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THE INFLUENCE OF ARABIC ON INDIAN LANGUAGE:

HISTORICALLY AND LINGUSTICALLY


1
MUNA MOHAMMED ABBAS ALKHATEEB, 2HASANEIN HASAN
1,2
College of Basic Education, Babylon University, IRAQ
E-mail: munaalkhteeb2003@gmail.com, hasaneinhs@yahoo.com

Abstract- Having talked with many people from India when we studied there from 2007 till 2014, we were often fascinated
by words that sounded Arabic in origin. When asking about the meaning, they were indeed Arabic. And I could detect more
words in the few Hindi Bollywood movies that I have seen as well. Historicallyspeaking , Arabic has been used in India
almost exclusively by its Muslim population,and has been a key force in delineating and shaping Indian Muslim identity.
This is not surprising, for it is generally acknowledged that the Arabic language has a predominantly sacred character outside
the Arabic speaking Middle East. A thorough study of Indian history suggests that India's first substantial contact with the
Arabic language came when the Arab Muslims settled in the western Indian province of Sind. Subsequently, the Arabic
language continued to flourish further under the patronage of the Mughal rulers in India. In the Islamic epochs, the usage of
Arabic was liturgical. But after the independence of India, non-sacred Arabic gained momentum. However, the functional
manifestation of the language in the subcontinent has great historical significance and has not been systematically
explored.To this end, this paper presents an attempt to analyze the processes and extent of development and uses of Arabic
in India since its arrival in the eighth century through the twentieth indicating career prospects in the days to come, inasmuch
as they bring into sharper focus the scriptural face of Indian Arabic.

Key words- Arabic language, Arab Muslims, Urdu, Indian Arabic, development of Arabic, Mughal rulers

I. INTRODUCTION Our favourite discovery so far involves the two main


agricultural seasons in South Asia; these are known
INDIA has very old links with the Arab world. For as the Kharif (post-monsoon sowing, autumn harvest)
hundreds of years starting in the 11th century, large and Rabi (winter sowing, spring harvest). These
parts of northern India were ruled by dynasties with terms are constantly used in discussions about
roots in that part of the world; the language of the agriculture and the economy. Yet somehow, we had
Mughal court was Persian, and so on. This is all well- never asked ourselves their origin. Looking for the
known, as is the existence of many loan-words from meaning of another word, we stumbled across a basic
Farsi, Arabic and Turkish in Hindi/Urdu, the lingua Arabic vocabulary list. And that is where we
franca of much of northern India and Pakistan. discovered that the Arabic words for autumn and
Hindi is full of words borrowed from Arabic and spring are khareef and rabee', respectively. Which, of
Farsi, like kanun (law, from the Arabic qanuun, itself course, makes perfect sense, now that we know.
borrowed from the Greco- It happens the other way around too. Oncewe were
Latin"canon"),siyasai or siyasat (politics), akhbar (ne with an Iraqi friend who had recently completed her
wspaper; in Arabic, it means PhD study in Delhi. At one point, in the middle of a
"news"); jumuriyat("democracy" in Urdu; in Arabic, characteristically heated exchange with an auto-
a jumhuriya is a republic and the jumhur is the rickshaw driver over the condition of his meter, she
citizenry or polis); but these are "big" words, which I turned to mend said Is he speaking Arabic half the
knew were borrowed in much the same way that an time? I feel like I understand every fifth word.
English-speaker knows that big words like A word should be added here about the sources for
"democracy" and "republic" are Greek or Latin in this study. In addition to synthesizing data from
origin (Owens,2000). So it is still always a jolt to disparate multilingual secondary works such as those
suddenly hear a word you recognise from everyday madrasas (religious schools) of India and
speech in the middle of a speech or monologue in a bibliographies of Indian-Arabic texts, this paper
language you otherwise don't understand at all. stems from research conducted in varied primary
Lately, I've been having this feeling as I watch source materials. Some of these original sources are
coverage of the protests in Iraq. I've never thought Arabic books which are in the Central library at
about the etymology of the Hindi JamiaMilliaIslamia in New Delhi.
word bas (pronounced, roughly, like bus), which Additionally, we have included findings meetings
means something like that's all, or enough. I do, with Indian Muslim scholars of Arabic, and visits to
however, hear a lot of protestors using it in exactly madrasas, observation of Muslim nomenclature, and
the same way. It's intriguing to think that this, one of examination of Arabic vocabulary incorporation.
the most common words of everyday Hindi, might With brief remarks pointing out the analogous or
have come to us from Arab traders, soldiers or divergent uses of Arabic where relevant, the
conquerors nearly a millennium ago. It seems likely; I following pages present a detailed survey of the uses
cannot think of a Sanskrit root. of Arabic in India.

