 mm sieve which may include some particles retained on the 37.5
mm sieve.

4.3.2 Apparatus. The following general apparatus is required for the test :

a) 2.5 kg compaction rammer (see Figure 4.3.1).


b) Sieves of 20 mm and 37.5 mm, with receiver.
c) Spatula or palette knife.
d) Straight edge, e.g. a steel strip about 300 mm long, 25 mm wide, and 3 mm thick,
with one beveled edge.
e) Sample tray of plastics or corrosion-resistant metal with sides, e.g. about 80 mm
deep.
f) Apparatus for the determination of moisture content.
g) Scoop.
h) Additionally for test using 1L mould : a compaction mould similar to the one shown
in Figure 4.3.2; a balance readable to 1 g.
i) Additionally for test using CBR mould : a compaction mould similar to the one
shown in Figure 4.3.3; a balance readable to 5 g.

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

4.2.4 Modifying soil moisture content. When carrying out compaction tests it may be
necessary to change the moisture content of the soil, either to a lower value, or to a
higher value. The required calculations are:

a) To decrease the moisture content from a value of x% to a value of y%, the mass of
water required to be lost is;

x-y
x M grams
100 + x
where, M is the mass of the wet soil

b) To increase the moisture content from a value of x% to a value of z%, the mass of
water to be added is;

z- x
x M grams
100 + x
4.3 Standard Compaction using 2.5 kg Rammer

4.3.1 Scope. This test method determines the optimum moisture content and maximum dry
density of a soil when compacted into a mould in three layers using a 2.5 kg rammer
falling through a height of 300 mm. In this method, 1L mould is used for soils passing
20 mm sieve and CBR mould is used for soils containing not more than 30% by mass
of material on the 20 mm sieve which may include some particles retained on the 37.5
mm sieve.

4.3.2 Apparatus. The following general apparatus is required for the test :

a) 2.5 kg compaction rammer (see Figure 4.3.1).


b) Sieves of 20 mm and 37.5 mm, with receiver.
c) Spatula or palette knife.
d) Straight edge, e.g. a steel strip about 300 mm long, 25 mm wide, and 3 mm thick,
with one beveled edge.
e) Sample tray of plastics or corrosion-resistant metal with sides, e.g. about 80 mm
deep.
f) Apparatus for the determination of moisture content.
g) Scoop.
h) Additionally for test using 1L mould : a compaction mould similar to the one shown
in Figure 4.3.2; a balance readable to 1 g.
i) Additionally for test using CBR mould : a compaction mould similar to the one
shown in Figure 4.3.3; a balance readable to 5 g.

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

4 holes
6 mm dia
RAMMER
mass = 2.5 kg25 g
GUIDE
length of travel
of rammer
= 300 mm
330 mm

350
mm 25 mm dia

12 holes
6 mm dia

2 mm rubber
gasket

48 mm

52 mm
dia 50 mm
dia
50 mm
dia
Figure 4.3.1 BS 2.5 kg compaction rammer

118 mm dia

extension
collar 50 mm three lugs

10 mm
push
fit

mould 105 mm dia three pins


body
115.5
mm

10 mm
baseplate 13 mm

180 mm dia or 150 mm square

Figure 4.3.2 BS 1 L compaction mould

MAY 2001 Page 4.9


extension 152 mm dia
collar 50 mm
Chapter 4

168 mm dia
162 mm dia
4 holes
152 mm dia 6 mm dia
mould RAMMER
body total mass
127 mm screw
detachable thread 4.5 kg50 kg
base plate 10 mm

510 mm
GUIDE
length of travel
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

165 mm dia 580 of rammer


mm = 450 mm 25 mm dia

MAY 2001
extension
collar 50 mm three lugs 12 holes
6 mm dia

2 mm rubber
10 mm gasket
push
fit 128 mm
mould 152 mm dia three pins
body 52 mm
127 dia
mm 50 mm
Two lugs 60 mm dia
10 mm dia
baseplate 13 mm Figure 4.4.1 BS 4.5 kg compaction rammer

230 mm dia or 200 mm square

Figure 4.3.3 Types of BS CBR compaction moulds

Page 4.10
Standard Test Procedures
Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

4.3.3 Calibration of apparatus

4.3.3.1 Types of moulds. The standard sizes for compaction moulds are detailed in Table
4.3.1.

Table 4.3.1. Standard sizes for compaction moulds

Type of mould Nominal dimensions


Diamet Height Volume Height of
mm mm cm3 extension, mm
One litre 105 115.5 1000 50 minimum

CBR 152 127 2305 50 minimum

4.3.3.2. Mould factors. The volume of the mould can be determined using vernier calipers.
Measure its internal diameter (D mm) and length (L mm) in places to 0.1 mm. Calculate
the mean dimensions, and the volume of the mould (V cm3) from the equation.

x D2 x L
V =
4

If necessary, mould factors can be determined. The use of these factors may make
calculations easier. Since the factors depend on physical measurements it is necessary
to recalculate the values whenever changes in the measurements are suspected.

4.3.3.2.1 Mould area factors. The mould area factor, F is the reciprocal of the cross-sectional
area in square meters, i.e.

4 (1000)2
F = sq.m -1
(D ) 2

where, D = mould diameter in millimeters

Example

For the 1L compaction mould the mould area factor is :

4 (1000)2
F = = 1273
. x 90.703 = 115.49 sq.m-1
(105)2

4.3.3.2.2 Mould height factors. The mould height factor. H, is the same as the height of the
mould in millimetres. For the 1L mould, the mould height factor is 115.5.

4.3.3.2.3 Mould factor ratio

F
The mould factor ratio is calculated as
H
For the 1L mould this is calculated as 1.000

4.3.4 Preparation of sample. The sample should be prepared in accordance with the
requirements of Tables 4.2.2 or 4.2.3 for soils with particles up to medium gravel size
4.2.4 or 4.2.5 for soils with some coarse gravel size particles depending on whether the

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

soil is susceptible to crushing. When using Table 4.2.3 or 4.2.5, it can be useful to have
more than 5 prepared sub-samples, in case further points need to be established on
the compaction curve.

4.3.5 Test procedure

4.3.5.1 The mould including the base-plate is first weighed to an accuracy of 1 gm for medium
gravel and 5 gms for coarse gravel (m1). Measure the internal dimensions to 0.1 mm
for medium gravel and 0.5 mm for coarse gravel size.

4.3.5.2 Attach the extension (collar) to the mould and place the mould assembly on a solid
base, e.g. a concrete floor.

4.3.5.3 The prepared sample of moist material is divided into three approximately equal
portions.

4.3.5.4 Sufficient material from the first portion is then placed in the mould so that the mould is
about a third full when the soil has been compacted. This first layer is then compacted
using 27 blows for 1L mould and 62 blows for CBR mould of the 2.5 kg rammer
dropping from a controlled height of 300 mm. The blows should be evenly distributed
over the surface of the material and care should be taken to ensure that soil does not
stick to the face of the hammer, thus reducing the height of fall.

4.3.5.5 Material from the second and third portions is then placed in the mould, each portion
being compacted as above. The purpose of this procedure is to compact the soil in
three equal layers and on completion, the mould should be completely filled. On
removal of the collar, the top surface of the soil should be proud of the top rim of the
mould body by an amount not exceeding 6 mm. If the soil is below the top rim of the
mould or is proud of the mould by more than 6 mm, the test must be repeated.

4.3.5.7 The soil above the mould rim should then be struck off level with a metal straight edge.
With some coarse-grained materials it may be difficult to obtain a smooth surface.
Replace any coarse particles, removed in the leveling process, by finer material from
the sample, well pressed in.

4.3.5.7 The mould, base-plate and soil are then weighed, to an accuracy of 1 gram for 1L
mould and 5 gram for CBR mould (m2).

4.3.5.8 Remove the compacted soil from the mould and place it on the metal tray. Take a
representative sample for determination of moisture content.

4.3.5.9 For soils not susceptible to crushing break up the remainder of the soil, rub it through
the 20 mm sieve and mix with the remainder of the prepared test sample. In case of
soils susceptible to crushing, discard the remaining soil from each of the 5
approximately 2.5 kg representative sub-samples.

4.3.5.10 Increase moisture 1% to 2% for sandy or gravelly soils and 2% to 4% for cohesive soils
and mix thoroughly into the soil. As the test progresses, the size of the increments can
be decreased to increase accuracy in determining the optimum moisture content.

4.3.5.11 Repeat steps 4.3.5.3 to 4.3.5.10 to give a total of at least 5 determinations. The
moisture contents shall include the optimum moisture content, at which the maximum
dry density occurs, this point being as near to the middle of the range as is practicable
to achieve.

Note. Tables 4.2.2 to 4.2.5 recommend that samples of prepared soil be allowed to
cure for 24 h before test, particularly if they are cohesive. Good laboratory

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

soil is susceptible to crushing. When using Table 4.2.3 or 4.2.5, it can be useful to have
more than 5 prepared sub-samples, in case further points need to be established on
the compaction curve.

4.3.5 Test procedure

4.3.5.1 The mould including the base-plate is first weighed to an accuracy of 1 gm for medium
gravel and 5 gms for coarse gravel (m1). Measure the internal dimensions to 0.1 mm
for medium gravel and 0.5 mm for coarse gravel size.

4.3.5.2 Attach the extension (collar) to the mould and place the mould assembly on a solid
base, e.g. a concrete floor.

4.3.5.3 The prepared sample of moist material is divided into three approximately equal
portions.

4.3.5.4 Sufficient material from the first portion is then placed in the mould so that the mould is
about a third full when the soil has been compacted. This first layer is then compacted
using 27 blows for 1L mould and 62 blows for CBR mould of the 2.5 kg rammer
dropping from a controlled height of 300 mm. The blows should be evenly distributed
over the surface of the material and care should be taken to ensure that soil does not
stick to the face of the hammer, thus reducing the height of fall.

4.3.5.5 Material from the second and third portions is then placed in the mould, each portion
being compacted as above. The purpose of this procedure is to compact the soil in
three equal layers and on completion, the mould should be completely filled. On
removal of the collar, the top surface of the soil should be proud of the top rim of the
mould body by an amount not exceeding 6 mm. If the soil is below the top rim of the
mould or is proud of the mould by more than 6 mm, the test must be repeated.

4.3.5.7 The soil above the mould rim should then be struck off level with a metal straight edge.
With some coarse-grained materials it may be difficult to obtain a smooth surface.
Replace any coarse particles, removed in the leveling process, by finer material from
the sample, well pressed in.

4.3.5.7 The mould, base-plate and soil are then weighed, to an accuracy of 1 gram for 1L
mould and 5 gram for CBR mould (m2).

4.3.5.8 Remove the compacted soil from the mould and place it on the metal tray. Take a
representative sample for determination of moisture content.

4.3.5.9 For soils not susceptible to crushing break up the remainder of the soil, rub it through
the 20 mm sieve and mix with the remainder of the prepared test sample. In case of
soils susceptible to crushing, discard the remaining soil from each of the 5
approximately 2.5 kg representative sub-samples.

4.3.5.10 Increase moisture 1% to 2% for sandy or gravelly soils and 2% to 4% for cohesive soils
and mix thoroughly into the soil. As the test progresses, the size of the increments can
be decreased to increase accuracy in determining the optimum moisture content.

4.3.5.11 Repeat steps 4.3.5.3 to 4.3.5.10 to give a total of at least 5 determinations. The
moisture contents shall include the optimum moisture content, at which the maximum
dry density occurs, this point being as near to the middle of the range as is practicable
to achieve.

Note. Tables 4.2.2 to 4.2.5 recommend that samples of prepared soil be allowed to
cure for 24 h before test, particularly if they are cohesive. Good laboratory

MAY 2001 Page 4.12


Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

practice should allow this is most cases. However, and in particular when
testing sandy or gravelly soils, it may be possible to reduce or omit this
requirement altogether. In the latter case, an estimate can be made of the
likely optimum moisture content, and the first sub-sample made up and
compacted immediately at that moisture content, following the procedures in
4.3.5.1 to 4.3.5.8.. The necessary weighings and calculations should be
recorded on the test sheet. The compaction procedure is then repeated on
two further sub-samples, at appropriate moisture contents above and below
the estimated optimum. At this stage an estimate can be made of the dry
densities of the specimens, using the calculated bulk densities and the
assumption that the moisture contents are in fact what they were made up to
be. From this information it can be determined where the three points are
likely to lie on the final moisture content / dry density relationship curve, and
the remaining specimens can then be moistened and compacted accordingly.
This method can achieve reliable results on suitable soils if carefully carried
out.

4.3.6 Calculation and expression of results

4.3.6.1 Calculate the internal volume of the mould. V (in cm3).

4.3.6.2 Calculate the bulk density, (in Mg/m3) of each of the compacted specimens from the
equation

m2 m1
=
V

where, m1 is the mass of mould and base-plate (in g);


m2 is the mass of mould, base-plate and compacted soil (in g).

Note. Where the height of the compacted soil specimen is the same as the height of
the compaction mould body, e.g. in the case of the 2.5 kg and 4.5 kg rammer
methods, the mould factors can be used to calculate the bulk density of the
soil as;

F
= m 2 m1 x
H

In the vibrating hammer test, where the height of the compacted soil specimen may be
different from the height of the compaction mould body the calculation then becomes

m2 m1 x F
=
H - h

Refer to Part 4.5 and Forms 4.3.1 to 4.3.4.

The dry density d of each compacted specimen is then calculated (in kg/m3) using the
formula;

100
Dry density, d = x
100 + w

Where, w is the moisture content of the soil.

MAY 2001 Page 4.13


Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

practice should allow this is most cases. However, and in particular when
testing sandy or gravelly soils, it may be possible to reduce or omit this
requirement altogether. In the latter case, an estimate can be made of the
likely optimum moisture content, and the first sub-sample made up and
compacted immediately at that moisture content, following the procedures in
4.3.5.1 to 4.3.5.8.. The necessary weighings and calculations should be
recorded on the test sheet. The compaction procedure is then repeated on
two further sub-samples, at appropriate moisture contents above and below
the estimated optimum. At this stage an estimate can be made of the dry
densities of the specimens, using the calculated bulk densities and the
assumption that the moisture contents are in fact what they were made up to
be. From this information it can be determined where the three points are
likely to lie on the final moisture content / dry density relationship curve, and
the remaining specimens can then be moistened and compacted accordingly.
This method can achieve reliable results on suitable soils if carefully carried
out.

4.3.6 Calculation and expression of results

4.3.6.1 Calculate the internal volume of the mould. V (in cm3).

4.3.6.2 Calculate the bulk density, (in Mg/m3) of each of the compacted specimens from the
equation

m2 m1
=
V

where, m1 is the mass of mould and base-plate (in g);


m2 is the mass of mould, base-plate and compacted soil (in g).

Note. Where the height of the compacted soil specimen is the same as the height of
the compaction mould body, e.g. in the case of the 2.5 kg and 4.5 kg rammer
methods, the mould factors can be used to calculate the bulk density of the
soil as;

F
= m 2 m1 x
H

In the vibrating hammer test, where the height of the compacted soil specimen may be
different from the height of the compaction mould body the calculation then becomes

m2 m1 x F
=
H - h

Refer to Part 4.5 and Forms 4.3.1 to 4.3.4.

The dry density d of each compacted specimen is then calculated (in kg/m3) using the
formula;

100
Dry density, d = x
100 + w

Where, w is the moisture content of the soil.

MAY 2001 Page 4.13


Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

The determined moisture content should be within 1% of the required moisture content
if the mixing and testing has been carried out correctly.

The graph of dry density vs moisture content is then plotted as in Figure 4.1.1. The
points should be joined by a curve of best fit.

The maximum dry density (MDD) and corresponding optimum moisture content (OMC)
are then determined from the graph. Read off these values to three significant figures.

Note. The maximum on the curve may lie between two points, but when drawing
the curve, care should be taken not to exaggerate its peak.

4.3.6.3 If required, curves corresponding to air void contents can be plotted on the same graph
(see Figure 4.1.1). These are calculated from the equation

Va
1 -
d = 100
1 w
-
s 100 w

where, d is the dry density (in kg/m3);


s is the particle density (in kg/m3);
w is the density of water (in kg/m3), assumed equal to 1;
Va is the volume of air voids in the soil expressed as a percentage of
the total volume of the soil (equal to 0%, 5%, 10% for the purpose
of the example);
w is the moisture content (in %).

4.3.7 Report. The test report shall contain the following information :

a) the method of test used;


b) the sample preparation procedure, and whether a single sample or separate
samples were used. In the case of stiff, cohesive soil the size of pieces to which the
soil was broken down shall be stated;
c) the experimental points and the smooth curve drawn through them showing the
relationship between moisture content and dry density;
d) the dry density corresponding to the maximum dry density on the moisture content /
dry density curve, reported as the maximum dry density to the nearest 0.01 (in
Mg/m3);
e) the percentage moisture content corresponding to the maximum dry density on the
moisture content / dry density curve, reported as the optimum moisture content to
two significant figures;
f) the amount of stone retained on the 20 mm and 37.5 mm test sieves reported to
the nearest 1% by dry mass;
g) the particle density and whether measured (and if so the method used) or
assumed.

Examples of completed test sheets are given in Forms 4.3.1 to 4.3.4.

In addition to the information above, the test sheets should contain full details of the
sample description and location etc. The operator should sign and date the test sheets.

MAY 2001 Page 4.14


Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

The determined moisture content should be within 1% of the required moisture content
if the mixing and testing has been carried out correctly.

The graph of dry density vs moisture content is then plotted as in Figure 4.1.1. The
points should be joined by a curve of best fit.

The maximum dry density (MDD) and corresponding optimum moisture content (OMC)
are then determined from the graph. Read off these values to three significant figures.

Note. The maximum on the curve may lie between two points, but when drawing
the curve, care should be taken not to exaggerate its peak.

4.3.6.3 If required, curves corresponding to air void contents can be plotted on the same graph
(see Figure 4.1.1). These are calculated from the equation

Va
1 -
d = 100
1 w
-
s 100 w

where, d is the dry density (in kg/m3);


s is the particle density (in kg/m3);
w is the density of water (in kg/m3), assumed equal to 1;
Va is the volume of air voids in the soil expressed as a percentage of
the total volume of the soil (equal to 0%, 5%, 10% for the purpose
of the example);
w is the moisture content (in %).

4.3.7 Report. The test report shall contain the following information :

a) the method of test used;


b) the sample preparation procedure, and whether a single sample or separate
samples were used. In the case of stiff, cohesive soil the size of pieces to which the
soil was broken down shall be stated;
c) the experimental points and the smooth curve drawn through them showing the
relationship between moisture content and dry density;
d) the dry density corresponding to the maximum dry density on the moisture content /
dry density curve, reported as the maximum dry density to the nearest 0.01 (in
Mg/m3);
e) the percentage moisture content corresponding to the maximum dry density on the
moisture content / dry density curve, reported as the optimum moisture content to
two significant figures;
f) the amount of stone retained on the 20 mm and 37.5 mm test sieves reported to
the nearest 1% by dry mass;
g) the particle density and whether measured (and if so the method used) or
assumed.

Examples of completed test sheets are given in Forms 4.3.1 to 4.3.4.

In addition to the information above, the test sheets should contain full details of the
sample description and location etc. The operator should sign and date the test sheets.

MAY 2001 Page 4.14


Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

MAY 2001 Page 4.15


Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship
Form 4.3.2

MAY 2001 Page 4.16


Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

MAY 2001 Page 4.17


Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

MAY 2001 Page 4.18


Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

4.4 Heavy Compaction using 4.5 kg Rammer

4.4.1 Scope. This type of compaction is widely used for pavement materials and also for
earthworks and sub-grades if a high standard of compaction is specified.

This method may be carried out in the 1L compaction mould or in a CBR mould.

4.4.2 Apparatus, sample preparation and test procedure. The test is similar to the
standard compaction (2.5 kg rammer) as described earlier, the only differences being
that the sample is compacted in 5 equal layers with the 4.5 kg rammer dropping from a
controlled height of 450 mm. The 4.5 kg rammer is shown in Figure 4.4.1. As previously
each layer still receives 27 blows / layer for a 1L mould and 62 blows / layer for a CBR
mould. Calculation and reporting of results are identical to those for 2.5 kg rammer
compaction test.

4.5 Vibrating Hammer Method

4.5.1 Scope. This test is applicable to granular soils containing no more than 30% by mass
of material retained on the 20 mm sieve, which may include some particles retained on
the 37.5 mm sieve. It is not generally suitable for cohesive soils. The principle is similar
to that of the rammer procedures except that a vibrating hammer is used instead of a
drop-weight rammer, and a larger mould (the standard CBR mould) is necessary.

4.5.2 Apparatus

a) Cylindrical metal mould, internal dimensions 152 mm diameter and 127 mm high
(CBR mould). The mould can be fitted with an extension collar and base-plate. The
mould is shown in Figure 4.3.3.
b) Electric vibrating hammer, power consumption 600-800 W, operating at a
frequency in the range 25-60 Hz. For safety reasons the hammer should operate
on 110V and an earth-leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) should be included in the line
between the hammer and the mains supply.
c) Steel tamper for attaching to the vibrating hammer with a circular foot 145 mm
diameter (see Figure 4.5.1 a) and b)).
d) A balance readable to 5 g.
e) 20 mm and 37.5 mm BS sieves and receiver.
f) A straightedge, e.g. a steel strip about 300 mm long, 25 mm wide and 3 mm thick,
with one beveled edge.
g) Depth gauge or steel rule reading to 0.5 mm.
h) Apparatus for the determination of moisture content.
i) Laboratory stop-clock reading to 1 s.
j) A corrosion-resistant metal or plastic trays with sides, e.g. about 80 mm deep of a
size suitable for the quantity of material to be used.
k) A scoop.
l) Apparatus for extracting compacted specimens from the mould (optional).

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

4.4 Heavy Compaction using 4.5 kg Rammer

4.4.1 Scope. This type of compaction is widely used for pavement materials and also for
earthworks and sub-grades if a high standard of compaction is specified.

This method may be carried out in the 1L compaction mould or in a CBR mould.

4.4.2 Apparatus, sample preparation and test procedure. The test is similar to the
standard compaction (2.5 kg rammer) as described earlier, the only differences being
that the sample is compacted in 5 equal layers with the 4.5 kg rammer dropping from a
controlled height of 450 mm. The 4.5 kg rammer is shown in Figure 4.4.1. As previously
each layer still receives 27 blows / layer for a 1L mould and 62 blows / layer for a CBR
mould. Calculation and reporting of results are identical to those for 2.5 kg rammer
compaction test.

4.5 Vibrating Hammer Method

4.5.1 Scope. This test is applicable to granular soils containing no more than 30% by mass
of material retained on the 20 mm sieve, which may include some particles retained on
the 37.5 mm sieve. It is not generally suitable for cohesive soils. The principle is similar
to that of the rammer procedures except that a vibrating hammer is used instead of a
drop-weight rammer, and a larger mould (the standard CBR mould) is necessary.

4.5.2 Apparatus

a) Cylindrical metal mould, internal dimensions 152 mm diameter and 127 mm high
(CBR mould). The mould can be fitted with an extension collar and base-plate. The
mould is shown in Figure 4.3.3.
b) Electric vibrating hammer, power consumption 600-800 W, operating at a
frequency in the range 25-60 Hz. For safety reasons the hammer should operate
on 110V and an earth-leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) should be included in the line
between the hammer and the mains supply.
c) Steel tamper for attaching to the vibrating hammer with a circular foot 145 mm
diameter (see Figure 4.5.1 a) and b)).
d) A balance readable to 5 g.
e) 20 mm and 37.5 mm BS sieves and receiver.
f) A straightedge, e.g. a steel strip about 300 mm long, 25 mm wide and 3 mm thick,
with one beveled edge.
g) Depth gauge or steel rule reading to 0.5 mm.
h) Apparatus for the determination of moisture content.
i) Laboratory stop-clock reading to 1 s.
j) A corrosion-resistant metal or plastic trays with sides, e.g. about 80 mm deep of a
size suitable for the quantity of material to be used.
k) A scoop.
l) Apparatus for extracting compacted specimens from the mould (optional).

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

Vibrating Hammer Assembly

Figure 4.5.1 (a)

Tamper for Vibrating Hammer Compaction Test

Figure 4.5.1 (b)

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

4.5.3 Calibration of apparatus

4.5.3.1 General. The vibrating hammer shall be maintained in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions. Its working parts shall not be badly worn.

The calibration test described in 4.5.3.3 below shall be carried out to determine
whether the vibrating hammer is in satisfactory working order, and able to comply with
the requirements of the test.

4.5.3.2 Material. Clean, dry silica sand, from the (geological) Woburn Beds of the Lower
Greensand in the Leighton Buzzard district of the UK. The grading shall be such that at
least 75% passes the 600 m sieve and is retained on the 425 m sieve. Dry and not
previously used sand shall be used. This sand shall be sieved through 1 600 m test
sieve and the coarse fraction shall be discarded.

Note. This is the standard sand as described in the British Standard. Advice on
suitable suppliers can be obtained from BSI in the UK. Advice should be
sought from BRRL as to whether a suitable sand is available locally, to
reduce dependence on costly imports.

4.5.3.3 Calibration test

a) Take a 50.1 kg sample of the specified in 4.5.3.2, which has not been used
previously and mix it with water in order to raise its moisture content to 2.50.5%.
b) Compact the wet sand in a cylindrical metal mould of 152 mm diameter and 127
mm depth, using the vibrating hammer as specified in the section on apparatus
above.
c) Carry out a total of three tests, all on the same sample of sand, and determine the
mean dry density. Determine the dry density values to the nearest 0.002 Mg/m3.

Note. The operator can usually judge the required pressure to apply with
sufficient accuracy after carrying out the check described in 4.5.4 below.

d) If the range of values in the three tests exceeds 0.01 Mg/ m3, repeat the procedure.
Consider the vibrating hammer suitable for use in the vibrating compaction test if
the mean dry density of the sand exceeds 1.74 Mg/m3.

Note. Advice should be sought from BRRL if a locally available replacement for
the Leighton Buzzard sand is used and the replacement does not achieve
a mean dry density of 1.74 Mg/m3.

4.5.3.3 Calibration of operator. Before being allowed to carry out the test the operator must
practise with the apparatus in order to achieve the correct downward pressure required
in the test. The downward force, including that resulting from the mass of the hammer
and tamper should be 300-400 N. This force is sufficient to prevent the hammer
bouncing up and down on the soil. The correct force can be determined by standing the
hammer, without vibration, on a platform scale and pressing down until a mass of 30-40
kg is indicated. With experience the pressure to be applied can be judged, but an
occasional check on the platform scale is advisable. If the hammer-supporting frame is
used, the hand pressure required is much less but should be carefully checked.

4.5.5 Sample preparation. The procedure to be adopted depends on the grading zone into
which the sample falls (see Table 4.2.1), and whether the soil is susceptible to
crushing. Full details of sample preparation methods are given in Tables 4.2.2 to 4.2.5.
The quantities of soil required are indicated in Table 4.2.1.

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

4.5.6 Preparation of apparatus. See that the component parts of the mould are clean and
dry. Assemble the mould, base-plate and collar securely, and weigh to the nearest 5 g
(m1). Measure the internal dimensions of the assembly to 0.5 mm and calculate the
internal volume. The nominal dimensions of the mould give an area of cross-section of
18, 146 mm2 and a volume of 2304.5 cm3 (say 2305 cm3) but these may change
slightly with wear. The inside height of the mould with collar is recorded (h 1 mm).

It is particularly important to ensure the lugs and clamps holding the mould assembly
together are secure and in good condition, in order to withstand the effects of vibration.
If the mould has screw-on fittings, the threads must be kept clean and undamaged.
Avoid cross-threading when fitting the base-plate and extension collar, and make sure
that they are tightened securely as far as they will go without leaving any threads
exposed. Screw threads and mating surfaces should be lightly oiled before tightening.

Ensure that the vibrating hammer is working properly, in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions. See that it is properly connected to the mains supply, and
that the connecting cable is in sound condition. The supporting frame if used, must
move freely without sticking. The hammer should have been verified as described in
4.5.3.3.

The tamper stem must fit properly into the hammer adapter, and the foot must fit inside
the CBR mould with the necessary clearance (3.5 mm all round).

4.5.7 Test procedure

4.5.7.1 Place the mould assembly on a solid base, such as a concrete floor or plinth. If the test
is to be performed out of doors because of noise and vibration problems place the
mould on a concrete paved area, not on unpaved ground or on thin asphalt. Any
resilience in the base results in inadequate compaction.

4.5.7.2 For soils susceptible to crushing, prepare the soil to provide a sample of about 40 kg
from which 5 (or more) separate batches of about 8 kg are obtained and made up to
different moisture contents. It is not necessary, for soils not susceptible to crushing, to
be divided into 5 separate batches. Add a quantity of soil to the mould, such that after
compaction the mould is one-third filled. A preliminary trial may be necessary to
ascertain the correct amount of soil. A disc of polyethylene sheet, of a diameter equal
to the internal diameter of the mould, may be placed on top of the layer of soil. This will
help to prevent sand particles moving up through the annular gap between the tamper
and the mould.

4.5.7.3 Compact the layer with the vibrating hammer, fitted with the tamper for 602 s, applying
a firm pressure vertically downwards throughout.

The downward force of 300-400 N should only be applied by a practised operator (see
4.5.4 above).

Repeat the above compaction procedure with a second layer of soil, and then with a
third layer. The final thickness of the compacted specimen should be between 127 mm
and 133 mm: if it is not, remove the soil and repeat the test.

4.5.7.4 After compaction remove any loose material from the surface of the specimen around
the edge of the mould collar. Lay the straight-edge across the top of the collar, and
measure down to the surface of the specimen with the steel rule or depth gauge, to an
accuracy of 0.5 mm. Take readings at four points spread evenly over the surface, all at
least 15 mm from the side of the mould. Calculate the average depth (h2 mm). The
mean height of the compacted specimen, h, is given by

h = (h1 - h2 ) mm

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Chapter 4 Standard Test Procedures
Dry Density Moisture Content Relationship

where h1 = Height of mould.

4.5.7.5 Weigh the mould with the compacted soil, collar and base-plate to the nearest 5 g (m2).

4.5.7.6 Remove the soil from the mould and place on the tray. A jacking extruder makes this
operation easy if fittings to suit the CBR mould are available. However, sandy and
gravelly (non-cohesive) soil should not be too difficult to break up and remove by hand.

4.5.7.7 Take two representative samples in large moisture content containers for measurement
of moisture content. This must be done immediately after removal from the mould,
before the soil begins to dry out. The moisture content samples must be large enough
to give results representative of the maximum particle size of the soil. The average of
the two moisture content determinations is denoted by w%.

4.5.7.8 For soils susceptible to crushing, repeat step 4.5.7.1 to 4.5.7.7 on each batch of soil in
turn. For soil not susceptible to crushing break up the material on the tray and rub it
through the 20 mm or the 37.5 mm sieve if necessary, mixing with the remainder of the
sample. Add an increment of water so as to raise the moisture content by 1 to 2% (150-
300 ml of water for 15 kg of soil). As the optimum moisture content is approached it is
preferable to add water in smaller increments.

4.5.7.9 Repeat stages 4.5.7.1 to 4.5.7.8 for each increment of water added. At least five
compactions should be made, and the range of moisture contents should be such that
the optimum moisture content is within that range. If necessary, carry out one or more
additional test at suitable moisture contents.

Above a certain moisture content the soil may contain an excessive amount of free
water, which indicates that the optimum condition has been passed.

4.5.8 Calculation and expression of results. The following stages apply to both the above
procedures :

Calculate the bulk density (in kg/m3), of each compacted specimen from the equation

m2 - m1
= 1000
Ah

where, m1 = mass of mould, collar and base-plate;


m2 = mass of mould, collar and base-plate with soil;
h = height of compacted soil specimen = h1 h2 mm;
A = circular area of the mould (in mm2).

Calculate the density, d (in kg/m3), of each compacted specimen from the equation

100
d =
100 + w

where, w, is the moisture content of the soil.

The results of the required calculations, as determinations of dry density and moisture
content, are plotted as described in Part 4.3.6 and illustrated in Form 4.1.1 to 4.1.4.

Calculations for air voids can be calculated if required as detailed in Part 4.3.6.

4.5.9 Report. The requirements for reporting are as detailed in 4.3.7.

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

CHAPTER 5

STRENGTH TESTS
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO AND DYNAMIC CONE PENETROMETER

5.1 California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test

5.1.1 Introduction

5.1.1.1 General. The test is an empirical test which gives an indication of the shear strength of
a soil. The great value of this test is that it is comparatively easy to perform and
because of its wide use throughout the world, there is a vast amount of data to assist
with the interpretation of results. The CBR test is essentially a laboratory test but in
some instances the test is carried out on the soil in-situ.

5.1.1.2 Scope. The laboratory CBR test consists essentially of preparing a sample of soil in a
cylindrical steel mould and then forcing a cylindrical steel plunger, of nominal diameter
50 mm, into the sample at a controlled rate, whilst measuring the force required to
penetrate the sample.

A pictorial view of the general test arrangement is shown in Figure 5.1.1.

CBR values may vary from less than 1% on soft clays to over 150% on dense crushed
rock samples.

Preparation of remoulded samples for the CBR test can be made in several ways.
However, commonly used methods are described here:

(1) Static compression


(2) Dynamic compaction by
(a) using 2.5 or 4.5 kg rammer and
(b) using vibrating hammer.

5.1.2.1 Material. The CBR test is carried out on material passing a 20mm test sieve. If soil
contains particles larger than this the fraction retained on 20mm shall be removed and
weighed before preparing the test sample. If this fraction is greater than 25% of the
original sample the test is not applicable. The moisture content of the specimen or
specimens can be adjusted as necessary following the procedure given in Chapter 4.
The moisture content used is normally to the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC), but
obviously this can be varied to suit particular requirements.

5.1.2.2 Mass of soil for test. When the density or air voids content of a compacted sample is
specified the exact amount of soil required for the test can be calculated as described
in a) or b) below. When a compactive effort is specified the mass of soil can only be
estimated, as described in c) below.

a) Dry density specification. The mass of soil m1 (in g), required to just fill the CBR
mould of volume Vm (in cm3) is given by the equation

Vm
m1 = (100 + w ) d
100

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
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where, w is the moisture content of the soil (in %); and pd is the specified dry
density (in Mg/m3).

b) Air voids specification. The dry density, d, (in Mg/m3), corresponding to an air
voids content of Va (in %) is given by the equation

Va
1-
d = 100
1 w
+
s 100 w

Where,
Va is the air voids expressed as a percentage of the total volumes of soil ;
3
s is the particle density (in Mg/m );
w is the soil moisture content (in %);
3
w is the density of water (in Mg/m ), assumed equal to 1.

The corresponding mass of soil to just fill the CBR mould is calculated from the
equation in (a) above.

c) Compactive effort specification. About 6kg of soil shall be prepared for each sample
to be tested. The initial mass shall be measured to the nearest 5g so that the mass
used for the test sample can be determined after compaction by difference, as a
check.

Note. Preliminary trials may be necessary to determine the required mass more
closely.

5.1.2.3 Undisturbed samples. This method is very useful for testing of fine-grained cohesive
soils, but cannot be applied to non-cohesive materials or materials containing gravel or
stones. Only the CBR moulds as described in 5.1.2.4(b) are suitable for undisturbed
sampling.

5.1.2.4 Apparatus. The following apparatus is variously required to carry out the 2.5 kg, 4.5 kg
and Vibrating hammer methods in Figure 5.1.2.

a) Test sieves of aperture sizes 20 mm and 5 mm.


b) A cylindrical, corrosion-resistant, metal mould, i.e. the CBR mould, having a
nominal internal diameter of 1520.5 mm. The mould shall be fitted with a
detachable base-plate and a removable extension. The mould is shown in Figure
4.3.3. The internal faces shall be smooth, clean and dry before each use.
c) A compression device (load press) for static compaction, (for 2.5 kg hammer).
Horizontal platens shall be large enough to cover a 150mm diameter circle and
capable of a vertical separation of not less than 300 mm. The device shall be
capable of applying a force of at least 300 kN.
d) Metal plugs, 1520.5 mm in diameter and 501.0 mm thick, for static compaction of
a soil specimen (for 2.5 kg hammer). A handle which may be screwed into the
plugs makes removal easier after compaction. The essential dimensions are shown
in Figure 5.1.3. Three plugs are required for 2.5 kg hammer.

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California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

e) A metal rammer, (for 4.5 kg hammer). This shall be either the 2.5 kg rammer or the
4.5 kg rammer, both as specified in Chapter 4, depending on the degree of
compaction required. A mechanical compacting apparatus may be used provided
that it also complies with the requirements of that document.
f) An electric, vibrating hammer and tamper, as specified in Chapter 4 (for vibrating
hammer).
g) A steel rod, about 16mm in diameter and 600 mm long.
h) A steel straightedge, e.g. a steel strip about 300 mm long, 25 mm wide and 3mm
thick, with one beveled edge.
i) A spatula.
j) A balance, capable of weighing up to 25 kg readable to 5 g.
k) Apparatus for moisture content determination, as described in Chapter 3.
l) Filter papers, 150 mm in diameter, e.g. Whatman No. 1 or equivalent.
50 1

Screw
thread

1500.5

Figure 5.1.3 Plug for use with cylindrical mould in the CBR test (in mm).

5.1.2.5 Preparation of test sample using static compression

1. Preparation of mould

a) Weigh the mould with baseplate attached to the nearest 5 g (m2).


b) Measure the internal dimensions to 0.5 mm
c) Attach the extension collar to the mould and cover the base-plate with a filter
paper.
d) Measure the depth of the collar as fitted, and the thickness of the spacer plug
or plugs, to 0.1 mm.

2. Preparation procedure

a) This procedure is for 2.5 kg hammer in Figure 5.1.2.


b) Divide the prepared quantity of soil into three portions with a mass equal to
within 50 g of each other and seal each portion in an airtight container until
required for use.
c) Place one portion in the mould and level the surface. Compact to 1/3 the height
of the mould in the compression device using suitably marked steel spacer
discs to obtain the required depth of sample (127/3 = 42 mm). The mould is
then removed from the compression device and the second portion of the
material is added. This is then compressed to give a total sample depth to 2/3
the height of the mould (i.e. 85 mm). Finally, the remainder of the sample is

MAY 2001 Page 5.5


Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

added and the mould is returned to the compression device until the finished
sample is just level with the top of the mould. Care should be taken not to
damage the press by attempting to crush the steel mould when the sample is
level : always pay close attention to the load gauge. Except for some dense
aggregates the force required for compaction should not be very large.
d) On completion of compaction weigh the mould, soil and base-plate to the
nearest 5 g (m3).
e) Unless the sample is to be tested immediately, seal the sample (by screwing on
the top plate if appropriate) to prevent loss of moisture. With clay soils or soils
in which the air content is less than 5%, allow the sample to stand for at least
24 h before testing to enable excess pore pressures set up during compression
to dissipate.

5.1.2.6 Preparation of sample using dynamic compaction

1. General. This method may be used if a static compression device is not available.
If it is required to compact specimens to a density and moisture content other than
Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content, it is preferable to use static
compaction, as with dynamic compaction these can only be achieved by trial and
error.

Note. An alternative to compacting a single sample using a specified compaction


method (see 5.1.2.6(3) below) and then carrying out a CBR test on it, is to
carry out a CBR test on each of the specimens made up during a normal
compaction test (in CBR moulds). This procedure gives a curve of varying
CBR with moisture content/dry density, an example is shown in Figure 5.1.8
at the end of this document.

2. Preparation of mould. Follow the procedure given in 5.1.2.5(1) above, with the
exception of 5.1.2.5(1)(d) .

3. Preparation procedure

3A. Using compaction rammers

a) This procedure is for 4.5 kg hammer in Figure 5.1.2


b) The procedures for use in the CBR mould are summarised in Table 5.1.1
below.

Table 5.1.1 Dynamic compaction procedures for use in CBR mould

Test Method Mass of Height of Number Blows


Rammer Drop mm of Layers per
(Kg) Layer
2.5 kg rammer method 2.5 300 3 62
Intermediate compaction * 4.5 450 5 30
4.5 kg rammer method 4.5 450 5 62
Vibrating hammer method ** - 3 -

* Recommended procedure to obtain a specimen density between that achieved


by using the 2.5 kg and 4.5 kg rammer methods.

** See Chapter 4 for specification of vibrating hammer

c) Having decided which compaction method to use from Table 5.1.2, divide the
prepared quantity of soil into three (or five) portions with a mass equal to

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

within 50 g of each other and seal each portion into an airtight container until
required for use.
d) Stand the mould assembly on a solid base, e.g. a concrete floor.
e) Place the first portion of soil into the mould and compact it with the required
number of blows of the appropriate rammer. After compaction the layer
should occupy about or a little more than one-third (or one-fifth) of the height
of the mould. Ensure that the blows are evenly distributed over the surface of
the soil.
f) Repeat the process in (e) above using the other two (or four) portions of soil,
so that the final of the soil surface is not more that 6mm above the top of the
mould body.
g) Remove the collar, trim the soil flush with the top of the mould with a scraper,
and check with the steel straightedge that the surface is level.
h) Weigh the mould, soil and base-plate to the nearest 5 g (m3)
i) Seal and store the sample as described in 5.1.2.5(2)(e)

3B. Using a vibrating hammer

a) This procedure is for Vibrating Hammer in Figure 5.1.2.


b) Divide the prepared quantity of soil into three portions with a mass equal to
within 50 g of each other and seal each portion in an airtight container until
required for use, to prevent loss of moisture.
c) Stand the mould assembly on a solid base, e.g. a concrete floor or plinth.
d) Please the first portion of soil into the mould and compact it using the
vibrating hammer fitted with the circular steel tamper. Compact for a period of
602 s, applying a total downward force on the sample of between 300 N and
400 N. The compacted thickness of the layer shall be about equal to or a little
greater than one-third of the height of the mould.
e) Repeat 3B(d) of 5.1.2.6(3) above using the other two portions of soil in turn,
so that the final level of the soil surface is not more than 6 mm above the top
of the mould.
f) Remove the collar and trim the soil flush with the top of the mould with the
scraper, checking with the steel straightedge.
g) Weigh the mould, soil and base-plate to the nearest 5 g (m3).
h) Seal and store the sample as described in 5.1.2.5(2)(e) above.

3C. Preparation of undisturbed sample. Take an undisturbed sample from natural


soil or from compacted fill by the procedure described in Chapter 2 using a
weighed CBR mould fitted with a cutting shoe.

After removing the cutting shoe from the mould, cut and trim the ends of the
sample so that they are flush with the ends of the mould body. Fill any cavities
with fine soil, well pressed in.

Attach the base-plate and weigh the sample in the mould to the nearest 5 g (m3).
Unless the sample is to be tested immediately, seal the exposed face with a plate
or an impervious sheet to prevent loss of moisture.

5.1.2.7 Soaking

1. General. The test sample as prepared will normally represent the material shortly
after compaction in the road works. However, if the material is likely to be
subjected to an increase in moisture content, either from rainfall, ground-water or
ingress through the surfacing it is probable that its strength and, hence, CBR, will
drop as the moisture content increases. In an attempt to estimate these effects
CBR samples can be soaked in water for 4 days prior to penetration testing.

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
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Some soils, especially heavy clays, are likely to swell during soaking and
excessive swelling may indicate that the soil is unsuitable for use as a sub-grade;
it is, therefore, important to record the swell during soaking.

2. Apparatus. The following items are required in addition to the apparatus listed in
5.1.2.4 above.

a) A perforated base-plate, fitted to the CBR mould in place of the normal base-
plate (see Figure 5.1.4).
b) A perforated swell plate, with an adjustable stem to provide a seating for the
stem of a dial gauge (see Figure 5.1.4).
c) Tripod, mounting to support the dial gauge. A suitable assembly is shown in
Figure 5.1.4.
d) A dial gauge, having a travel of 25 mm and reading to 0.01 mm.
e) A soaking tank, large enough to allow the CBR mould with base-plate to be
submerged, preferably supported on an open mesh platform.
f) Annular surcharge discs, each having a mass known to 50 g, an internal
diameter of 52-54 mm and an external diameter of 145-150 mm. As an
alternative, half-circular segments may be used. For practical purposes, the
latter are often easier to use.
g) Petroleum jelly.

Dial
Dialgauge
gauge
Dial gauge
mounting
frame

Adjustable
Surcharge
Surchargerings
rings stem
Extension collar Looking nut
Extension collar

Sooking tank
Perforated
swell plate

CBR mould
body
Sample

Perforated
baseplate
Open mesh
platform

Figure 5.1.4 Apparatus for measuring the swelling of a sample during soaking
for the CBR Test.
3. Test procedure

a) Remove the base-plate from the mould and replace it with the perforated
base-plate.
b) Fit the collar to the other end of the mould, packing the screw threads with
petroleum jelly to obtain a watertight joint.
c) Place the mould assembly in the empty soaking tank. Place a filter paper on
top of the sample, followed by the perforated swell plate. Fit the required
number of annular surcharge discs around the stem on the perforated plate.

Note. One surcharge disc of 2 kg simulates the effect of approximately 70


mm of superimposed construction on the sub-grade being tested.
However, the exact amount of surcharge is not critical. Surcharge
discs of any convenient multiples may be used.

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
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d) Mount the dial gauge support on top of the extension collar, secure the dial
gauge in place and adjust the stem on the perforated plate to give a
convenient zero reading (see Figure 5.1.4)
e) The apparatus is then placed in a tank of clean water and the sample is kept
submerged for 4 days and the dial gauge is read every 24 hours. The
difference between the initial and final dial gauge reading gives the swell, S.
The % swell is given by :

S S
% Swell = x 100 = %
127.0 1.27
Where, S is in mm.

f) On completion of soaking surplus water is wiped from the sample which is re-
weighed. The difference in weights before and after soaking is the weight of
water absorbed, Ww. The % of water absorbed is give by :

M W (100 + m 2 )
% Water absorbed = %
Wm
Where Wm is original weight of sample and m2 is original moisture content.

g) Take off the dial gauge and its support, remove the mould assembly from the
immersion tank and allow the sample to drain for 15 min. If the tank is fitted
with a mesh platform leave the mould there to drain after emptying the tank. If
water remains on the top of the sample after draining it should be carefully
siphoned off.
h) Remove the surcharge discs, perforated plate and extension collar. remove
the perforated base-plate and refit the original base-plate.
i) Weigh the sample with mould and base-plate to the nearest 5 g if the density
after soaking is required.
j) If the sample has swollen, trim it level with the end of the mould and reweigh.
k) The sample is then ready for test in the soaked condition.

5.1.2.8 Penetration test procedure

1. Apparatus. A general arrangement of apparatus is shown in Figure 5.1.5. The


apparatus consists of:

a) A cylindrical metal plunger, the lower end of which shall be of hardened steel
and have a nominal cross-sectional area of 1935 mm2, corresponding to a
specified diameter of 49.65 0.10 mm. A convenient size would be
approximately 250 mm long.
b) A machine for applying the test force through the plunger, having a means for
applying the force at a controlled rate. The machine shall be capable of
applying at least 45 kN at a rate of penetration of the plunger of 1 mm/min to
within 0.2 mm/min.
c) A calibrated force-measuring device, usually a load ring or proving ring. The
device shall be supported by the cross-head of the compression machine so
as to prevent its own weight being transferred to the test specimen (see
Figure 5.1.1)

Note. At least three force-measuring devices should be available, having


the following ranges :

0 to 2 kN readable to 2 N for values of CBR up to 8%


0 to 10 kN readable to 10 N for values of CBR from 8% to 40%

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

0 to 50 kN readable to 50 N for values of CBR above 40%

d) A means of measuring the penetration of the plunger into the specimen, to


within 0.01 mm. A dial gauge with 25 mm travel, reading to 0.01 mm and
fitted to a bracket attached to the plunger is suitable. A general arrangement
is shown in Figure 5.1.5. A dial gauge with a chisel edge to the stem anvil is
easier to use than one with a pointed stem anvil.

Note. A dial gauge indicating 1 mm/revolution is convenient since the


specified rate of penetration of 1 mm/min can be controlled
conveniently by keeping the hand of the dial gauge in step with the
second hand of a clock or watch. This is particularly convenient when
using a non-motorised loading frame.

e) A stop-clock or stopwatch readable to 1 s.


f) The CBR mould as described in Chapter 4.
g) Surcharge discs as described in 5.1.2.7(2).

2. Procedure

a) Place the mould with base-plate containing the sample, with the top face of
the sample exposed, centrally on the lower platen of the testing machine.
b) Place the appropriate annular surcharge discs on top of the sample.
c) Fit into place the cylindrical plunger and force-measuring device assembly
with the face of the plunger resting on the surface of the sample. Make sure
that the proving ring dial gauge is properly adjusted, i.e. that there is no
daylight between the bottom of the stem and the proving ring anvil.

Note. It may be necessary to move the crosshead up to allow the plunger to


be inserted through the surcharge discs and the stabilizer bar (if
fitted). Be careful to lower the cross-head again in order to make sure
that the lower platen and penetration dial gauge have enough travel
left before starting the test. This must be level before starting the
penetration test.

d) Apply a seating force to the plunger, depending on the expected CBR value,
as follows:

For CBR value up to 5% apply 10 kN


For CBR value from 5% to 30%, apply 50 kN
For CBR value up to 30% apply 250 kN

Note. The number of proving ring dial gauge divisions corresponding to the
required seating load can be found from the calibration chart for that
proving ring. It is helpful to have the N/division value displayed on
each load ring. It is extremely important to ensure that the
maximum allowable dial gauge reading for the proving ring is
never exceeded.

e) Record the reading of the force-measuring device as the initial zero reading
(because the seating force is not taken into account during the test) or reset
the force measuring to read zero.
f) Secure the penetration dial gauge in position. Record its initial zero reading,
or reset it to read zero. Make sure that all connections between plunger,
crosshead, proving ring and penetration dial gauge assembly are tight.
g) Start the test so that the plunger penetrates the sample at the uniform rate of
10.2 mm/min, and at the same instant start the timer.

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

h) Record readings of the force gauge at intervals of penetration of 0.25 mm to a


total penetration not exceeding 7.5 mm (see Form 5.1.2).

Note. If the operator plots the force penetration curve as the test is being
carried out, the test can be terminated when the indicated CBR value
falls below its maximum value. Thus if the CBR at 2.5 mm were seen
to be 6% but by 3.5 mm penetration it could be seen to have fallen
below 6%, the test could be stopped and the result reported as:

CBR at 2.5 mm penetration = 6%


CBR at 5.0 mm penetration = <6%

Dial gauge support

Dial gauge 25 travel


(0.01divisions
1per revolution)

Surcharge rings

Detachable collar

Hardened steel end

49.65 0.1
Soil Sample
152x 127 high Timer
Mould

All dimensions are in millimetres.


This design has been found satisfactory, but alternative designs may
be used provided that the essential requirements are fulfilled.

Figure 5.1.5 General arrangement of apparatus for the CBR test

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
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i) If a test is to be carried out on both ends of the sample, raise the plunger and
level the surface of the sample by filling in the depression left by the plunger
and cutting away any projecting material. Check for flatness with the
straightedge.
j) Remove the base-plate from the lower end of the mould, fit it securely on the
top end and invert the mould. Trim the exposed surface if necessary. If the
sample is to be soaked make sure that a perforated base-plate is used in the
correct position.
k) If the sample is to be soaked before carrying out a test on the base follow the
procedure described in 5.1.2.7(3) above.
l) Carry out the penetration test on the base by repeating 5.1.2.8(2).
m) After completing the penetration test or tests, determine the moisture content
of the test sample as follows:

(a) For a cohesive soil containing no gravel-sized particles and before


extruding the sample from the mould, take a sample of about 350 g
from immediately below each penetrated surface, but do not include
filling material used to make up the first end tested. Determine the
moisture content of each sample.

Note. If the sample has been soaked the moisture content after
soaking will generally exceed the initial moisture content.
Because of the possibility of moisture gradients the
determination of dry density from the moisture content after
soaking may have little significance. If required, the dry
density after soaking can be calculated from the initial sample
mass and moisture content and the measured increase in
height due to swelling.

(b) For a cohesionless soil or a cohesive soil containing gravel-sized


particles, extrude the complete sample, break it in half and determine
the moisture contents of the upper and lower halves separately.

5.1.2.9 Calculation and expression of results

1. Force-penetration curve

a) Calculate the force applied to the plunger from each reading of the force-
measuring device observed during the penetration test.

Note. Alternatively, readings of the force-measuring device may be plotted


directly against penetration readings. Forces are then calculated only
at the appropriate penetration values as in 5.1.2.6(1)(c).

b) Plot each value of force as ordinate against the corresponding penetration as


abscissa and draw a smooth curve through the points.

The normal type of curve is convex upwards as shown by the curve labeled
Test 1 in Figure 5.1.6 and needs no correction. If the initial part of the curve is
concave upwards as for Test 2 (curve OST) in Figure 5.1.6, the following
correction is necessary. Draw a tangent at the point of greatest slope, i.e. the
point of inflexion, S, and produce it to intersect the penetration axis at Q. The
corrected curve is represented by OST, with its origin at Q from which a new
penetration scale can be marked.

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
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If the graph continues to curve upwards as for Test 3 in Figure 5.1.6, and it is
considered that the penetration of the plunger is increasing the soil density
and therefore its strength, the above correction is not applicable.

c) Calculation of California Bearing Ratio. The standard force-penetration curve


corresponding to a CBR value of 100% is shown by the heavy curve in Figure
5.1.7, and forces corresponding to this curve are given in Table 5.1.2. The
CBR value obtained from a test is the force read from the test curve (after
correction and calculation if necessary) at a given penetration expressed as a
percentage of the force corresponding to the same penetration on the
standard curve. Curve representing a range of CBR values is included in
Figure 5.1.7.

Penetrations of 2.5mm and 5mm are used for calculating the CBR value.
From the test curve, with corrected penetration scale if appropriate, read off
the forces corresponding to 2.5 mm and 5 mm penetration. Express these as
a percentage of the standard force at these penetrations, i.e. 13.2 kN and 20
kN respectively. Take the higher percentage as the CBR value.

If the force-penetration curve is plotted on a diagram similar to Figure 5.1.7


the CBR value at each penetration can be read directly without further
computation if the correction described in 5.1.2.9(1)(b) for test 2 is not
required. The same diagram can be used for small forces and low CBR
values if both the force scale (ordinate) and the labeled CBR values
(abscissa) are divided by 10 as shown in brackets in Figure 5.1.7.

Table 5.1.2 Standard force-penetration relationships for 100% CBR

Penetration Force
mm kN kgf*
2 11.5 1172
2.5 13.2 1345
4 17.6 1793
5 20.0 2038
6 22.2 2262
8 26.3 2680
*Standard force in kilonewton converted using factor of 9.807

Note. Older equipment may be calibrated in imperial units, in which case

Test load (1bf)


CBR at 0.1 inches penetration = x 100%
3000

Test load (1bf)


CBR at 0.2 inches penetration = x 100%
4500
2. Density calculations

a) Determine the internal volume of the mould, Vm (in cm3).

b) Bulk density. The initial bulk density, (in kg/m3), of a sample compacted
with a specified effort (preparation methods 4.5 kg and vibrating hammer);
see Figure 5.1.2, or of an undisturbed sample, is calculated from the
equation:

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
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m3 - m 2
=
Vm

where,
m3 is the mass of soil, mould and base-plate (in g);
m2 is the mass of the mould and base-plate (in g);
Vm is the volume of the mould body (in cm3),

c) Dry density. The initial dry density, d (in kg/m3 ), of the sample is calculated
from the equation :

100
d =
100 + w

where, w is the moisture content of soil (in %).

If the dry density, ds (in Mg/m3), of the soaked soil is required, calculate it
from the equation:

d
ds =
Ax
1 +
1000 Vm

where,
A is the area of cross section of the mould (in mm2)
x is the increase in sample height after swelling (in mm).

Examples of completed calculations are given in Forms 5.1.1, 5.1.2 and


5.1.3.

5.1.2.10 Report. The test report shall affirm that the test was carried out in accordance with this
Part of this standard. The results of tests on the top and bottom ends of the sample
shall be indicated separately.

The test report shall contain the following information:

a) the method of test used;


b) force-penetration curves, showing corrections if appropriate;
c) the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values, to two significant figures. If the results
from each end of the sample are within 10% of the mean value, the average result
may be reported;
d) the initial sample density and the moisture content and dry density if required;
e) the method of sample preparation;
f) the moisture contents below the plunger at the end of each test, or the final
moisture contents of the two halves of the sample;
g) whether soaked or not, and if so the period of soaking and the amount of swell.
h) the proportion by dry mass of any over-size material removed from the original soil
sample before testing;
i) information on the description and origin of the sample, as detailed on the test
forms.

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California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
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5.2 Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) Test

5.2.1 General. The dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) test was developed by Transport and
Road Research Laboratory (TRRL), England. The DCP is an instrument designed for
the rapid in-situ measurement of the structural properties of existing road pavements
constructed with unbound materials. It is also used for determining the in-situ CBR
value of compacted soil sub-grade beneath the existing road pavement. Continuous
measurements can be made down to a depth of 800 mm or, when an extension rod is
fitted, to a depth of 1200 mm. Where pavement layers have different strengths the
boundaries can be identified and the thickness of the layers determined.

Correlations have been established between measurements with DCP and California
Bearing Ratio (CBR) so that results can be interpreted and compared with CBR
specifications for pavement design. Agreement is generally good over most of the
range but differences are apparent at low values of CBR, especially for fine-grained
materials. A typical test takes only a few minutes and therefore the instrument provides
a very efficient method of obtaining information which would normally require the
digging of test pits.

5.2.2 Apparatus. The DCP uses an 8kg weight dropping through a height of 575 mm and a
60" cone having a diameter of 20mm. The apparatus is assembled as shown in Figure
5.2.1. It has the following parts :

a) Handle
b) Top Rod
c) Hammer (8kg)
d) Anvil
e) Handguard Cursor
f) Bottom Rod
g) 1 Meter rule
h) 60o Cone
i) Spanners and tommy bar are used to ensure that the screwed joints are
dept tight at all times.

The following joints should be secured with loctite or similar non-hardening thread
locking compound prior to use :

(i) Handle/top rod


(ii) Anvil/bottom rod
(iii) Bottom rod/cone

5.2.3 Procedure

a) After assembly, the zero reading of the apparatus is recorded. This is done by
standing the DCP on a hard surface, such as concrete, checking that it is vertical
and then entering the zero reading in the appropriate place on the proforma (Form
5.2.1).

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

1960 mm APPROX

600 INC

Figure 5.2.1 Dynamic cone penetrometer assembly

MAY 2001 Page 5.22


Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

b) The instrument is held vertical as shown in Figure 5.2.2 and the weight carefully
raised to the handle. Care should be taken to ensure that the weight is touching the
handle, but not lifting the instrument, before it is allowed to drop and that the
operator lets it fall freely and does not lower it with his hands.

Note. If during the test the DCP leaves the vertical no attempt should be made to
correct this as contact between the bottom rod and the sides of the hole will
give rise to erroneous results.

c) It is recommended that a reading should be taken at increments of penetration of


about 10mm. However, it is usually easier to take a scale reading after a set
number of blows. It is therefore necessary to change the number of blows between
readings according to the strength of the layer being penetrated. For good quality
granular bases readings every 5 or 10 blows are normally satisfactory but for
weaker sub-base layers and sub-grades readings every 1 or 2 blows may be
appropriate.

Note. There is no disadvantage in taking too many readings, however if readings


are taken too infrequently, weak spots may be missed and it will be more
difficult to identify layer boundaries accurately, hence important information
will be lost.

d) After completing the test the DCP is removed by gently tapping the weight upwards
against the handle. Care should be taken when doing this as if it is done too
vigorously the life of the instrument will be reduced.

Note 1. Penetration rates as low as 0.5 mm/blow are acceptable but if there is no
measurable penetration after 20 consecutive blows it can be assumed
that the DCP will not penetrate the material. Under these circumstances a
hole can be drilled through the layer using an electric or pneumatic drill or
by coring. The lower layer can then be tested in the normal way. If only
occasional difficulties are experienced in penetrating granular materials it
is worthwhile repeating any failed tests a short distance away from the
original test point.

2) Cone should be replaced when its diameter is reduced by 10 percent.

5.2.4 Calculation and expression of results. The results of the DCP test are usually
recorded on a field data sheet similar to that shown in Form 5.2.1. The results can then
either be plotted by hand Figure 5.2.3 or processed by computer. The boundaries
between layers are easily identified by the change in the rate of penetration. The
thickness of the layers can usually be obtained to within 10 mm except where it is
necessary to core (or drill holes) through strong materials to obtain access to the lower
layers. In these circumstances the top few millimeters of the underlying layer is often
disturbed slightly and appears weaker than normal. Relationship between the DCP
readings and CBR can be obtained by the following equation:

3700
DCP - CBR percent =
(Pen 5 )1.3

The Pen 5 = Penetration in mm, every 5 blow interval. Relationship between the DCP
reading and the CBR can also be found from Kleyn and Van Hearden graph as shown
in Figure 5.2.4.

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

Figure 5.2.2 Dynamic Cone Penetrometer in Action

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

5.2.5 Report. The test report shall contain the following information :

a) The method of test used


b) Data sheet shall be included (Form 5.2.1)
c) Blows - Penetration depth curve (Figure 5.2.3) and CBR (%) value.

All other necessary information, needed by the client, should be added

MAY 2001 Page 5.25


Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

Form 5.2.1

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California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

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Chapter 5 Standard Test Procedures
California Bearing Ratio & Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

CHAPTER 6

DETERMINATION OF IN-SITU DENSITY

6.1 Introduction

In-situ density is widely used to control the field compaction of earthworks and
pavement layers. There are a number of methods available for measuring in-situ
density but only the two common methods are considered here. These are the core-
cutter method and the sand replacement method.

6.2 Sand Replacement Method

6.2.1 Introduction. The sand replacement method is the most widely used in-situ density
test. Although the test takes slightly longer to perform than some other in-situ density
tests, the test may be carried out on most type of materials.

There are various types of sand replacement equipment in use, but all types have
the following essential features.

a) A sand container or bottle


b) A valve to start or stop the flow of sand
c) A core connected to the valve and intended to fit over the area being tested.
d) A base plate which acts as a template during the excavation of the soil.

The stated size of the pouring cylinder relates to the diameter of the cone and thus
the diameter of the hole to be excavated. The three sizes commonly available are
100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm. The 100mm apparatus is mainly used for fine grained
soils as used for earthworks and the 200mm apparatus is intended for coarse
grained materials as used in the sub-base and base layers.

6.2.2 Apparatus. The following apparatus is required for the test :

a) A pouring cylinder (Small or Large) (see Figure 6.2.1.)


b) Suitable tools for excavating holes in compacted soil (bent spoon, scraper tool,
hammers, chisels and paint brush)
c) Cylindrical metal calibrating container with an internal diameter of 2005 mm and
internal depth of 250 mm fitted with a lip about 75 mm wide and about 5 mm thick
surrounding the open end for large pouring cylinder and internal diameter 1002
mm and internal depth of 1503 mm fitted with a lip about 50 mm wide and about
5 mm thick is required (see Figure 6.2.2).
d) Balance, readable to 10g for the large pouring cylinder method, or readable to 1
g for the small pouring cylinder method.
e) Glass plate of 10mm thick and about 500mm square.
f) Metal trays or containers
g) Apparatus for moisture content determination
h) A metal tray about 500mm square and about 50mm deep with a 200mm diameter
hole in the centre for large pouring cylinder and about 300mm square and about
40mm deep with a 100mm diameter hole in the centre.
i) Clean closely graded, preferably with rounded grains replacement sand. (100%
passing 600m sieve and 100% retained on the 75m sieve).

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

6.2.3 Calibrations

6.2.3.1 Calibration of apparatus. When the apparatus is used for a test a certain amount
of sand is contained in the cone above the excavated hole. This weight of sand must
be deducted from the total weight of sand used in the test in order to determine the
exact weight of sand used to fill the hole. The apparatus must then be calibrated to
determine the weight of sand in the cone. As the weight of sand in the cone will vary
slightly with the type of sand used, calibration of the apparatus should take place
each time the sand is calibrated.

One minor complication is that generally the base-plate is left in place during the test
and a small amount of sand is retained between the base-plate and the cone. In this
case, the calibration of the apparatus should be carried out using both base-plate
and cone. It is not normal to use the base-plate when calibrating the sand so, in this
case, the calibration of the apparatus should be done with the cone only.

To calibrate the apparatus, it is partly filled with sand and weighed. The apparatus
(with base-plate if required) is then placed on a flat glass plate and the valve is
opened. When the cone is completely full of sand, the valve is closed and the
apparatus is re-weighed. The difference between the two weights is the weight of
sand in the cone and base-plate if used. The calibration is normally repeated three
times and the average value taken.

6.2.3.2 Calibration of sand. The sand should be stored in a clean container and protected
from rain and damp and should be airtight. The purpose of the calibration is to
determine the density of the sand being used. Each new batch of sand should be
calibrated before use and existing sand should be calibrated weekly or monthly
depending on the frequency of use. The calibrating container is of the same diameter
as the apparatus being used and has a depth similar to that of the hole excavated for
the test. To use the container, fill the apparatus first with sand and weigh it. Then
place the cone over the calibration container and open the valve to allow the sand to
fill the cone and the container. When the cone is completely full close the valve and
reweigh the apparatus. The difference between these two weights is the weight of
sand in the container plus the weight of sand in the cone. The weight of sand in the
cone is found from the calibration of apparatus and may be deducted from the total
weight of sand to give the weight of sand in the container. The container is then
emptied, weighed and then filled with clean water. Wipe off any surplus water on the
sides of the containers with a clean cloth and reweigh the container plus water. The
weight of water in the container and thus its volume are then determined. Repeat
these measurements at least three times and calculate the mean values.

6.2.4. Excavation of test hole

6.2.4.1 Preparation of surface. Expose a flat area, approximately 600mm square


(approximately 450mm square for the small cylinder method) of the soil to be tested
and trim it down to a level surface. Brush away any loose material which is not part of
that being tested. The surface should be as level as possible in order to reproduce
the laboratory calibration conditions.

6.2.4.2 Excavation procedure

1) Lay the metal tray on the prepared surface with the hole over the portion of the
soil to be tested. Run a trowel or other sharp tool around the outside of the tray,
marking square on the surface of the soil being tested. This will help to position
the pouring cylinder during the later stages of the test. It is often helpful for the
tray to be nailed to the ground to stop it moving during the excavation of the test
hole.

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

2) Using the hole in the metal tray as a pattern, excavated a round hole,
approximately 200 mm in diameter (100 mm for the small cylinder method) and
the depth of the layer to be tested up to a maximum of 250 mm deep (150 mm for
the small cylinder method). Do not leave loose material in the hole and do not
distort the immediate surround to the hole. Carefully collect all the excavated soil
from the hole and determine its mass, mw to the nearest 10g (1 g for the small
cylinder method). Remove the metal tray before placing the pouring cylinder in
position over the excavated hole.

Note. Take care in excavating the hole to see that the hole is not enlarged by
levering the excavating tool against the side of the hole, as this will
result in lower densities being recorded.

3) Place a representative sample of the excavated soil in an airtight container and


determine its moisture content, w. Alternatively, the whole of the excavated soil
shall be dried and its mass md, determined.
4) Place the pouring cylinder filled with the constant mass of sand (m1) so that the
base of the cylinder covers the hole concentrically. This is assisted by the square
previously marked around the tray. Keep the shutter on the pouring cylinder
closed during this operation. Open the shutter and allow sand to run out; during
this period do not vibrate the pouring cylinder or the surrounding area. When no
further movement of the sand takes place, close the shutter. Remove the cylinder
and determine the mass of sand remaining in it (m4) to the nearest 10 g (nearest
1 g for the small cylinder method). For the small cylinder method this is easily
done by weighing the cylinder and remaining sand together.

6.2.5 Calculation and expression of results

6.2.5.1 Calculations

1) Calculate the mass of sand required to fill the calibrating container, ma (in g),
from the equation:

ma = m1 - m3 - m2

where
m1 is the mass of [cylinder and] sand before pouring in the calibrating container
(in g) :
m2 is the mean mass of sand in cone (in g);
m3 is the mean mass of [cylinder and] sand after pouring into the calibrating
container (in g).

2) Calculate the bulk density of the sand. a (in Mg/m3), from the equation :


a = ma
V

where, V is the volume of the calibrating container (in mL).

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

3) Calculate the mass of sand required to fill the excavated hole, mb (in g). from the
equation:

mb = m1 - m4 - m2

where,
m1 is the mass of [cylinder and] sand before pouring in the hole (in g) :
m2 is the mean mass of sand in the cone (in g);
m4 is the mean mass of [cylinder and] sand after pouring into the hole (in g)

4) Calculate the bulk density of the soil. (in mg/m3). from the equation:

m
= w a
mb

where
mw is the mass of soil excavated (in g);
mb is the mean mass of sand required to fill the hole (in g);
a is the bulk density of the sand (in Mg/m3).

5) Calculate the dry density, d (in Mg/m3), from the equation:

100
d =
100 + w

where, w is the moisture content of the soil (in %).

6) Calculate the in-situ relative compaction (RC) of the tested layer from the
equation :

d
RC = x 100%
MDD

where,
MDD is the Maximum Dry Density obtained from the compaction test used as the
standard for the particular layer. Note that the type of compaction test used is
dependent on the type of material.

Example of completed calculations are shown in Forms 6.2.1 to 6.2.3.

6.2.6 Report. The correct test form must be used for the report. The report shall contain
the following information:

a) The in-situ bulk and dry densities of the soil (in Mg/m3) to the nearest 0.01 in
Mg/m3.
b) The moisture content. as a percentage, to two significant figures.
c) All other information required by the test form. e.g. sample origin, description etc.
d) The operator should sign and date the test form.

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

6.3 Core Cutter Method

6.3.1 Introduction. This method is only used on fine-grained cohesive soils which do not
contain stones. It is, therefore, very useful for control of earthworks and subgrade
materials but is not suitable for coarse grained pavement materials. The test
involves jacking or hammering a steel cylinder of known mass and volume into the
soil, excavating it and finding the mass of soil contained in the cylinder.

6.3.2 Apparatus. The following apparatus is required for the test :

a) Cylindrical steel core cutter. 130 mm long and of 1002 mm internal diameter,
with a wall thickness of 3mm beveled at one end, of the type illustrated in Figure
6.3.1. The cutter shall be kept lightly greased.

Note. If the average density over a smaller depth is required, then the
appropriate length of cutter should be used.

b) Steel dolly, 25 mm high and of 100 mm internal diameter, with a wall thickness of
5mm, fitted with a lip to enable it to be located on top of the core cutter (see
figure 6.3.1).
c) Steel rammer.
d) Balance, readable to 1 g.
e) Palette knife, a convenient size is one having a blade approximately 200 mm long
and 30 mm wide.
f) Steel rule, graduated to 0.5 mm.
g) Short-handled hoe, or spade, and pickaxe.
h) Straightedge, e.g. a steel strip about 300 mm long 25 mm wide and 3 mm thick,
with one beveled edge.
i) Apparatus for moisture content determination.
j) Apparatus for extracting samples from the cutter (optional).

6.3.2 Care and preparation of apparatus

6.3.2.1 Care of apparatus. The condition of the cutting edge should be frequently checked
as any damage will lead to inaccuracy in the test. A badly damaged edge may be re-
formed on a lathe taking care to cut the new edge square to the long axis of the
mould. Any repair to the cutting edge will require the mould factor to be re-
determined.

6.3.3.2 Preparation of apparatus

a) Calculate the internal volume of the core cutter in cubic centimetres from its
dimensions which shall be measured to the nearest 0.5 mm (Vc ).
b) Weigh the cutter to the nearest 1 g (mc ).
c) Mould factor, To assist in the calculation of the bulk density of the soil it can be
useful to calculate a mould factor for each cutter, and to stamp or paint the value
F
on the mould. For the size of core cutter detailed above, the mould factor ratio
H
calculates as 0.979. This value would be used as a multiplier for the mass of wet
soil in the core cutter (in g).

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

Alternatively, a mould factor can be calculated as :

D2 x H
Mould Factor F = x x (1000)
4 (1000)3

D2 x H
F = 0.7854 x
(1000) 2

Where,
D is the diameter of the mould in mm.
H is the height of the mould in mm.

The value obtained from this calculation is used as a divisor to the mass of wet
soil in the core cutter (in g).

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

6.3.4 Test procedure

6.3.4.1 The area to be tested is first leveled and all loose material removed. The lightly
greased mould with driving dolly fixed is placed in position with the cutting edge on
the prepared surface.

6.3.4.2 The mould is then slowly driven into the soil by use of a jack or with a suitable
rammer (see Figure 6.3.1). Take care not to rock the mould and drive the cutter until
only about 10 mm of the dolly remains above the surface of the soil.

The use of a jack is to be preferred as this causes least disturbance to the soil.
However, some form of reaction weight such as a vehicle is required. To use a jack, a
block of wood is first placed on the top of the dolly and a hydraulic or screw jack is
then placed between the wood block and the underside or the reaction weight
(normally a jeep). The jack is then extended so that the mould is driven squarely into
the ground until only about 10mm of dolly is remaining above the surface. If driving is
continued until the soil completely fills the mould and dolly, there is a danger of
compressing the soil in the mould, thus giving incorrect results.

6.3.4.3 The mould, dolly and soil are then dug out of the ground using a spade. The soil in
the mould should not be disturbed during this operation.

6.3.4.4 The driving dolly should then be removed from the mould and the soil protruding from
each end of the mould trimmed off using a straight edge. The mould and soil are
weighed, ms .

6.3.4.5 The soil in the mould is then removed, crumbled and representative samples taken
for moisture content.

6.3.5 Calculation and expression of results. In principle, the bulk density of the soil.
( in Mg / m 3) , is calculated from the equation :

ms mc
=
Vc

where,
ms is the mass of soil and core cutter (in g);
mc is the mass of core cutter (in g);
Vc is the internal volume of core cutter (in mL).

Alternatively, using the mould factor ratio (see Chapter 4), the bulk density of the soil,
( in Kg / m 3 ) , can be calculated from the equation :

F
= ms - mc x
H

As a second alternative, using the mould factor F, the bulk density of the soil,
( in kg / m3 ) can be calculated from the equation :

ms mc
=
F

Value in kg/m3 are converted to Mg/m3 by dividing by 1000.

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

Calculate the dry density, d (Mg/m3) from equation :

100
d =
100 + w

where, w is the moisture content of the soil (in %).

The in-situ bulk and dry densities of the soil (Mg/m3), are expressed to the nearest
0.01 Mg/m3.

An example of a completed test calculation is given in Form 6.3.1 at the end of this
document.

6.3.6 Report. The test report shall contain the following information :

a) the method of the test used;


b) the in-situ bulk and dry densities of the soil in Mg/m3) to the nearest 0.01 Mg/m3
;
c) the moisture content, (in %), to two significant figures;
d) all other details required by the test form regarding sample origin and
description etc;
e) the operator should sign and date the test form.

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Chapter 6 Standard Test Procedures
Determination of In-situ Density

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

CHAPTER 7

TESTS FOR AGGREGATES AND BRICKS

7.1 Determination of Clay and Silt Contents in Natural Aggregates

7.1.1 Scope. This test covers the determination of the amount of material finer than the 75
micron sieve by washing. Clay particles and other aggregate particles that are
dispersed by the wash water, as well as water-soluble materials, will be removed from
the aggregate during the test. In addition to the test which uses water only for the
washing of the material, there is another test in which a dispersing agent is used in
assisting the loosening of the material finer than the 75 micron sieve. Unless otherwise
stated water only will be used.

7.1.2 Method outline. A sample of the aggregate is washed in a prescribed manner using
water. The decanted wash water, containing dissolved and suspended material, is
passed through the 75 micron test sieve. The loss in mass resulting from the wash
treatment is calculated as a percentage of the original sample and is reported as the
percentage of material finer than the 75 micron sieve by washing.

7.1.3 Equipment

7.1.3.1 Balance, which shall be capable of weighing a mass of aggregate appropriate to the
maximum size of aggregate and accurate to 0.1 g.

7.1.3.2 Test sieves. A nest of two sieve, the lower being the 75 micron test sieve and the upper
being a sieve with openings in the range of 2.36 mm to 1.18 mm.

7.1.3.3 Container, which will permit the sample with water to be vigorously agitated without any
loss of aggregate or water.

7.1.3.4 Oven, of sufficient capacity to heat and maintain the temperature to 110 0C plus or
minus 50C.

7.1.4 Sampling. Sampling shall be in accordance with the test method described in Chapter
2. Reduction of the bulk sample must also be carried out in order that the required
mass of material for the test is obtained. After reduction, which will yield the test
portion, the mass of the test portion shall comply with the values given in Table 7.1.1.

Table 7.1.1 Minimum mass of test portion

Nominal maximum size of aggregate Minimum mass, g


2.36 mm 100
5.00 mm 500
10.0 mm 1000
20.0 mm 2500
28.0 mm 5000
40.0 mm 5000
Larger than 63.0 mm 5000

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

7.1.5 Material finer than the 75 micron sieve test

7.1.5.1 Procedure

a) Dry the test sample in the oven to constant mass at a temperature of 1100C plus or
minus 50C. Determine the mass to the nearest 0.1% of the total mass of the test
sample.
b) Place the sample in a container and add sufficient water to cover it. No detergent,
or other substance shall be added to the water. Agitate the sample and water with
sufficient vigour to result in complete separation of the particles finer than 75
micron sieve from the coarser particles and to bring the fine material into
suspension. The use of a large spoon or other similar instrument to stir and agitate
the materials may be used. Immediately pour the wash water containing the
suspended and dissolved particles over the nested sieves so arranged that the
coarser sieve is at the top. Avoid decanting the coarser aggregates.
c) Add a second charge of water to the sample in the container, agitate, and decant
as before, the operation being repeated as many times as is necessary for the
wash water to be clear.
d) Return all material retained on the nested sieves by flushing to the washed sample.
Dry the washed sample in the oven to constant mass at 1100C plus or minus 50C
and determine the mass of the sample to the nearest 0.1% of the original mass of
the sample.

Note. Following the washing of the sample and flushing any materials retained
on the 75 micron sieve back into the container, no water should be
decanted from the container except through the 75 micron sieve. This is
to avoid any accidental loss of material. Excess water from flushing
should be evaporated in the drying process.

7.1.5.2 Calculation. Calculate the amount of material passing the 75 micron sieve by washing,
using the following expression:

A = 100 x (B C) / B

Where,
A is the percentage of material finer than the 75 micron sieve by washing.
B is the original dry mass of sample in grams.
C is the dry mass of sample in grams after washing.

7.1.5.3 Test Report. Report the amount of material passing the 75 micron sieve by washing to
the nearest 0.1%, except if the result is 10% or more, report to the nearest 1.0%.

Data sheets are given as Form 7.1.1 and 7.1.2.

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

7.2 Particle Size Distribution of Aggregates

7.2.1 Dry sieving test

7.2.1.1 Introduction. This test is primarily used to determine the grading of materials proposed
for use as aggregates or being used as aggregates. The results are used to determine
compliance with the particle size distribution with applicable specification requirements
and to provide necessary data for the control of the production of various aggregate
products and mixtures containing aggregates.

7.2.1.2 Scope. This test covers the determination of the particle size distribution (PSD) or
sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregate by sieving. An accurate determination of
the amount finer than the 75 micron sieve cannot be achieved by this method. Test
method 7.1.5 should be used to determine the amount of material finer than the 75
micron sieve.

7.2.1.3 Equipment

a) Balance, of appropriate capacity for the size of sample and capable of accuracy to
0.1% of the mass of the sample.
b) Test sieves. A complete nest of sieves in accordance with the sizes required by the
specification and which must comply with the relevant standards. Sieves with
openings larger than 125mm shall have a permissible variation in average opening
of plus or minus 2% and shall have a nominal wire diameter of 8.0mm or larger. A
set of the sizes and apertures given in Table 7.2.1 will cover most applications of
the method.
c) Mechanical sieve shaker (Optional).
d) Oven, of appropriate size capable of maintaining a uniform temperature of 110C
plus or minus 5C.
e) Trays and containers.

Table 7.2.1 Particulars of sieves for sieve analysis

Square perforated plate, 450 mm or Wire cloth, 300 mm or 200 mm


300mm diameter diameter

mm mm (unless stated)

75.0 3.35
63.0 2.36
50.0 1.70
37.5 1.18
28.0 850 micron
20.0 600 micron
14.0 425 micron
10.0 300 micron
6.30 212 micron
5.00 150 micron
75 micron

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

Table 7.2.2 Minimum mass of test portion required for sieve analysis

Nominal size of material mm Minimum mass of test portion Kg.


63 50
50 35
40 15
28 5
20 2
14 1
10 0.5
6 0.2
5 0.2
3 0.2
less than 3 0.1

7.2.1.4 Sampling. Sample the aggregate in accordance with test procedure described in
Chapter 2.1. The test portion shall comply with the values given in Table 7.2.2.
Reduction of the sample shall be made in accordance with 2.9.1.1.

7.2.1.5 Procedure

a) If the test sample has not been subjected to testing using method 7.1 (material finer
than the 75 micron test sieve by washing), dry it to constant mass at a temperature
of 100C plus or minus 5C and determine the mass of it to the nearest 0.1% of the
total original dry sample mass.
b) Select the sieve sizes suitable to furnish the information required by the
specification covering the material to be tested. Nest the sieves in order of
decreasing opening size from top to bottom and place the sample, or portion of a
sample if it is to be sieved in more than one increment, on the top sieve. Agitate the
sieves by hand or by mechanical means for a sufficient period, established by trial
or checked by measurement on the actual sample, to meet the criteria for
adequacy of sieving described in the note below.

Note. Adequacy of sieving criteria : Sieve for a sufficient period and in such
manner that, after completion, not more than 0.5% by mass of the total
sample passes any sieve during 1 minute of continuous hand sieving
performed as follows :

Hold the individual sieve, provided with a snug-fitting pan and cover, in a
slightly inclined position in one hand. Strike the side of the sieve sharply
and with an upward motion against the heel of the other hand at the rate of
about 150 times per minute, turn the sieve about one-sixth of a revolution at
intervals of about 25 strokes. In determining sufficiency of sieving for sizes
larger than the 4.75 mm sieve, limit the material on the sieve to a single
layer of particles. If the size of the mounted testing sieves makes the
described sieving motion impractical, use 200mm diameter sieves to verify
the sufficiency of sieving.

c) Limit the quantity of material on a given sieve so that all particles have opportunity
to reach the sieve opening a number of times during the sieving operation. For
sieves with opening smaller than 4.75 mm the mass retained on any sieve at the
completion of the sieving operation shall not exceed 6 kg/m2 , equivalent to 4 g/in2
of sieving surface. For sieves with opening 4.75 mm and larger, the mass in kg/m2
of sieving surface shall not exceed the product of (2.5) x (sieve opening in
millimeters).

MAY 2001 Page 7.6


Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

Note. The 6 kg/m2 amounts to 194 g for the usual 200mm diameter sieve.

d) Determine the mass of each size increment by weighing to the nearest 0.1% of the
total original dry sample mass. The total mass of the material after sieving should
be checked closely with original mass of sample placed on the sieves. If the
amounts differ dry more than 0.3%, based on the original dry sample mass, the
results should not be used for acceptance purposes.
e) If the sample had previously been tested by 7.1.5 add the amount finer than the 75
micron sieve determined by that method to the mass passing the 75 micron sieve
by dry sieving of the same sample in this method.

7.2.1.6 Calculation. Calculate percentages passing, total percentages retained, or


percentages in various size fractions to the nearest 0.1% on the basis of the total mass
of the initial dry sample.

7.2.1.7 Report. The report shall include the following information:

a) Total percentage of material passing each sieve.


b) Total percentage of material retained on each sieve.
c) Report percentages to the nearest whole number, except if the percentage passing
the 75 micron sieve is less than 10%, it shall be reported to the nearest 0.1%.

A data sheet is given as Form 7.2.1.

7.2.2 Fineness modulus of fine aggregate

7.2.2.1 Using the procedure for sieve analysis of fine aggregate described in 7.2.1 above,
calculate the fineness modules by adding the total percentages of material in the
sample that is coarser than each of the following sieves (cumulative percentages
retained) and dividing the sum by 100.

Sieve size Sieve size

150 micron 4.75mm


300 micron 9.5 mm
600 micron 19.0mm
1.1mm 37.5mm
2.3mm and larger, increasing the ratio of 2 to 1

7.2.2.2 Report. Report the fineness modulus to the nearest 0.01.

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

7.3. Shape Tests for Aggregates

7.3.1 Flakiness index

7.3.1.1 Introduction. Flaky or elongated materials, when used in the construction of a


pavement, may cause the pavement to fail due to the preferred orientation that the
aggregates take under repeated loading and vibration. It is important that the flakiness
and elongation of the aggregate are contained to within permissible levels.

7.3.1.2 Scope. The scope of this test is to provide test methods for determining the flakiness
index of coarse aggregate. An aggregate is classified as being flaky if it has a thickness
(smallest dimension) of less than 0.6 of its mean sieve size. The flakiness index of an
aggregate sample is found by separating the flaky particles and expressing their mass
as a percentage of the mass of the sample tested. The test is not applicable to
materials passing the 6.30 mm test sieve or retained on the 63.00 mm test sieve.

7.4.1.3 Equipment

a) A sample divider, of size appropriate to the maximum particle size to be handled or


alternatively a flat shovel and a clean, flat metal tray for the quartering.
b) A ventilated oven, thermostatically controlled to maintain a temperature of 1050C
plus or minus 50C.
c) A balance of suitable capacity and accurate to 0.1% of the mass of the test portion.
Balances of 0.5 kg, 5.0 kg, or 50 kg capacity may be required depending on the
size of aggregate and size of sample.
d) Test sieves.
e) A mechanical sieve shaker (optional).
f) Trays of adequate size, which can be heated in the oven without damage or
change in mass.
g) A metal thickness gauge, of the pattern shown in Figure 7.3.1, or similar, or special
sieves having elongated apertures. The width and length of the apertures in the
thickness gauge and in the sieves shall be within the tolerances given in Table
7.3.3. The gauge shall be made from 1.5 mm thickness sheet steel.

7.3.1.4 Preparation of test portion. Produce a test portion that complies with Table 7.3.2. Dry
the test portion by heating at a temperature of 1050C plus or minus 50C to achieve a
dry mass which is constant to within 0.1%. Allow to cool and weigh.

7.3.1.5 Procedure

a) Carry out a sieve analysis using the test sieves in Table 7.3.1. Discard all
aggregates retained on the 63.0 mm test sieve and all aggregate passing the 6.30
mm test sieve.

Table 7.3.1 Particulars of test sieves

Nominal aperture size (square hole perforated plate 450 mm or 300 mm


Diameter)
63.0 mm
50.0 mm
37.5 mm
28.0 mm
20.0 mm
14.0 mm
10.0 mm
6.3 mm

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

Table 7.3.2 Minimum mass of test portion

Nominal size of material Minimum mass of test portion after


rejection of oversize and undersize
particles
mm kg

50 35
40 15
28 5
20 2
14 1
10 0.5

Table 7.3.3 Data for determination of flakiness index

Aggregate size- Aggregate size- Width of slot in Minimum


fraction fraction thickness gauge mass for
or special sieve subdivision
mm mm mm kg

100% passing 100% retained

63.0 50.0 33.90.3 50


50.0 37.5 26.30.3 35
37.5 28.0 19.70.3 15
28.0 20.0 14.40.15 5
20.0 14.0 10.20.15 2
14.0 10.0 7.20.1 1
10.0 6.30 4.90.1 0.5

b) Weigh each of the individual size-fraction retained on the sieves, other than the
63.0 mm and store them in separate trays with their size mark on the tray.
c) From the sums of the masses of the fractions in the trays (M1), calculate the
individual percentage retained on each of the various sieves. Discard any fraction
whose mass is 5% or less of M1. Record the mass remaining M2.
d) Gauge each fraction by using either of the procedures given in (i) or (ii) below.

(i) Using the special sieves, select the special sieve appropriate to the size-
fraction under test. Place the whole of the size-fraction into the sieve and
shake the sieve until the majority of the particles have passed through the
slots. Then gauge the particles retained by hand.
(ii) Using the gauge, select the thickness gauge appropriate to the size-fraction
under test and gauge each particle of that size-fraction separately by hand.

e) Combine and weigh all the particles passing each of the gauge M3.

7.3.1.6 Calculation and expression of results. The value of the flakiness index is calculated
from the expression:

Flakiness Index = 100 x M3 / M 2 Express the Flakiness Index to the nearest whole
number.

Where, M2 is the total mass of test portion


M3 is the mass of the flaky portion

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

7.3.1.7 Test Report. The test report shall affirm that the flakiness index test was performed
according to the stated method and whether a sampling certificate was issued. If
available the sampling certificate should be provided. The test report shall include the
following additional information:

a) Sample identification
b) Flakiness index
c) Sieve analysis obtained from this test.

A data sheet is given as Form 7.3.1.

7.3.2 Elongation index

7.3.2.1 Scope. The scope of this test is to provide test methods for determining the elongation
index of coarse aggregate. An aggregate is classified as being elongated if it has a
length (greatest dimension) of more than 1.8 of its mean sieve size. The elongation
index of an aggregate sample is found by separating the elongated particles and
expressing their mass as a percentage of the mass of the sample tested. The test is
not applicable to materials passing the 6.30 mm test sieve or retained on the 50.00 mm
test sieve.

7.3.2.2 Equipment. The equipment used in the flakiness index are also used in the elongation
index test except a metal length gauge instead of a thickness gauge shown in Figure
7.3.2.

Table 7.3.4 Particulars of test sieves

Nominal aperture size (square hole perforated plate 450 mm or 300 mm


Diameter)
50.0 mm
37.5 mm
28.0 mm
20.0 mm
14.0 mm
10.0 mm
6.3 mm

Table 7.3.5 Minimum mass of test portion

Nominal size of material Minimum mass of test portion after


rejection of oversize and undersize
particles
mm kg
40 15
28 5
20 2
14 1
10 0.5

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

Table 7.3.6 Data for determination of elongation index

Aggregate size- Aggregate size- Width of slot in Minimum mass


fraction fraction thickness gauge for subdivision
or special sieve
mm mm mm kg
100% passing 100% retained

50.0 37.5 78.70.3 35


37.5 28.0 59.00.3 15
28.0 20.0 43.20.3 5
20.0 14.0 30.60.3 2
14.0 10.0 21.60.1 1
10.0 6.30 14.70.1 0.5

7.3.2.3 Preparation of test portion. Produce a test portion that complies with Table 7.3.4. Dry
the test portion by heating at a temperature of 1050C plus or minus 50C to achieve a
dry mass which is constant to within 0.1%. Allow to cool and weigh.

7.3.2.4 Procedure

a) Carry out a sieve analysis using the test sieves in Table 7.3.5 or 7.3.6. Discard all
aggregates retained on the 63.0 mm test sieve and all aggregate passing the 6.30
mm test sieve.
b) Weigh each of the individual size-fraction retained on the sieves, other than the
50.0 mm and store them in separate trays with their size mark on the tray.
c) From the sums of the masses of the fractions in the trays (M1), calculate the
individual percentage retained on each of the various sieves. Discard any fraction
whose mass is 5% or less of M1. Record the mass remaining M2.
d) Gauge each fraction as follows: select the length gauge appropriate to the size-
fraction under test and gauge each particle separately by hand. Elongated particles
are those whose greatest dimension prevents them from passing through the
gauge, and these are placed to one side.
e) Combine and weigh all the particles passing each of the gauges M3.

7.3.2.5 Calculation and expression of results. The value of the elongation index is
calculated from the expression:

Elongation Index = 100 x M 3 / M 2 Express the Elongation Index to the nearest whole
number.

Where, M3 is the mass of test portion being elongated


M2 is the total mass of test portion

7.3.2.6 Test Report. The test report shall affirm that the elongation index test was performed
according to the stated method and whether a sampling certificate was issued. If
available the sampling certificate should be provided. The test report shall include the
following additional information:

a) Sample identification
b) Elongation index
c) Sieve analysis obtained from this test.

A data sheet is given as Form 7.3.1.

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

7.4 Fine Aggregate: Density and Absorption Tests

7.4.1 Introduction

7.4.1.1 Bulk specific gravity : Bulk specific gravity of the aggregate is a characteristic
generally used for the calculation of the volume occupied by the aggregate in various
mixtures containing aggregate including Portland cement concrete, bituminous
concrete and other mixtures that are proportioned or analysed on an absolute volume
basis. It is also used in the computation of voids in aggregate and the determination of
moisture in aggregate by displacement in water. Bulk specific gravity determined on the
saturated surface-dry basis is used if the aggregate is wet, that is, if its absorption has
been satisfied. Bulk specific gravity determined on the oven-dry basis is used for
computations when the aggregate is dry or assumed to be dry.

7.4.1.2 Apparent specific gravity : Apparent specific gravity pertains to the relative density of
the solid material making up the constituent particles not including the pore space
within the particles that is accessible to water. This value is not widely used in
construction aggregate technology.

7.4.1.3 Absorption : Absorption values are used to calculate the change in the mass of an
aggregate due to water absorbed in the pore spaces within the constituent particles,
compared to the dry condition, when it is deemed that the aggregate has been in
contact with water long enough to satisfy most of the absorption potential. The
laboratory absorption is obtained after the aggregate has been submerged in water for
approximately 24 hours.

7.4.2 Scope. This test provides methods for determining the bulk and apparent densities
(after submersion in water for 24h) of fine aggregate, the bulk specific gravity on the
basis of mass saturated surface-dry aggregate and water absorption of fine aggregate.

7.4.3 Equipment

a) Balance, of capacity not less than 3 kg, accurate to 0.5g and of such type and size
as to permit the basket containing the sample to be suspended from the beam and
weight in water.
b) Ventilated oven, thermostatically controlled to maintain the temperature at 105 C
plus or minus 5 C.
c) Pycnometer , capable of holding 0.5 kg to 1.0 kg of material up to 10mm nominal
size and capable of being filled with water to a constant volume with an accuracy of
plus or minus 0.5 ml. The volume of the pycnometer shall be least 50% greater
than the volume required to accommodate the sample.
d) Metal mould, in the form of a frustum of a cone 40 mm plus or minus 3mm diameter
at the top, 90 mm plus or minus 3mm diameter at the bottom and 75 mm plus or
minus 3 mm high. The metal shall be at least 900 micron thick.
e) Container, of sufficient size to contain the sample covered in water and to permit
vigorous agitation without any loss of material or water.
f) 75 micron test sieve and a nesting sieve to protect the 75 micron sieve, e.g. a
1.18mm sieve.
g) A metal tamper, of 340 g plus or minus 15 g and having a flat circular tamping face
25 mm plus or minus in 3mm diameter.
h) A plain glass funnel (optional)
i) A wide-mouthed glass vessel, Figure 7.4.1.

7.4.4 Preparation of test specimen

a) A sample of about 1 kg for material having a nominal size 10mm to 5mm inclusive,
or about 500 g if finer than 5mm, shall be used. A duplicate sample is also required.

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b) The sample shall be thoroughly washed to remove material passing the 75 micron
sieve as follows :

i) Place the sample in the container and add enough water to it to cover it. Agitate
vigorously the contents of the container and immediately pour the wash water
over the test sieves, which have previously been wetted on both sides and
arranged with the coarser test sieve to top.
ii) The agitation shall be sufficiently vigorous to result in the complete separation
from the coarse particles of all particles finer than the 75 micron sieve, and to
bring the fine material into suspension in order that it will be removed by
decantation of the wash water. Avoid, as far as possible, decantation of coarse
material. Repeat the operation until the wash water appears to be clean. Return
all material retained in the sieves to the washed sample.

7.4.5 Fine Aggregate Density and Absorption Test

7.4.5.1 Procedure using the pycnometer

a) Transfer the washed aggregate to the tray and add further water to ensure that the
sample is completely immersed. Soon after immersion, remove bubbles of
entrapped air by gentle agitation with a rod.
b) Keep the sample immersed for 24h plus or minus 2h, the water temperature being
20C plus or minus 5C for at least the last 20h of immersion. Then carefully drain
the water from the sample through the 75 micron sieve, covered by the protective
coarser sieve, any material retained being returned to the sample.
c) Expose the aggregate to a gentle current of worm air to evaporate surface moisture
and stir it at frequent intervals to ensure case of material finer than 5mm, it just
attains a free-running condition. Refer Note 1 and to Figure 7.4.2 Weigh the
saturated and surface-dried sample, Mass (A). If the apparent density only is
required, the draining and drying operations described above may be omitted,
although for material finer than 5mm some surface drying is desirable to facilitate
handling.
d) Place the aggregate in the pycnometer and fill the pycnometer with water. Screw
the cone into place and eliminate any entrapped air by rotating the pycnometer on
its side. Top up the pycnometer with water to remove any forth form the surface
and so that the surface of the water in the hole is flat. Dry the pycnometer on the
outside and weight it. Mass (B)
e) Empty the contents of the pycnometer into a tray ensuring that all the aggregate is
transferred. Refill the pycnometer with water to the same level as before, dry the
outside of it and weight it. Mass (C).
f) Carefully drain the water from the sample by decantation through the 75 micron test
sieve and return any material retained to the sample. Place the sample in the tray,
in the oven at a temperature of 105 C plus or minus 5 C for 24h plus or minus 0.5h,
during which period it shall be stirred occasionally to facilitate drying. Cool to room
temperature and weigh it, Mass (D).

Note 1. The free-running or saturated surface-dry condition of the fine


aggregate is sometimes difficult to identify and in order to help in
identification, two alternative methods are suggested for possible aids.

Method 1

After drying the sample with a stream of warm air allow it to cool to room
temperature whilst thoroughly stirring it. Hold the mould with its larger diameter face
downwards on a smooth non-absorbent level surface. Fill the mould loosely with
part of the sample and lightly tamp 25 times through the hole at the top of the
mould with the prescribed tamper. Do not refill the space left after tamping . Gently

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lift the mould clear of the aggregate and compare the moulded shape with the
figure in 7.4.2. If the shape resembles figure a) or b), there is still surface moisture
present. Dry the sample further and repeat the test. If the shape resembles figure
c), a condition close to the saturated surface-dry has been achieved. If the shape
resembles figure d), the aggregate has dried beyond the saturated surface-dry and
is approaching the oven-dry condition. In this case, reject the sample and repeat
the test on a fresh sample.

Method 2

As an alternative to method 1, a dry glass funnel may be used to help determine


the free-running condition of aggregate finer than 5mm. With the funnel inverted
over the sample tray pour some of the sample over the sloping sides by means of a
small scoop. if still damp, particles of the aggregate will adhere to the sides of the
funnel. Continue drying until subsequent pouring shows no sign of particles sticking
to the glass.

7.4.5.2 Procedure using the wide-mouthed glass vessel. The procedure shall be the same
as with the procedure using the pycnometer except that in filling the jar with water it
shall be filled just to overflowing and the glass plate slid over it to exclude any air
bubbles.

7.4.5.3 Calculations

a) Particle density

(i) The particle density on an oven-dried basis in (Mg/m3) is calculated from the
following expression.

D/(A-(B-C))

(ii) The particle density on a saturated and surface-dry condition in (Mg/m3) is


calculated from the following expression.

A/(A-(B-C))

(iii) The Apparent particle density in (Mg/m3) is calculated from the following
expression.

D/(D-(B-C))

b) Water absorption

The water absorption (as percentage of dry mass) is calculated from the following
expression.

100 (A - D ) / D

Where,
A is the mass of saturated surface-dry sample in air, g.
B is the mass of pycnometers or wide-mouthed glass vessel containing
sample filled with water, g.
C is the mass of pycnometers or wide-mouthed glass vessel filled with
water only, g.
D is the mass of oven -dried sample in air, g.

A data sheet is given as Form 7.4.1.

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Form 7.4.1

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7.5 Coarse Aggregate: Density and Absorption Tests

7.5.1 Definitions of terminology

7.5.1.1 Absorption the increase in the mass of aggregate due to water in the pores of the
material, but not including water adhering to the outside surface of the particles,
expressed as a percentage of the dry mass. The aggregate is considered dry when it
has been maintained at 1050C plus or minus 50C for sufficient time to remove all.

7.5.1.2 Specific gravity the ratio of the mass (or weight in air) of a unit volume of a material
to the mass of the same volume of water at stated temperature to the weight in air of an
equal volume of gas-free distilled water at the same temperature.

7.5.1.3 Apparent specific gravity the ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of the
impermeable portion of aggregate at a stated temperature to the weight in air of an
equal volume of gas-free distilled water at the same temperature.

7.5.1.4 Bulk specific gravity the ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of aggregate
(including the temperature impermeable voids in the particles, but not including the
voids between the particles) at a stated temperature to the weight in air of an equal
volume of gas-free distilled water at the same temperature.

7.5.1.5 Bulk specific gravity (SSD) the ratio of the mass in air of a unit volume of
aggregate, including the mass of water within the voids filled to the extent achieved by
submerging in water for approximately 24 h (but not including the voids between
particles) at a stated temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of gas-free
distilled water at the same temperature.

7.5.2 Equipment

a) Balance, of capacity not less than 3 kg, accurate to 0.5 g and of such type and size
as to permit the basket containing the sample to be suspended from the beam and
weighed in water.
b) Ventilated oven, thermostatically controlled to maintain the temperature at 110 0C
plus or minus 50C.
c) A 4.75 mm test sieve and other sizes as needed.
d) A sample container, such as a wire basket of 3.35 mm or finer mesh, or a bucket of
approximately equal breadth and height, with a capacity of 4 L to 7 L for 37.5 mm
nominal maximum size aggregate or smaller, and a larger container, as needed, for
testing larger maximum size aggregate.
e) Water tank, in which the sample and container are placed for complete immersion
while being suspended below the balance. It must be capable of maintaining the
level of water constant.

7.5.3 Preparation of test specimen

7.5.3.1 Receive a sample sampled in accordance with test method 2.4 and reduce to the
required size as per method.

7.5.3.2 Reject all material passing the 4.75 mm test sieve of the test portion by dry sieving.
Thoroughly wash the test portion to remove dust or other coatings from the surface. If
the coarse aggregate contains a substantial quantity of material finer than the 4.75 mm
sieve, use the 2.36 mm test sieve in place of the 4.75 mm test sieve or, alternatively,
separate the material finer than the 4.75 mm sieve and test that portion in accordance
with test method 7.4.

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7.5.3.3 The minimum mass of the test portion is given in Table 7.5.1 below. In many instances
it may be desirable to test a coarse aggregate in several separate size fractions; and if
the sample contains more than 15% retained on the 37.5 mm test sieve, test the
material retained on the 37.5 mm sieve in one or more size fractions separately from
the smaller size fractions. When an aggregate is tested in separate size fractions the
minimum mass of test sample for each fraction shall be the differences between the
masses prescribed for the maximum and minimum sizes of the fractions.

Table 7.5.1

Nominal maximum size, mm Minimum mass of test sample, kg

12.5 or less 2
19.0 3
25.0 4
37.5 5
50 8
63 12
75 18

7.5.4 Coarse aggregate density and absorption test

7.5.4.1 Procedure. A sample of not less than 2 kg of aggregate shall be tested. Aggregates
which were artificially heated shall not normally be used. If such material is used, the
fact shall be stated in the report. Two tests shall be performed.

a) Place the prepared sample in the wire basket and immerse it in water at a
temperature of 20 0C plus or minus 50C with a cover of at least 50 mm of water
above the top of the basket.
b) Immediately after immersion remove the entrapped air by lifting the wire basket
about 25 mm above the base of the water tank and letting it drop 25 times at a rate
of about once per second. The basket and aggregate shall remain in water for 24 h
plus or minus 0.5 h.
c) After this period weigh the basket and aggregate at a temperature of 200C plus or
minus 50C. Record the mass to the nearest 1 g or 0.1% of the sample mass,
whichever is greater, Mass B.
d) Remove the test sample from the water and roll it in a large absorbent cloth until all
visible film of water is removed. Wipe the larger particles individually. A warm
stream of air may be used to assist in the drying operation. Take care to avoid the
evaporation of water from the pores of the aggregate during the operation of
surface-drying. Determine the mass of the sample in the saturated surface-dry
condition, record the mass A.
e) Dry the test sample to constant mass in the oven at 1050C plus or minus 50C, (24 h
plus or minus 0.5 h will suffice), cool in air at room temperature until the aggregate
has cooled to a temperature that is comfortable to handle. Weigh the dry aggregate
and record as mass D.
f) Weigh the wire basket in water at the specified temperature and record the weight
as mass C.

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7.5.4.2 Calculations

a) Bulk specific gravities

The bulk specific gravity (saturated surface-dry) on a saturated and surface-dry


condition in (Mg/m3) is calculated from the following expression.

A / (A (B C))

(i) The bulk specific gravity on the oven-dry basis (Mg/m3) is calculated from the
following expression.

D / (A (B C))

The apparent specific gravity (Mg/m3) is calculated from the following


expressions.

D / (D (B C))

Where,
A is the mass of the saturated surface-dry sample in air, g.
B is the apparent mass in water of the basket containing the sample of
saturated aggregate, g.
C is the apparent mass in water of the basket, g.
D is the mass of the oven-dried aggregate in air, g.

(ii) Average specific gravity values.

When the sample has been tested in separate size fractions the average
value for bulk specific gravity, bulk specific gravity (SSD), or apparent specific
gravity can be computed as the weighted average of the values as computed
above, using the following expression.

1
G =
P1 / 100 G 1 + P2 / 100 G 2 + ....... Pn / 100 G n

Where,
G is the average specific gravity. All forms of specific gravity can
be expressed in this manner.
G1, G2 Gn is the appropriate specific gravity values for each fraction
depending on the type of specific gravity being averaged.
P1, P2 Pn is the mass percentages of each size fraction present in the
original sample.

Note. If the user wishes to express the specific gravity in terms of density,
then the value for the specific gravity, which is dimensionless, is
multiplied by the density of water at 40C, the temperature at which
water is considered to have a density of 1000 kg/m3.

b) Absorption

The water absorption (as percentage of dry mass) is calculated from the following
expression.

100 (A D) / D

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Where, A is the mass of the saturated surface-dry sample in air, g.


D is the oven-dry mass of the sample in air, g.

(i) Average Absorption Value

When the sample has been tested in separate size fractions the average
absorption value can be computed as the weighted average of the values as
computed above, using the following expression.

A = P1A1 / 100 + P2A2 / 100 + . + PnAn / 100

Where,
A is the average absorption percent.
A1, A2 An is the absorption percentages for each fraction.
P1, P2 Pn is the mass percentages of each size fraction present in the
original sample.

7.5.4.3 Acceptability of results. If the difference between any two test results falls outside the
range of the values given in Table 7.5.2, the test results shall not be used for
acceptability purposes and the tests shall be repeated.

Table 7.5.2 Precision

Single operator Acceptable range of two results

Bulk specific gravity (dry) 0.025


Bulk specific gravity (SSD) 0.020
Apparent specific gravity 0.020
Absorption percent 0.025

7.5.4.4 Report

a) Report specific gravity results to the nearest 0.01, and indicate the type of specific
gravity, whether bulk, bulk (SSD), or apparent.
b) Report the absorption result to the nearest 0.1%.

A data sheet is given in Form 7.5.1.

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Form 7.5.1

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7.6 Aggregate Impact Value

7.6.1 Scope. The aggregate impact value gives a relative measure of the resistance of the
aggregate to sudden shock or impact.

The particular purpose which an aggregate is meant to serve requires the aggregate to
have a particular strength which is usually stated in the specification. This test provides
a method for measuring this strength.

7.6.2 Method outline. A test specimen, of chosen fractions, is compacted in a standardised


manner, into an open steel cup. The specimen is then subjected to a number of
standard impacts from a dropping weight. The impacts break the aggregate to a degree
which is dependent on the aggregates impact resistance. This degree is assessed by a
sieving test on the impacted specimen and is taken as the aggregate impact value.

7.6.3 Sampling. The sample used for this test shall be taken in accordance with Chapter 2.

7.6.4 Equipment

7.6.4.1 Impact testing machine. The machine shall be of the general form shown in Figure
7.6.1, have a total mass of between 45 kg and 60 kg and shall have the following parts:

a) A circular metal base, with a mass of between 22 kg and 30 kg, with a plane lower
surface of not less than 300 mm diameter and shall be supported on a level and
plane concrete or stone block floor at least 450 mm thick. The machine shall be
prevented from rocking during operation of the machine.
b) A cylindrical steel cup, having an internal diameter of 102 mm plus or minus 0.5
mm and an internal depth of 50 mm plus or minus 0.25 mm. The walls shall be not
less than 6 mm thick and the inner surfaces shall be case hardened. The cup shall
be rigidly fastened at the centre of the base and be easily removed for emptying.
c) A metal hammer, with a mass of between 13.5 kg and 14.0 kg, the lower end of
which shall be cylindrical in shape, 100.0 mm plus or minus 0.5 mm diameter and
50 mm plus or minus 0.15 mm long, with a 1.5 mm chamfer at the lower edge, and
case hardened. The hammer shall slide freely between vertical guides so arranged
that the lower part of the hammer is above and concentric with the cup.
d) Means for raising the hammer, and allowing it to fall freely between the vertical
guides from a height of 380 mm plus or minus 5 mm on to the test sample in the
cup, and means for adjusting the height of fall within 5 mm.
e) Means for supporting the hammer whilst fastening or removing the cup.

7.6.4.2 Square-hole perforated plate test sieves, of sizes 14.0 mm and 10.0 mm and a woven-
wire 2.36mm test sieve.

7.6.4.3 A cylindrical metal measure, of sufficient rigidity to retain its form under rough usage
and with an internal diameter of 75 mm plus or minus 1 mm and an internal depth of 50
mm plus or minus 1 mm.

7.6.4.4 A tamping rod, made out of straight iron or steel bar of circular cross section, 16 mm
plus or minus 1 mm diameter and 600 mm plus or minus 5 mm long, with both ends
hemispherical.

7.6.4.5 A balance, of capacity not less than 500 g and accurate to 0.1 g.

7.6.4.6 A ventilated oven, thermostatically controlled at a temperature of 105 0C plus or minus


50C.

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7.6.4.7 A rubber mallet, a metal tray of known mass and large enough to contain 1 kg of
aggregate and a brush with stiff bristles.

7.6.4.8 Additional equipment for testing aggregate in a soaked condition.

a) Drying cloths or absorbent paper, for the surface drying of the aggregate.
b) One or more wire-mesh baskets, with apertures greater than 6.5 mm.
c) A stout watertight container in which the basket may be immersed.

7.6.5 Preparation of test portions and specimens

7.6.5.1 Test portions. Reduce laboratory samples to test portions of sufficient mass to
produce 3 specimens of 14 mm to 10 mm size fraction.

Table 7.6.1. Guide to minimum mass of test portions required to obtain a suitable
mass of material to determine the aggregate impact value

Grade of the aggregate Minimum mass of test portion


All-in aggregate 40 mm max. size 20 kg
All-in aggregate 20 mm max. size 15 kg
Graded aggregate 40 to 5 mm 12 kg
Graded aggregate 20 to 5 mm 8 kg
Graded aggregate 14 to 5 mm 5 kg

7.6.5.2 Test specimen in a dry condition

a) Sieve the entire dried test portion on the 14 mm and the 10 mm test sieve to
remove the oversize and undersize fraction. Divide the resulting 14 mm to 10 mm
size fractions to produce 3 test specimens each of sufficient mass to fill the
measure when it is filled by the procedure in 7.6.5.2(c).
b) Dry the test specimens by heating at a temperature of 1050C plus or minus 50C for
a period of not more than 4 h. Cool to room temperature before testing.
c) Fill the measure to overflowing with the aggregate using a scoop. Tamp the
aggregate with 25 blows of the rounded end of the tamping rod, each blow being
given by allowing the tamping rod to fall freely from a height of about 50 mm above
the surface of the aggregate and the blows being distributed evenly over the
surface.

Remove the surplus aggregate by rolling the tamping rod across, and in contact
with, the top of the container. Remove by hand any aggregate that impedes its
progress and fill any obvious depressions with added aggregate. Record the net
mass of aggregate in the measure and use the same mass for the second test
specimen.

7.6.5.3 Test specimens in a soaked condition

a) Prepare the test portion as in 7.6.5.1 except that the test portion is tested in the as-
received condition and not oven-dried. Place test specimen in a wire basket and
immerse it in the water in the container with a cover at least 50 mm of water above
the top of the basket. Remove entrapped air by lifting the basket 25 mm above the
base of the container and allowing it to drop 25 times at a rate of approximately
once per second. Keep the aggregate completely immersed in water at all times
and for the next 24 h plus or minus 2 h and maintain the water temperature at 200C
plus or minus 50C.

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b) After soaking, remove from the water and blot the free water from the surface using
the absorbent cloths. Prepare for testing as described in 7.6.5.2 immediately after
this operation.

7.6.6 Aggregate impact value

7.6.6.1 Procedure

a) Test specimens in a dry condition

(i) Fix the cup firmly in position on the base of the impact machine and place the
whole of the specimen in it and then compact by 25 strokes of the tamping
rod. Adjust the height of the hammer so that its lower face is 380 mm plus or
minus 5 mm above the aggregate in the cup and then allow it to fall freely on
to the aggregate. Subject the test specimen to 15 such blows each blow
being delivered at an interval not less than 1 s.
(ii) Remove the crushed aggregate by holding the cup over a clean tray and
hammering on the outside with the rubber mallet until the crushed aggregate
falls freely on to the tray.

Transfer fine particle adhering to the inside of the cup and to the surface of
the hammer to the tray by means of the stiff bristle brush. Weigh the tray and
the aggregate and record the mass of the aggregate to the nearest 0.1 g
(M1).

(iii) Sieve the whole of the specimen on the 2.36 mm test sieve until no further
significant amount passes during a further period of 1 min. Weigh and record
the mass of the fractions passing and retained on the sieve to the nearest 0.1
g (M2 and M3) respectively and if the total mass (M2 + M3) differs from the
initial mass (M1) by more than 1 g, discard the result and test a further
specimen.
(iv) Repeat the procedure from (i) to (iii) above inclusive using a second
specimen of the same mass as the first specimen.

b) Test specimens in a soaked condition

(i) Follow the test procedure described in 7.6.6.1(a) except that the number of
blows of the hammer to which the aggregate is subjected, is the number of
blows which will yield between 5% and 20% of fines when this value is
calculated using procedure in 7.6.6.2.
(ii) Remove the crushed specimen from the cup and dry it in the oven at a
temperature of 1050C plus or minus 50C either to constant mass or for a
minimum period of 12 h. Allow to cool and weigh to the nearest 1 g and
record this mass M1. Complete the procedure described in (ii) of 7.6.6.1(a)
starting at the stage where the specimen is sieved on the 2.36mm test sieve.

7.6.6.2 Calculation and expression of result

a) Calculate the aggregate impact value (AIV) expressed as a percentage to the first
decimal place for each test specimen from the following expression.

(AIV) = 100 x M2 / M1

Where,
M1 is the mass of the test specimen in grams.
M2 is the mass of the material passing the 2.36mm test sieve in grams.

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b) Aggregate in the soaked condition.

(i) Calculate the mass of fines, m, expressed as a percentage of the total mass
for each test specimen from the following expression.

M = 100 x M2 / M1

Where,
M1 is the mass of the oven-dried test specimen in grams.
M2 is the mass of the oven-dried material passing the 2.36mm test sieve
in grams.

(ii) Calculate the AIV expressed as a percentage to the first decimal place for
each test specimen from the following expression.

(AIV) = 15 m/ n

Where, n is the number of hammer blows to which the specimen is


subjected.

7.6.7.3 Results. Calculate the mean of the two values determined in (a) or (b) of 7.6.6.2 to the
nearest whole number. Report the mean as the aggregate impact value, unless the
individual results differ by more than 0.15 times the mean value. In this case repeat the
test on two further specimens, calculate the median of the four results to the nearest
whole number and report the median as the aggregate impact value.

A data sheet is given in Form 7.6.1.

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7.7 Aggregate Crushing Value and 10% Fines Value

7.7.1 Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV)

7.7.1.1 Introduction. One of the requirements, for the suitability of aggregates for
construction, is the ability of the aggregate to resist crushing. The Aggregate Crushing
Value gives a relative measure of the resistance of the aggregate to crushing under a
gradually applied compressive load.

7.7.1.2 Scope. The particular purpose which an aggregate is meant to serve requires the
aggregate to have a particular strength. This strength is usually stated in the
specification. This test provides a method for measuring this strength. This method is
not suitable for testing aggregates with a crushing value higher than 30, and in this
case the ten percent fines value is recommended.

7.7.1.3 Method outline. A test specimen, of chosen fractions, is compacted in a standardised


manner, into a steel cylinder fitted with a freely moving plunger. The specimen is then
subjected to a standard loading regime applied through the plunger. This action
crushes the aggregate to a degree which is dependent on the aggregates crushing
resistance. This degree is assessed by a sieving test on the crushed specimen and is
taken as the Aggregate Crushing Value.

7.7.1.4 Sampling. The sample used for this test shall be taken in accordance with Chapter 2.

7.7.1.5 Equipment

a) Steel cylinder, open-ended, of nominal 150mm internal diameter with plunger and
base-plate of the general form and dimensions shown in Figure 7.7.1 and given in
Table 7.7.1. The surface in contact with the aggregate shall be machined and case
hardened, and shall be maintained in a smooth condition.

Table 7.7.1 Principal dimensions of cylinder and plunger apparatus

Component Dimensions Nominal 150 mm Nominal 75 mm internal


See Figure 7.7.1 internal diameter diameter of cylinder
of cylinder, mm mm
Cylinder Internal diameter, A 1540.5 mm 780.5 mm
Internal diameter, B 125 to 140 mm 70.0 to 85.0 mm
Minimum wall thickness, C 16.0 mm 8.0 mm
Plunger Diameter of piston, D 1520.5 mm 76.00.5 mm
Diameter of stem, E >95 to = or <D >45.0 to = or <D
Overall length of piston plus
stem, F 100 to 115 mm 60.0 to 80.0 mm
Minimum depth of piston, G Not less than 25.0 Not less than 19.0
Diameter of hole, H 20.00.1 mm 10.00.1 mm
Base-plate Minimum thickness, I 10 mm 10 mm
Length of each side of square,
J 200 to 230 mm 110 to 115 mm

b) A cylindrical metal measure, of sufficient rigidity to retain its form under rough
usage and with an internal diameter of 115 mm plus or minus 1 mm and an internal
depth of 180 mm plus or minus 1 mm.
c) A tamping rod, made out of straight iron or steel bar of circular cross section. 16
mm plus or minus 1 mm diameter and 600 mm plus or minus 5 mm long, with both
ends hemispherical.
d) A balance, of capacity not less than 3 kg and accurate to 1 g.

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
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Figure 7.7.1 Outline form of cylinder and plunger apparatus for the aggregate crushing
value and ten percent fines test

e) A ventilated oven, thermostatically controlled at a temperature of 105 0C plus or


minus 50C.
f) A rubber mallet, a metal tray of known mass and large enough to contain 3 kg of
aggregate and a brush with stiff bristles.
g) Square-hole perforated plate test sieves, of sizes 14.0 mm and 10.0 mm and an
ovenware 2.36 mm test sieve.
h) A compression testing machine, capable of applying any force up to 400 kN at a
uniform rate of loading so that the force is reached in 10 min.

7.7.1.6 Preparation of test portions and specimens

a) Test portions. Reduce laboratory samples to test portions of sufficient mass to


produce 3 specimens of 14 mm to 10mm size fractions.
b) Sieve the entire dried test portion on the 14mm and the 10mm test sieve to remove
the oversize and undersize fraction. Divide the resulting 14mm to 10 mm size

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
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fractions to produce 3 test specimens each of sufficient mass that the depth of the
material in the cylinder is approximately 100 mm after tamping.
c) Dry the test specimens by heating at a temperature of 1050C plus or minus 50C for
a period of not more than 4 h. Cool to room temperature and record the mass of the
material comprising the test specimen.

Table 7.7.2 Guide to minimum mass of test portions required to obtain a


suitable mass of material to determine the Aggregate Crushing
Value.

Grade of the aggregate Minimum mass of test portion


All-in aggregate 40 mm max. size 60 kg
All-in aggregate 20 mm max. size 45 kg
Graded aggregate 40 to 5 mm 40 kg
Graded aggregate 20 to 5 mm 25 kg
Graded aggregate 14 to 5 mm 15 kg

7.7.1.7 Procedure

a) Place the cylinder of the test apparatus in position on the base-plate and add the
test specimen in three layers of approximately equal depth, each layer being
compacted to 25 strokes from the tamping rod distributed evenly over the surface
of the layer and dropping from a height approximately 50 mm above the surface of
the aggregate. Carefully level the surface of the aggregate and insert the plunger
so that it rests horizontally on this surface. Ensure that the plunger is free to move.

b) Place the apparatus, with the test specimen prepared as described in 7.7.1.6(c)
and plunger in position, between the platens of the testing machine and load it as
uniform a rate as possible so that the required force of 400 kN is reached in 10 min
plus or minus 30 s.

c) Release the load and remove the crushed aggregate by holding the cylinder over a
clean tray of known mass and hammering on the outside with the rubber mallet
until the crushed aggregate falls freely on to the tray. Transfer fine particle adhering
to the inside of the cylinder and to the surface of the hammer to the tray by means
of the stiff bristle brush. Weight the tray and the aggregate and record the mass of
the aggregate to the nearest 1g (M1).

d) Sieve the whole of the specimen on the 2.36mm test sieve until no further
significant amount passes during a further period of 1 min. Weight and record the
mass of the fractions passing and retained on the sieve to the nearest 1g (M2 and
M3) respectively and if the total mass (M2 + M3) differs from the initial mass (M1) by
more than 10g, discard the result and test a further specimen.

e) Repeat the procedure from (a) to (b) above inclusive using a second specimen of
the same mass as the first specimen.

7.7.1.8 Calculation and expression of result. Calculate the Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV)
expressed as a percentage to the first decimal place, of the mass of fines formed to the
total mass of the test specimen from the following expression.

(ACV) = 100 x M2 / M1

Where,
M1 is the mass of the test specimen in grammes.
M2 is the mass of the material passing the 2.36mm test sieve in grammes.

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
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7.7.1.9 Results. Calculate the mean of the two values determined to the nearest whole
number. Report the mean as the Aggregate Crushing Value, unless the individual
results differ by more than 0.07 times the mean value. In this case repeat the test on
two further specimens, calculate the median of the four results to the nearest whole
number and report the median as the Aggregate Crushing Value.

A data sheet is given as Form 7.7.1.

7.7.2 10% Fines Value Test

7.7.2.1 Scope. The particular purpose which an aggregate is meant to serve requires the
aggregate to have a particular strength. This strength is usually stated in the
specification. This test provides a method for measuring this strength. This method is
suitable for testing both strong and weak aggregate passing a 14.0 mm test sieve and
retained on a 10.0 mm test sieve.

7.7.2.2 Method outline. A test specimen, of chosen fractions, is compacted in a standardised


manner, into a steel cylinder fitted with a freely moving plunger. The specimen is then
subjected to a standard loading regime applied through the plunger. The action crushes
the aggregate to a degree which is dependent on the aggregates crushing resistance.
This degree is assessed by a sieving test on the crushed specimen. The procedure is
repeated with various loads to determine the maximum force which generates a given
sieve analysis. This force is taken as the ten percent fines value (TFV).

7.7.2.3 Sampling. The sample used for this test shall be taken in accordance with Chapter 2.

7.7.2.4 Equipment. The equipment required for this test is identical to the equipment required
for the ACV test as described in 7.7.1.5.

a) Additional equipment for testing aggregate in a soaked condition.


b) Drying cloths or absorbent paper, for the surface drying of the aggregate.
c) One or more wire-mesh baskets, with apertures greater than 6.5 mm.
d) A stout watertight container in which the basket may be immersed.

7.7.2.5 Preparation of test portions and specimens

a) Test portions

Reduce laboratory samples to test portions of sufficient mass to produce 3


specimens of 14 mm to 10mm size fraction.

Use Table 7.7.1 for a guide to the minimum mass of test portion required to obtain
a mass of material to determine the aggregate 10% fines value.

b) Test specimen in a dry condition

(i) Sieve the entire dried test portion on the 14 mm and the 10 mm test sieve to
remove the oversize and undersize fraction. Divide the resulting 14 mm to 10
mm size fractions to produce 3 test specimens each of sufficient mass such
that the depth of the material in the cylinder is approximately 100 mm after
tamping.
(ii) Dry the test specimens by heating at a temperature of 1050C plus or minus
50C for a period of not more than 4 h. Cool to room temperature before
testing. Record the mass of the material comprising the test specimen.

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
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c) Test specimens in a soaked condition

(i) Prepare the test portion as in 7.7.1.6(b) except that the test portion is tested
in the as-received condition and not oven-dried. Place test specimen in a wire
basket and immerse it in the water in the container with a cover at least 50
mm of water above the top of the basket. Remove entrapped air by lifting the
basket 25 mm above the base of the container and allowing it to drop 25
times at a rate of approximately once per second. Keep the aggregate
completely immersed in water at all times and for the next 24 h plus or minus
2 h and maintain the water temperature at 200C plus or minus 50C.
(ii) After soaking, remove from the water and blot the free water from the surface
using the absorbent cloths. Carry out the test procedure immediately after this
operation.

7.7.2.6 Procedure: Aggregates in dry condition

a) Place the cylinder of the test apparatus in position on the base-plate and add the
test specimen in three layers of approximately equal depth, each layer being
compacted to 25 strokes from the tamping rod distributed evenly over the surface
of the layer and dropping from a height approximately 50 mm above the surface of
the aggregate. Carefully level the surface of the aggregate and insert the plunger
so that it rests horizontally on this surface. Ensure that the plunger is free to move.
b) Place the apparatus, with the test specimen and plunger in position, between the
platens of the testing machine and load it as uniform a rate as possible so as to
cause a total penetration of the plunger in 10 min plus or minus 30 s of
approximately:

(i) 15 mm for rounded or partially rounded aggregates (uncrushed gravels).


(ii) 20 mm for normal crushed aggregate.
(iii) 24 mm for vesicular (honeycombed) aggregates.

c) Record the force (f) applied to produce the required penetration. Release the load
and remove the crushed aggregate by holding the cylinder over a clean tray of
known mass and hammering on the outside with the rubber mallet until the crushed
aggregate falls freely on to the tray. Transfer fine particle adhering to the inside of
the cylinder and to the surface of the hammer to the tray by means of the stiff
bristle brush. Weigh the tray and the aggregate and record the mass of the
aggregate used to the nearest 1 g (M1).
d) Sieve the whole of the specimen on the 2.36 mm test sieve until no further
significant amount passes during a further period of 1 min. Weigh and record the
mass of the fractions passing and retained on the sieve to the nearest 1 g (M2 and
M3) respectively and if the total mass (M2 + M3) differs from the initial mass (M1) by
more than 10 g, discard the result and test a further specimen.

If the percentage of the material (m) passing the sieve, calculated from the
expression: M = 100 x M2 / M1 does not fall within the range 7.5% and 12.5%, test a
further specimen, using an adjusted maximum test loading to bring the percentage
of fines within the range and record the value of (m) obtained.

e) Repeat the complete test procedure with the same mass of aggregate at the same
force that gives percentage fines value within the range 7.5% and 12.5%.

7.7.2.7 Procedure; aggregates in a soaked condition

a) Follow the procedure described in 7.7.2.6(a) except that after the crushed
specimen has been removed from the cylinder, dry it in the oven at a temperature

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

of 1050C plus or minus 50C either to constant weight or for a minimum of 12 h.


Allow the dried material to cool and weigh to the nearest 1 g (M1). Complete the
procedure 7.7.2.6(d) and 7.7.2.6(e).

7.7.2.8 Calculation and expression of result

a) Calculate the force F (in kN), to the nearest whole number, required to produce
10% fines for each test specimen, with the percentage of material passing in the
range of 7.5% to 12.5%, from the following expression:

F = 14 f / (m + 4)

Where,
f is the maximum force in kN.
m is the percentage of material passing the 2.36 mm test sieve at the maximum
force.

b) Calculate the mean of the two results to the nearest 10 kN or more or to the
nearest 5 kN for forces of less than 100 kN. Report the mean as the aggregate
10% fines value, unless the individual results differ by more than 10 kN or by more
than 0.1 times the mean value. In this case repeat the test on two further
specimens, calculate the median of the four results to the nearest whole number
and report the median as the aggregate 10% fines value.

A data sheet is given as Form 7.7.1.

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

7.8 Tests for Bricks

7.8.1 Introduction. Since bricks are made from variable naturally occurring materials, care
should be exercised in placing too much importance on the test results obtained on a
single sample. For test results to be meaningful and useful in the evaluation of material
properties the tests have to be carried out according to the prescribed method and
perhaps even more importantly the samples have to represent the materials being
tested.

7.8.2 Determination of dimensions

7.8.2.1 Size. The standard dimensions of common bricks shall be:

Length Width Depth / Height

240 mm 115 mm 70 mm

7.8.2.2 Size of voids

a) Solid bricks shall not have holes, cavities or depressions.


b) Cellular bricks shall not have holes, but may have frogs or cavities not exceeding
20% of the gross volume of the brick.
c) Perforated bricks shall have holes not exceeding 25% of the gross volume of the
brick. The area of any one hole shall not exceed 10% of the gross area of the brick.
d) Frogged bricks shall have depressions in one bed. Frog size should not exceed
130 mm x 50 mm x 10 mm.

7.8.2.3. Variation. Small variation in the dimension shall be permissible to the following extent
only :

Table 7.8.1
Specified Dimension Maximum Permissible Variation
Over 50 mm and upto 75 mm 1.5 mm
Over 75 mm and upto 100 mm 3.0 mm
Over 100 mm and upto 150 mm 5.0 mm
Over 150 mm and upto 250 mm 6.0 mm

7.8.2.4 Dimensional deviations. The overall measurements of 24 bricks shall not fall outside
the limits given in Table 7.8.2. In addition, the size of any individual brick shall not
exceed the size given in 7.8.2.

Table 7.8.2
Sizes Overall measurement of 24 bricks
Maximum Minimum
240 mm 5880 mm 5680 mm
115 mm 2910 mm 2810 mm
70 mm 1710 mm 1650 mm

7.8.2.5 Procedure for measuring dimensions

a) Take 24 bricks. Remove any blisters, small projections or loose particles of clay
adhering to the brick. Place the bricks in contact with each other in a straight line

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

upon a level surface, using the appropriate arrangement for each work size shown
in Figure 7.8.1.

b) Measure the overall dimension (Length, width or height) to the nearest millimeter,
using an in extensible measure long enough to measure the whole row at one time,
results recorded in Form 7.8.1.

Note. Alternatively, the sample may be divided in half to form 2 rows of 12 bricks.
Measurement of each row is made separately and the results are summed
up.

7.8.3 Relative density and absorption

7.8.3.1 Introduction. The relative density of bricks may be measured using the saturated
surface-dry (SSD) method used for the determination of density of cores and concrete
specimens.

7.8.3.2 Density. The density of bricks is defined as the average density of 10 bricks sampled
according to this test method and tested on the SSD basis.

7.8.3.3 Water absorption. The test method for the determination of water absorption in this
standard is the 5 h boiling test.

7.8.3.4 Equipment. The equipment required for this test is listed below:

a) Ventilated drying oven with automatic control capable of maintaining a constant


temperature of 110 1150C.
b) Water tank, provided with a grid to ensure free circulation of water between
masonry units and the bottom of the tank.
c) Balance capable of weighing to an accuracy of 0.1% of the mass of the specimen.

7.8.3.5 Preparation of specimens

a) Use 10 bricks sampled in accordance with this test procedure.


b) Dry the specimen to constant mass in the oven at a temperature of between 110
and 1150C. When cool, weigh each specimen to an accuracy of 0.1% of its mass.

7.8.3.6 Test procedure

a) Place the 10 specimens in a single layer in a tank of water immediately after


weighing, so that the water can circulate freely on all sides of them. Leave a space
of about 10 mm between bricks and the sides of the tank.
b) Heat the water to boiling point in approximately 1 h.
c) Boil for 5 h continuously, and then allow to cool to room temperature by natural loss
of heat for not less than 16 h or more than 19 h.
d) Remove the specimens, wipe off the surface water with a damp cloth and weigh.
When wiping perforated bricks, shake them to expel water that might otherwise be
left in the perforations.
e) Complete weighing any one specimen within 2 min after its removal from the water.

7.8.3.7 Calculation of water absorption. Calculate the water absorbed by each specimen. A,
expressed as a percentage of the dry mass, using the following expression.

A = 100 x (wet mass dry mass) / dry mass

Calculate the average of the water absorptions of the 10 specimens to the nearest
0.1%. A data sheet is given as Form 7.8.2.

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
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7.8.3.8 Maximum permissible water absorption. The water absorption shall in no case be
greater than the water absorption for the appropriate class of brick given in Table 7.8.3
below.

Table 7.8.3 Classification of bricks by compressive strength and water


absorption

Grade Compressive Strength Water absorption


for 10 bricks (%)
Average for 12 halved Minimum for
bricks (N/mm2) individual halved
bricks (N/mm2)
A 28 21.1 10
B 17.5 14 12
C 10.5 8.4 16

7.8.4 Compressive strength determination

7.8.4.1 Introduction. The compressive strength of bricks shall in no case be less than the
compressive strength for the appropriate class of brick given in Table 7.8.3.

When bricks are to be broken for use as road making, aggregate tests such as the Los
Angles abrasion, aggregate crushing strength and aggregate impact value may give a
more satisfactory indication of their suitability for use.

7.8.4.2 Equipment. The equipment required for the determination of compressive strength of
brick is listed below:

1. Testing machine, compatible with the testing machine required for testing concrete
specimens and capable of applying the rate of loading specified in the test
procedure.

Testing machine requirements:

It shall be equipped with two permanent ferrous bearing platens which


shall be at least as large as any plywood packing or, where such packing
is not being used, the bedding faces of the specimens being tested.

The upper machine platen shall be able to align freely with the specimens
as contact is made but the platens shall be restrained by friction or other
means from tilting with respect to each other during loading.

The lower compression platen shall be plain, non-tilting bearing block.

The testing face of the platen shall be hardened and shall have:

a) a flatness tolerance of plus or minus 0.05 mm


b) a parallelism tolerance for one face of each platen with respect to the
other of 0.10 mm.
c) a surface texture not greater than 3.2 micron

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
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7.8.4.3 Preparation of specimen. Twelve bricks taken at random from sample shall be halved
and one half from each whole brick used for determining the compressive strength. The
overall dimension of each bedding face shall be measured to the nearest of 1.3 mm
and the area of the face having smaller area shall be taken as the area of the bricks for
testing the compressive strength.

7.8.4.4 Test procedure

a) Bricks with frogs

1) Immerse the bricks in water at room temperature for 24 hours. They shall then
be removed and allow to dry at room temperature for about 5 minutes.
2) Then fill the frogs with cement-sand mortar with a ratio of 1:11/2. Sand should
be clean and well graded and passing through 3.35 mm sieve. Trowel the
mortar off flush with surface of the bricks.
3) After filling the frogs, store the bricks under the damp sacks for 24 hours and
then immerse in water for 6 days before bricks are considered ready for testing.
After seven days of filling the frogs, take out the specimens and wipe off the
moisture with damp cloth.
4) Then place the specimen with flat surface horizontally and the mortar filled face
facing upwards between two plywood sheets of 3-ply, normally 3 to 4 mm thick
and carefully centered between the plates of the compression testing machine.
5) Then apply the load axially at a uniform rate of 14 N/mm 2 per minute, until
failure. The failure shall be deemed to have occurred when no further increase
in the load is registered with unchanged rate of moving head travel.
6) Calculation of compressive strength: Obtain the strength of each specimen by
dividing the maximum load obtained during loading by the appropriate area of
the bed face. Record the strength in N/mm2 to the nearest 0.1 N/mm2.
Calculate the average of the 12 compressive strengths and report it to the
nearest 0.1 N/mm2.

b) Solid bricks / bricks with a frog intended to be laid downwards / perforated


bricks / cellular bricks

Immerse the brick in water for 6 days or saturate the brick by boiling as described
in water absorption test. Then follow the 7.8.4.4(a)(4) and 7.8.4.4(a)(5).

c) Solid bricks with cavities

Fill the cavities with capping compound or mortar mix and immerse in water for 6
days and then follow 7.8.4.4(a)(4) and 7.8.4.4(a)(5).

d) Brick with holes

No capping compound is used and holes remain empty. Immerse the brick in water
for 6 days, take out and wipe off the moisture and then follow 7.8.4.4(a)(4) and
7.8.4.4(a)(5).

7.8.4.5 Calculation of compressive strengths

Strength = Maximum load in Newton / net area of brick in mm2.

For bricks with holes, net area of brick = Gross area of brick area of holes.
Gross area = Length of brick x width of brick.

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Chapter 7 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Aggregates And Bricks

d2
Area of hole = where d is the diameter of the hole
4
Note. When bricks are to be used as crushed aggregate, for in a blend as unfound
material, the necessity to determine the compressive strength accurately as it
is when the bricks are to be used in load-bearing walls, is not so critical (see
7.8.4.1)

7.8.4.6 Report. Report the compressive strength in a data sheet to the nearest 0.1 N/mm2. Data
sheets are given as Forms 7.8.3 and 7.8.4.

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Chapter 8 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Cement

CHAPTER 8

TESTS ON CEMENT

8.1 Fineness of Cement

8.1.1 Introduction. This simple test is not intended to indicate the true fineness of a
cement as may be determined by apparatus for measuring the specific surface, but it
is intended to give an indication of any hydration in the cement which has led to the
formation of small pieces of hardened material. If a sample of cement contains any
hardened lump of cement, it is clearly unsuitable for structural work and should be
rejected without further test.

8.1.2 Apparatus

a) 75 micron sieve
b) Balance (accuracy 0.01g)

8.1.3 Preparation of sample. The sample should be taken from at least 10 different bags
and divided by means of quartering or riffling. About 100 grams of cement is
required. Care should be taken in handling the sample to ensure that no crushing of
particles takes place.

8.1.4 Test procedure

a) The sample should be weighed to the nearest 0.1 grams, Weight A and then
sieved a little at a time on a 75 micron sieve. Care should be taken to prevent
loss of cement dust during loading and the sieve should be nested between a lid
and a receiver whilst sieving. Sieving of any portion should not continue for
longer than 4 minutes and not more than 25 grams of cement should be placed
on the sieve at any time. A bristle brush should be used to clean the mesh as
required.
b) The material retained on the sieve from each portion should be collected in
suitable dishes. There should be no cement dust adhering to the retained
material. If necessary, the retained material should be re-sieved to remove fines.
The total weight of material retained, Weight B, is determined.
c) To check that no significant weight of dust has been lost, the weight of the
material in the receiver, Weight C, should be determined.

8.1.5 Calculation

Weight A' = Weight B + Weight C

Loss of material during test = Weight A - Weight A'

The loss in weight should not exceed 0.5% of the original weight.

Weight B
Percentage retained on the 75 micron sieve = x 100%
WeightA

8.1.6 Reporting of results. The percentage retained on the 75 micron sieve should be
reported to the nearest 1 percent.

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Chapter 8 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Cement

8.2 Setting Time of Cement

8.2.1 Introduction

The setting times of cement give an indication of how long the cement will remain
workable when used in a concrete mix. If the cement has deteriorated or was
originally defective, it may take an excessive time to set.

8.2.2 Apparatus

The apparatus used for the test is the standard Vicat apparatus as shown in Figure
8.2.1. The apparatus is essentially a simple penetrometer, the sample of cement
paste being placed in the mould below the sliding weight. The weight may be varied
by placing calibrated weights within the stem and three different penetration devices
may be fitted to the underside of the weight. The total sliding weight including the
penetration attachments should be 300 lg.

8.2.3 Sample preparation

a) The sample must be mixed with the correct amount of water to give a standard
consistency. The standard consistence is determined by means of the Vicat
apparatus fitted with the plunger, a 10mm diameter blunt-ended, metal cylinder
weighing 9.0 0.5. g.
b) The freshly mixed cement paste is placed in the mould and levelled off with a
trowel. The plunger is brought into contact with the surface of the paste and then
released.
c) The paste is at the correct consistence when the plunger penetrates to a points
5 1 mm. from the bottom of the mould. The depth of penetration is shown on the
scale. Fresh samples of paste with varying water contents should be tested until
the desired consistence is achieved.
d) Normally, a weight of water between 26 and 33 percent of the weight of the dry
cement is required to obtain the standard consistence.

Note. Note that the procedure of determining consistence should not take
longer than about 5 minutes.

8.2.4 Test procedure

a) A fresh sample of cement paste of standard consistence should be placed in the


mould and levelled off using a trowel.
b) The initial set needle should be fitted to the apparatus, this needle is a blunt-
ended cylinder of diameter 1.13 mm. and weighing 9.0 0.5g. with the needle in
position the sliding portion of the apparatus should weight 300 grams. The weight
should be checked prior to the start of the test.
c) To determine the initial setting time the needle is brought into contact with the
surface of the cement paste and released. Initially the needle will penetrate
completely through the paste to the base of the mould, but the test is repeated at
regular intervals at different points on the surface until the needle only
penetrates to within 5 1 mm. of the base of the mould. The time elapsed from
initially mixing the cement with water until the desired penetration is reached is
the initial setting time.

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Chapter 8 Standard Test Procedures
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d) To determine the final setting time the final set needle is fitted to the apparatus.
The final set needle is a cylindrical blunt-ended needle which is fitted with a metal
collar which is hollowed out to leave a 5 mm. diameter cutting edge 0.5 mm.
behind the tip of the needle. The weight should be 9.0 0.5 g.
e) The needle is brought gently into contact with the surface of the paste and
released. This operation is repeated at intervals until the tip of the needle marks
the paste but the cutting edge does not come into contact with the paste. The
time elapsed from initial mixing of the cement and water until this stage is reached
is the final setting time.

Note 1. For ordinary Portland cement the initial time of setting is not less than
45 minutes and the final time of setting is not more than 375 minutes by
Vicat test.

Note 2. It should be noted that the setting times will be reduced as the
temperature of the paste increases, and the temperature of the test
should be maintained at 30 20C to give consistent results. To prevent
premature hardening of the surface of the paste, the humidity should
exceed 90%; this may be achieved by covering the apparatus with a
damp, but not dripping, towel between determinations.

8.2.5 Reporting of results

The initial setting time should be reported to the nearest 5 minutes and the final
setting time should be reported to the nearest 30 minutes. The temperature of the
test should be stated.

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Chapter 8 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Cement

8.3 Compressive Strength of Cement

8.3.1 General Requirements

8.3.1.1 Scope: The strength of cement is determined by compressive strength tests, on


100mm concrete cubes, or 70.7mm mortar cubes, made with specified coarse and
fine aggregates, in the case of the 100mm concrete cubes and specified sand in the
case of the 70.7 mortar cubes, mixed by a machine and compacted manually with a
compacting bar.

Note. The water/cement ration is 0.60 (C1, Table 8.3.1) for all cements except
super sulphated and high alumina, for which values of 0.55 (C2 Table
8.3.1) and 0.45 (C3 Table 8.3.1) respectively are used.

Table 8.3.1 Mixes for concrete cubes (in grams)


Mix type Material Proportion Mass for Mass for 9 Mass for
by mass 6 cubes cubes 12 cubes
Cement 1.0 22005 32005 42005
C1 Sand 2.5 5500 8000 10500
Coarse 3.5 770010 1120010 1470010
agg. 0.60 13205 19205 25205
Water
Cement 1.0 22005 32005 42005
C2 Sand 2.5 5500 8000 10500
Coarse 3.5 770010 1120010 1470010
agg. 0.55 12105 17605 23105
Water
Cement 1.0 29405 42705 56005
C3 Sand 1.875 5500 8000 10500
Coarse 2.625 770010 1120010 1470010
agg. 0.45 1320-5 19205 25205
Water

8.3.1.2 Apparatus

8.3.1.2.1 Moulds

a) Construction and assembly. The sides of the mould shall be made from
ferrous metal. The mould shall include a removable ferrous metal base plate. All
parts shall be robust enough to prevent distortion. Before assembly for use, the
joints between the sides of the mould and between the sides and the base plate
shall be thinly coated with oil or grease to prevent loss of water. The whole
assembly when completed must be rigidly held together in such a manner as to
prevent leakage from the mould. The internal faces of the mould shall be thinly
coated with release agent to prevent adhesion of the concrete.

Tolerances: The dimensional deviations shall be as follows:

i) Dimensions: The internal depth of the mould when assembled and the
distance between the two pairs of opposite internal faces, shall be 100 mm
plus or minus 0.15 mm for the 100mm moulds and 70.7 mm plus or minus
0.1mm for the 70.7 mm moulds

ii) Flatness: The flatness tolerance for each internal side face when
assembled shall be 0.03mm wide for the both the 70.7mm and the 100mm
moulds. The flatness tolerance for the joint faces, for the top and bottom

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Chapter 8 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Cement

surfaces of the assembled mould sides and the top surface of the base
plate shall be 0.06mm wide.

iii) Squareness: When assembled, the squareness tolerance for each internal
side face with respect to the adjacent internal side face and top of the base
plate shall be 0.5 mm wide for the both the 70.7 mm and the 100 mm
moulds.

iv) Parallelism: When assembled, the parallelism tolerance for the top surface
of the mould with respect to the top surface of the base plate shall be
1.0mm wide both for the 70.7mm and the 100mm moulds.

v) Surface texture: The surface texture of each internal side face shall not
exceed 3.2 micron when determined in accordance with BS 1134 both for
the 70.7 mm and the 100 mm moulds.

8.3.1.2.2 Scoop, approximately 100mm wide.

8.3.1.2.3 Square mouthed shovel, size 2 BS 3388.

8.3.1.2.4 Plasterers steel float.

8.3.1.2.5 Compacting bar weighing 1.8 plus or minus 0.1 kg, at least 380mm long and having a
ramming face of 25 plus or minus 0.5mm square.

8.3.1.2.6 Mixer. The concrete mixer shall be of suitable capacity to mix a concrete batch in
one operation. It shall comprise a rotating mixing pan with contra-rotating mixing
paddle and a scraper blade as shown in Figure 8.3.1 and Figure 8.3.2. The mixing
pan shall rotate at 18 plus or minus 1r/min. The mixing paddle shall rotate at 90 plus
or minus 5 r/min. The mixer shall preferably be fitted with an automatic timing device
otherwise a stopwatch should be provided.

8.3.1.2.7 Tank. The tank shall contain clean tap water which shall be replace at least every 7
days with water at the specified temperature.

8.3.1.2.8 Compression testing machine. Over the scale range used, the machine shall be
capable of applying the load at a rate of about 0.25 N/mm2 per second for the 100mm
concrete moulds and at a rate of about 0.60Mpa for the 70.7mm mortar moulds and
shall comply with grade 1 of BS 1610.

8.3.1.3 Temperature and humidity conditions. The temperature throughout the entire
test procedure should be controlled at 200C with permitted variations as shown in
Table 8.3.2. The minimum relative humidity shall be as given in Table 8.3.2.

Table 8.3.2 Temperature and humidity conditions.

Situation Permitted temperature Minimum Relative


Variation, 0C Humidity
%
Mixing room 2 50
Moist curing 1 90
chamber 1 -
Water curing tank 2 50
Water curing tank

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Tests On Cement
Form 8.3.1

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Tests On Cement

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Chapter 8 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Cement

Figure 8.3.3 : Typical Vibration Machine for compacting Mortar


Cubes

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Chapter 8 Standard Test Procedures
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8.3.1.4 Preparation of samples. The specimens shall be prepared as follows:

8.3.1.4.1 Number of cubes. Make batches of six, nine, or twelve cubes for testing at the
specified ages.

8.3.1.4.2 Aggregates. The coarse aggregate and sand shall comply.

8.3.1.4.2.1 Standard coarse aggregate for concrete cubes (100mm 70.7mm moulds).

a) Scope. The coarse aggregate shall consist of clean, substantially free from
dust and dry crushed granite, in one fraction, 10mm to 5mm nominal size,
30Kg of aggregate is required for sampling purposes and it shall be reduced,
using a sample divider, to six sub-samples of about 500g each.

b) Grading. The coarse aggregate shall comply with the grading requirements
of the table below:

Test sieve Percentage passing sieve


10.00mm 90 - 100
5.00 0 - 10

Sieve the coarse aggregate on 10 mm and 5 mm and 5 mm sieves with square holes
so that it is substantially free from oversized particles.

8.3.1.4.3 Standard sand to be used with standard coarse aggregate for making
concrete cubes

a) Scope. Natural silica sand in five fractions. Each fraction shall comply with
the grading requirements of table 5. For each fraction of sand, 8kg sand are
required for sampling purposes and the sand shall be reduced using a
sample divider to six sub-sample of about 500g each.

b) Grading. The sand shall comply with the grading requirements of Table 8.3.3
below:

Table 8.3.3 Grading of sand fractions for concrete cubes 100mm or 70.7 mm

Fraction A Fraction B Fraction C Fraction D Fraction E

Test sieve % passing % passing % passing % passing % passing


3.35 mm 100 100 100 100 100
3.35-2.36 mm 90-100 100 100 100 100
2.36-1.18mm 0-10 90-100 100 100 100
1.18mm-600 mic 0 0-10 90-100 100 100
600mic-300mic 0 0 0-10 90-100 100
300mic-150mm 0 0 0 0-15 85-100
150-90 mic 0 0 0 0 0-15
75 mic 0 0 0 0 0

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8.3.2 Compressive Strength Procedure using the 100 mm Concrete Moulds

8.3.2.1 Proportionship of materials. The masses of the individual materials for batches of
six, nine of twelve cubes are given in Table 8.3.1 and 8.3.4.

Table 8.3.4 Mass for individual fractions of sand (in grams)


Fraction Mass for 6 Mass for Mass for
cubes 9 cubes 12 cubes
A (2.36-1.18mm) 5505 8005 10505
B (1.18-600 micron) 11005 16005 21005
C (600 micron-300 micron) 16505 24005 31505
D (300 micron-150 micron) 13755 20005 26255

8.3.2.2 Mixing. Place the weighed materials in the mixer in the following order:

1. Sand, 2. Cement, 3. Coarse aggregate

Hold the mixing water ready and start the mixer. After 15s add the water uniformly
during the next 15s, and then continue mixing for a total time of 180 plus or minus 5s.
After the machine mixing, turn the concrete over in the pan a few times with a trowel
to remove any slight segregation.

8.3.2.3 Compacting: Half fill the cube moulds as quickly as possible. Compact each mould
with exactly 35 strokes of the compacting bar, uniformly distributed over the cross
section of the mould. Place a further quantity of concrete in each mould to form the
top layer and compact similarly. Then strike off the top of each cube and smooth with
the trowel so that the surface or the concrete is level with the top of the cube.
Complete the entire operation within 15 minutes from the completion of the mixing.

8.3.2.4 Storage of specimens. Immediately after preparation, place the moulds in single
layer on a layer on a level surface in a moist curing chamber. In order to reduce
evaporation, cover the exposed top of the cubes with a flat impervious sheet making
contact with the upper edge of the mould. After 24h plus or minus 0.5h mark the
cubes for later identification and remove from the moulds. Immediately submerge all
specimens, except the ones to be tested at 24h, in the tank and arrange in such a
way that the temperature variation specified in Table 1 is not exceeded. Leave the
cubes in the tank until just prior to the test but ensure that the temperature of the
water in the tank is maintained at 200C plus or minus 20C.

Specimens to be tested at 24h are marked and demoulded 15 min to 20 min before
the test and are covered with a damp cloth so that they remain in a moist condition. If
the concrete has not achieved sufficient strength after 24h to be handled without fear
of damage, delay the demoulding for a further 24h but state this in the test report.

8.3.2.5 Testing of specimens. Determine the compressive strength of the cubes, under the
temperature and relative humidity conditions specified in Table 8.3.2 for the
compression testing room, at the specified age, calculated from the time that water
was added to the materials, by the applying load without shock in the testing
machine. Ensure that all surfaces of the cube are clean and that no grit or any other
particle rests on the surface receiving the load and centre the cube on the lower
platen and ensure that the load will be applied to the two opposite cast faces of the
cube. The rate of loading shall be about 0.25 N/mm2 per second using the auxiliary
platens.

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Test the specimens within the following limits:

24h plus or minus 0.5h


3 days plus or minus 1.0h
7 days plus or minus 2.0h
28 days plus or minus 4.0h

8.3.2.6 Calculation. Calculate the average of the individual results of the set of three
specimens tested at the same age, and express the result to the nearest 0.5N/mm2. If
one result within the same set varies by more than 5% of the average of the set,
discard the result and recalculate the average of the remaining results. If more than
one result varies by more than 5% from the average, discard the set of results.

8.3.2.7 Report. Report the individual results and the average compressive strength to the
nearest 0.5N/mm2, indicating if any result has been discarded.

8.3.3 Compressive Strength of Mortar Cubes using the 70.7 mm Mortar Cubes

The strengths of cement is determined by compressive strengths tests on 70.7mm


mortar cubes, made with specified sand, mixed by hand and compacted by means of
a standard vibration machine. The equipment required for this test has been
described in the general requirements for the compressive strengths of cement using
100mm concrete moulds. In addition to the equipment above there is a requirement
for a vibrations machine. A typical vibration machine as shown in Fig. 8.3.3 is
suitable. The temperature and humidity conditions required for the test are identical
to those in the test for the compressive strengths of cement using 100mm concrete
moulds.

8.3.3.1 Standard sand to be used for making mortar cubes.

8 kg of sand are required for sampling purposes and it shall be reduced using the
sample divider into sub-samples of about 500g each.

The moisture content of the sand shall not exceed 0.1% by dry mass using the oven-
dry method.

The grading of the sand shall be such that all of it passes 850 micron test sieve and
the proportion by mass passing the 600 micron test sieve shall not exceed 10%.

The sand shall show a loss of mass not exceeding 0.25% on extraction with hot
hydrochloric acid when determined in the following methods:

8.3.3.2 Method

Dry a sample of little over 2g of the sand at a temperature of 1050C plus or minus
50C for a period of 1 h.

Weigh a quantity of about 2g of the dried sand to an accuracy of plus or minus


0.001g into a porcelain dish and add 20ml of 1 M hydrochloric acid and 20ml of
distilled water. Heat the dish on a water bath for 1h, filter the contents, and wash well
with hot water.

Dry the sand, ignite it in a covered crucible, cool it and weigh it again. The loss in
mass shall be expressed as a percentage of the original mass of sample.

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8.3.3.3 Proportioning. The mass of cement, sand and water for each cube is given in Table
8.3.5.

Table 8.3.5 Mixes for mortar cubes:


Mix type Material Proportions by Mass for 1 cube
mass
Cement 1.0 1851
V1 Sand 3.0 5551
Water 0.40 741

8.3.3.4 Mixing. Before mixing, clamp the assembled mould on the table of the vibration
machine and attach the hopper to the top of the mould. Mix the mortar for each cube
separately on a non-porous surface that has been wiped clean with a damp cloth. Mix
the cement and the sand dry, for 1 min, by means of the two trowels. Then add the
water and mix the whole for 4 min with the two trowels.

8.3.3.5 Compacting. Please the whole of the mortar in the hopper of the mould by means of
a suitable scoop as quickly as possible and compact by vibration for a period of 120s
plus or minus 5s.

8.3.3.6 Storage. Storage of samples is identical with the procedure for test using 100mm
concrete cubes.

8.3.3.7 Testing. The testing of the 70.7mm mortar cubes is the same procedure as the
testing used for the 100mm concrete cubes except that the rate of loading shall be
0.60/Nmm2 per second. Calculations and reporting are identical to the corresponding
sections of test using the 100mm concrete cubes.

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Concrete

CHAPTER 9

TESTS ON CONCRETE

9.1 Slump Test

9.1.1 Scope

The strength of concrete of a given mix proportion is seriously affected by the degree
of its compaction. It is therefore important that the consistency of the mix is such that
the concrete can be transported, placed and finished sufficiently easily and without
segregation. A concrete satisfying these conditions is said to be workable.
Workability is a physical property of the concrete depending on the external and
internal friction of the concrete matrix; internal friction being provided by the
aggregate size and shape and external friction being provided by the surface on
which the concrete comes into contact with.

Consistency of concrete is another way of expressing workability but it is more


confined to the parameters of water content. Thus concrete of the same consistency
may vary in workability. One test which measures the consistency of concrete is the
slump test. It does not measure the workability of concrete but it is very useful in
detecting variations in the uniformity of a mix of given nominal proportions.

Mixes of stiff consistency have zero slump. In this dry range no variation can be
detected between mixes of different workability. In a lean mix with a tendency to
harshness a true slump can easily change to the shear slump or even to collapse.
Different values of slump can be obtained from different samples of the same mix.
Despite the limitations, the slump test is very useful on site as a check on the day-to-
day or hour-to-hour variations in the materials being fed into the mixer.

An increase in slump may mean, for instance, that the moisture content of aggregate
has unexpectedly increased; another cause would be a change in the grading of
aggregate, such as a deficiency in sand. Too high or too low a slump gives
immediate warning and enables the mixer operator to remedy the situation.

9.1.2 Apparatus

9.1.2.1 Mould. A mould made of metal not readily attacked by cement paste and not thinner
than 1.5mm. The interior of the mould should be smooth and free from projections
such as protruding rivets and shall be free from dents. The mould shall be in the form
of a hollow frustum of a cone having the following dimensions:

a) diameter of base = 200mm plus or minus 2mm


b) diameter of top = 100mm plus or minus 2mm
c) height = 300mm plus or minus 2mm.

The base and top shall be open and parallel to the axis of the cone. The mould shall
be provided with two handles at two-thirds of the height, and with foot pieces to
enable it to be held steady. A mould which can be clamped to the baseplate is
acceptable, provided that the clamping arrangement can be released without
movement of the mould.

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
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9.1.2.2 Scoop, approximately 100mm wide.

9.1.2.3 Sampling tray, 1.2m x 1.2m x 50mm deep made from minimum 1.6mm thick non-
corrodible metal.

9.1.2.4 Square mouthed shovel, size 2 in accordance with BS 3388.

9.1.2.5 Tamping rod, made out of straight steel bar of circular cross section. 16mm
diameter, 600mm long with both ends hemispherical.

9.1.2.6 Rule, graduated from 0mm to 300mm at 5mm intervals.

9.1.3 Performing Slump test

9.1.3.1 Procedure. Commence the slump test as soon as possible after sampling of
concrete as per standard procedure described in Chapter 2.

9.1.3.2 Preparation of sample for test. Empty the sample from the container onto the
sampling try. Thoroughly mix the sample by shovelling to form a cone on the
sampling tray. and turning this over to form a new cone, the operation being
repeated three times. When forming the cone deposit each shovelful of the material
on the apex of the cone so that the portions which slide down the sides are
distributed as evenly as possible and so that the centre of the cone is not displaced.
Flatten the third cone by repeated vertical insertion of the shovel across the apex of
the cone, lifting the shovel clear of the concrete after each insertion.

9.1.3.3 Test. Ensure that the internal surface of the mould is clean and damp but free from
excessive moisture before commencing the test. Place the mould on a smooth,
horizontal, rigid and non-absorbent surface free from vibration and shock.

Hold the mould firmly against the surface below. Using the scoop fill the mould in
three layers, each approximately one-third of the volume of the mould when tamped.
Tamp each layer with 25 strokes of the tamping rod, the strokes being distributed
uniformly over the cross section of the layer. Tamp each layer to its full depth,
ensuring that the tamping rod does not forcibly strike the surface below when
tamping the first layer and only passes through the second and top layers into the
layers below. Heap the concrete above the mould before the top layer is tamped.
After the top layer has been tamped strike off the concrete level with the top of the
mould with a sawing and rolling motion of the tamping rod. With the mould still held
down, clean from the surface below any concrete which might have fallen onto it.

Remove the mould from the concrete by raising it vertically, slowly and carefully, in 5
seconds to 10 seconds, in such manner as to impart minimum lateral or torsional
movement to the concrete. The entire operation from start to finish shall be carried
out without interruption and shall be completed within 150 seconds. Immediately after
the mould is removed, measure the slump to the nearest 5mm by using the rule to
determine the difference between the height of the mould and of the highest point of
the specimen being tested.

Note. The workability of a concrete mix changes with time due to the hydration of
the cement, and loss of moisture.

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
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9.1.3.4 Expression of result

9.1.3.4.1 General. The test result is only valid if it yields a true slump. The slump should be
reported to the nearest 5mm and the type of slump (i.e. true, shear or collapse)
should be stated as shown in Figure 9.1.1 a), b) and c).

9.1.3.4.2 Precision. For slump measurements made on concrete taken from the same
sample, the repeatability is 15mm at the 95% probability level, for normal concrete
having a measured slump within the range of 50mm to 75mm.

9.1.4 Report

The following information shall be included in the report:

a) Name of testing agency


b) Client
c) Contract name
d) Location of concrete in structure
e) Supplier of concrete
f) Date and time of test
g) Time of completion of test
h) Location of test
i) Time lapsed from sampling to commencement of test
j) Form of slump, whether true, shear or collapse
k) Measure of true slump
l) Name and signature of sampler and tester

A form of reporting the slump test results is shown in Form 9.1.1.

Figure 9.1.1

True Slump Shear Collapse

a)Intact and symmetrical b) Shear c) Collapse

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
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9.2 Crushing Strength of Concrete

9.2.1 Introduction

Crushing tests are universally used for determining the strength of concrete and the
standard test measures the crushing strength at an age of 28 days after mixing.
Because of the time delay in obtaining the test results for concrete crushing strength,
it is often very difficult or expensive to take remedial action if the test results are
unsatisfactory. It is, therefore, essential to continuously control all aspects of
concrete production so that the concrete very rarely fails in crushing strength tests.

Crushing strength tests may be carried out on either cylinders or cubes made in
standard moulds, cured under standard conditions and crushed in a standard
manner. Any variations in the methods of manufacture, curing or testing may affect
the final results and all these aspects require careful control.

9.2.2 Scope

The results of this test may be used as the basis of concrete proportioning, mixing
and placing operations; determination of compliance with specification, control for
evaluating effectiveness of admixtures and similar uses. There are only minor
differences in test methods between cubes and cylinders and they are, therefore,
considered together.

9.2.3 Testing machine

Crushing machines may vary from small hand-operated models to large power-driven
universal test machines. In the large majority of machines, the load is applied by a
hydraulic jack and the load is measured by a pressure gauge calibrated directly in
units of force.

Even a small crushing machine is likely to be one of the most expensive pieces of
equipment in the laboratory and it should be maintained strictly in accordance with
the manufacturers instruction. In general, it should be installed in a dry place and
should be kept clean at all times. The hydraulic reservoir or pump should be
frequently topped up with the correct grade of hydraulic oil, (the use of ordinary
motor oil may quickly ruin the machine). The maximum load on the gauge should
never be exceeded and the machine should not be left under load for a prolonged
time. Any oil leaks should be quickly reported and appropriate repairs carried out. A
well maintained machine should last many years.

The accuracy of new crushing machines will vary somewhat with the type of machine,
a smaller machine may be expected to give less accurate results than a high-quality
universal test machine. If machines are used frequently at loads close to their design
capacity, their accuracy will suffer and it is a wise precaution to only use machines at
loads up to 75 percent of their design capacity.

With age the calibration of a machine may vary and all machines should periodically
be re-calibrated using a load cell or a number of standard test specimens, a
proportion of which are tested on a fully-standardised machine. If a replacement load
gauge is fitted to a machine, re-calibration must be carried out.

The steel platens on a crushing machine are designed to withstand very high
stresses, they should, however, occasionally be checked for damage and the ball
seating of the upper platen should be checked for cleanliness and freedom of
movement.

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
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9.2.4 Sample preparation

Samples for crushing strength tests should truly represent the concrete used in the
works and must, therefore, be taken throughout the period when work is in progress.
It will be clear that if all specimens are made from only one batch of concrete this may
represent only a small fraction of the concrete used in the pour. If, however, one
specimen is made from each of a number of different batches of concrete throughout
the day the specimens will be more representative of the average concrete used in
the pour.

Samples for testing should be taken at random times throughout the day and it is
best for the mix to be batted before any indication is given that tests are to be made.
It is very easy for a mixer operator to produce a good mix especially for the tests; the
purpose of quality control testing is, however, to determine the true strength of the
typical material used in the works.

The samples for crushing strengths may be collected in a similar manner as for
workability test (slump test). In fact, it is usual procedure to test part of the sample for
workability and part for crushing strength.

The specimens should be prepared immediately after sampling.

9.2.5 Making test cubes and cylinders

Concrete cube or cylinder moulds are made of steel or cast iron and of sufficient
strength to resist deformation, the inside faces and ends are machined to give
smooth surfaces and tight fitting joints. The moulds are made in two halves which bolt
together for ease of removing the samples and cleaning. Cylinder moulds are
normally 150 mm in diameter and 300 mm high; cube moulds normally have 150mm
sides. The moulds sit on heavy baseplates which are fastened to the moulds by
clamps.

There should be no dirt or hardened mortar on the faces or the flanges of the moulds
before assembly, otherwise the sections will not fit together closely. These faces must
be thinly coated with mould oil to prevent leakage during filling, and a similar oil
should be provided between the contact surfaces of the bottom of the mould and the
base. The inside of the mould must also be oiled to prevent the concrete from
sticking to it. The sections must be bolted tightly together and the mould held down
firmly on the baseplate. Any excess oil should be removed by wiping with a soft cloth
as this may be detrimental to the concrete.

The concrete should be placed in the mould using a scoop, taking care to ensure the
concrete does not segregate. The concrete should be placed in layers, each layer
being compacted before placing another layer. The purpose of the procedure is to
achieve full compaction (i.e. maximum density); a drier mix may, therefore, need more
compaction than a wet mix. The following procedures are considered the minimum
requirements to ensure full compaction; dry mixes may require considerably more
compaction than the minimum shown: -

Cubes: - Place concrete in three layers giving each layer at least 35 blows of a 25mm
square blunt-ended tamping rod.

Cylinders: - Place concrete in three layers, each approximately one-third the volume
of the mould, giving each layer 25 strokes of a 16mm diameter round-ended tamping
rod of 600mm length.

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
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As an alternative to the above procedures vibration may be used to fully compact the
specimen. This may be done either on a vibrating table or using an immersion
vibrator.

On completion of compaction, excess concrete should be removed with a steel float


and the surface floated off level with the top of the mould. It is preferably for the
finished surface to be slightly proud of the mould especially if the mix is very wet.
Care should be taken when floating off the top surface to ensure the surface is not
devoid of fines or contains too much mortar, as far as possible the top surface should
be of a similar consistency to the concrete in the mould.

The moulds should not be moved at all within the first four hours after casting and it
is preferable to leave them undisturbed for 24 hours. The reference number of the
specimen may be marked on the surface of the concrete once this has started to set.

9.2.6 Curing specimens

The conditions under which a specimen is cured can cause substantial variations in
the final strength of the concrete. For example, a normal concrete cured entirely in
air, will have a strength at 28 days about half that of the same mix cured in water.
Similarly, a specimen cured in water at 130C will have a strength at 7 days about 70%
of that of the same mix cured in water at 460C. Because of these variations, it is
essential that all specimens are cured in a similar manner if strengths are to be
compared.

Immediately after casting, the moulds should be covered with damp hessian (jute
bags), the hessian should not be so wet as to allow water to fall on the surface of the
specimen. It is a good practice to raise the hessian off the surface of the concrete by
means of small pieces of wood. The moulds and hessian should then be covered with
a sheet of polythene to prevent drying out. The polythene should completely enclose
the moulds and be weighted down at the edges with bricks or stones. If polythene is
not available, the hessian must be kept damp at all times. The moulds should not be
exposed to direct sunlight.

After 24 hours, the specimens should be uncovered and removed from the
moulds. The concrete is still weak at this stage and should be handled carefully. To
remove from the mould, loosen all the bolts and clamps, slide off the baseplate and
then tap the mould gently to free the specimen. On removal from the mould, the
specimen should be put straight into a tank of clean water. It will not normally be
possible to control the water temperature other than by shielding from direct sunlight
but it should be normally within the range 25 to 350C. In the case of laboratory tests
for trial mixes etc., the temperature should be maintained at 30 10C. The water
should be changed at least once a month.

It should be noted that in the USA and Europe the standard curing temperature is
200C. In Bangladesh it is not normally possible to attain this temperature without
artificial cooling and a standard temperature of 300C is used. This temperature
difference has only a minor effect on 28-days strengths but results in a higher
strength at 7 days. Care should, therefore, be taken when comparing test results with
typical values given in reference books and papers.

9.2.7 Transporting specimens

In many cases it will be necessary to transport cubes and cylinders from the site to a
central laboratory where they are to be crushed. Specimens must not be transported

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
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during the first 24 hours after casting and, if possible, reduce the risk of damage
during transit.

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
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Immediately prior to transport, the specimen should be removed from the curing tank
and completely wrapped in hessian which should be at least two layers thick. The
hessian and specimen should then be completely soaked with water and placed in a
polythene bag which should be firmly sealed. A ticket containing details of the
specimen should be placed in the bag.

As an alternative to a polythene bag, the specimen may be placed in an airtight tin.


Occasionally, purpose-made curing cans may be available, these have a sponge
lining which is thoroughly wetted prior to inserting the specimen, thus dispensing with
the need for hessian. The whole purpose in transporting is to keep the specimen wet
at all times and to prevent physical damage during the journey. If the specimens are
to be transported by lorry or over rough roads, additional protection may be required.
On reaching the laboratory, the specimens should be immediately placed in a tank of
water to complete the period of curing.

9.2.8 Testing specimens

On completion of the required period of curing, the specimens are removed from the
water, allowed to drain and surface-dried, using a soft cloth.

The weight of the saturated surface-dry specimen is then determined, weight a. The
weight of the sample in water is then taken by use of wire basket suspended from a
suitable balance and immersed in a tank of water, weight b.

Any burrs or edges on the sides of the specimen should then be removed using a
carborundam block.

The sample may now be tested. In the case of cubes, the sample is placed in the
crushing machine on its side so that the two faces in contact with the platens of the
machine are faces which were in contact with the polished steel sides of the mould,
they should, therefore, be perfectly plane and smooth. Cylinders must, however, be
tested in an upright position and the upper surface has only been float- finished. If
the cylinder was crushed with the upper surface directly in contact with the platen of
the test machine, the test result would almost certainly give a low result as the upper
surface will be in contact with the machine at a number of high spots and compact
stress patterns will be developed. It is, therefore, standard procedure to cap
specimens prior to test.

Capping may be done by a number of methods but the two most commonly used are
neat cement and capping compounds. Using neat cement the cylinder is capped
shortly after casting. During casting, the wet concrete should be left about 3mm.
below the top of the mould. After at least 4 hours when the concrete has initially set,
the mould is topped up with a neat cement paste. The cement paste should have
been allowed to stand for some time prior to use, to allow some of the initial
shrinkage to take place; it should not, however, have started to harden. To obtain a
perfectly smooth surface the cement paste is finished off level with the top of the
mould using a flat piece of glass which is slid across the top surface. It is sometime
useful to apply a thin layer of graphite grease to the glass to aid sliding, some
practice may be required before a perfectly smooth surface can be achieved. The
specimen is then cured as usual.

Using capping compound, the cylinder is capped immediately prior to testing. The
capping compound may be pure sulphur or preferably a mixture of sulphur and milled
fired clay (brick dust). The compound is heated in a metal pot until molten, when a
portion is removed with a ladle, and poured onto a polished steel plate. The cylinder

MAY 2001 Page 9.9


Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Concrete

is then gently lowered onto the compound and rotated to ensure the face is
completely

MAY 2001 Page 9.10


Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Concrete

covered. A special jig is normally used for this purpose, this ensures the cylinder is
kept absolutely vertical during the capping operation. Once cool, the compound is
immediately ready for use. After testing, compound may be recovered by re-heating.

The capped cylinder is placed in the crushing machine. Specimens should be tested
in a saturated surface-dry condition.

The steel platens of the crushing machine are brought together until they just touch
the upper and lower surfaces of the specimen. The specimen should be central on
the platens and the upper platen should be free to rotate so that any small
differences in alignment between the upper and lower surfaces of the specimen may
be accounted for.

The crushing machine should be fitted with a guard to contain the specimen on
fracture.

The load is then applied to the specimen at a constant rate to give an increase in
stress on the specimen of 0.2 to 0.4 N/mm2/sec. On automatic machines the rate of
loading may be shown by a load pacer, but on manual machines, pacing should be
done using a stopwatch. It is a good practice to overlay the dial with a clear plastic
sheet with times corresponding to each dial gauge reading shown. Note that, as the
sample begins to fail the actual speed of the platens must be increased to maintain
the same rate of application of load.

The rate of loading has a significant effect on the test result in that, too quick a rate
will give a high result and too slow a rate will give low results, it is, therefore,
important to maintain the correct rate.

The specimen is considered to have failed when the load begins to decrease, even
though the operator is still attempting to maintain the rate of loading. Prior to this
condition, small decreases in the load may take place and after a short time the load
again increases, this re-orientation of the specimen close to failure may be
disregarded. The maximum load attained during the test should be recorded. Some
of the satisfactory and unsatisfactory of failures are shown in Figure 9.2.1 and Figure
9.2.2.

9.2.9 Calculation

It is usual to test cubes and cylinders on a daily basis and the test results for a days
work may be recorded on a sheet such as Form 9.2.1.

The volume of the specimen is give by: -

Volume c = (weight a - weight b) ml

Where, weight a, is weight of SSD specimen in air (grams) and weight b, is weight of
SSD specimen in water (grams).

The density of the concrete is give by: -

Weight a
Density = = gm / ml
Volume c

a
= x 1000 kg / cu.m
c

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Concrete

The stress on the specimen is given by: -

Maximum test load


Stress =
Cross - sectional area of specimen

In the case of a cube, the cross sectional area = L2.


D2
In the case of a cylinder the cross sectional area =
4
Where L is length of side of a cube, D is diameter of a cylinder.

The final results of a batch of cubes may be given on a form as shown in Form 9.2.2.

9.2.10 Reporting of results

The crushing strength of the concrete should be reported to the nearest N/mm2 and
the density of the hardened concrete should be reported to the nearest to kg/cu.m.

The test report should include at least the following information:

a) Name of testing agency


b) Client
c) Contractors name
d) Contract name
e) Date and time specimens made
f) Age of specimen at test
g) Method of compacting specimens
h) Sample identification number
i) Conditions of curing and storage
j) Supplier of concrete
k) Date concrete delivered to site
l) Location of concrete in structure
m) Slump of concrete
n) Maximum load at failure
o) Density of specimen
p) Appearance of concrete
q) Description of failure
r) Name of sampler
s) Name of tester
t) Any other information

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Concrete

NOTE. All four exposed faces are cracked approximately equally, generally with little
damage to faces in contract with the platens.

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Concrete
Form 9.2.1

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Chapter 9 Standard Test Procedures
Tests On Concrete
Form 9.2.2

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

CHAPTER 10

TESTS FOR BITUMEN & BITUMINOUS MATERIALS

10.1 Bitumen Penetration Test

10.1.1 General requirements

10.1.1.1 Scope. This is a basic test for determining the grades of bitumen. In effect, the test is
an indirect determination of high temperature viscosity and low temperature stiffness.
The scope of this is to provide a method for determining the consistency of semi-solid
and solid bituminous materials in which the sole or major constituent is either bitumen
or tar pitch.

10.1.1.2 Definition. The penetration of bituminous material is its consistency expressed as


the distance in tenths of a millimeter that a standard needle penetrates vertically into
a specimen of the material under specified conditions of temperature, load and
duration of loading.

Grades of straight-run bitumen are designated by two penetration values, for


example, 40/50, 60/80, 80/100 etc.; the penetration of an actual sample of the
bitumen in any grade should fall between the lower and upper value given.

10.1.1.3 Apparatus

a) The test apparatus consists of a right frame which holds the needle spindle in a
vertical position and allows it to slide freely without friction. A dial gauge
calibrated in millimeters measures the penetration. The total weight of the needle
and spindle must be 50 0.05 grams and facilities for adding additional weights
of 50 0.05 grams and 100 0.05 grams must be provided. The surface on
which the sample container rests must be flat and at right angles to the needle.
b) A penetration needle made of fully hardened and tempered stainless steel of
1.00mm in diameter and 50mm in length, with one end ground to a truncated
cone as shown in Figure 10.1.1. The needle is held by brass or stainless steel
ferrule. The test is shown diagrammatically in Figure 10.1.1.
c) The sample is placed in a metal or glass flat bottom container of the following
dimensions:-

For penetrations below 200 mm:


Diameter 55 mm
Internal depth 35 mm

For penetrations between 200 and 350 mm


Diameter 70 mm
Internal depth 45 mm

The sample and dish are brought to the required temperature in a water bath
which is maintained at a temperature within 0.1/oC of the test temperature. The
sample container must be placed on a perforated shelf which is between 50 and
100 mm below the surface of the water.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

DIAL GAUGE READS


PENETRATION (in mm)

100 gms.

100 gms.

START AFTER 5 SECS

Penetration Test

0 0
840 to 940 0.14 to 0.16 mm
1.00 to 1.02 mm

Approx.
Approximately 6.35 mm
50.8 mm (2)

Penetration Needle

Figure 10.1.1 Penetration needle

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

d) To maintain the sample at the correct temperature during the test, a glass
transfer dish is used. This dish of at least 350 ml capacity is fitted with a suitable
support to hold the sample container firm and level during testing.
e) A stopwatch is required to measure the time of penetration.

10.1.2 Sample preparation

a) A sample of bitumen is first heated carefully in an oven or on a hotplate until it


has become sufficiently fluid to pour. When using a hotplate, the bitumen should
be stirred as soon as possible to prevent local overheating. In no case should the
temperature be raised more than 900C above the softening point, and samples
must not be heated for more then 30 minutes.
b) When sufficiently fluid a portion of the sample is poured into the sample container
to a depth of at least 10mm greater than the depth to which the needle is
expected to penetrate.
c) The sample is then covered loosely to protect against dust, and allowed to cool in
the atmosphere between 15 and 300C for 1 to 1 hours for the small container
and 1 to 2 hours for the large container.
d) After cooling in air, the sample containers together with the transfer dishes
should be placed in the water bath at the required temperature, for a period of 1
to 1 hours for the small container and 1 to 2 hours for the large container.

10.1.3 Conditions of test

The test is normally carried out at a temperature of 250C with the total weight of the
needle, spindle and added weights being 100 grams, the needle is released for a
period of 5 seconds. If it is not possible to obtain these conditions or if there are
special circumstances, one of the following alternative conditions may be used:-

Temperature, Total sliding Time,


0
C (0F) weights, grams seconds
0 (32) 200 60
4 (39.2) 200 60
46.1 (115) 50 5

It will be noted that, to obtain the standard temperature of 250C in Bangladesh,


cooling of the water bath is normally required, it may, therefore, be more convenient
in many cases to use a temperature of 46.10C.

10.1.4 Test procedure

a) The needle should be examined for damage or surface roughness; it should be


dry and clean. To ensure the needle is perfectly cleaned, it should be wiped with
a cloth soaked in toluene or another suitable bitumen solvent and then dried with
a clean cloth.
b) The clean needle should be inserted into the penetrometer apparatus and the
total sliding weight made up to the required value, if necessary by adding
additional weights. For example, if 100 grams is required, and the needle and
spindle weigh 50 grams, an additional weight of 50 grams must be added.
c) The sample container is then placed in the transfer dish complete with water at
the required temperature from the constant temperature bath, the sample being
completely covered with water at all times. The transfer dish is then placed on the
stand of the apparatus.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

d) The penetrometer needle is then slowly lowered until it just touches the surface of
the sample. This point is best judged by using a strong source of light and
determining the point where the tip of the needle just meets its image reflected by
the surface of the sample. The initial dial gauge reading is taken.
e) The needle is then released for the specified time and re-locked immediately at
the end of the period. Care should be taken not to disturb or jolt the apparatus
when releasing the needle, if this occurs or the sample moves, the test must be
repeated. The final dial gauge reading is taken.
f) The transfer dish should then be returned to the water bath and a clean needle
fitted to the machine. The test is then repeated on the same sample. This
procedure is repeated so that at least 3 determinations are made on each
sample, taking care that each point is at least 10mm from the side of the sample
container and at least 10mm from the other determinations. If the penetration
exceeds 200mm, the needles should be left in the sample until all three
determinations have been completed.

10.1.5 Calculation

The penetration is given by:

Penetration = (Initial dial gauge reading (mm) - Final dial gauge reading (mm)) x 10

A typical worksheet is shown as Form 10.1.1.

The three penetration values obtained on the sample must agree to within the
following limits:-

Penetration 0 to 49 50 to 149 150 to 249 250


Maximum difference between highest
and lowest determination 2 4 6 8

If the differences exceed the above values, the results are ignored and the test must
be repeated on the second sample. If the differences are again exceeded by the
second sample, the results must be ignored and the test completely repeated.

If the determinations are within the above tolerances, the penetration is quoted as
the average of the individual results.

10.1.6 Test report

The report shall contain at least the following information:

a) Identification of the material tested


b) A reference to the test method used.
c) A statement of any deviation from the method stated for 25C/100g/5 seconds.
d) The test result
e) Date of test.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

10.2 Bitumen Softening Test

10.2.1 General Requirements

10.2.1.1 Scope. An alternative to the penetration test for checking the consistency of
bitumen, is the ring and ball softening point test. The scope of this test is to provide a
method for determining the consistency of semi-solid and bituminous materials in
which the sole or major constituent is either bitumen or tar pitch.

10.2.1.2 Definition. The softening point of a bituminous material is the temperature at which
the material attains a certain degree of softness under specified conditions of test.

10.2.1.3 Equipment. The equipment required to carry the penetration test in the laboratory
are listed below:

a) A steel ball having a diameter of 9.3 mm and weighing 3.5g 0.05g.


b) Tapped ring, made of brass (see Figure 10.2.1) shall be used for referee
purposes. For other purposes either a straight ring (Figure 10.2.2) or a
shouldered ring (Figure 10.2.3) may be used.
c) A convenient form of ball contouring guide (Figure 10.2.4)
d) Ring holder made of brass or other metal (see Figure 10.2.5)
e) Bottom plate made of brass or other metal (see Figure 10.2.6)
f) A thermometer (capacity 1000C and accuracy 0.1 0C)
g) A water bath of heat-resistant glass and conforming to the dimensions given in
Figure 10.2.7, the rings being supported in a horizontal position. The bottom of
the bulb of the thermometer shall be level with the bottom of the rings and within
10mm of them but not touching them. A 600 ml beaker is suitable.
h) Distilled water for materials of softening points of 800C and glycerol for materials
of higher softening point.
i) Stirrer.

10.2.2 Sample preparation

The sample obtained in accordance with section 2.7 is heated carefully in an oven or
on a hotplate until it has become sufficiently fluid to pour. When using a hotplate, the
bitumen should be stirred as soon as possible, to prevent local over-heating. In no
case should the temperature be raised more than 900C above the expected softening
point and samples must not be heated for more than 30 minutes. The brass rings to
be used for the test are placed on a flat smooth brass plate, which has been coated
immediately prior to use, with a thin covering of a mixture of glycerin and china clay.
The coating is to prevent the bitumen sticking to the plate.

When the bitumen is sufficiently fluid to pour, the rings should be filled with bitumen.
A tight excess of bitumen should be used. The bitumen is allowed to cool for a
minimum of 30 minutes. If the bitumen is soft at room temperature, it must be cooled
artificially for a further 30 minutes. After cooling the excess material on the top of the
specimen must be cut off cleanly using a moral palette knife.

If further specimens are to be prepared or the test repeated, it is essential to use


clean containers and to use bitumen which has not been previously heated.

MAY 2001 Page 10.6


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

20.5 - 20.7
20.54 - 20.7 DIA
17.4 - 17.6 DIA 15.76 - 15.96
6.25 - 6.45

6.25 - 6.45
2

15.78 - 15.96 DIA 19 MIN.

2
18.9 - 19.1 DIA OPTIONAL
SHOULDER

Figure 10.2.1 Tapered Ring Material Brass Figure 10.2.2 Straight Ring

22.9 - 23.1

19.74 - 19.94
6.15 - 6.45
2.7 - 2.9

15.76 - 15.96
2

18.9 - 19.1

Figure 10.2.3 Shoulder Ring


All dimensions in millimetres.

MAY 2001 Page 10.7


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

GUIDE FITS ON
TOP OF RING
(FIG. 1 OR 2) TO
POSITION THE BALL
ON CENTRE OF
SAMPLE

Figure 10.2.4 Recommended Form of Ball Centring Guide

1.59
76

67

2 HOLES HOLE 2 HOLES


6 DIA 5.5 DIA 19.2 DIA

Figure 10.2.5 Ring Holder

1.59

OUTLINE DIMENSIONS 2 HOLES


AS FIG. 10.2.5 TAP 2 BA

Figure 10.2.6 Base

Dimensions in millimetres (inches).

MAY 2001 Page 10.8


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

85 ID

LIQUID
LEVEL THERMOMETER 1P60C
OR 1P61C

STEEL BALL 9.53 (3/8) DIA


WEIGHT 3.45-3.55 g

SHOULDERED RING
FIG. 10.2.3
50

RING HOLDER FIG. 10.2.5


120

25

BASE FIG. 10.2.6


20-30

All DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

Figure 10.2.7 Assembly of ring-and-ball apparatus for two rings (stirrer not shown)

MAY 2001 Page 10.9


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

10.2.3 Test procedure

The apparatus is assembled with the rings, ball centering guides and thermometer in
position and the beaker is filled with water to a depth of not less than 102mm and not
more than 108mm. The water used for the test must be distilled and allowed to cool in
a stoppered flask, this is to prevent air bubbles forming on the specimen during the
test. The initial water temperature must be 5 10C and this temperature must be
maintained for 15 minutes, placing the beaker in a bath of iced water if necessary.

On completion of the 15-minute period, the steel balls are positioned using forceps,
and heat is applied to the beaker, preferably with a gas burner, at such a rate that
the water temperature rises at 50C per minute. The rate of temperature rise is critical
and if after the first 3 minutes the rise varies from the 50C in any minute period, by
more than 0.50C, the test must be abandoned.

As the temperature rises, the balls will begin to cause the bitumen in the rings to sag
downwards, the water temperature at the instant the bitumen touches the bottom
plate is taken for each ball. If the two temperatures differ by more than 10C, the test
must be repeated using fresh samples.

10.2.3 Calculation

The ring and ball softening point is simply the average of the two temperatures at
which the bitumen just touches the bottom plate. A typical data sheet is shown as
Form 10.2.1.

10.2.4 Test report

The report shall contain at least the following information:

a) Identification of the material tested.


b) A reference to the test method used.
c) A statement offends deviation from the method.
d) The test result [softening point is reported to the nearest 0.20C]
e) Date of test

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

MAY 2001 Page 10.11


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

10.3 Specific Gravity Test of Bitumen

10.3.1 Introduction

It is often required to know the specific gravity of straight run and cut-back bitumen
for purposes of calculating rates of spread, asphaltic concrete mix properties etc.

The standard specific gravity test is carried out at a temperature of 250C. However, if
cooling facilities are not available, a temperature of 350C may be used, although this
must be clearly stated in the result. For some purposes the specific gravity at
elevated temperatures is required, as it is not possible to measure this directly an
approximate value may be obtained by calculation using the value determined at a
lower temperature.

10.3.2 Apparatus

a) The apparatus for the test consists of a standard pycnometer as shown in Figure
10.3.1.

22 to 26 mm. 22 to 26 mm.

1.0 to 2.0 mm. 1.0 to 2.0 mm.

4.0 to 6.0 mm. 4.0 to 6.0 mm.

Figure 10.3.1 Suitable Pycnometers

b) A constant temperature water bath is also required.


c) A 600 ml glass beaker.

MAY 2001 Page 10.12


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

10.3.3 Sample preparation

The sample obtained in accordance with Chapter 2 is heated carefully in an oven or


on a hotplate until it has become sufficiently fluid to pour. When using a hotplate, the
bitumen should be stirred as soon as possible to prevent local overheating. In no
case should the temperature be raised more than 900C the softening point and
sample must not be heated for more than 30 minutes.

10.3.4 Test procedure

a) The clean, dry pycnometer, complete with stopper, should be weighed to the
nearest 0.001 gram., weight A.
b) A 600 ml glass beaker should be partly filled with freshly boiled distilled water
which has been allowed to cool in a stoppered flask. The beaker should then be
immersed to a depth of at least 100mm. in a water bath which is maintained at the
required temperature 0.10C for a period of at least 30 minutes. The top of the
beaker should be above the level of the water in the bath.
c) The weighed pycnometer should then be filled with the boiled distilled water and
the stopper placed loosely in position, taking care to expel all air from the
pycnometer. The pycnometer should then be submerged in the beaker of water
to a depth above the stopper of at least 40mm and the stopper firmly pushed into
position. The beaker and pycnometer must remain in the water bath for at least
30 minutes after which the pycnometer is removed. The top of the pycnometer
should first be dried with one stroke of a dry clean cloth and the remainder of the
pycnometer is then dried as quickly as possible prior to weighing, weight B. Note
that if a droplet of water forms on the stopper after drying, the stopper should not
be re-dried, the volume of water in the pycnometer on immediately, leaving the
water is the required value, any subsequent changes should not affect the result.
On completion of weighing the pycnometer should be thoroughly dried.
d) The pycnometer is then filled about three quarters full with the sample of bitumen.
The bitumen should be carefully poured into the pycnometer ensuring that no air
becomes trapped below the bitumen and there are no air bubbles in the sample.
The sample should be poured into the center of the pycnometer so that the sides
or neck of the pycnometer above the level of the bitumen are not contaminated.
The pycnometer and bitumen should then be allowed to cool in air for a period of
at least 40 minutes, after which the weight is determined, weight C.
e) The pycnometer is then topped up with the boiled distilled water and the stopper
loosely placed in position, taking care to expel all air from the pycnometer. The
pycnometer should then be submerged in the beaker of water to a depth above
the stopper of at least 40mm and the stopper firmly pushed into position. The
beaker and pycnometer must remain in the water bath for at least 30 minutes
after which the top and sides of the pycnometer are dried as before, prior to
weighing, weight D.
f) At least two separate determinations should be made.

10.3.5 Calculation

The specific gravity of the bitumen is given by:

(C - A)
S.G =
(B - A) - (D - C)

The average value of two or more results should be quoted.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

A typical calculation sheet is included as Form 10.3.1.

The specific gravity is valid only at the temperature of the test. If, however, the
specific gravity is required at other temperature, the following approximate
relationship should be used:-

S.G at temperature, T = (S.G at test temperature, t) - (0.0006 x (T-t))

10.3.6 Reporting of results

The specific gravity of the bitumen should be reported to three decimal places,
together with the temperature of the test.

If the specific gravity is calculated for any other temperature, the fact that this is an
approximate calculated value should be stated.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

10.4 Bitumen Extraction Tests

10.4.1 General requirements

10.4.1.1 Introduction. The properties of bituminous materials are dependent on the amount
of bitumen used to coat the constant components of the mix. Properties like
durability, compactibility, rutting, bleeding, ravelling, ageing, etc., are all properties
that are controlled by the amount of bitumen in the mix.

10.4.1.2 Equipment. The equipment required for this test for a number of methods, are given
under the appropriate test method used.

10.4.1.3 Safety. This test may involve hazardous materials, operation and equipment. Safety
precautions must be exercised at all times. The inhalation of solvent fumes may be
particularly harmful and therefore it is advised that the area where the extraction test
is carried out is well ventilated and that an adequate extractor fan is provided.

10.4.1.4 Calibrations. The scales used in this test must bear a valid certificate of calibration
when in use. Calibrations should be carried out at intervals not exceeding twelve
months.

10.4.1.4.1 Balances and weights. Balances should be calibrated using reference weights
once every twelve months.

a) Balances should be checked daily before use by two point checks using stable
weights of mass appropriate to the operating range of the balance.
b) Recalibration at a frequency of less than twelve months is necessary if the daily
balance check indicates a fault or the balance has been serviced.

10.4.1.4.2 Volumetric glassware. In-house calibration by weighting the amount of pure


water that the vessel contains or delivers at a measured temperature is acceptable
when used in conjunction with the corrections in BS 1797 and balances and
weights that are in calibration and are traceable.

Where the test method specifies class B glassware it is permissible to use


uncalibrated class A glassware.

10.4.1.4.3 Centrifuges. It should be checked and recorded that the centrifuge is capable of
producing sufficient acceleration. See section 10.4.2.2.2.1.k).

The centrifuge speed controls should be calibrated at the speed of rotation at least
every six months using a traceable tachometer.

10.4.1.4.4 Pressure gauges. Pressure gauges should be calibrated at least once every six
months using a certified reference gauge.

10.4.1.4.5 Time. Calibration should be performed on all timing devices at least once every
three months.

10.4.1.4.6 Thermometry. For this test stamped, mercury-in-glass thermometers conforming


to BS 593 are sufficient.

10.4.1.4.7 Test sieves. Only test sieves with valid calibrations should be used.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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10.4.1.4.8 Bottle rotation machine. The speed of rotation of the bottles should be
calibrated at least once per year.

10.4.1.4.9 Solvents : Solvents should comply with the relevant applicable standard
appropriate to the type of solvent used.

10.4.1.5 Consumables. Solvents used in this test, depending on the method used, are
normally 1,1,1 - trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, methyl chloride or methylene
chloride. All solvents are harmful when inhaled for prolonged periods of time.

10.4.1.6 Sample preparation

a) If the mix is not soft enough to separate with a spatula, place it in a large, flat pan
and warm in a 110C plus or minus 5C oven only until it can be handled or
separated. Split or quarter the material until the required mass of the sample is
obtained.
b) The size of the test sample shall be governed by the nominal maximum size of the
aggregate in the mix. The mass of the sample must comply with the values given
in Table 10.4.1

Table 10.4.1
Nominal maximum aggregate size, Minimum mass of sample, kg
mm
4.75 0.5
9.5 1.0
12.5 1.5
19.0 2.0
25.0 3.0
37.5 4.0

Note. When the sample in the test specimen exceeds the capacity of the
equipment used, for the particular method used, the test specimen may
be divided into suitable increments, all increments tested, and the
results appropriately combined for calculation of bitumen content.

Note. If tests are to be performed on the recovered bitumen it is necessary to


determine the moisture content of the mixture. Refer to section 10.4.1.7
for the determination of water content in a mix.

10.4.1.7 Determination of Water Content

10.4.1.7.1 Apparatus

A suitable apparatus is shown in Figure 10.4.1. The apparatus should be calibrated


and traceable as recommended in section 10.4.1.4.

10.4.1.7.1.1 Cylindrical container. It should be made from a non-corrodible or brass gauze


of about 1 mm to 2 mm aperture size, or alternatively, a spun copper tube with a
ledge at the bottom on which a removable brass gauze disc rests. The container
is retained. By any suitable means, in position in the top two-thirds of metal pot.
The pot is flanged and fitted with a secure cover and suitable jointing gasket. The
cover is held in position so that the joint between the container and the cover is
solvent tight. The essential features of the construction are shown in Figures
10.4.2 and 10.4.3.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

Water cooled
reflux condenser

Graduated receiver

A
A stopcock may be
fitted at A if required

Cylindrical container
(see figure 10.4.2)

Metal pot
(see figure 10.4.3)

Figure 10.4.1 Assembled apparatus for the hot extractor method

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

10 A 10

A From 120 mm to 200 mm as appropriate


B From 120 mm to 250 mm as appropriate
All dimensions are in millimetres

Figure 10.4.2 Cylindrical container for the hot extractor method

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

Brass or welded Six or eight slots equally


steel cover 3 45 spaced around circumference
to take swivelling bolts

60 30
5
3

Gasket ring

35 Three pegs to take 20


gauge cylinder

5 A B

Brass or welded steel


outer pot

A From 150 mm to 230 mm as appropriate


B From 200 mm to 400 mm as appropriate
All dimensions are in millimetres and are for guidance only.

NOTE. This design has been found satisfactory but


alternative designs may be employed.

Figure 10.4.3 Brazed brass welded steel pot for the hot extractor method

MAY 2001 Page 10.19


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

10.4.1.7.1.2 Graduated receiver. This must conform to the requirements of type 2 of BS


756, or a receiver of similar type, suitable for use with solvents of higher density
than water, but fitted with a stop cock so that the water may be drawn off into a
Crow receiver as necessary. The receivers must be fitted with ground glass
joints; in this case an adaptor may be necessary to connect the receiver to the
cover of the pot.

10.4.1.7.1.3 Water-cooled reflux condenser with the lower end ground at an angle of
approximately 450 to the axis of the condenser.

10.4.1.7.1.4 Heater such as an electric hotplate.

10.4.1.7.1.5 Solvent; trichloroethylne free from water.

10.4.1.7.2 Procedure

10.4.1.7.2.1 Take part of the sample that was put aside during the sample reduction for the
determination of water content and divide it into two portions by quartering.
Retain one portion in a closed container.

10.4.1.7.2.2 Weigh the other portion to the nearest 0.05% and place it in a well ventilated
oven at 1100C plus or minus 100C for one hour.

Reweigh this portion and if the loss in mass is less than 0.1% no further action is
required.

10.4.1.7.2.3 If the loss in mass exceeds 0.1% weigh the portion that was retained and transfer
it to a dry hot extractor pot. Alternatively place the sample in a gauze container
before transferring it to the extractor pot.

10.4.1.7.2.4 Add sufficient solvent to permit refluxing to take place and then bolt on the cover
with a dry gasket in position. Fit the receiver and condenser in place.

Ensure an adequate flow of water through the condenser and heat to give a
steady reflux action.

10.4.1.7.2.5 Continue heating until the volume of water in the receiver remains constant.

10.4.1.7.2.6 Measure the volume of water and record its mass.

10.4.1.7.2.7 Calculation and expression of results

Calculate the water content as a percentage by mass of either original sample to


the nearest 0.1% or the dried portions to the nearest 0.1%.

10.4.1.7.2.8 Reporting of results

Report the results as indicated in 10.4.2.3.

10.4.2 Bitumen Extraction Test

10.4.2.1 Scope. This is a quality control test which provides methods of extracting the
bitumen from the mixed material. The results obtained from the methods herein may
be affected by the age of the material tested. For best results it is recommended that
these tests be carried out on mixtures and pavements shortly after their preparation.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

10.4.2.2 Test methods

10.4.2.2.1 Method A; Centrifuge method

10.4.2.2.1.1 Equipment

The equipment required for this test method are listed below:

a) Oven, capable of maintaining the temperature at 110 C plus or minus 5C


b) Pan, flat and of appropriate size to heat the test specimens.
c) Balance or scales capable of weighing a sample to an accuracy of 0.05% of
its mass.
d) Extraction apparatus, consisting of a bowl and an apparatus in which the
bowl may be revolved at controlled variable speeds up to 3600 revolutions
per minute. Refer to Figure 10.4.4.

Note. Accessories must be fitted to the apparatus for catching and


disposing of the solvent. The apparatus preferably shall be installed
in a hood or an effective surface exhaust system to provide
ventilation.

Note. Similar apparatus of larger size from the apparatus shown in Figure
10.4.4 may be used.

e) Filter rings, felt or paper, to fit the rim of the bowl.

10.4.2.2.1.2 Procedure

a) Weigh the sample of mixed material to the nearest 0.05% of its mass and
weigh the oven dried filter ring to the nearest 0.01g. Sample size should
comply with the requirements of Table 10.4.1.
b) Determine the moisture content of the material (if required ) in accordance
with the method stipulated in 10.4.1.7.
c) Place the test portion in the bowl.
d) Cover the test portion in the bowl with trichloroethylene or other approved
solvent and allow sufficient time for the solvent to disintegrate the test
portion but time must not exceed 1 hour. Place the bowl with the sample
and solvent in the extraction apparatus. Dry the filter ring to a constant
weight in an oven at 110C plus or minus 5C and fit it round the edge of
the bowl. Clamp the cover on the bowl tightly and place a container under
the drain outlet of the apparatus to collect the extract.
e) Start the centrifuge revolving slowly and gradually increase the speed to a
maximum of 3600 rev/min until the solvent ceases to flow from the drain.
Allow the machine to stop and add 200ml (or more as appropriate for mass
of sample) trichloroethylene and repeat the procedure (not less than three
times). Use sufficient solvent so that the extract is very nearly clear. The
collected extract may be used for other tests.
f) Carefully transfer the filter ring and all the residual aggregate in the
centrifuge bowl into a tarred metal pan. Dry in air until the fumes dissipate,
and then to a constant mass in an oven at 110C plus or minus 5C.
Scrape all the filter which might have adhered to the filter into the residual
aggregate and weight the filter and aggregate to the nearest 0.01g
separately.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

BOWL
1 REG. CAST ALLUMINUM
BURNISH ALL OVER 247.7 D.
247.7 D. 108.0 D.
28.6 55.6

9.5
5.6

4.8
7.9
41.3 D.
203.2 D.
57
127.0

.2
30.2
56.4

35.7
9 .5

6.4
COVER PLATE
1 REG. CAST ALLUMINUM
152.4 D. BURNISH ALL OVER
157.2 D.

NOTE. See table 3 for dimensional equivalent.

All dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 10.4.4 Extraction Unit Bowl (Method A)

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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10.4.2.2.1.3 Calculation. Calculate the bitumen content using the equation:

Bitumen content in grammes = ((W1 - W2) - (W3 + W4)) / (W1 - W2)

Where, W1 is the total weight of the test portion, in grammes


W2 is the weight of water in test portion in grammes
W3 is the weight of the extracted mineral aggregate in grammes
W4 is the mass of the mineral matter in the extract.

10.4.2.2.1.4 Expression of results. The bitumen content may be expressed as a


percentage of weight of bitumen with respect total weight of mix or with respect
to total aggregate in the mix.

Bitumen content % by weight of total mix = (bitumen content in grammes / W1) x


100

or, Bitumen content % by weight of total aggregate = (bitumen content in


grammes / (W2 + W3)) x 100

Note. The residue of aggregate and filler may be used in the graduation of
the sample.

10.4.2.2.2 Method B; Extraction bottle method

10.4.2.2.2.1 Equipment

a) Metal bottles of capacity appropriate to the size of sample being tested, e.g.
600ml, 2.51, 71, 121, with wide mouths and suitable closures.

Note. Bottles should not be filled to more than three - quarters full.

b) Bottle roller which can rotate the bottles about their longitudinal axes at a
speed of 20 plus or minus 10 rev / min.
c) Pressure filter of appropriate size and an air pump for supplying oil - free air
at a pressure of at least 2 bar.
d) Filter papers to fit the pressure filter
e) Volumetric flasks of appropriate capacity, e.g. 250ml, 500ml, 11, 21.
f) A set test sieves
g) Balance capable of weighing a sample to an accuracy of 0.01% of its mass
h) Sample divider.
i) Trays that can be heated without change in mass in which to dry recovered
aggregate.
j) Solvent; either dichloromethane (methylene chloride) or trichloroethylene.
k) Centrifuge.

1. A typical centrifuge carries four buckets fitted with centrifuging tubes of


at least 50 ml capacity and is capable of an acceleration of between
1.5 x 104 m/s2
2. The tubes should be closed with caps such that no loss of solvent
occurs during centrifuging.
3. The times of centrifuging should be obtained from figure 10.4.6 of
section 10.4.2.2.2.2 after calculating the acceleration, a in m/s2
developed in the machine in accordance with the following equation:

a = 1.097 n2 x 10-5

Where,

MAY 2001 Page 10.23


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

n, is the angular velocity measured in revs. per min.


r is the radius in millimeters to the bottom of the tubes (internal) when
rotating.

l) Recovery apparatus comprising a water bath with an electric heater


capable of maintaining boiling water in the bath throughout the recovery
procedure, round-bottomed flasks of 200ml or 250 ml capacity, a pressure
gauge, a vacuum reservoir and a method of maintaining a reduced
pressure, e.g. a vacuum pump. Refer to Figure 10.4.5.

Figure 10.4.5 Recovery apparatus showing necessary features

m) Balance accurate to 0.001 g for weighing the flasks.


n) Stopclock or watch
o) Containers resistant to solvent attack each with narrow neck and tight fitting
resealable lid.
p) Desiccator to store the extraction flasks before weighing.

10.4.2.2.2.2 Procedure

a) Weigh a test sample to the nearest 0.05% of its mass and place it in the
metal bottle. To the same accuracy weigh sufficient silica gel to absorb
any water present and add it to the bottle. The mass of the silica gel
should be equal to the mass of water estimated to be present in the
sample. The mass of the sample should comply with the requirements of
Table 10.4.1.
b) Measure and record the temperature of the solvent immediately prior to
adding the required volume to the sample. The volume required shall give
a solution of between 2% and 4% concentration of soluble binder.

Note. To estimate the total volume V of solvent required use the


following formula :

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

V = M SE / CS

Where, M is the mass of sample in grammes.


SE is the estimate percentage of soluble binder in the sample
CS is the required concentration of solution in %.

The estimated volume V is rounded to the nearest 250 ml.

c) Close the bottle, and roll on the bottle rolling machine for the specified
time indicated in Table 10.4.2 and Table 10.4.2a.

Table 10.4.2. Time required for extraction (extraction Bottle method : binder
determination by difference)
Type of material Tars min Bitumens Min
Macadams other than dense, close, medium or 30 10
fine graded.
Macadams containing ut-back bitumens.
Rolled asphalt, dense tar surfacing, dense, 60 20
close, medium and fine graded macadams
containing penetration grade bitumens

Table 10.4.2a. Time required for extraction (extraction Bottle method : binder directly
determined)
Type of material Tars min Bitumens Min
Macadams other than dense, close, medium or 30 10
fine graded.
Macadams containing ut-back bitumens.
Rolled asphalt, dense tar surfacing, dense, 60 20
close, medium and fine graded macadams
containing penetration grade bitumens

d) Remove the closed bottle from the rolling machine and stand it upright for
about 2 minutes to allow the bulk of the mineral matter to settle from
suspension. Remove the stopper carefully and immediately transfer about
500ml of liquor to a clean dry pouring bottle. Transfer to the centrifuge
tube sufficient liquid such that after centrifuging is complete there is
enough solution to provide duplicate aliquot portions. Seal the remainder
in the pouring bottle until aliquot portions are satisfactorily obtained. Seal
the centrifuge tubes and centrifuge for the appropriate time given in
Figure 10.4.6.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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30000
29000
28000
27000
26000
25000
24000
23000
22000
21000
20000
19000
18000
17000
16000
15000
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Centrifuging time (minutes)

Figure 10.4.6 Acceleration / time relationship for centrifuges

Note. From here on the work is done in duplicate.

e) Dry a flask and weigh it to the nearest 0.001g.


f) Measure a sufficient amount of the centrifuged solution into the flask,
using the burette to give a residue of 0.75g of soluble binder after
evaporation of the solvent. Immediately prior to transfer from the
centrifuge tube into a burette measure and record the temperature of the
solution.

Note 1. The difference between the temperature o f the solvent when


measured in accordance with (b) and the temperature of the
binder solution when measured in accordance with (f) should not
exceed plus or minus 3C.
2. If the temperature of (f) is outside the range of plus or minus
3C of the temperature of the solvent gentle heating or cooling
of the solution is permitted provided evaporation of the solvent is
prevented.

Note. An estimate of the volume v of solution (aliquot portion) required


is given by the following formula.

V = (100 x V) / ( M SE )

Where,
V is the total volume of solvent
M is the mass of the sample in grammes.
SE is the estimated percentage of soluble binder in the sample

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Volume V is rounded to the nearest 5 ml.

g) Remove the solvent from the binder solution by connecting the flask to
the recovery apparatus, immersing the flask to approximately half its
depth in boiling water, and distilling off the solvent. While the distillation is
proceeding , gently shake the flask with a rotary motion so that the binder
is deposited in a thin film layer on the walls of the flask. Do not allow
pressure above atmospheric to develop in the flask during the
evaporation of the solvent.

Note. It is recommended that the distillation be carried out under


reduced pressure. If reduced pressure is used the pressure
should not be less than 600mbar.

h) At this stage frothing usually occurs, Proceed as follows :


h.1) For penetration grade bitumen and tars reduce the pressure to between
180mbar and 220mbar in 1 min. to 2 min. and maintain at this pressure
for a further 3 min. to 4 min.
h.2) For cut-back bitumen allow the pressure to increase to approximately
atmospheric pressure and then reduce in to between 550mbar in 1 min.
to 2 min. and maintain at this pressure for a further 3 min. to 4 min.
i) Remove the flask from the bath and admit air to the apparatus to increase
the pressure to atmospheric. Wipe the flask dry and disconnect it, taking
care to prevent the entry in to the flask of any water that may have
collected at the joint between the flask and the stopper.

Remove all traces of solvent that remain in the flask by a gentle current of
clean, oil-free and water-free air at ambient temperature. Insert the air
supply into the tube to below mid-depth. Clean the outside of the flask
and remove any rubber adhering to the inside of the flask neck if rubber
bungs are used.

j) Cool the flask in a desiccator and weigh to the nearest 0.001g. If the
mass of the soluble binder recovered is not between 0.75g and 1.25g,
repeat the procedure from (e) to (i). If the difference between the
duplicate recoveries is greater than 0.02g reject and repeat the
procedure from (e) to (i).

10.4.2.2.2.3 Calculations

Calculate the soluble binder content S (%) of the mass of the original dry
sample by means of the following equation :

S = 10,000 (z V) / v M ( 100 - P ) ( 1 -z/dv )

Where,
M is the mass of undried sample in grammes.
z is the average mass of binder recovered from each of two aliquot portions in
grammes.
V is the total volume of solvent in millilitres.
v is the volume of each aliquot portion in millilitres
d is the relative density of the binder
P is the percentage by mass of water in the undried sample. See 10.4.1.7.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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10.4.2.2.2.4 Washing of mineral aggregate

10.4.2.2.2.4.1 (filler directly determined)

a) After removing sufficient solution for the determination of the soluble


binder content, pour the liquid contents of the extraction bottle (including
fine matter in suspension but taking care not to carry over any aggregate)
through a 75 micron test sieve protected by a 1.18mm test sieve and
through the funnel into the pressure filter.
b) Fit the pressure filter with a filter paper.
c) Pass the liquid through the filter paper under air pressure of at least 2
bar.
d) Dry the sample by evaporation to constant weight.

The sample is now ready for the gradation test.

10.4.2.2.2.4.2 (filler determined by difference)

a) After removing sufficient solution for the determination of the soluble


binder content, pour the liquid contents of the extraction bottle (including
fine matter in suspension but taking care not to carry over any aggregate)
through a 75 micron test sieve protected by a.1.1m test sieve to waste.
b) Shake the aggregate remaining in the bottle with further quantity of
solvent (about half the quantity of solvent used originally). Immediately
after shaking pour the solution through the nest of sieves, ensuring no
loss of mineral matter. Repeat this process until no discoloration of the
solvent is visible. At this point transfer the bulk of the contents of the
bottle to a tray of suitable size and rinse the bottle once more to remove
as much of the mineral matter as possible and pour the final washings
through the 75 micron test sieve.
c) Dry the sample by evaporation test.

The sample is now ready for the gradation test.

10.4.2.2.2.5 Adjustments of soluble binder content and material passing 75 micron


test sieve found on analysis.

When assessing the composition of the mixture, adjust the found soluble binder
and filler contents to correspond with the mid-point of the grading passing a
2.36 mm test sieve for rolled asphalt and a 3.35 mm test sieve for coated
macadam.

Use Table 10.4.3 for roadbase, basecourse and regulating course asphalt
mixtures, Table 10.4.4 for wearing course asphalt mixtures and Table 10.4.5 for
coated macadam roadbase and basecourse mixtures.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

Table 10.4.3 Adjustment values for roadbase, basecourse, and regulating


course asphalt mixtures.
Deviation of found Correction to Correction to content
aggregate grading content of soluble of aggregate passing
from mid-point binder 75 micron test sieve.
passing 2.36mm test
sieve

0 to 0.3 0 0
0.4 to 1.1 0.1 0.1
1.2 to 1.8 0.2 0.1
1.9 to 2.5 0.3 0.2
2.6 to 3.4 0.4 0.3
3.5 to 4.1 0.5 0.4
4.2 to 4.9 0.6 0.4
5.0 to 5.6 0.7 0.5
5.7 to 6.4 0.8 0.6
6.5 to 7.1 0.9 0.6
7.2 to 7.8 1.0 0.7
7.9 to 8.7 1.1 0.8
8.8 to 9.4 1.2 0.9
9.5 to 10.2 1.3 0.9
10.3 to 10.9 1.4 1.0
11.0 to 11.7 1.5 1.0

Table 10.4.4 Adjustment values for wearing course asphalt mixtures


Deviation of found Correction to Correction to content
aggregate grading content of soluble of aggregate passing
from mid-point binder 75 micron test sieve.
passing 2.36mm test
sieve

0 to 0.4 0 0
0.5 to 1.5 0.1 0.1
1.6 to 2.6 0.2 0.2
2.7 to 3.7 0.3 0.3
3.8 to 4.8 0.4 0.4
4.9 to 5.9 0.5 0.5
6.0 to 7.0 0.6 0.6
7.1 to 8.0 0.7 0.7
8.1 to 9.1 0.8 0.8
9.2 to 10.2 0.9 0.9
10.3 to 11.3 1.0 1.0
11.4 to 12.2 1.1 1.1

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Table 10.4.5 Adjustment values for coated macadam roadbase and


basecourse mixtures where the mid-point of the range of the
percentage passing the 3.35mm sieve lies between 30% and
50%
Deviation of found Correction to Correction to content
aggregate grading content of soluble of aggregate passing
from mid-point binder 75 micron test sieve.
passing 2.35mm test
sieve

0 to 0.4 0 0
0.5 to 1.4 0.1 0.1
1.5 to 2.4 0.2 0.3
2.5 to 3.4 0.3 0.4
3.5 to 4.4 0.4 0.6
4.5 to 5.4 0.5 0.7
5.5 to 6.4 0.6 0.9
6.5 to 7.4 0.7 1.0
7.5 to 8.4 0.8 1.2
8.5 to 9.4 0.9 1.3
9.5 to 10.4 1.0 1.5

10.4.2.3 Reporting of results

The report shall contain at least the following information :

a) The testing laboratory.


b) A unique serial number for the test report.
c) The name of the client.
d) Description and identification of the sample.
e) Whether or not the sample was accompanied by a sampling certificate.

An example data sheet is given as Form 10.4.1.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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10.5 Flash Point and Fire Point Tests of Bitumen

10.5.1 Introduction

Flash point of bitumen is the temperature at which, its vapour will ignite temporarily
during heating, when a small flame is brought into contact with the vapour. The
knowledge of this point is of interest mainly to the user, since the bitumen must not
be heated to this point. The flash point tells the critical temperature at and above
which suitable precautions are required to be taken to eliminate the danger of fire
during heating. This temperature, however, is well below that at which the bitumen will
burn. The latter temperature is called the fire point.

10.5.2 Definitions

Flash point. It is the lowest temperature at which the vapour of a bituminous material
momentarily takes fire in the form of a flash, under specified conditions of test.

Fire point. It is the lowest temperature at which bituminous materials ignite and burn
under specific conditions of test.

10.5.3 Scope

This method covers the determination of the flash and fire points, by Cleveland Open
Cup Tester, of petroleum products and other liquids, except fuel oils and those
materials having an open cup flash point below (79 C) as determined by the
Cleveland Open Cup Tester.

10.5.4 Apparatus

a) Cleveland Open Cup Apparatus - This apparatus consists of the test cup, heating
plate, test flame applicator and heater, thermometer support, and heating plate
support, all conforming to the following requirement:

Test Cup- of brass conforming to the dimensional requirements shown in Figure


10.5.3. The cup may be equipped with a handle.

Heating Plate - A brass, cast iron, wrought iron, or steel plate with a center hole
sur-rounded by an area of plane depression, and a sheet of hard asbestos board
which covers the metal plate except over the area of plane depression in which
the test cup is supported. The essential dimensions of the heating plate are
shown in Fig. 10.5.2., however, it may the square instead of round, and the metal
plate may have suitable extensions for mounting the test flame applicator device
and the thermometer support. The metal bead, may be mounted on the plate so
that it extends through and slightly above a suitable small hole in the asbestos
board.

Note. The sheet of hard asbestos board which covers the heating plate may
be extended beyond the edge of the heating plate to reduce drafts
around the cup. The F dimension given is intended for gas apparatus.
For electrically heated apparatus the plate shall be of sufficient size to
cover the top of the heater.

Test Flame Applicator - The device for applying the test flame may be of any
suitable design, but the tip shall be 1.6 to 5.0 mm or 0.06 to 0.20 in. in diameter
at the end and the orifice shall have an approximate diameter of 0.8 mm or 0.031
in. The device for applying the test flame shall be so mounted to permit automatic
duplication of the sweep of the test flame, the radius of swing being not less than

MAY 2001 Page 10.32


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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150 mm or 6 in. and the center of the orifice moving in a plane not that 2.5 mm or
0.10 in. above the cup. A bead having a diameter of 3.8 to 5.4 mm or 0.15 to
0.21 in. may be mounted in a convenient position on the apparatus so the size of
the test flame can be compared to it.

Heater - Heat may be supplied form any convenient source. The use of a gas
burner of alcohol lamp is permitted, but under no circumstances are products of
combustion or free flame to be allowed to come up around the cup. An electric
heater controlled by a variable voltage transformer is preferred. The source of
heat shall be centered under the opening of the heating plate with no local
superheating. Flame-type heaters may be protected from drafts or excessive
radiation by any suitable type of shield that does not project above the level of
the upper surface of the asbestos board.

Thermometer Support - Any convenient device may be used which will hold the
thermometer in the specified position during a test and which will permit easy
removal of the thermometer form the test cup upon completion of a test.

Heating Plate Support - Any convenient support will hold the heating plate level
and steady may be employed.

One form of the assembled apparatus, the heating plate, and the cup are
illustrated in Figures 10.5.1, 10.5.2 and 10.5.3 respectively.

Filling Level Gauge - A device to aid in the proper adjustment of the sample
level in the cup. It may be made of suitable metal with at least one projection, but
preferably two for adjusting the sample level in the test cup to 9 to 10 mm (0.35 to
0.39 in.) below the top edge of the cup. A hole 0.8 mm (1 / 32 in.) in diameter, the
center of which is located not more than 2.5 mm or 0.10 in. above the bottom
edge of the gage, shall be provided for use in checking the center position of the
orifice of the test flame applicator with respect to the rim of the cup. (Figure
10.5.4 shows a suitable version.)

b) Shield - A shield 460 mm (18 in.) square and 610 mm (24 in.) high and having an
open front is recommended.
c) Thermometer.

10.5.5 Preparation of apparatus

a) The apparatus is supported on a level steady table in a draft-free room or


compartment. The top of the apparatus is shielded from strong light by any
suitable means to permit ready detection of the flash point. Tests in a laboratory
heed (Note 1.) or any location where drafts occur are not to be relied upon.

Note 1. With some samples whose vapours or products of pyrolysis are


objectionable, it is permissible to place the apparatus with a shield in a
hood, the draft of which is adjustable so that vapours may be withdrawn
without causing air currents over the test cup during the final 56 C (100
F) rise in temperature prior to the flash point.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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THERMOMETER
ASTM NO. 11C
1P 28C
C

D
TEST FLAME RADIUS
APPLICATOR TEST CUP
A

F HEATING
METAL BEAD PLATE

TO GAS
SUPPLY
HEATER (FLAME OR
ELEC. RESIST. TYPE)

MILLIMETRES INCHES
MIN MAX MIN MAX
A - DIA. OF APLICATOR - 5.0 - 0.20
B - DIA. OF TIP 1.6 5.0 0.06 0.20
C - DIA. OF ORIFICE (0.8 APPROX.) (0.031 APPROX.)
D - RADIUS OF SWING 150 - 6 -
E - INSIDE BOTTOM OF
CUP TO BOTTOM OF
THERMOMETER (6.4 APPROX.) (0.25 APPROX.)
F - DIA. OF OPTIONAL
COMPARISON BEAD 3.8 5.4 0.15 0.21

Figure 10.5.1 Cleveland open cup apparatus

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

C D
A

B
METAL THERMAL
INSULATION

MILLIMETRES INCHES
MIN MAX MIN MAX
A 6.4 NOMINAL 0.25 NOMINAL
B 0.5 1.0 0.02 0.04
C 6.4 NOMINAL 0.25 NOMINAL
D - DIAMETER 54.5 56.5 2.15 2.22
E - DIAMETER 69.5 70.5 2.74 2.78
F - DIAMETER 150 NOMINAL 6 NOMINAL

Figure 10.5.2 Heating Plate

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

J
BRASS
I

45 0
H
G
FILLING E F
MARK
D

B C

MILLIMETRES INCHES
MIN MAX MIN MAX
A 67.5 69 2.66 2.72
B 62.5 63.5 2.46 2.50
C 2.8 3.6 0.11 0.14
D - RADIUS 4 APPROX. 0.16 APPROX.
E 32.5 34 1.28 1.34
F 9 10 0.35 0.39
G 1.8 3.4 0.07 0.13
H 2.8 3.6 0.11 0.14
I 67 70 2.60 2.75
J 97 101 3.8 4.0

Figure 10.5.3 Cleveland Open Cup

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

A
C

B
F
G

E
D D

A/2

MILLIMETRES INCHES
A 100 4 NOMINAL
B 20 3/4 NOMINAL
C 3.2 1/8 NOMINAL
D 30 1-1/4 NOMINAL
E 9 - 10 0.35 - 0.39
F 0.8 DIA. 1/32 DIA. NOMINAL
(2.5 MM ABOVE) (0.10 IN. ABOVE
BOT TOM EDGE BOTTOM EDGE) MAXIMUM
G 10 3/8 NOMINAL

Figure 10.5.4 Filling Level Gauge

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

b) The test cup is washed with an appropriate solvent to remove any oil or traces of
gum or residue remaining from a previous test. If any deposits of carbon are
present, they should be removed with steel wool. The cup is flashed cold water
and dry for a few minutes over an open flame, on a hot plate, or in an oven to
remove the last traces of solvent and water. The cup is cooled to at least 56 C
(100 F) below the expected flash point before using.
c) The thermometer is supported in a vertical position with the bottom of the bulb
6.4 mm (1/4 in.) from the bottom of the cup and located at a point halfway between
the center and side of the cup on the diameter perpendicular to the arc (or line)
of the sweep of the test flame and on the side opposite to the test frame burner
arm.

10.5.6 Procedure

a) The cup, is filled at any convenient temperature (Note 2) not exceeding 100 C or
180 F above the softening point, so that the top of the meniscus is at the filling
line. To aid in this operation, a Filling Level Gauge (A7) may be used. If too much
sample has been added to the cup, remove the excess, using a pipette or other
suitable device; however, if there is sample on the outside of the apparatus,
empty, clean and refill it. Any air bubbles on the surface of the sample (Note 3)
are destroyed.

Note 2. Viscous samples should be heated until they are reasonably fluid
before being poured into the cup. For asphalt cement, the temperature
during heating must not exceed 100 C or 180 F above the expected
softening point. Extra caution must be exercised with liquid asphalts
which should be heated only to the lowest temperature at which they
can be poured.

Note 3. The sample cup may be filled away from the apparatus provide the
thermometer is preset with the cup in place and the sample level is
correct at the beginning of the test. A shim 6.4 mm (1/4 in) thick is useful
in obtaining the correction distance from the bottom of the bulb to the
bottom of the cup.

b) The test flame is lighted and adjusted to a diameter of 3.8 to 5.4 mm (0.15 to
0.21 in.).
c) Heat is applied initially so that the rate of temperature rise of the sample is 14 to
17 C (25 to 30 F) per minute. When the sample temperature is approximately 56
C (100 F) below the anticipated flash point, decrease the heat so that the rate of
temperature rise for the 28 C (50 F) before the flash point is 5 to 6 C (9 to 11 F)
per minute.
d) Starting at least 28 C (50 F) below the assumed flash point, the test flame is
applied when the temperature read on the thermometer reaches each successive
2 C (5 F) mark. The test flame is passed across the center of the cup, at right
angles to the diameter which passes through the thermometer. With a smooth,
continuous motion apply the flame either in a straight line or along the
circumference of a circle having a radius of at least 150 mm or 6 in. The center of
the test flame must move in a plane not more than 2.5 mm or 0.10 in. above the
plane of the upper edge of the cup passing in one direction first, then in the
opposite direction the next time. The time consumed in passing the test flame
across the cup shall be about 1 s. During the last 17 C (30 F ) rise in temperature
prior to the flash point, care must be taken to avoid disturbing the vapours in the
test cup by careless movements or breathing near the cup.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Note 4. If a skin should form before the flash or fire point is reached, move it
carefully aside with a small spatula or stirring rod and continue the
determination.

e) The observed flash point is recorded as the temperature read on the


thermometer when a flash appears at any point on the surface of the oil, but do
not confuse the true flash with the bluish halo that sometimes surrounds the test
flame.
f) To determine the fire point, continue heating so that the sample temperature
increases at a rate of 5 to 6 C (9 to 11 F). The application of the test flame is
continued at 2 C (5 F) intervals until the oil ignites and continues to burn for at
least 5 s. Record the temperature at this point as the fire point of the oil.

10.5.7 Correction for barometric pressure

If the actual barometric pressure at the time of the tests is less than 715 mm of
mercury, it is recorded and the appropriate correction is added from the following
table to the flash and fire points, as determined.

Barometric Pressure Correction


mm of Mercury deg C deg F
715 to 665 2 -
715 to 635 - 5
664 to 610 4 -
635 to 550 - 10
609 to 550 6

10.5.8 Calculation and report

1. The observed flash point or fire point, or both is corrected in accordance with
10.5.7.
2. The corrected flash point of fire point, or both is reported as the Cleveland Open
Cup Flash Point or Fire Point, or both.

10.5.9 Precision

The following data should be used for judging the acceptability of results (95 percent
confidence.)

Duplicate results by the same operator should be considered suspect if they differ by
more than the following amounts:

Repeatability
Flash point ..................................................................................................8 0C (15
0
F)
Fire point ..................................................................................................8 0C (15
0
F)

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

10.6 Viscosity Test of Bitumen

10.6.1 Introduction

Viscosity is reverse of fluidity. It is a measure of the resistance to flow. Higher the


viscosity of liquid bitumen, the more nearly it approaches a semi-solid state in
consistency. Thick liquid is said to be more viscous than a thin liquid of the road
pavement. The bitumen binders of low viscosity, simply lubricate the aggregate
particles instead of providing a uniform thin film for binding action, similarly high
viscosity does not allow full compaction and the resulting mix exhibits heterogeneous
character and thus low stability values.

Saybolt Furol viscosity test is used to determine viscosity of liquid bitumens.

10.6.2 Scope

In this test, time in seconds is noted for 60 ml of the liquid bitumen at specified
temperature to flow through an orifice of a specific size. The higher the viscosity of
the bitumen more time will be required for a quantity to flow out.

10.6.3 Apparatus

a) Saybolt Viscometer and Bath.

Viscometer- The viscometer, illustrated in Figure 10.6.1 shall be constructed


entirely of corrosion resistant metal, conforming to dimensional requirements shown
in Figure 10.6.1. The orifice tip, Universal or Furol may be constructed as a
replaceable unit in the viscometer. Provide a nut at the lower end of the viscometer
for fastening it in the bath. Mount vertically in the bath and test the alignment with a
spirit level on the plan test; a small chain or cord may be attached to the cork to
facilitate rapid removal.

Bath- The bath serves both as a support to hold the viscometer in a vertical position
as well as the container for the bath medium. Equip the bath effective insulation and
with an efficient stirring device Provide the bath with a coil for heating and cooling
and with thermostatically controlled heaters capable on maintaining the bath within
the functional precision given in Table 10.6.2. The heaters and coil should be located
at least 3 in. (75 mm) from the viscometer. Provide a means for maintaining the bath
medium at least 6 mm (0.25 in.) above the overflow rim. The bath media are given in
Table 10.6.2.

b) Withdrawal Tube, as shown in Figure 10.6.2 or other suitable device.


c) Thermometer Support. One suitable design is shown in Figure 10.6.3
d) Saybolt Viscosity Thermometers, as listed in Table 10.6.1.
e) Bath Thermometers - Saybolt Viscosity thermometers, or any other temperature-
indicating means of equivalent accuracy.
f) Filter Funnel, as shown in Figure 10.6.4 equipped with interchangeable 850 m
(N0. 20), 150m (N0. 100) and 75m (N0. 200) wire-cloth inserts meeting the
requirements of M 92 with respect to the wire cloth Filter funnels of a suitable
alternate design may be used.
g) Receiving Flask, as shown in Figure 10.6.5
h) Timer, graduated in tenths of a second, and accurate to within 0.1% when tested
over a 60min interval. Electric timers are acceptable if operated on a controlled
frequency circuit.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Table 10.6.1 Saybolt Viscosity Thermometer

Thermometer
Standard Test
Temperature, Thermometer Subdivision
C (F) No. Range C (F) C (F)
21.11 (70) 17C (17F) 19 to 27 0.1 (0.2)
(66 to 80)
25.0 (77) 17C (17F) 19 to 27 0.1 (0.2)
(66 to 80)
37.8 (100) 18C (18F) 34 to 42 0.1 (0.2)
(94 to 108)
50.0 (122) 19C (19F) 49 to 57 0.1 (0.2)
(120 to 134)
54.4 (130) 19C (19F) 49 to 57 0.1 (0.2)
(120 to 134)
60.0 (140) 20C (20F) 57 to 65 0.1 (0.2)
(134 to 148)
82.2 (180) 21C (21F) 79 to 87 0.1 (0.2)
(174 to 188)
98.9 (210) 22C (22F) 95 to 103 0.1 (0.2)
(204 to 218)

Table 10.6.2 Recommended bath Media

Standard Max Temp Bath Temperatures


Test Differential, Control Functional
Temperature, Recommended Bath Medium C (F) Precision, C (F)
C (F)
21.1 (70) Water 0.05 (0.10) 0.05 (0.10)
25.0 (77) Water 0.05 (0.10) 0.05 (0.10)
37.8 (100) Water, or oil of 50 to 70 SUS 0.15 (0.25) 0.05 (0.10)
viscosity at 37.80C
(1000F)
50.0 (122) Water, or oil of 120 to 150 SUS 0.20 (0.35) 0.05 (0.10)
viscosity at 37.80C
(1000F)
54.4 (130) Water, or oil of 120 to 150 SUS 0.30 (0.50) 0.05 (0.10)
viscosity at 37.80C
(1000F)
60.0 (140) Water, or oil of 120 to 150 SUS 0.50 (1.0) 0.05 (0.10)
viscosity at 37.80C
82.2 (180) Water, or oil of 120 to 150 SUS 0.80 (1.5) 0.05 (0.10)
viscosity at 37.80C
(1000F)
98.9 (210) Oil of 330 to 370 SUS viscosity at 1.10 (2.0) 0.05 (0.10)
37.80C
*Maximum permissible difference between bath and sample temperatures at time of the test.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

32.5 0.5
(1.28 0.02)

29.7 0.2 (1.17 0.01) Level of Liquid


Overflow
Rim in Bath

6 Min.

88
Min.
(3.47)
125 1
(4.92 0.04)

(0.354)
9.00

Bottom of Bath (0.124 0.008)


3.15 0.02

(0.882 0.04)
12.25 0.1

(0.169 0.012)
4.3 0.3
Cork Stopper Furol Tip

All dimensions are in millimitres (inches)

Figure 10.6.1 Saybolt Viscometer with Furol or Fice

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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IN. NPS
PIPE CAP

SILVER
SOLDERED

6.4 (0.25)
0D

4.8 (0.19) 1 D
127 (5.0)
38 (1.5)

3.2 (0.13) 0 D
1.6 (0.06) 1 D

Note : All dimensions are in millimetres (inches)

Figure 10.6.2 Withdrawal Tube for Use with Saybolt Viscometer

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

15.4 (0.63)

7.9 (0.31)
15.9
(o.63)

76 (3.0)

4.8 (0.19)

9.5 (0.37)
17.5 (0.69)

Note : All dimensions are in millimetres (inches)

Figure 10.6.3 Thermometer Support

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

A A
WIRE
CLOTH

95 (3.75)

WIRE SPRING 8
1.6 (0.06) CLOTH CLIP
6.4 (0.25)

51 (2.0)
(0.91)
23

(0.87)
22

13
(0.5)
33 (1.3)

Note : All dimensions are in millimetres (inches)

Figure 10.6.4 Filter Funnel for Use with Saybolt Viscometer

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

10.6.4 Preparation of apparatus

a) A Furol orifice tip is used for residual materials with efflux times greater than 25 s
to give the desired accuracy.
b) The viscometer is thoroughly cleaned with an appropriate solvent of low toxicity;
then all solvent is removed from the viscometer and its gallery. The receiving
flask is cleaned in the same manner.

Note 1. The plunger commonly supplied with the viscometer should never be
used for cleaning; its use might damage the overflow rim and walls of
the viscometer.

c) The viscometer and bath are set up in an area where they will not be exposed to
drafts or rapid changes in air temperature, and dust or vapours that might
contaminate a sample.
d) The receiving flask (Figure 10.6.5) is placed beneath the viscometer so that the
graduation mark on the flask is from 100 to 130 mm (4 to 5 in.) below the bottom
of the viscometer tube, and so that the stream of oil will just strike the neck of the
flask.

10 1 ID at Graduation Mark

3 min 11 max.
3 min
58 10

60 0.05 ml
0
at 20C

Less Than 55

Note. All dimensions are in Millimetres

Figure 10.6.5 Receiving Flask

e) The bath is filled to least 6 mm (1/4 in.) above the overflow rim of the viscometer
with an appropriate bath medium selected from Table 10.6.2
f) Adequate stirring and thermal control are provided for the bath so that the
temperature of a test sample in the viscometer will not vary more than 0.05 C (
0.10 F) after reaching the selected test temperature.
g) Viscosity measurements should not be made at temperatures below the dew point
of the room's atmosphere.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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h) For calibration and referee tests, the room temperature is kept between 20 and
30 0C (68 and 86 0F), and the actual temperature is recorded. However room
temperatures up to 38 0C (100 0F) will not introduce errors in excess of 1%.

10.6.5 Calibration and standardization

1. The Saybolt Furol Viscometer is calibrated at intervals of not more than 3


years by measuring minimum efflux time of 90s at 50 0C (122 0F) of an
appropriate viscosity oil standard, following the procedure given in Section
10.6.6

Saybolt Viscosity Standards - The approximate Saybolt viscositys are shown


in Table 10.6.3.

Table 10.6.3 Saybolt Viscosity Oil standard

Viscosity Oil Standards SUS at 37.80C SUS at 98.90C SFS at 500C


(1000F) (2100F) (1220F)
S3 36
S6 46
S20 100
S60 290
S200 930
S600 150 120

Standards Conforming to ASTM Saybolt Viscosity Standards -The


viscosity standards may also be used for routine calibrations at other
temperatures as shown in Table 10.6.3. Other reference liquids, suitable for
routine calibrations may be established by selecting stable oils covering the
desired range and determining their viscosities in a viscometer calibrated with a
standard conforming to ASTM requirements.

Routine Calibrations- The viscosity standards may also be used for routine
calibrations at other temperatures as shown in Table 10.6.3.

2. The efflux time of the viscosity oil standard shall equal the certified Saybolt
viscosity value. If the efflux time differs from the certified value by more than
0.2% calculate a correction factor, F for the viscometer as follows:

F = V/t

Where,
V = certified Saybolt viscosity of the standard, and
t = measured efflux time at 500C (122 0F)

Note 2. If the calibration is based on a viscosity oil standard having and efflux
time between 200 and 600 s, the correction factor applies to all
viscosity levels at all temperatures.

3. Viscometers or orifices requiring corrections grater than 1.0% shall not be used
in referee testing.

MAY 2001 Page 10.47


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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10.6.6 Procedure

a) The bath temperature is established and controlled at the selected test


temperature. Standard test temperatures for measuring Saybolt Furol viscositys
are 25.0, 37.8 50.0, and 98.9 0C (77, 100, 122, and 210 0F).
b) A cork stopper is inserted having a cord attached for its easy removal, into the
air chamber at the bottom of the viscometer. The cork shall fit tightly enough to
prevent the escape of air, as evidenced by the absence of oil on the cork when it
is withdrawn later as described.
c) If the selected test temperatures is above room temperature, the test may be
expedited by preheating the sample in its original container to not more than 1.7
0
C (3.0 0F) above the test temperature.
d) The sample is stirred well, then strain it through a wire cloth of appropriate mesh
directly into the viscometer until the level is above the overflow rim. The wire
cloth shall be 150m (No. 100) mesh except as noted in T 59 (Testing Emulsified
Asphalt) and Note 3.
e) For liquid asphaltic road materials having highly volatile components such as the
rapid curing and medium curing cut-backs, preheating in an open container shall
not be permitted.

The material shall be poured at room temperature into the viscometer of if the
material is too viscous to pour conveniently at room temperature, it shall be
warmed sufficiently by placing the sample in the original container in a 50 0C (122
0
F) water bath for a few minutes prior to pouring. Filtering through a wire cloth
shall be omitted.

For tests above room temperature, greater temperature differential than


indicated in Table 10.6.2 be permitted during the heating period, but the bath
temperature must be adjusted to within the prescribed limits prior to the final
minute of stirring during which the temperature of the sample remains constant.

Note 3. The viscosity of steam-refined cylinder oils, black lubrication oils,


residual fuel oils and similar waxy products can be affected by the
previous thermal history. The following preheating procedure should be
followed to obtain uniform results for viscosity below 95 0C (200 0F).

To obtain a representative sample, heat the sample in the original


container to about 50 0C (122 0F) with stirring and shaking. Probe the
bottom of the container with a rod to be certain that all waxy materials
are in solution. Pour 100 ml into a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Stopper
loosely with a cork or rubber stopper. Immerse the flask in a bath of
boiling water for 30 min. Mix well, remove the sample from the bath, and
strain it through a 0.07m (No. 200) sieve directly into the viscometer
already in the thermostat bath. Complete the viscosity test within 1 hr.
after preheating.

f) The sample in the viscometer is stirred with the appropriate viscosity


thermometer equipped with the thermometer support (Fig. 10.6.3) a circular
motion at 30 to 50 rpm is used in a horizontal plane. When the sample
temperature remains constant within 0.05 C (0.10 F) of the test temperature
during 1 min of continuous stirring, the thermometer is removed.

Note 4. Never attempt to adjust the temperature by immersing hot or cold


bodies in the sample. Such thermal treatment might affect the sample
and the precision of the test.

MAY 2001 Page 10.48


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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g) The tip of the withdrawal tube is immediately placed (Fig. 10.6.2) in the gallery at
one point, and suction is applied to remove oil until its level in the gallery is below
the overflow rim. Do not touch the overflow rim with the withdrawal tube; the
effective liquid head of the sample would be reduced.
h) The receiving flask must be in proper position; then the cork is snapped form the
viscometer using the attached cord and the timer is started at the same instant.
i) The timer is stopped instant the bottom of the oil meniscus reaches the
graduation mark on the receiving flask. The efflux time is recorded in seconds to
the nearest 0.1 s.

10.6.7 Calculation and report

1. The efflux time is multiplied by the correction factor for the viscometer in 2 of
10.6.5.
2. The corrected efflux time is reported as the Saybolt Furol viscosity of the oil at
the temperature at which the test was made.
3. Values to the nearest whole second are reported.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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10.7 Distillation of Cut-Back Asphaltic (Bituminous)

10.7.1 Introduction

By this procedure, the amount of the more volatile constituents in cut-back asphaltic
products are measured. The properties of the residue after distillation are not
necessarily characteristic of the bitumen used in the original mixture nor of the
residue which may be left at any particular time after application of the cut-back
asphaltic product. The presence of silicone in the cut-back may affect the distillation
residue by retarding the loss of volatile material after the residue has been poured
into the residue container.

10.7.2 Scope

This test is used for the distillation of cut-back asphaltic (bituminous) products.

10.7.3 Apparatus

a) Distillation Flask, 500 ml side-arm, having the dimensions shown in Figure 10.7.1.

251.2 mm. 1.D.


.

a ll
.D

.W
.1

753
mm

mm
.5

1.5
0
10

to
1.0
1355 mm.

1022.0 mm.
1053 mm.

220
0.D. 5 .0 m
m.

Figure 10.7.1 Distillation Flask

b) Condenser, standard glass-jacketed, of nominal jacket length from 200 to 300


mm and overall tube length of 450 10 mm (see Figure 10.7.2).
c) Adapter, heavy-wall (1 mm) glass, with reinforced top, having an angle of
approximately 1050. The inside diameter at the large end shall be approximately
18 mm, and at the small end not less than 5 mm. The lower surface of the
adapter shall be on a smooth descending curve from the larger end to the
smaller. The inside line of the outlet end shall be vertical, and the outlet shall be
cut or ground (not fire-polished) at an angle of 45 5 deg to the inside line.

d) Shield, 22 gauge sheet metal, line with 3-mm asbestos or high temperature light
weight flexible ceramic insulation, and fitted with suitable transparent heat

MAY 2001 Page 10.50


Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

resistant non-discoloring windows, of the form and dimensions shown in Figure


10.7.3 used to protect the flask from air currents and to reduce radiation. The
cover (top) shall be made in two parts of 6.4-mm (1/4 in.) milboard.
e) Shield and Flask Support- Two 150 by 150 mm sheets of 1.18 mm nickel-chrome
mesh wire gauze on opening (16 mesh) on tripod or ring.
f) Heat Source - Adjustable Terrill-type gas burner or equipment.
g) Receiver - A 100 ml Crow receiver conforming to British Standard No. 658: 1962
(see Figure 10.7.4).

Thermometer
Cork Stopper

Tight Ground Glass


or Cork Joints

600
Window to 7
00 m
450 m
mm
Shield 15
mm
Flask 23 mm
Two sheets
wire gauge
6.5 mm 12.5
mm
Blotting
Chimney Not less paper
than 25.4
Water Jacketed
condenser Receiver
Burner

Stand

Figure 10.7.2 Distillation Apparatus

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Windows

6.4 0.5 mm
Flanged Open-End Cylinder
Made of 22-Gauge Sheet Metal Lined
with 3 mm Asbestos Lining
Riveted to Metal. 30 10 mm
148 3 mm
148 3 mm
Two Windows are 117 2 mm Cover in Two Parts
Provided at Right Angles
to the End Slot. 3.2 0.3 mm
12.32 mm 162 mm 412 mm

117 3 mm
823 mm
Shield

Figure 10.7.3 Shield

Figure 10.7.4 Crow receivers of capacity 25, 50 and 100 ml

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
Tests For Bitumen & Bituminous Materials

h) Residue Container - A 240 ml (8 oz. seamless metal container with slip on cover
of 75 5 mm in diameter, and 55 5 mm in height.

Caution : Provide a cover suitable in size and material to extinguish a flame in the
240 ml (8 oz) tin box if the residue flames after pouring.

i) Thermometer.
j) Balance as required.

10.7.4 Sampling

a) The sample is thoroughly, stirred warming if necessary, to ensure homogeneity


before removal of a portion for analysis.
b) If sufficient water is present to cause foaming or bumping, dehydrate a sample of
not less than 250 ml by heating in a distillation flask sufficiently large to prevent
foaming over into the side arm. When foaming has ceased, the distillation is
stopped. If any light oil has distilled over, separate and pour this back into the
flask when the contents have cooled just sufficiently to prevent loss of volatile oil.
The contents of the flask is thoroughly mixed before removal for analysis.

10.7.5 Preparation of apparatus

a) The mass of 200 ml of the sample is calculated from the specific gravity of the
material at 15.6 0C (60 0F). This amount is weighed 0.05 g into the 500 ml flask.
b) The flask is placed in the shield supported by two sheets of gauze on a tripod or
ring. The condenser tube is connected to the tabulator of the flask with a tight
cork joint. The condenser is clampped so that the axis of the bulb of the flask
through the center of its neck is vertical. The adapter is adjusted over the end of
the condenser tube so that the distance from the neck of the flask to the outlet of
the adapter is 650 50 mm (see Figure10.7.2).
c) The thermometer is inserted through a tightly fitting cork in the neck of the flask
so that the bulb of the thermometer rests on the bottom of the flask. The
thermometer is raised 6.4 mm (1/4 in.) from the bottom of the flask using the scale
divisions on the thermometer to estimate the 6.4 mm (1/4 in.) distance above the
top of the cork.
d) The burner is protected by a suitable shield or chimney. The receiver is placed
so that the adapter extends at least 25mm but not below the 100 ml mark. The
graduate is covered closely with a piece of blotting paper, or similar material,
suitably weighted, which has been cut to fit the adapter snugly.
e) The flask, condenser tube, adapter, and receiver shall be clean and dry before
starting the distillation. The 240 ml (8 oz.) residue container is placed on its cover
in an area free from drafts.
f) Cold water is passed through the condenser jacket. Warm water is used if
necessary to prevent formation of solid condense in the condenser tube.

10.7.6 Procedure

a) The temperatures to be observed are corrected in the distillation if the elevation


of the laboratory at which the distillation is made deviates 500 ft (150 m) or more
from sea level. Corrected temperatures for the effect of altitude are shown in
Table 10.7.1 and 10.7.2. If the prevailing barometric pressure in millimeters of
mercury is known, correct to the nearest 1 0C or 2 0F the temperature to be
observed with the corrections shown in Table 10.7.3. Do not correct for the
emergent stem of the thermometer.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Table 10.7.1 Corrected Fractionation Table 10.7.2 Corrected Fractionation


Temperatures for Various Temperatures for Various
Altitudes, Deg C Altitudes, Deg C
Elevation Fractionation Temperatures for Elevation Fractionation Temperatures for
above Sea Various Altitudes. deg C above sea Various Altitudes. deg C
Level. ft (m) level. ft (m)
-1000 (-305) 192 227 363 318 36 -1000 (-305) 377 440 503 604 684
2
-500 (-152) 191 226 261 317 36 -500 (-152) 375 438 502 602 682
1
0(0) 190 225 260 316 36 0(0) 374 437 500 600 680
0
500 (152) 189 224 259 315 35 500 (152) 373 436 498 598 678
9
1000 (305) 189 224 258 314 35 1000 (305) 371 434 497 597 676
8
1500 (457) 188 223 258 313 35 1500 (457) 370 433 495 595 675
7
2000 (610) 187 222 257 312 35 2000 (610) 369 431 494 593 673
6
2500 (762) 186 221 256 312 35 2500 (762) 367 430 492 592 671
5
3000 (914) 186 220 255 311 35 3000 (914) 366 429 491 590 669
4
3500 (1067) 185 220 254 310 35 3500 (1067) 365 427 490 588 667
3
4000 (1219) 184 219 254 309 35 4000 (1219) 364 426 488 587 666
2
4500 (1372) 184 218 253 308 35 4500 (1372) 363 425 487 585 665
1
5000 (1524) 183 218 252 307 35 5000 (1524) 361 423 485 584 663
0
5500 (1676) 182 217 251 306 34 5500 (1676) 360 422 484 582 661
9
600 (1829) 182 216 250 305 34 600 (1829) 359 421 483 581 660
9
6500 (1981) 181 215 250 305 34 6500 (1981) 358 420 481 580 658
8
7000 (2134) 180 215 249 304 34 7000 (2134) 357 418 480 578 656
7
7500 (2286) 180 214 248 303 34 7500 (2286) 356 417 479 577 655
6
8000 (2438) 179 213 248 302 34 8000 (2438) 355 416 478 575 653
5

Table 10.7.3 Factors Calculating Temperature Corrections

Nominal Temperatures. Correction per 10 mm Difference in


deg C (deg F) Pressure, deg C (deg F)
160 (320) 0.514 (0.925
175 (347) 0.531 (0.957)
190 (374) 0.549 (0.989
225 (437) 0.591 (1.063)
250 (482) 0.620 (1.166)
260 (500) 0.632 (1.138)
275 (527) 0.650 (1.170)
300 (572) 0.680 (1.223)

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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315.6 (600) 0.698 (1.257)


325 (617) 0.709 91.277)
360 (680) 0.751 (1.351)

To be subtracted in case the barometric pressure is below 760 mm Hg: to be


added in case barometric pressure is above 760 mm Hg.

Correction = (Observed Pressure - 760) x Correction per mm


The correction per mm=1/10 the correction per 10 mm given the Table 10.7.3

Example : Barometric observation temperature 260 C (500 F).


Celsius Correction = (748-760) x 0.0632 = 0.758
Temperature = 260 - 0.758 = 259 C (rounded to nearest 10C)
Fahrenheit Correction = (748 - 760) x 0.1138 = 1.366
Temperature = 500 - 1.366 = 498 F (rounded to nearest 20F)

b) Heat is applied so that the first drop of distillate falls from the end of the flask
side-arm in 5 to 15 min. Conduct the distillation so as to maintain the following
drop rates, the drop count to be made at the tip of the adapter:

50 to 70 drops per minute to 260 0C (500 0F)


20 to 70 drops per minute between 260 and 316 C (500 and 600 0F)
Not over 10 minutes to complete distillation from 316 to 360 C (600 to 680 0F)

c) The volumes of distillate are recorded to the nearest 0.5 ml in the receiver at the
corrected temperatures. If the volume of distillate recovered is critical, use
receivers graduated in 0.1 ml divisions and immersed in a transparent bath
maintained at 15.6 3 C (60 5 0F).

Note 1. Some cut-back asphaltic products yield no distillate or very little distillate
over portions of the temperature range to 316 0C (600 0F). In this case
it becomes impractical to maintain the above distillation rates. For such
cases the intent of the method shall be met if the rate of rise of
temperature exceeds 5 0C (9 0F)/min.

d) When the temperature reaches the corrected temperature of 360 0C (680 0F), the
flame is extinguished and the flask and thermometer are removed. With the flask
in a pouring position, the thermometer is removed the contents is immediately
poured into the residue container. The total time form cutting off the flame to
starting the pour shall not exceed 15 s. When pouring, the side-arm should be
substantially horizontal to prevent condense in the side-arm from being returned
to the reside.

Note 2. The formation of skin on the surface of a residue during cooling entraps
vapors which will condense and cause higher penetration results when
they are stirred back into the sample. If skin begins to form during
cooling, it should be gently pushed aside. This can be done with a
spatula with a minimum of disturbance to the sample.

e) The condenser is allowed to drain into the receiver and record the total volume of
distillate collected as total distillate to 360 0C (680 0F).
f) When the residue has cooled until fuming just ceases, it is thoroughly stirred and
poured into the receptacles for testing for properties such as penetration,

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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viscosity, or softening point. Proceed as required by the appropriate IP method


from the point that follows the pouring stage.
g) If desired, the distillate, or the combined distillates from several tests, may
be submitted to a further distillation.

10.7.7 Calculation and report

a) Asphaltic Residue - Calculate the percent residue to the nearest 0.1 as


follows:

R = [(200 - TD)/200] x 100

Where,
R = residue content, in volume percent, and
TD = total distillate recovered to 360 0C (680 0F), ml.
Report as the residue from distillation to 360 0C (680 0F), percent volume by
difference.

b) Total Distillate - Calculate the percent total distillate to the nearest 0.1
as follows:

TD percent = (TD/200) x 100

Report as the total distillate to 360 0C (680 0F), volume percent.

c) Distillate Fractions

i) Determine the volume percentages of the original sample by dividing


the observed volume (in milliliters) of the fraction by 2. Report to the
nearest 0.1 as volume percent as follows:

Up to 190 0C (374 0F)


Up to 225 0C (437 0F)
Up to 260 0C (500 0F)
Up to 316 0C (600 0F)

ii) Determine the volume percentages of total distillate by dividing the


observed volume in millilitres to 360 0C (680 0F) and multiply by 100.
Report to the nearest 0.1 as the distillate, volume percent of total
distillate to 360 0C (680 0F) as follows :

Up to 190 0C (374 0F)


Up to 225 0C (437 0F)
Up to 260 0C (500 0F)
Up to 316 0C (600 0F)

d) Where penetration, viscosity, or other tests have been carried out, report
with reference to this method as well as to any other method used.

10.7.8 Precision

The following criteria shall be used for judging the acceptability of results (95
percent probability):

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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a) Repeatability - Duplicate values by the same operator shall not be


considered suspect unless the determined percentages differ by more than
1.0 volume percent of the original sample.
b) Reproducibility - The values reported by each of the two laboratories shall
not be considered suspect unless the reported percentages differ by more
than the following:

Distillation Fractions, volume percent of the original sample :


Up to 175 0C (347 0F) 3.5
above 175 0C (347 0F) 2.0
Residue, Volume percentage by difference
from the original sample 2.0

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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10.8 Float Test of Bitumen

10.8.1 Scope

This test is used to determine the floating time of bituminous materials.

10.8.2 Apparatus

a) Float - The float (Figure 10.8.1 is made of aluminium or aluminium alloy in


accordance with the following requirements :

Min. Normal Max.


Weight of float, g ................................. 37.70 37.90 38.10
Total height of float, mm ..................... 34.00 35.0 36.0
Height of rim above lower side of
shoulder mm ........................................ 26.5 27.0 27.5
Thickness of shoulder, mm ................. 1.3 1.4 1.5
Diameter of opening, mm ..................... 11.0 11.1 11.2

b) Collar - The collar (Figure 10.8.1) is made of brass in accordance with the
following requirements :

Min. Normal Max.


Weight of collar, g ................................ 9.60 9.80 10.00
Over all height of collar, mm ................ 22.3 22.5 22.7
Inside diameter at bottom, mm ............. 12.72 12.82 12.92
Inside diameter at top, mm ............. 9.65 9.70 9.75

The top of the collar shall screw up tightly against the lower side of the shoulder.

c) Calibration of Assembly - The assembled float and collar, with the collar filled flush
with the bottom and weighted to a total weight of 53.2 g, shall float upon water with
the rim 8.5 1.5 mm above the surface of the water. This adjustment of the total
weight of the assembly is for the purpose only of calibrating the depth of
immersion in the testing bath. Dimension of the apparatus additional to those
required above are given in Figure 10.8.1.
d) Thermometer - Having a rang of - 2 to + 80 0C or + 30 to + 180 0F.
e) Water Bath - 185 or more millimetres in its smallest lateral dimension and
containing water 185 or more millimetres in depth. The height of the container
above the water shall be 100 or more millimetres. The bath may be heated by
either a gas or electric heater. A stand or other suitable support shall be
available to hold the thermometer in the proper position in the bath during the
test.
f) Water bath at 5 0C - A water bath of suitable dimensions maintained at 5.0 1.0
0
C, which may be accomplished by means of melting ice.
g) Heater - An oven or hot plate, heated by electricity or gas, for melting samples for
testing.
h) Trimmer - A spatula or steel knife of convenient size.
i) Plate - The plate shall be made of non-absorbent material of convenient size and
of sufficient thickness to prevent deformation. The plate shall be flat so that the
bottom surface of the collar touches it throughout.
j) Timer - A stop watch or other timer graduated in divisions of 1 s or less.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Methods of sampling and testing

d. m
Ra .6 m
53
92.0 2.0 mm

27.00.5 mm
Thermometer

Hot Float Tapered


11.1 0.1 mm

35.01.0
Bath Tester to make

mm
Weight

m 1.4 0.1 mm
m
95 ad.
R 12.00.5 mm
Float
(Aluminum)
9.70
1.400.10 mm 0.05
mm

22.5 0.2 mm
Tapered

3 mm
to make
Weight
Tripod Standard
Support 1.40 0.10 12.12
Bunsen mm 0.10
Burner mm
Collar
(Brass)

Weight of Float, 37.900.20 g


Weight of Collar, 9.800.20 g

Assembly

Figure 10.8.1 Float Test Apparatus

10.8.3 Procedure

a) The brass collar is placed with the smaller end down on the plate which has been
previously coated with a suitable release agent (Note 1).

Note 1. Mixtures of glycerine and dextrine or talc (3 grams glycerine to about 5


grams dextrine or talc has been used satisfactorily), Dow-Corning
Silicone Stop-Cock Grease, or castor oil-Versamid 900 [100:1 mixture
by weight heated to 204 to 232 0C (400 to 450 0F) and stirred until
homogeneous] have proven suitable. Other release agents may be
used provided results obtained are comparable to those obtained when
using one of the above .

b) The sample shall be completely melted at the lowest possible temperature that
will bring it to a sufficiently fluid condition for easy pouring, excepting creosote-oil

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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residues, which shall be mixed and poured at a temperature of 100 to 125 0C. Stir
the sample thoroughly until it is homogeneous and free from air bubbles then
pour it into the collar in any convenient manner until slightly more than level with
the top.
c) Asphalt and Asphalt Products - Asphalt and asphalt products are cooled to room
temperature for 15 to 60 min. then place them for 5 min in the water bath at 5 0C,
after which trim the surplus material flush with the top of the collar by means of a
spatula or steel knife that has been slightly heated. Then the collar and plate are
placed in the water bath at 5 0C and leave them in this bath for not less than 15
nor more than 30 min.
d) The water is heated in the testing bath to the temperature at which the test is to
be made. This temperature shall be accurately maintained without stirring, and
shall at no time throughout the test be allowed to very more than 0.5 0C from the
temperature specified. The temperature shall be determined by immersing the
thermometer with the bottom of the bulb at a depth of 40 2 mm below the water
surface.
e) After the material to be tested has been kept in the water bath at 5 0C for not
less than 15 nor more than 30 min remove the collar with its contents from the
plate and screw into the aluminum float. The assembly is completely immersed for
1 min in the water bath at 5 0C. Then the water is removed inside of the float and
immediately float the assembly on the testing bath. Lateral drift of the assembly
shall be permitted, but no spinning motion shall be intentionally imparted thereto.
As the plug of material becomes warm and fluid, it is forced upward and out of the
collar until the water gains entrance into the saucer and causes it to sink.
f) The time, in seconds, between placing the apparatus in the water and the water
breaking through the material shall be determined by means of a stop watch or
other timer, and shall be taken as a measure of the consistency of the material
under examination.

10.8.4 Precautions

Special precautions should be taken to insure that the collar fits tightly into the float
and to see that there is no seepage of water between the collar and float during the
test.

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10. 9 Marshall Stability and Flow

10.9.1 Introduction

The Marshall test method is widely used for the design and control of asphaltic
concrete and hot rolled asphalt materials, it cannot be applied to open textured
materials such as bitumen macadam. Materials containing aggregate sizes larger than
20 mm, are liable to give erratic results.

The full Marshall method is a method of bituminous mix design in addition to being a
quality control test. The details given below related mainly to its use as a quality
control test. The suitability of materials for the design of Marshall asphalt requires that
a numbers of tests are performed on the materials. Tests normally performed are:

1. Asphalt :

(a) Penetration (b) Viscosity (c) Solubility (d) Specific gravity (e) Fire & flash point
(f) Softening point.

2. Aggregates :

(a) Percent wear (b) Unit weight (c) Sieve analysis (d) Specific gravity (e)
Absorption.

The preliminary mix designs, the scheme for analysing aggregate will be
governed, to some extent, by method of producing the gradation during
construction.

10.9.2 Scope

The basic Marshall test consists essentially of crushing a cylinder of bituminous


material between two semi-circular test heads and recording the maximum load
achieved (i.e. the stability) and the deflection at which the maximum load occurs (i.e.
the flow).

In common with many other tests, the bulk of the work is involved in preparing the
samples for testing.

10.9.3 Apparatus

The samples are prepared in 100 mm diameter moulds which are fitted with a base
and collar (Figure 10.9.1) the sample is compacted using a hammer consisting of a
sliding weight which falls onto a circular foot (Figure 10.9.2) during compaction the
mould is held on a hardwood block which is rigidly fixed to a concrete base (Figure
10.9.3).

The sample is removed from the mould using an extraction plate and press (Figure
10.9.1) and heated to the test temperature of 60 C in a water bath.

The cylindrical specimens are tested on their sides between test heads similar to
those shown in Fig. 10.9.4. The flow is measured with a dial gauge and the stability is
measured with a proving ring. A motorised load frame is required for the test.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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114.3
38
101.6 0.1
R 9.5 spherical seating

63.5
71.5

99
12.7 106.80.1 12.7

Extension collar Extraction plate

106.40.1

101.60.1
12.7

89

12.7 114.3

106.80.1
Mould cylinder 12.7

18.25 86
100.8 0.1

104.8
125.4
5.6 114.3
Mould base
Dimensions are in millimetres. Extraction collar

Figure 10.9.1 Marshall Test Compaction and Extraction Equipment

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Handle screwed and pinned

457
55

15.875

Mandatory requirements

Diameter of foot 98.5 0 . 1 2 5


Length of free fall 457
Mass of sliding mass 4.535 kg
(Other dimensions are approximate)
981
Sliding mass 4.535 kg
457 free fall

305 Rod-nut screwed and riveted


on end

25

45
Finger guard
70
3

Compression spring
Free length 51
Wire diameter 3.175
Mean diameter 27.0 - 28.6
80 Number of coils 4
28
Foot screwed and locked

13 Hard face
98.5

Figure 10.9.2 Marshall Compaction Hammer

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Clamp ring

Hinge post
Guide Post
Sample mould
Spring

Steel plate
300 x 300 x 25 Angle-housing welded to
underface of steel plate
to ensure permanent
Wood block centering of assembly
200 x 200 x 450

Barrel strainers
(Min. Dia. 6.35)

25

Recess in concrete
base of permanent
Concrete centering of timber
block block or angle-housing
bolted to concrete base
200
450 x 450 x 200

450 square

Mould base
locating pegs
NOTE. A suitable framework is
secured to the pedestal to ensure
that the compaction hammer is
kept vertical.

Dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 10.9.3 Marshall Compaction Pedestal

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12.7 Guide pins Upper testing head


Lug for dial gauge and brushes

19 min.
101.6 0.1

9.5

45 0
9.5
6.35
Dial
gauge

76
Face hardened Base Lower testing head
or plated and
polished

NOTE. Frequent checks on


inner radius of segments and on
alignment of guide posts are
necessary as high loads may
permanently distort the testing
head.

Swinging plate for dial gauge

Dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 10.9.4 Marshall Testing Heads

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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10.9.4 Sampling

Due to the various uses which may be made of Marshall tests, the materials for test
may be obtained in one of the following forms:

a) 100 mm diameter bituminous cores cut from an existing pavement using a core
cutting machine.
b) Ready-mixed bituminous material obtained from a mixing plant or at the point of
laying, and sampled in accordance with Chapter 2.
c) A sample of mixed aggregate obtained from the mixing plant together with a
separate sample of bitumen obtained from the storage tank at the mixing plant in
accordance with Chapter 2.

Note. A sample of mixed aggregate may be obtained from a mixing plant by


batching the specified aggregate weights into the mixer but not allowing
any bitumen to be batched. The aggregate sample is then discharged
into a clean lorry where it may be sampled in accordance with Chapter
2.

d) Samples of the various sized aggregates in use at the mixing plant sampled in
accordance with Chapter 2 together with a separate sample of bitumen sampled
in accordance with Chapter 2.

In the case of a sample of type (a), the core may be tested without further
preparation. It must, however, be of the correct diameter and height. It is doubtful
if samples obtained in this manner give results which are closely comparable to
laboratory compacted specimens; however, the taking of cores is a valuable way
to check the compacted density of the as laid material and the small amount of
additional work in determining the stability and flow is justified. If the densities
obtained form cores (or sand replacement tests) are significantly below those of
laboratory compacted specimens, attention should be paid to the methods of
laying and compacting.

For many quality control purposes samples of type (b) are the most useful as
they may be conpacted, after re-heating in an oven to the required temperature.
The delay between initial mixing and compacting should be as short as possible.
With this type of sample separate test on the mixed aggregate will be required to
determine the void content.

It is essential to make frequent checks on the combined aggregate from an


asphalt plant. The most important factors to be checked are the aggregate
temperature at the time of mixing and the grading of the mixed aggregate. It may,
therefore, be convenient to obtain separate samples of aggregate and bitumen
(type (c) sample) and mix them in the required proportions in the laboratory. As
the aggregate will be discharged from the mixer in a dry state, there is
considerable risk of segregation and the greatest care should be taken in
obtaining a representative sample. If there are reasons to suspect that the
bitumen at the mixing plant has been overheated, it may be worth while to check
the penetration as excessive heating hardens the bitumen. One particular use of
this method of sampling is that if some adjustment is required to the bitumen
content, a number of samples may be made at various bitumen contents to
determine which is the most satisfactory.

To maintain the quality of a bituminous material, it is necessary to check, at


regular intervals, the various sizes of aggregate for grading, cleanliness, shape,
strength etc. If it is required to study the effects of varying the aggregate, or
bitumen proportions, it will be necessary to obtain separate samples of each

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aggregate size to be used in addition to a sample of the bitumen (a type (d)


sample).

10.9.5 Sample Preparation

If necessary, the aggregates should be oven-dried at 150C before testing


commences. (Sample types (c) and (d)).

For samples of type (d) it is first necessary to combine the various sample sizes to
give the required grading for the mixed aggregate. Several different gradings may be
tried if a full Marshall mix design is to be carried out.

When it is required to determine the most satisfactory bitumen content, given a


sample of mixed aggregate, an initial estimate of the required bitumen content can be
made from a knowledge of the compacted density of the Mixed Aggregate (CDMA).
The CDMA is most conveniently determined using a standard 100 mm. diameter
compaction mould and a 2.5 kg compaction hammer. The sample of dry aggregate is
compacted in the mould in four layers, each layer being given 20 blows of the
hammer. The density of the aggregate is then calculated in an identical manner to the
bulk density in a compaction tests. The average of two determinations is taken as the
CDMA, as shown in Form 10.9.1.

It is also necessary to carry out separate determinations of the specific gravity of the
mixed aggregate (SGMA), and the specific gravity of bitumen.

The voids in mixed aggregate VMA are then determined from the formula:

(SGMA CDMA
VMA = X 100%
SGMA

The VMA should normally be between 17 and 20% for a satisfactory mix. An initial
estimate of the optimum bitumen content (B) is obtained from the formulae :

( VMA VIM ) x S. G . Bitumen


B100 =
CDMA

Where, B100 is expressed in parts per 100 parts of mixed aggregate (p.h.a) and

VIM = the specified percentage of air voids in the compacted mix.

Note. In bitumen calculations, it is usual to express all densities and specific


gravities in gram/ml; gram/cc or Mg/cu.m.

Having completed the required tests on the mixed aggregates, the bituminous
material is then produced by mixing the aggregates with the bitumen in the correct
proportions.

For each test specimen, the required weight of mixed aggregate is weighed out and
place in an oven at the temperature shown in the following Table 10.9.1 (Column 2) :

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Table 10.9.1 Temperatures required in the preparation of moulded specimens

1 2 3 4 5
Binder Temperature
grade pen
(in mm) Heated Heated On Completion of Immediately
aggregate binder mixing (approx.) prior to
bitumen compaction
(max. - min.)
C C C C
80 - 100 155 150 140 136 - 132
60 - 70 160 155 145 141 - 137
40 - 50 165 160 150 146 - 142

The amount of aggregate required for each specimen is in the region of 1000 - 1500
grams, but the exact amount must be determined by an initial trial.

There specimens are required for each bitumen content and the aggregate should be
heated in the oven for at least 2 hours.

The weight of bitumen required for each specimen should be weighed out into a small
metal container, and heated to the temperature shown in the Table 10.9.1 (Column
3), using an oven or a hot plate. When using a hot plate, the bitumen should be
stirred whenever possible to prevent local overheating and heating should not
continue for longer than 30 minutes. The temperature should be maintained for at
least 10 minutes. When pouring a sample of bitumen it is inevitable that some bitumen
adheres to the sides of the container, to account for this, it is useful to beat a sample
of bitumen in the container and pour this away, thus coating the sides of the container
before adding the exact weight of bitumen required for the specimen, the weight of
bitumen adhering to the sides of the container will vary only slightly each time it is
emptied. To establish the exact weight of bitumen used, the weight of the container
should be taken before heating and after pouring.

The heated aggregate and bitumen should be thoroughly mixed together as quickly
as possible. Mixing may be by hand or in a mechanical mixer. In either case the mixing
pan and tools should be heated prior to use so that the temperature of the sample is
maintained. When all the aggregate is evenly coated with the bitumen, the sample
should be removed from the mixing pan and compacted as quickly as possible.

When using a sample of mixed bituminous material (type (b)), this should be divided
into the required specimen weights as quickly as possible after sampling and then
brought back to the required mixing temperature by heating in an oven. The time of
heating will depend on the initial temperature of the sample and should not exceed
one hour. On removal from the oven, the sample should be compacted as soon as
possible.

The compaction moulds, collars and bases should be cleaned, lightly oiled and
placed in an oven, at the temperature shown in column 5 of the Table 10.9.1, for a
period of at least one hour. The hammer base should also be heated in a similar
manner.

The base, mould and collar should then be assembled and a 100 mm. diameter disc
of tough non-absorbent paper (such as greaseproof) placed in the base of the mould.
The whole of the mixed material is then transferred into the mould as quickly as
possible and levelled by prodding with a spatula 15 times round the perimeter and 10
times over the interior of the sample. At the end of this process, the upper surface of

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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the sample should be slightly domed. At this stage the temperature should be
checked, using a previously warmed thermometer, to save time, and must be within
the range shown in column 5, Table 10.9.1.

A disc of non-absorbent paper is then placed on the top of the sample, the mould
assembly is placed on the compaction pedestal and located in the mould clamp.

Compaction is then given to the top of the sample using 50 blows of the hammer. The
hammer must be maintained perfectly vertical during this operation and the rate of
compaction should be about 60 - 70 blows per minute.

On completion of 50 blows, the collar and base are carefully removed, the mould is
turned over and the base and collar re-fixed so the bottom of the sample is now
facing upwards. The assembly is re-fixed in the pedestal mould holder and given
another 50 blows of the hammer.

On completion of compaction, the collar is removed and the mould and base are
immersed in cold water for at least 15 minutes.

When completely cool the base is removed and the sample ejected from the mould
using the extraction apparatus. The specimen must be extracted from the mould
without shock or distortion. Any burrs may be removed with a spatula or sharp knife.

The specimen should be placed on a flat surface and the average height measured,
preferably with a dial gauge, the height must be between 62.0 and 65.0 mm. (2.7/16
- 2.9/16) otherwise the sample should be discarded.

The specimen is then dried with a cloth and stored on a piece of absorbent paper on
a flat surface for at least 16 hours. Ensure the different specimens are clearly
marked.

The mould, base and collar should be thoroughly cleaned before re-use or storage.

10.9.6 Measurement of Density

Prior to testing, it is necessary to determine the density of the density of the


specimen, this is done by weighing in water.

The weight of the dry specimen is first determined to an accuracy of 0.1 grams.
Weight C.

The specimen is then weighed in water, weight d, using a wire basket suspended from
a suitable balance. Care should be taken to ensure that there are no air bubbles
attached to the wire basket or the specimen prior to weighing.

These weights are recorded on the data sheet Form 10.9.2 and the calculations
relating to volume and voids in the mix may then be completed.

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From the weight of bitumen and aggregates used in the mix, the proportion of binder is
calculated as follows:

Weight of bitumen
Proportion of binder, B = x 100...(a)
Weight of mixed
aggregate

Where B is expressed in parts of bitumen per 100 parts of aggregate (p.h.a) . This is
the most convenient method of expressing binder content.

The binder content as a true percentage of the mixed material, is given by:

Weight of bitumen
B' = x 100%
(Weight of mixed aggregate) + (Weight of bitumen)

Note that

100
B' = B x % ............... ( b)
(100 + B)

Where, B is in p.h.a.

From the weight in air and weight in water :

Total Volume of specimen, V = (Weight c - Weight d) x S.G. water


= (Weight c - Weight d) ml .......... (f)

The density of the compacted specimen is then given by, Compacted density of mix,

Weight C
CDM = gram / ml ....................... (g)
V

The maximum theoretical density of the specimen if there were no air voids would be:

Max. theoretical specimen density,

100
' X' =
% Bitumen % Aggregate
+
S.G . Bitumen S. G . M .A

100
or, ' X' = gram / ml..................(h)
B' (100 B')
+
S.B.Bitumen S.G.M.A

From the above results it is possible to derive a number of factors concerning the
volumetric proportions of the mix and the void content:

B' x CDM
Volume of binder, Vb = % .............. (i)
S.G. Bitumen
(as % of total volume)

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(100 B') x CDM


Volumeof aggregate, Vagg = % ..............( j)
S. G. M. A
Volumeof air voids, VIM = (100 Vb Vagg ) % ..................(k)
(as % of total volume)
The voids in the mixed aggregate are given by :
VMA = (100 - Vagg) % ............... (l)
and this value may be compared with that calculated previously using the CDMA.

The percentage of voids filled with bitumen are given by :


Vb
VFB = 100 x % ....................................................... (m)
VMA
and the percentage of air voids in the compacted mix,
CDM
VIM = 100 x ( 1 - ) % ........ (n)
' X'
This alternative method of calculating VIM may be used as a check. The values of VIM
achieved should be compared with the specified value.

If the test is being repeated using a number of different bitumen contents, it is usual
to plot, graphs of compacted density of mix, CDM, Voids in Mix, VIM, and Voids filled
with bitumen, VFB, against binder content, B.

10.9.7 Test procedure

On completion of density measurements, the specimens are heated in a


thermostatically controlled water bath at a temperature of 60 0.5C for a period of
60 minutes the specimens should be completely immersed in the water.

The inside faces of the testing heads should be thoroughly cleaned and the guide
rods lightly oiled, so that the upper head slides freely. The heads should then be
immersed in the water bath at 60 0.5C so they are heated to the correct test
temperature.

It is important that the test is carried out quickly and efficiently such that the total time
between removing the specimen from the water bath and completion of the test
should not exceed 40 seconds. It is, therefore, essential that the test machine,
gauges etc., are all prepared ready for use before removing the specimens from the
water bath.

On completion of the heating period, the specimen and heads should be quickly
removed from the bath and the specimen placed on its side centrally in the lower test
head, the upper head is then located on the slides and brought into contact with the
specimen. The whole assembly is then placed on the test machine directly below the
plunger.

The deformation dial gauge should be placed into position and either zeroed or the
initial reading taken. The load ring dial gauge should previously have been zeroed.

The load is then applied to the specimen by the machine at a rate of 50.8 mm/minute
5%. The reading on the load ring gauge should be observed and the instant the
load stops increasing, the machine should be switched off. The maximum load gauge

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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reading should be taken. The corresponding reading on the deformation (flow) gauge
may then be taken.

The heads should be wiped clean before testing further specimens.

10.9.8 Calculation

The calculations concerned with densities and voids have already been described in
section 10.9.6

From the maximum load gauge reading, the maximum load applied may be
determined using a calibration chart or proving ring factor. This is the measured
stability.

It will be noted that the height of the specimen may vary somewhat and the measured
stability will tend to increase as the height of the specimen increases. To reduce all
measurements to a common height of 63.5 mm. (21/2 ins.) a stability correction factor
is applied to the measured value such that:

Corrected stability = ( Measured stability ) x (Adjustment factor)

The adjustment factor is determined from the specimen volume in accordance with
Figure 10.9.5. The stability is expressed in kN (or 1bf).

The flow value is simply the reading on the deformation gauge at the point of
maximum load, and is expressed in mm. (or 0.01 inch).

A useful factor in the assessment of mix quality is the stability to flow ration which is
given by :

Corrected stability
Stability flow ratio =
Flow

The stability to flow is expressed in kN/mm or lb/(0.01 inch). The average value of the
three specimens should be quoted.

As mentioned previously the Marshall test is often carried out as a mix design
procedure and specimens will be made at various bitumen contents to determine
which is the most satisfactory (i.e. the optimum binder content).

To determine the optimum binder content graphs of CDM, VIM, VFB, Stability and
Flow against binder content are normally plotted as shown in Figure 10.9.6.

The values of some these factors may be specified and the most satisfactory values
for the other factors are generally known; it is, therefore, possible to obtain the most
desirable bitumen content relating to each of these factors from the relevant graph.
These values are not likely to be exactly the same, but are generally fairly close. The
optimum bitumen content may than be determined by taking an average of these
different values.

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10.9.9 Reporting of results

The stability should be reported to the nearest 0.1 kN (20 lbsf) and the flow should be
reported to the nearest 0.5 mm. (0.01inch).

The bitumen content of the specimen, the grade of bitumen and the proportions of the
various aggregate sizes used should be given.

Height of specimen, Volume of specimen, Stability correction


ml factor
mm

62 502 - 503 1.04

504 - 506 1.03

507 - 509 1.02

510 - 512 1.01

63.5 513 - 517 1.00

515 - 520 0.99

512 - 523 0.98

524 - 526 0.97

65 527 - 528 0.96

Figure 10.9.5 Correction factors for stability values with variations in height or volume

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Density (CDM)
2000
Stability (Lbs)

2.3 1500

2.2 1000

2.1 500
4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5
Binder Content (pha) Binder Content (pha)

90
Voids In Mix (V.I.M.) Voids Filled with Bitumen (V.F.B.)
8

7 80

5 70

60
4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5
Binder Content (pha) Binder Content (pha)

30
Flow (0.01)
25

20

15

10

4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5


Binder Content (pha)

Figure 10.9.6 (10.9.8) Marshall Test Results

Binder Content
(p.h.a.)
Max CDM 6.4
Max Stab 6.6 Hence optimum binder
VIM - 5% 6.3 content = 6.6 p.h.a.
VFB - 80% 7.1
Flow II 6.4
Mean 6.6 p.h.a.

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10.10 Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures Test

10.10.1 General requirements

10.10.1.1 Scope

This test provides a method of measuring the compaction of a compacted bituminous


mixture in terms of its bulk specific gravity. The bulk specific gravity may be used in
calculating the unit mass of the mixture.

The specimen may be a laboratory moulded bituminous mixture or from bituminous


pavements. The mixture may be wearing course, binder course, hot mix or levelling
course.

10.10.1.2 Apparatus

a) Balance, capable of weighing a sample in air and water and of ample capacity
appropriate for the sample weights. The balance should be capable of weighing
to an accuracy of at least 0.0001 kg.
b) Water bath, for immersing the specimens in water while suspended under the
balance, equipped with an overflow outlet for maintaining the water level
constant.
c) Thermometer, for measuring the temperature of the water in the water bath.
d) A steel wire brush.
e) Volumeter, calibrated to 1200 ml or appropriate capacity depending on the size of
the test sample.

10.10.1.3 Preparation of specimens

a) Clean the specimen well to remove any dust particles adhering to it, remove any
grease, oil and other matter from it.
b) Using a wire brush, scub the surface of the specimen to remove any particles that
may come loose during the immersion of the specimen in water.
c) The temperature of the specimen should be in close proximity to room
temperature.
d) Dry the specimen to a constant mass.
e) If the specimen is a core consisting of more than one layer of the same material
the core may be split into its different layers tested separately and averaging the
result.
f) If the specimen is a core consisting of more than one layer of different materials
the core must be split into its different layers and each layer must be tested
separately.

10.10.2 Bulk specific gravity of compacted bituminous mixtures test

10.10.2.1 Methods

a) Method A

Dry the specimen to constant mass and record its dry mass A. Immerse the
specimen in water at 25 C for 4 min plus or minus 1 min and record the mass,
C of the specimen in water. Remove the specimen from the water, quickly damp
dry the specimen by blotting with a damp cloth and determine the surface - dry
mass, B of the specimen.

Note. Constant mass shall be defined as the mass at which further drying at
52C plus or minus 3 C does not alter the mass by more than 0.05%.

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Recently moulded laboratory specimens which have not been


exposed to moisture do not require drying. Samples saturated with
water should be dried overnight at the specified temperature and then
weighed at 2 hourly drying intervals.

Note. The sequence of the testing operations may be changed to expedite


the test result. For example, first the immersed mass, C can be taken,
then the surface-dry mass, B and finally the dry mass, A.

a.1) Calculations : Calculate the bulk specific gravity of the specimen as follows,
round and report the value to the nearest 0.001 kg :

Bulk Sp. Gr. = A/(B-C)

Where
A = dry mass of specimen in kg. in air.
B = mass of surface - dry specimen in kg. in air
C = Mass of specimen in water in kg.

Calculate the percent water absorbed by the specimen (on volume basis) as
follows :

Percent water absorbed = (B-A)/(B-C)

b) Method B

Dry the specimen to constant mass and record the dry mass. Immerse in water
bath and let saturate for at least 10 min. At the end of the 10 Minute period fill
a calibrated volumeter with distilled water at 25 C plus or minus 1C. Remove
the immersed and saturated specimen from the water bath, quickly damp dry
the specimen surface by blotting with a damp cloth and quickly as possible
weigh the specimen.

Place the weighed saturated specimen into volumeter and let stand for at least
60 seconds. Bring the temperature of the water in the volumeter to 25 C plus
or minus 1 C, and cover the volumeter ensuring that water escapes through
the overflow. Wipe the volumeter dry and weigh the volumeter and contents.

b.1) Calculations

Calculate the bulk specific gravity of the specimen as follows, round and report
the value to the nearest 0.001 kg.

Bulk Sp. Gr. = A/(B+D-E)

Where
A = dry mass of specimen in kg. in air.
B = mass of surface-dry specimen in kg. in air
D = mass of volumeter filled with at 25 C plus or minus
1 C water in kg.
E = mass of volumeter filled with the specimen and water at 25C
plus or minus 1 C, in kg.

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Calculate the percent water absorbed by the specimen (on volume basis) as
follows :

Percent water absorbed = (B-A)/(B+D-E)

c) Method C (Rapid test)

This method can be used for specimens which are not required to be saved or
which may contain large amounts of water. Specimens obtained from coring or
sawing do contain water and should be tested using this method.

The testing procedure shall be as given in method A or method B except the


sequence of operations. The dry mass of the specimen is determined last, as
follows :

After the original mass in air, mass in water, and surface - dry mass have been
determined, place the sample in a large flat tray and place the tray in an oven
at 110 C plus minus 5 C for only long enough, for the asphalt aggregate
portion of the sample to be able to be separated into fractions not greater than
about 6.4 mm. Place the separated specimen into the oven again and dry to
constant mass. Cool the specimen to room temperature and weight the mass A.

c.1) Calculations

The calculations of method A or method B are valid for this method, Forms
10.10.1 and 10.10.2.

10.10.2.2 Expression of result

Duplicate results from the same operator should be accepted if the two results do not
differ by more than 0.02.

10.10.2.3 Report

The test report should include at least the following information :

a) Name of testing agency


b) Client name
c) Contractor name
d) Contract name
e) Location sample was taken
f) Type of sample
g) Number of layers in sample
h) Sample identification number
i) Method of testing used
j) Date sample taken
k) Date sample tested
l) Date sample reported
m) Name of tester
n) Signature of tester

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10.11 Maximum Theoretical Specific Gravity of Paving

10.11.1 General requirements

10.11.1.1. Introduction

10.11.1.2 Scope

This test provides methods for calculating the specific gravity of bituminous paving
mixtures when the mixtures contains no air voids.

10.11.1.3 Apparatus

a) Balance of ample capacity to provide readings for the appropriate samples of


uncompacted bituminous materials and to provide sensitivity to 1.0g. For the bowl
determination method the balance should be equipped with a suitable suspension
apparatus and holder to permit weighing the sample while suspended from the
centre of the scale pan of the balance.
b) Container which shall be either a glass, metal, or plastic bowl or a volumetric flask
having capacity of at least 1000ml. The container shall be sufficiently strong to
withstand a partial vacuum and shall have covers as follows: (i) for use with a
bowl, a cover fitted with a rubber gasket and a hose connection, (ii) for use with
the flask, a rubber stopper with a hose connection. The hose opening shall be
covered with a small piece of fine wire mesh to minimise the possibility of loss of
fine material, The top surfaces of all containers shall be smooth and adequately
plane.
c) Thermometer which should be calibrated, of the liquid-in-glass total immersion
type, of suitable range with graduations at least every 0.10C.
d) Vacuum pump or water aspirator, for evacuating air from the container.
e) Water bath, for use with the bowl, which shall be suitable for immersing in water
while suspended under the balance and equipped with an overflow outlet for
maintaining a constant water level. For use with the flask, a constant temperature
water bath.

10.11.1.4 Calibrations

Calibrate the volumetric flask by accurately determining the mass of water 250C
required to fill it.

10.11.1.5 Sample Preparation

a) Samples should obtained as per Chapter 2.


b) The size of the test sample shall be governed by the nominal maximum aggregate
size of the mixture and conform to the requirements of Table 10.11.1. Sample
larger than the capacity of the container may be divided into smaller increments,
tested and the results appropriately combined.

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Table 10.11.1

Nominal maximum size Minimum mass of Sample


of aggregate mm
25.0 2.5
19.0 2.0
12.5 1.5
9.5 1.0
4.75 0.5

10.11.2 Maximum theoretical specific gravity of paving mixtures; test

10.11.2.1 Procedure

a) Separate the particles of the sample, taking care not to fracture the mineral
particles, so that the particles of the fine aggregate portion are not larger than
6.5 mm. If the mixture is not sufficiently soft to be separated manually, place it in
flat pan and warm it in an oven only until it can be so handled.
b) Cool the sample to room temperature, place it in the flask or bowl, and determine
its mass to the nearest 1.0g.
c) After the mass determination, add sufficient water at approximately 250C to cover
the sample.
d) Remove entrapped air by subjecting the contents to a partial vacuum of 4.0 kPa
(30 mm Hg) pressure for 15 minutes plus or minus 2 minutes. Agitate the
container and contents either continuously by mechanical device or manually by
vigorous shaking in a rotary motion at intervals of about 2 minutes.
e) Bowl determination. Suspend the bowl and contents in water at 250C plus or
minus 10C and determine its mass after 10 plus or minus 1 min. immersion.
f) Flask determination. Fill the flask with water and bring the contents to a
temperature of 250C plus or minus 10C in a constant-temperature water bath.
Determine the mass of flask (filled) and contents 10 plus or minus 1 minutes after
completing step a) of 10.11.2.1.

Note. In the absence of a constant-temperature water bath, determine the


temperature of the water within the flask. Determine the mass of flask
(filled) and contents 10 plus or minus 1 minutes after completing step a of
10.11.2.1. Make the appropriate density correction to 250C using the
curves in Figures 10.11.1 and 10.11.2.

10.11.2.2 Calculation

Calculate the maximum theoretical specific gravity of the sample as follows:

1) Bowl determination.

Specific Gravity = A / ( A C ) (1)

Where,
A is the mass of dry sample in air in grammes.
C is the mass of sample in water in grammes.

2) Flask determination

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Specific Gravity = A / ( A + D - E ) (2)

Where,
A is the mass of dry sample in air in grammes.
D is the mass of flask filled with water at 250C in grammes.
E is the mass of flask filled with water and sample at 250C in grammes.

10.11.2.3 Equation for Figure 10.11.1 curves

Sp. Gr. = A / (( A+F) (G+H) x dw / 0.9970 (3)

Where,
A = mass of dry sample in air in grammes
F = mass of pycnometer filled with water at test temperature in grammes
G = mass of pycnometer filled with water and sample at test temperature in
grammes.
H = correction for thermal expansion of bitumen in grammes. See Figure
10.11.2.
dw = density of water at test temperature. Curve D in Figure 10.11.1, Mg/m3

0.9970 = density of water at 250C, Mg/m3

The ratio (dw / 0.09970) is curve R in Figure 10.11.1.

10.11.2.4 Reporting

The test is acceptable if two consecutive results from the same operator in the same
laboratory do not differ by more than 10Kg/m3 or, if two results from different operator
in a different laboratory do not differ by more than 20 kg/m3.

The report example shown in Form 10.11.1 should include at least the following
information:

a) Name of testing agency


b) Name of client
c) Name of contract
d) Sample identification
e) Sample type and number
f) Date sample was taken
g) Date sample was tested
h) Name of person who tested the sample
i) Date the result was reported
j) Any other comments.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Figure 10.11.1 Curves D and R for Eq.3

Figure 10.11.2 Correction Curves for Thermal Expansion of Bitumen H, in Eq..3

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10.12 Spray Rate of Bitumen

10.12.1 General

When carrying out surface dressing work using a motorised bitumen distributor, it is
necessary to measure the rate of spread of the bitumen. Too low a rate of spray will
result in chippings not adhering to the surface and too high a rate of spray will lead
to fatting up of the surface in addition to being uneconomic.

There are two basic types of bitumen distributor, those which supply bitumen at a
constant pressure to the spray bar and those in which the pressure on the spray bar
is directly coupled to the vehicles engine speed.

The former type is generally to the preferred as changes in the bitumen spray rate
may be made simply by adjusting the speed of the vehicle, the higher the speed the
lower the rate of spray. With the second type the distributor, it is only possible to
change the rate of spray by engaging a different gear, the spray rate can, therefore,
only be adjusted in steps, increasing the speed of the vehicle purely increases the
pressure on the bar and the spray rate remains virtually constant.

It should be noted that the rate of spray will be seriously affected by the grade of
bitumen used and the temperature of the bitumen. The specified temperature for the
particular grade of bitumen in use must be strictly maintained. The jets on the spray
bar of a distributor are designed to operate at a given viscosity and, hence, harder
grades of bitumen (lower penetrations) must be heated to higher temperatures than
softer grades, or cut-back bitumens. Some bitumen emulsions may be sprayed
without heating.

The tray test is a simply field test which measures the rate of spray and allows
adjustments in the speed of the vehicle (or the gears) to be made for subsequent
runs. The apparatus consists simply of a number of aluminium trays, 200 mm. square
and about 5 mm. deep. A balance is required for weighing the trays.

Although the tray test will measure the rate of spray from a particular part of the
spray bar, it cannot account for variations along the bar. It is essential that all the jets
are fully cleaned and operating freely and that the bar is level and at the correct
height.

10.12.2 Test Procedure

The clean dry trays are numbered on the underside and weighted. Usually 5 trays
are used for each test and to allow time for cleaning at least 10, and preferably 15
trays, are required for quality control work.

The trays are then placed on the prepared road surface in a random pattern in front
of the distributor lorry. The trays should be spaced out along the whole length to be
sprayed and should cover the full width of the spray bar, excepting the very edges
where there is no overlap on the jets. Obviously the trays must not be placed in the
path of the distributor wheels, as the distributor is normally only moving at walking
pace the position of the trays may be adjusted as the lorry approaches.

Immediately after spraying the trays should be carefully lifted from the surface with a
pair of tongs or pliers and re-weighed.

To enable the trays to be removed, it is usually necessary to spread a few chippings


on to the surface of the bitumen to allow the operative to reach the tray without

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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damaging the surface. Immediately after removing the tray, the area of road under
the tray should be covered in not bitumen from a bitumen pouring can.

After use, the trays should be thoroughly cleaned, using a solvent such as diesel,
kerosine or petrol, this operation should be carried out in an open space away from
fires or other sources of heat. Any damaged trays should be repaired and checked
for dimensional accuracy. The trays should be re-weighed each time, before use.

If it is required to measure the rate of spread of chippings laid on the bitumen, the
same procedure may be used but larger sized trays will give more accurate results. A
few chippings should be spread in the bitumen under the trays to prevent the
bitumen contaminating the underside of the trays.

10.12.3 Calculation

Weight of bitumen in tray, W = (Weight of tray + Bitumen) (Weight of tray) grams

Lenght breadth
Area of tray ,A x sq. meter
1000 1000

Where length and breadth are in millimetres


W grams / sq . metre
Spray rate =
A

W W litres /
Kg / sq . metre =
1000 A 1000 A b sq . metre

Where b is density of bitumen at road temperature


(Normally taken as 1.0)

Typical results are shown as Form 10.12.1.

10.12.4 Reporting of Results

The individual results should be reported to the nearest 0.1 kg/sq.metre.

The speed of the distributor, the grade of bitumen, the temperature of spraying and
the detailed position of the test should be given.

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Chapter 10 Standard Test Procedures
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Form 10.12.1

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Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

CHAPTER 11

STEEL REINFORCEMENT TESTS

11.1 General Requirements

11.1.1 Introduction

Reinforcing bars are used in reinforced concrete and are one of the main parts of
R.C.C. structure. For that reason, quality of plain and deformed bars should be
checked specially for yield, ultimate strength and elongation (ductility). The most
important test is the tensile strength test. But sometimes bending test is also done.
Tension test provides information on the strength and ductility of materials under
uniaxial tensile stresses. This information may be useful in comparisons of materials,
alloy development, quality control and design under certain circumstances. Bend test is
also a method for evaluating ductility but it cannot be considered as a quantitative
means of predicting service performance in bending operations. The severity of the
bend test is primarily a function of the angle of bend and inside diameter to which the
specimen is bent and of the cross-section of the specimen.

Plain round, hot rolled, mild steel bars are commonly used as reinforcement in concrete
in Bangladesh. Reinforcing bars with various surface protrusions are also used.
Reinforcing steel used in road structures must have yield and ultimate tensile strength
as specified later.

This chapter covers the dimensions of reinforcing bars, tensile strength and bending
procedure.

11.1.2 Terminology

11.1.2.1 Definitions

(1) Deformed bar. Steel bar with protrusions; a bar that is intended for use as
reinforcement in reinforced concrete construction.
(2) Discontinuous yielding. A hesitation or fluctuation of force observed at the onset
of plastic deformation due to localized yielding. (The stress-strain curve need not
appear to be discontinuous.)
(3) Lower yield strength. The minimum stress recorded during discontinuous
yielding, ignoring transient effects.
(4) Upper yield strength. The first stress maximum (stress at first zero slope)
associated with discontinuous yielding.
(5) Yield point elongation. The strain (expressed in percent) separating the stress-
strain curves first point of zero slope from the point of transition from discontinuous
yielding to uniform strain hardening.

11.1.3 Dimensions of reinforcing bar

The steel bars should be made straight and ends should be plain surface perpendicular
to the longitudinal axis before measuring weight and length. Length should be sufficient
(provided it does not exceed the capacity of balance) for rods of large diameter for
better result. The length of the properly prepared sample to be measured in mm. The
weight (W) to be taken in gm. Then the average diameter of the bar can be found as:

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Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

W
Average bar diameter (mm) = 12.736 x
L

Actual diameters of many bars available in the market are less than their stated
diameters. Care must therefore be exercised in procuring steel from local markets.
Standard diameters and other physical properties of standard plain round bars are
given in Table 11.1.1.

Table 11.1.1 Dimensions of Standard Reinforcing Bars

Nominal Actual Diameter Cross Sectional Perimeter Mass / Unit-


Diameter Area Length
mm (in) mm (in) mm2 (in2) mm (in) kg/m (1b/ft)
6 (1/4) 6.350 (0.250) 32.26 (0.05) 20.07 (0.79) 0.248 (0.167)
10 (3/8) 9.525 (0.375) 70.79 (0.11) 29.97 (1.18) 0.560 (0.376)
1
12 ( /2) 12.700 (0.500) 129.03 (0.20) 39.88 (1.57) 0.994 (0.668)
5
16 ( /8) 15.875 (0.625) 200.00 (0.31) 49.78 (1.96) 1.552 (1.043)
3
19 ( /4) 19.050 (0.750) 283.87 (0.44) 59.94 (2.36) 2.235 (1.502)
7
22 ( /8) 22.225 (0.875) 387.10 (0.60) 69.85 (2.75) 3.042 (2.044)
25 (1) 25.400 (1.000) 509.68 (0.79) 79.76 (3.14) 3.973 (2.670)
1
29 (1 /3) 28.575 (1.128) 645.16 (1.00) 89.92 (3.54) 5.059 (3.400)
1
32 (1 /4) 32.260 (1.270) 819.35 (1.27) 101.35 (3.99) 6.403 (4.303)

11.1.4 Requirements of deformed bar

Deformed bars are of many sizes. From size no. 10 to size no. 55 in metric units are
given in Table 11.1.2 and from size no. 3 to size no. 18 in FPS units are given in Table
11.1.3.

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Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

Table 11.1.2 Deformed Bar Designation Numbers, Nominal Masses, Nominal


Dimensions and Deformation Requirements as per ASTM A 615-M
(Metric Units)

Nominal Dimension Deformation Requirement, mm


Mass Diameter Cross- Max. Gap
Bar Sectional (chord of
Designatio Area 12.5% of
n No. kg/m mm mm2 Max. Av. Min. Av. Nominal
Perimeter)
10 0.785 11.3 100 7.9 0.45 4.4
15 1.570 16.0 200 11.2 0.72 6.3
20 2.355 19.5 300 13.6 0.98 7.7
25 3.925 25.2 500 17.6 1.26 9.9
30 5.495 29.9 700 20.9 1.48 11.7
35 7.850 35.7 1000 25.0 1.79 14.0
45 11.775 43.7 1500 30.6 2.20 17.2
55 19.625 56.4 2500 39.4 2.55 22.2
Note. The nominal dimensions of a deformed bar are equivalent to those of a
plain round bar having the same mass per meter as the deformed bar.

Bar designation numbers approximate the number of millimetres of the


nominal diameter of the bar.

Table 11.1.3 Deformed Bar Designation Numbers, Nominal Masses, Nominal


Dimensions and Deformation Requirements as per ASTM A 615-M
(FPS Units)

Nominal Dimension Deformation Requirement, mm


Nominal Diamet Cross- Max. Gap (Chord
Bar Mass er Sectional Spacing Height of
Designat Area 12.5% of Nominal
ion No. 1b/ft in2 Max. Min. Av. Perimeter)
in Av.
3 0.376 0.375 0.11 0.262 0.015 0.143
4 0.668 0.500 0.20 0.350 0.020 0.191
5 1.043 0.625 0.31 0.437 0.028 0.239
6 1.502 0.750 0.44 0.525 0.038 0.286
7 2.044 0.875 0.60 0.612 0.044 0.334
8 2.670 1.000 0.79 0.700 0.050 0.383
9 3.400 1.128 1.00 0.790 0.056 0.431
10 4.303 1.270 1.27 0.889 0.064 0.487
11 5.313 1.410 1.56 0.987 0.071 0.540
14 7.650 1.693 2.25 1.185 0.085 0648
18 13.600 2.257 4.00 1.580 0.102 0864

Note. The nominal dimensions of a deformed bar are equivalent to those of a


plain round bar having the same weight per foot as the deformed bar.

Bar numbers are based on the number of eighths of an inch included in


the nominal diameter of the bar.

11.1.4.1 Requirements for deformation

(1) Deformations shall be spaced along the bar at substantially uniform distances.
The deformations on opposite sides of the bar shall be similar in size and shape.

MAY 2001 Page 11.3


Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

(2) The deformations shall be placed with respect to the axis of the bar so that the
included angle is not less than 450. Where the line of deformations forms an
included angle with the axis of the bar of from 450 to 700 inclusive, the
deformations shall alternately reverse in direction on each side, or those on one
side shall be reversed in direction from those on the opposite side. Where the line
of deformation is over 700, a reversal in direction is not required.
(3) The average spacing or distance between deformations on each side of the bar
shall not exceed seven tenths of the nominal diameter of the bar.
(4) The overall length of deformations shall be such that the gap between the ends of
the deformations on opposite side of the bar shall not exceed 12.5% of the
nominal perimeter of the bar. Where the ends terminate in a longitudinal rib, the
width of the longitudinal rib shall be considered the gap. Where more than two
longitudinal ribs are involved, the total width of all longitudinal ribs shall not
exceed 25% of the nominal perimeter of the bar. Furthermore, the summation of
gaps shall not exceed 25% of the nominal perimeter of the bar. The nominal
perimeter of the bar shall be 3.14 times the nominal diameter.
(5) The spacing, height, and gap of deformations shall conform to the requirements
prescribed in Table 11.1.2 and 11.1.3.

11.1.4.2 Measurement of deformations

(1) The average spacing of deformations shall be determined by dividing a measured


length of the bar specimen by the number of individual deformations and
fractional parts of deformations on any one side of the bar specimen. A measured
length of the bar specimen shall be considered the distance from a point on a
deformation to a corresponding point on any other deformation on the same side
of the bar. Spacing measurements shall not be made over a bar area containing
bar making symbols involving letters or numbers.
(2) The average height of deformations shall be determined from measurements
made on not less than two typical deformations. Determinations shall be based
on three measurements per deformation, one at the centre of the overall length
and the other two at the quarter points of the overall length.
(3) Insufficient height, insufficient circumferential coverage, or excessive spacing of
deformations shall not constitute cause for rejection unless it has been clearly
established by determinations on each lot tested that typical deformation height,
gap or spacing do not conform to the minimum requirements prescribed in
Section 11.1.4.1. No rejection may be made on the basis of measurements if
fewer than ten adjacent deformations on each side of the bar are measured.

Note. A lot is defined as all the bars of one bar number and pattern and pattern
of deformation contained in an individual shipping release or shipping
order.

11.1.5 Tensile requirements

(1) The material, as represented by the test specimens, shall conform to the
requirements for tensile properties prescribed in Table 11.1.4 (metric) and in
Table 11.1.5 (FPS).
(2) The percentage of elongation shall be as prescribed in Table 11.1.4

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Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

Table 11.1.4 Tensile requirements as per ASTM A 615-M (Metric Units)

Parameter Requirements
Grade 300 Grade 400
Tensile Strength (minimum), Mpa 500 600

Yield Strength (minimum), Mpa 300 400

Elongation (minimum) in 200 mm


gauge, %, for the bar size of:
#10 11 9
#15 12 9
#20 - 8
#25 - 7
#30 - 7
#35 - 7
#45 - -
#55 - -
Note. Grade 300 bars are furnished only in sizes 10 through 20.

Table 11.1.5 Tensile requirements as per ASTM A 615-M (FPS Units)

Parameter Requirements
Grade 40 Grade 60 Grade 75
Tensile Strength (minimum), psi 70,000 90,000 100,000

Yield Strength (minimum), psi 40,000 60,000 75,000

Elongation (minimum) in 8 inch


gauge, %, for the bar size of:
#3 11 9 -
#4, 5, 6 12 9 -
#7, 8 - 8 -
#9, 10 - 7 -
#11, 14, 18 - 7 6
Note. Grade 40 bars are furnished only in sizes 3 through 6.
Grade 75 bars are furnished only in sizes 11, 14 and 18.

11.1.6 Bending requirements

The bend-test specimen shall withstand being bent around a pin without cracking on
the outside of the bent portion. The requirements for degree of bending and sizes of
pins are prescribed in Table 11.1.6. (metric units) and in Table 11.1.7 (FPS units).

Table 11.1.6 Bend test requirements as per ASTM A 615-M (Metric Units)

Bar Size Pin Diameter for Bend Test


Grade 300 Grade 400
#10, 15 3.5d 3.5d
#20 5d 5d
#25 - 5d
#30, 35 - 7d
#45, 55 (900) - 9d

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Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

Table 11.1.7 Bend test requirements as per ASTM A 615-M (FPS Units)

Bar Size Pin Diameter for Bend Test


Grade 40 Grade 60 Grade 75
#3, 4, 5 3.5d 3.5d -
#6 5d 5d -
#7, 8 - 5d -
#9, 10 - 7d -
#11 - 7d 7d
#14, 18 (900) - 9d 9d
Note. Test bends 1800 unless noted otherwise.
d is the nominal diameter of the specimen.

11.1.7 Permissible variation in mass

The permissible variation shall not exceed 6% under nominal mass. Reinforcing bars
are evaluated on the basis of nominal mass. In no case shall the overpass of any bar
be the cause for rejection.

11.1.8 Finish

(1) The bars shall be free of detrimental surface imperfections.


(2) Rust, seams, surface irregularities, or mill scale shall not be cause for rejection,
provided the mass, dimensions, cross-sectional area, and tensile properties of a
hand wire brushed test specimen are not less than the requirements of this
specification.
(3) Surface imperfections other than those specified above shall be considered
detrimental when specimens containing such imperfections fail to conform to
either tensile or bending requirements.

11.1.9 Test specimens

(a) Tension test

1) For round reinforcing bars, full size test specimens should be used. The total
length of the specimen shall be at least equal to the gauge length plus the
length required for the full use of the grips employed. The test specimen must
be straight.
2) Orientation of test specimen for longitudinal test : The lengthwise axis of the
specimen should be parallel to the direction of the greatest extension of the
steel during rolling or forging. The stress applied to a longitudinal tension test
specimen is in the direction of greatest extension. The unit stress
determination shall be based on the nominal bar cross-sectional area.

(b) Bend test

The bend test specimen shall be the full section of the bar as rolled.

11.1.10 Number of tests

(a) For bar size no. 10 to 35, inclusive, one tension test and one bend test shall be
made of the largest size rolled from each batch. If however, material from one
batch differs by three or more designation numbers, one tension and one bend
test shall be made from both the highest and lowest designation number of the
deformed bars rolled.
(b) For bar sizes nos. 45 and 55, one tension test and one bend test shall be made
of each size rolled from each batch.

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Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

11.1.11 Retest

1) If any tensile property of any tension test specimen is less than that specified,
and any part of the fracture is outside the middle third of the gage length as
indicated by scribe scratches marked on the specimen before testing, a retest
shall be allowed.
2) If the results of an original tension specimen fail to meet the minimum
requirements and are within 14 MPa of the required tensile strength, within 7 MPa
of the required yield point, or within two percentage units of the required
elongation, a retest shall be permitted on two random specimens for each original
tension specimen failure from the lot. If all results of these retest specimens meet
the specified requirements, the lot shall be accepted.
3) If a bend test fails for reasons other than mechanical reasons or flaws in the
specimen as described in 11.1.11(4) and 11.1.11(5) below, a retest shall be
permitted on two random specimens from the same lot. If the results of both test
specimens meet the specified requirements, the lot shall be accepted. The retest
shall be performed on test specimens that are at air temperature, but not less
than 16 0C.
4) If any test specimen fails because of mechanical reasons such as failure of
testing equipment or improper specimen preparation, it may be discarded and
another specimen taken.
5) If any test specimen develops flaws, it may be discarded and another specimen
of the same size bar from the same batch substituted.

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Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

11.2 Tension Test of Steel Reinforcing Bar

11.2.1 Scope

The tension test relates to the mechanical testing of steel products subjects a
machined or full-section specimen of the material under examination to a measured
load sufficient to cause rupture. These test methods cover the tension testing of
metallic materials in any form at room temperature, specifically, the methods of
determination of yield strength, yield point elongation and tensile strength.

Note. Room temperature shall be considered to be 10 0C to 38 0C unless otherwise


specified.

11.2.2 Apparatus

a) Testing machine : Universal compression / tension machine motorised. Capacity


minimum 100-kN for compression and 500 kN for tension, 220-240V, 50 Hz, 1
phase. Suitable for tension testing of reinforcing base up to 25 mm diameter. All
accessories for tension testing including universal grip holders to be included
during procurement of the machine.

b) Gripping devices

General : Various types of gripping devices may be used to transmit the


measured load applied by the testing machine to the test specimens. To ensure
axial tensile stress within the gauge length, the axis of the test specimen should
coincide with the centre line of the heads of the testing machine.

Loading : It is the function of the gripping or holding device of the testing machine
to transmit the load from the heads of the machine to the specimen under test.
The essential requirement is that the load shall be transmitted axially. This
implies that the centres of the action of the grips shall be in alignment, in so far as
practicable, with the axis of the specimen at the beginning and during the test,
and that bending or twisting be held to a minimum. Gripping of the specimen shall
be restricted to the section outside the gauge length.

Wedge Grips : Testing machines usually are equipped with wedge grips. These
wedge grips generally furnish a satisfactory means of gripping long specimens of
ductile metal. For proper gripping, it is desirable that the entire length of the
serrated face of each wedge be in contact with the specimen.

c) Other Apparatus

i) Double Pointed Centre Punch or Scribe Marks: For marking of round


specimen.
ii) Special Scale : For direct reading of % elongation (for particular gauge
length) special pointed scale may be used. Minimum division of 0.5% is
sufficient for this purpose.
iii) Extensometer : Extensometer with gauge length equal to or shorter than
the nominal gauge length of the specimen is used to determine the yield
phenomenon.
iv) Slide calipers.

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Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

11.2.3 Speed of testing

1) Rate of straining : The allowable limits for rate of straining shall be specified in
meters per meter per second. Some testing machines are equipped with pacing
or indicating devices for the measurement and control of rate of straining, but in
the absence of such a device the average rate of straining can be determined
with a timing device by observing the time required to effect a known increment of
strain.
2) Rate of stressing : The allowable limits for rate of stressing shall be specified in
MPa per second. Many testing machines are equipped with pacing or indicating
devices for the measurement and control of the rate of stressing, but in the
absence of such a device the average rate of stressing shall be determined with a
timing device by observing the time required to apply a known increment of
stress.

Note. Speed of testing can affect test values because of the rate sensitivity of
materials and the temperature-time effects.

3) Elapsed time : The allowable limits for the elapsed time from the beginning of
force application (or from some specified stress) to the instant of fracture, to the
maximum force, or to some other stated stress, shall be specified in minutes or
seconds. The elapsed time can be determined with timing device.
4) When determining yield properties : Unless otherwise specified, any convenient
speed of testing may be used up to one half the specified yield strength or yield
point, or up to one quarter the specified tensile or ultimate strength, whichever is
smaller. The speed above this point shall be within the limits specified. If different
speed limitations are required for use in determining yield strength, yield point,
tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of cross-sectional area they should be
stated in the product specifications. In the absence of any specified limitations on
speed of testing the following general rules apply.

a) The speed of testing shall be such that the loads and strains used in
obtaining the test results are accurately indicated.
b) During the conduct of the test to determine yield strength or yield point, the
rate of stress application shall not exceed 12 MPa/sec.

5) When determining tensile strength : After the yield strength point has been
determined, the speed may be increased to correspond to a maximum strain rate
of 0.01 m/m/s. The extensometer and strain rate indicator may be used to set the
strain rate prior to its removal. If the extensometer and strain rate indicator are
not used to set this strain rate, the speed should be set not to exceed 0.01 m/m of
the length of the reduced section (or distance between the grips for specimens
not having reduced sections) per second.

11.2.4 Gauge length, marking.

The gauge should be five times the diameter (unless otherwise specified). Round
specimens are gauge marked with a double pointed centre punch or scribe marks. The
gauge points shall be approximately equidistant from the centre of the length of section.

MAY 2001 Page 11.9


Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

L = Overall length
A = Length of reduced section
L B = Length of grip section
C = Dia of grip section
W = Dia of reduced section
B A B G = Gauge length
R = Radius of fillet

W C

Figure 11.1.1 Tension test specimen

11.2.5 Test procedure

a) Measure the diameter of the specimen by the weight method described in section
11.1.3 or by slide calipers.
b) Record extensometer constant and gage length.
c) Fix the specimen at the centre of the properly placed grip of the machine.
d) Fix the extensometer with the specimen.
e) After completion of all arrangements as per requirement (described earlier) and
setting the speed of machine, etc. switch the machine on. Load is increased
gradually until the specimen fails by tensile force.

Note. If any test specimen fails because of mechanical reasons such as failure
of testing equipment or improper specimen preparation, it may be
discarded and another specimen taken.

f) Then determine the yield and ultimate strength and elongation etc. Methods of
determination of these tensile properties are described in section 11.2.6.

11.2.6 Determination of tensile properties

11.2.6.1 Yield Point : Yield point is the first stress in a material, less than the maximum
obtainable stress, at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress as
shown in Figure 11.2.2. Yield point is intended for application only for materials that
may exhibit the unique characteristic of showing an increase in strain without an
increase in stress. For this type of material, the stress-strain diagram is characterised
by a sharp knee or discontinuity. Yield point can be determined as described below.

a) Drop of the Beam or Halt of the Pointer Method (method commonly used):

In this method apply an increasing load to the specimen at a uniform rate. When
a lever and poise machine is used, keep the beam in balance by running out the
poise at approximately steady rate. When the yield point of the material is
reached, the increase of the load will stop. However, run the poise a trifle beyond
the balance position, and the beam of the machine will drop for a brief but at
appreciable interval of time. When a machine equipped with a load-indicating dial

MAY 2001 Page 11.10


Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

is used, there is a halt or hesitation of the load-indicating pointer corresponding to


the drop of the beam. Note the load at the drop of the beam or the half of the
pointer and record the corresponding stress as the yield point.

b) Autographic Diagram Method (alternative to 11.2.6.1(a) if such device is


available):

When a sharp-kneed stress-strain diagram is obtained by an autographic


recording device, take the stress corresponding to the top of the knee, or the
stress at which the curve drops as the yield point.

11.2.6.2 Yield Strength : Yield strength is the stress at which a material exhibits a specified
limiting deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain. This is shown in Figure
11.2.2. In a simplified way the stress corresponding to the yield-point may be taken as
the Yield-Strength. In the Halt of the Pointer method or when the stress-stress
diagram is not available, the Yield-Strength is calculated by dividing the load at yield-
point by the original cross-sectional area.

11.2.6.3 Tensile/Ultimate Strength : The stress corresponding to the maximum point of the
stress-train diagram is the Tensile Strength or Ultimate Strength. This is shown in
Figure 11.2.2. When the stress-strain diagram is not available; calculate the Tensile
Strength or Ultimate Strength by dividing the maximum load the specimen sustains
during a tension test by the original cross-sectional area of the specimen.

TENSILE / ULTIMATE
STRENGTH

YIELD-STRENGTH
(In a simplified way)
Yield-point
Stress

Strain

Figure 11.2.2 Yield and Ultimate Strength in the Stress-Strain Diagram in an Autographic
Recording Device

11.2.6.4 Elongation

a) Fit the ends of the fractured specimen carefully and measure the distance
between the gauge marks to nearest 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) for gauge lengths of 50
mm and under, and to the nearest 0.5 percent of the gage length for lengths over
50 mm. A percentage scale reading to 0.5 percent of the gauge length may be
used. The elongation is the increase in length of the gauge length, expressed as
a percentage of the original gage length. In reporting elongation values, give both
the percentage increase and the original gauge length.
b) If any part of the fracture takes place outside of the middle half of the gage
length, the elongation value obtained may not be representative of the material. If

MAY 2001 Page 11.11


Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

the elongation so measured meets the minimum requirements specified, no


further testing is indicated, but if the elongation is less than the minimum
requirements, discard the test and retest.

11.2.7 Rounding of test data

In the absence of a specified procedure for rounding the test data, it is recommended
to use the Table 11.2.1 for rounding the test result.

Table 11.2.1 Recommended Values for Rounding Test Data

Parameter Range Rounded Vale


0 to <500 MPa 1 MPa
Yield/Ultimate Strength
500 to <1000 MPa 5 MPa

1000 MPa 10 MPa

Elongation 0 to <10% 0.5 %

10 % 1%

Note. Round test data to the nearest integral multiple of the values in this table. If
the data value is exactly midway between two rounded values, round to the
higher value.

11.2.8 Replacement of specimens

A test specimen may be discarded and a replacement specimen selected from the
same lot of material in the following cases:

a) the original specimen had a poor surface


b) the original specimen had the wrong dimensions
c) the test procedure was incorrect
d) the fracture was outside the gage length
e) for elongation determinations, the fracture was outside the middle half of the gage
length, or
f) there was a malfunction of the testing equipment

An example data sheet is given as Form 11.2.1.

11.2.9 Report

Test information to be reported shall include the following when applicable:

1) Material and sample identification


2) Yield strength
3) Yield point
4) Tensile strength
5) Elongation (report both the original gage length and the percentage increase).

MAY 2001 Page 11.12


Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

MAY 2001 Page 11.13


Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

11.3 Bend Test of Reinforcing Bar

11.3.1 Scope. This test method is used for evaluating ductility. Unless otherwise specified it
shall be permissible to age bend test specimen. The time-temperature cycle employed
must be such that the effects of previous processing will not be materially changed. It
may be accomplished by aging at room temperature 24 to 48h or in shorter time at
moderately elevated temperatures by boiling in water, heating in oil or in an oven.

11.3.2 Test method. Bend the test specimen at room temperature to an inside diameter, as
designated by the applicable product specifications, to the extent specified with major
cracking on the outside of the bent portion.

11.3.2.1 (1) Procedure. The bend test shall be made on specimens of sufficient length to
ensure free bending and with apparatus which provides:

a) Continuous and uniform application for force throughout the duration of the
bending operation.
b) Unrestricted movement of the specimen at points of contact with the apparatus
and bending around a pin free to rotate.
c) Close wrapping of the specimen around the pin during the bending operation.

(2) Other acceptable, more severe methods of bend testing, such as placing a
specimen across two pins free to rotate and applying the bending force with a
fixed pin, may be used. When failures occur under more severe methods, retest
shall be permitted under the bend test method prescribed in 11.3.2.1(1) above.

(3) A field bend test may be done which is similar to 11.3.2.1(2) above. This is also
an acceptable method. The sample is placed between two or three fixed pins in
such a way that it is free to rotate. Then bending force is applied uniformity. If the
sample specimen withstands this force without cracking on the outside of the bent
portion, then it is considered to be acceptable in respect of bending.

Note. Sometimes in the work site the bending of reinforcement (plain bar) is
done with beating. This should be strictly prohibited.

(4) When re-testing is permitted by the product specification, the following shall
apply:

a) Sections of bar containing identifying roll marking shall not be used.


b) Bar shall be so placed that longitudinal ribs lie in a plane at right angles to
the plane of bending.

11.3.3 Report

If the bending around the pin could be done without cracking on the outside of the bent
portion the result is satisfactory. If cracking was found on the outside of the bent
portion, it would be considered that the rod did not meet the bending requirements and
the result is unsatisfactory.

An example data sheet is given as Form 11.3.1.

MAY 2001 Page 11.14


Chapter 11 Standard Test Procedures
Steel Reinforcement Tests

MAY 2001 Page 11.15


Form 2.2.1

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY SAMPLE RECORD CARD

Contract :

Sample no.
Origin of sample :
Date of sampling

Borehole / Trial pit no. :


Depth of sample : From m
To m

Description of soil :

Moisture content container nos. :

Adjacent in-situ test / undisturbed sample :

Type of test Position / depth of test Sheet no. Result

Special Instructions / Remarks :

Name and Designation of Sampler :


Form 2.3.1

SAMPLING CERTIFICATE OF BRICKS

Name of testing Client Contractor's Contract Date of sampling


agent name

Manufacturer Consignment Batch number / lot no. Number of bricks in lot.

Sample number Number of Date of manufacture Testes required


bricks in
sample Date delivered

Name and designation of sampler Date tested Signature


Form 2.4.1
SAMPLING CERTIFICATE OF AGGREGATES

Name of testing Client Contractor's Contract Date of sampling


agent name

Manufacturer Description of Identification number Location material was


material sampled

Sample number Number of Tests required Any other information


samples

Name and designation of sampler Date tested Signature


Form 2.6.1
CERTIFICATE OF SAMPLING : CEMENT / FRESH CONCRETE

Testing agency Client Contract name

Location in structure Sample number Batch number

Temperature of concrete Ambient temperature Name and designation of sampler

Date of sampling Concrete grade Signature

Tests required :

Any other comments :


Form 3.1.1

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY MOISTURE CONTENT


DETERMINATION

Contract : Sample No.


Date of sampling
Description of soil :

Type / origin of sample : Method of drying : Oven / Sand bath


0
Drying temp. C

Container No.
Position of sample
Mass of wet soil + container (m 2) g
Mass of dry soil + container (m 3) g
Mass of moisture (m 4 = m 2 - m 3) g
Mass of container (m 1) g
Mass of dry soil (m 5 = m 3 - m 1) g
m
Moisture content w = 4 x 100 %
m5
Average moisture content %

Name and Designation


Date of test : Operator Checked Approved

Contract : Sample No.


Date of sample
Description of soil :

Type / origin of sample : Method of drying : Oven / Sand bath


0
Drying temp. C

Container No.
Position of sample
Mass of wet soil + container (m 2) g
Mass of dry soil + container (m 3) g
Mass of moisture (m 4 = m 2 - m 3) g
Mass of container (m 1) g
Mass of dry soil (m 5 = m 3 - m 1) g
m4
Moisture content w = x 100 %
m5
Average moisture content %

Name and Designation


Date of test : Operator Checked Approved
Form 3.2.1

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY ATTERBERG LIMITS TEST


(Casagrande Method)
Contract
Origin of sample Sample No._____________

Date of sample _________

Description of soil
Date of Test:_____________

Test Plastic Limit Liquid Limit


Container No. No. of Blows
Wt. of cont. + wet soil g
Wt. of cont. + dry soil g
Wt. of moisture g
Wt. of container g

Wt. of dry soil g

Moisture content %

Average %
Moisture Content %

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Number of Blows
Summary
Sample preparation *
% of total sample passing
as received
washed on 425 mm sieve 425mm Sieve %
air dried at _______ 0C Liquid Limit (LL) %
oven dried at _______ oC Plastic Limit (PL) %
not known
Plasticity Index (PI) %
* Delete as appropriate Linear Shrinkage (LS) %
If LL or PL cannot be determined
use PI = 2.13 x LS = %

Remarks ______________________________________ Name and Designation


______________________________________ Operator Checked Approved
______________________________________
Form 3.2.1

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY ATTERBERG LIMITS TEST


(Cone penetrometer method)

Contract
Sample No. ___________
Origin of sample
Date of Sample ________

Description of soil
Date of Test:

Test Plastic Limit Liquid Limit


1 2 3 4
Sample preparation *
Container No.
Mass of cont. + wet soil g as received
washed on 425 mm sieve
Mass of cont. + dry soil g o
air dried at ................ C
Mass of moisture g o
oven dried at ............. C
Mass of container g not known

Mass of dry soil g * Delete as appropriate


Moisture content %

Average %

282

262

2424
Cone Penetration mm

22
22

2
20
0

1
18
8

1
16
6

141
4
12
12
Moisture Content %

Liquid Limit Summary


Test No. 1 2 3 4
Final dial gauge mm % of total sample passing
reading 425mm sieve %
Initial dial gauge mm Liquid limit (LL) %
reading Plastic limit (PL) %
Average mm Plasticity Index (PI) %
penetration

Name and Designation


Operator Checked Approved
Remarks
Form 3.2.2

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY LINEAR SHRINKAGE TEST

Contract
Origin of sample Sample No.
Date of sample

Description of soil

Date of Test:______________

TEST DATA
Specimen reference
Percentage passing 425 mm sieve
Initial length LO mm
Oven-dried length LD mm

LD
Linear shrinkage 100 (1 - )%
LO

Sample preparation * Remarks

as received

washed on 425 mm sieve


0
air dried at C
0
oven dried at C

not known

* Delete as appropriate Recorded by

Name and Designation


Operator Checked Approved
Form 3.2.2
Form 3.3.1

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


STANDARD WET SIEVING METHOD

Contract : Sample No.


Origin of sample : Date of Sample

Description of soil :

Initial dry mass m1 g


SIEVE SIZE Mass retained g Percentage Cumulative
actual corrected retained percentage
m passing
m
100
m1
75 mm
63 mm
50 mm
37.5 mm
28 mm
20 mm
Passing 20 mm m2
total (check with m1)
riffled m3
riffled and washed m4

m2
Correction factor = =
m3

14 mm
10 mm
6.3 mm
5 mm
Passing 5 mm m5
total (check with m4)
riffled m6
m2 m
Correction factor x 5 = =
m3 m6

3.35 mm
2 mm
1.18 mm
600 m
425 m
300 m
212 m
150 m
75 m
Passing 75 m ME
Total (check with m6) (m1)
Remarks :

Name and Designation


Operator Checked Approved
Date of test :
Form 3.3.2

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


DRY SIEVING METHOD

Contract : Sample No.


Origin of sample : Date of Sample

Description of soil :

Initial dry mass m1 g


SIEVE SIZE Mass retained g Percentage Cumulative
actual corrected retained percentage
m passing
m
100
m1
75 mm
63 mm
50 mm
37.5 mm
28 mm
20 mm
Passing 20 mm m2
total (check with m1)
riffled m3

m2
Correction factor = =
m3

14 mm
10 mm
6.3 mm
5 mm
Passing 5 mm m4
total (check with m3)
riffled m5

m2 m
Correction factor x 4 = =
m3 m5

3.35 mm
2 mm
1.18 mm
600 m
425 m
300 m
212 m
150 m
75 m
Passing 75 m ME
Total (check with m5) (m1)
Remarks :

Name and Designation


Operator Checked Approved
Date of test :
Form 3.3.3

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION CHART

Contract Job ref. no Sample No.

Origin of sample : Date of Sample

Description of soil :

BS SIEVE NUMBERS APERTURE SIZE IN INCHES


1 1
200 150 100 72 52 36 25 18 14 10 7 1/8" 3/16" 1/4" 3/8" 1/2" 3/4" 1" 1 /2" 2" 2 /2" 3" 4"

75 105 150 210 300 425 600 850 1.18 1.70 2.36 3.15 4.75 6.30 9.50 12.50 19.00 25.00 37.50 50.00 63.00 75.00 100.00 MILLIMETRES

100 0

90 10

80 20

PERCENTAGE RETAINED
PERCENTAGE PASSING

70 30

60 40

50 50

40 60

30 70

20 80

10 90

0 100

0.06 0.2 0.6 2 6 20 60 100 MM

FINE MEDIUM COARSE FINE MEDIUM COARSE


COBBLES
SAND GRAVEL

Name and Designation


Remarks : Operator Checked Approved
Form 3.5.1

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY SOILS DESCRIPTION


COARSE SOILS

Contact : Sample No.


Origin of sample : Date of Sample

Date of Test :

Component STP Reference Description *

1 MOISTURE Section 3.5.4.2(1) Dry Slightly moist


CONDITION Moist Very moist Wet

2 CONSISTENCY Table 3.5.1


Very loose Loose
Table 3.5.2 Medium dense Dense
Very dense Sl. Cemented

3 COLOUR Section 3.5.4.2(3)

4 STRUCTURE Table 3.5.6

Table 3.5.7

5 SOIL TYPE Table 3.5.12

Table 3.5.14

Table 3.5.15

Figure 3.5.1

Table 3.5.11 Sand Gravel


Cobbles Boulders

6 ORIGIN Section 3.5.4.2(6)

Remarks :

FULL
DESCRIPTION

Note : * Circle as appropriate Name and Designation of Operator


Form 3.5.2

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY SOILS DESCRIPTION


FINE SOILS

Contact : Sample No.


Origin of sample : Date of Sample

Date of Test :

Component STP Reference Description *

1 MOISTURE Section 3.5.4.2(1) Dry Slightly moist


CONDITION Moist Very moist Wet

2 CONSISTENCY Table 3.5.3 Very soft Soft


Firm Stiff
Table 3.5.4 Very stiff / hard

Table 3.5.5 Firm Spongy Plastic

3 COLOUR Section 3.5.4.2(3)

4 STRUCTURE Table 3.5.7

Table 3.5.8

Table 3.5.9

Table 3.5.10

5 SOIL TYPE Table 3.5.13

Table 3.5.11 SILT CLAY PEAT

6 ORIGIN Section 3.5.4.2(6)

Remarks :

FULL
DESCRIPTION

Note : * Circle as appropriate Name and Designation of Operator


Operator
Form 4.3.1

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF DRY DENSITY


MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIP

Contact Sample No.

Origin of sample : Date of Sample

Description of soil : Note on sample preparation

Mould area factor F (sq. m)-1 Supplier Compaction test sheet no.

Mould height factor H mm Required m/c of sample % Note


Mass of sample (wet) g h=0
F Initial m/c of sample % except for

Mixing
Ratio H =
vibrating
(x - y) g hammer
Water to be added, M1 x
Type of Compaction (100 + x) test
2.5 kg/4.5 kg/Vib. Hammer Mass of mould + base + collar + wet soil m2 g
Layers Blows per layer Mass of mould + base + collar m1 g
One litre/CBR mould* Compaction Mass of wet soil M2 - (m2-m1) g
Single sample/separate batches* Avg. depth to top of sample h mm
Hand/mechanical rammer* Initial m/c
M2 x F
Each layer vibrated for seconds Bulk density = of soil
(H - h ) kg/cu.m
* Delete as appropriate
M/c container No.
Moisture Content

Mass of container + wet soil g


Mass of container + dry soil g
Mass of moisture g
Mass of container g
Oversized Material Mass of dry soil g
Max. particle size mm Moisture content %
Total mass of sample g Average m/c w %
Mass oversize particles g
Result

100
% Oversize particles % Dry density, d = x kg/cu.m
Removed/replaced (100 + w)

Name and Designation


Date of Test : Remarks : Operator Checked Approved
Form 4.3.2

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY MOISTURE CONTENT/


DRY DENSITY RELATIONSHIP

Sample No._______________
Contract :
Date of sample:____________
Origin of Sample :

Description of soil : Type of Compaction

2.5 kg/4.5 kg/Vib. Hammer*


Layers_____ Blows/layer____
One litre/CBR mould*
Supplier : Operator:
Single sample/separate batches*
Hand/mechanical rammer*
Date of Test : Compaction test sheet no.

* Delete as appropriate
Dry Density of soil kg/m

Moisture Content %
% oversize material = % Remarks :

Max. dry density kg/m3 = Mg/m3


1000

Optimum moisture content = %

Particle density = Mg/m3


Name and Designation
(assumed/measured)
Operator Checked Approved
Form 4.3.3

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF DRY DENSITY


MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIP

Contact Sample No.

Origin of sample : Date of Sample

Description of soil : Note on sample preparation

Mould area factor F (sq. m)-1 Supplier Compaction test sheet no.

Mould height factor H mm Required m/c of sample % Note


Mass of sample (wet) g h=0
F Initial m/c of sample % except for

Mixing
Ratio H vibrating
(x - y) g hammer
Water to be added, M1 x
Type of Compaction (100 + x) test
2.5 kg/4.5 kg/Vib. Hammer Mass of mould + base + collar + wet soil m2 g
Layers Blows per layer Mass of mould + base + collar m1 g
One litre/CBR mould* Compaction Mass of wet soil M2 - (m2-m1) g
Single sample/separate batches* Avg. depth to top of sample h mm
Hand/mechanical rammer* Initial m/c
M2 x F
Each layer vibrated for seconds Bulk density = of soil
(H - h ) kg/cu.m
* Delete as appropriate
M/c container No.
Moisture Content

Mass of container + wet soil g


Mass of container + dry soil g
Mass of moisture g
Mass of container g
Oversized Material Mass of dry soil g
Max. particle size mm Moisture content %
Total mass of sample g Average m/c w %
Mass oversize particles g
Result

100
% Oversize particles % Dry density, d = x kg/cu.m
Removed/replaced (100 + w)

Name and Designation


Date of Test : Remarks : Operator Checked Approved
Form 4.3.4

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY MOISTURE CONTENT/


DRY DENSITY RELATIONSHIP

Sample No.______________
Contract :
Date of sample:____________
Origin of Sample :

Description of soil : Type of Compaction

2.5 kg/4.5 kg/Vib. Hammer*


Layers_____ Blows/layer____
Supplier : Operator: One litre/CBR mould*
Single sample/separate batches*
Date of Test : Compaction test sheet no. Hand/mechanical rammer*

* Delete as appropriate
Dry Density of soil kg/m

Moisture Content %
% oversize material = % Remarks :

Max. dry density kg/m3 = Mg/m3


1000

Optimum moisture content = %

Particle density = Mg/m3


Name and Designation
(assumed/measured)
Operator Checked Approved
Form 5.1.1

BANGLADESH ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY CBR TEST


DENSITY DATA

Sample No.
Date of sample

Contract :