Proceedings of ISER 33rd International Conference, New Delhi, India, 4th -5th September 2016, ISBN: 978-81-925751-2-4
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The Influence of Arabic on Indian Language: Historically and Lingustically

II. A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF rulersincluding the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, slave-


ARABIC LANGUAGE IN INDIA Sultans, Khaljis, Tughlaqs, andLodis in and around
Delhi, the Bahmanis and Adil-Shahis in the Deccan,
The rise of Arabic Language to the status of a major the Shah-Mirs.In 1947, after India gained
world language is inextricably intertwined with the independence from British rule and was
rise of Islam as a major world religion.The first partitioned,Pakistan and later Bangladesh developed
acquaintance of the residents of the Indian vis--vis Arabic in different directionssuch asthe
subcontinent with the Arab peoplecame about when proposals voiced in Pakistan by various political
Arab sailors first docked at Indian ports in order to groups in the 1950s and 1970s thatArabic be adopted
acquire spices in pre- Islamic times, perhaps as far in as the national languagewhich fall outside the
the past as 50 CE. This early trade contact occurred scope of this article. InIndia, in the decades following
two centuries before Arab was attested as a distinct Independence, Arabic usage was also modified in
language in the Arab Peninsula in the third century. minor ways,but its Islamic identity was preserved and
Trade contacts persisted, and at some point in time, continues to be preserved today. Considering
through Arab traders, Indians must have gained thefuture of Arabic usage in India, among the factors
rudimentary acquaintance with the Arabic inhibiting it is the decline of Persian andUrdu and
language.(Ahmad 1968). with it the decline of the Arabic-script reading
Arab Muslims settled there, and with their populace.
colonization of Sind came India's first substantial and One of the most common uses of Arabic in India is
sustained contact with both the religion of Islam and liturgical. This includes Qur'anic
the Arabic language. At this time, Indians began to recitation, litanies (tasbih), prose prayers (du''),
convert to Islam. The initial act required of any formulaic expressions connected with theritual prayer
convert, the recitation of the Islamic creed of faith, {salah), Sfl chants (dhikr), and the chanting of
"la ilh ill" 'llh, muhammad"" rasul" 'llh" (There is religious poetry (qaslda, na't,munjt, and marthiya).
no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of The recitation of the Arabic Qur'an is considered by
God), had an Arabic linguistic frame, which meant Muslims a meritorious act and formsan important part
that Indian converts to Islam came into contact with of their religiosity. In India, Muslims recite the
Arabic through their very first religious experience. Qur'an avidly, but generallywithout understanding the
Non-sacred Arabic hegemony was promoted in many literal meaning. Nevertheless, they still see it as an
parts of the world by political, social, and economic act thatbrings the reciter closer to God and wins him
factors. So much so, that in some of the lands or her divine grace (baraka) and light (nur).Qur'anic
conquered by the Arab Muslims, such as Coptic- recitation in India takes place in homes, masjids,
speaking Egypt, Arabic almost entirely displaced and madrasas, and other venues, at differenttimes of the
replaced the local languages( Rahman,2014). In day or night, individually or communally, at religious
India, however, this did not happen, mainly because and social gatheringsor as part of a daily religious
Arab Muslims did not have political control over routine, throughout the year, but most especially
more than the western provinces, and this control was duringthe month of Ramadan, audibly or inaudibly, in
for a limited time. The major Muslim dynasties in sophisticated and melodious recitation (tartillor
India were of Turkic origin, and their cultural tajwid), or in plain, elementary recital. Since a
language was, in the main, Persian. Other than the significant number speak Urdu (in 2003, roughly 25
colony in Sind, Arab Muslim presence in India was million) or other Indian languages written in the
constituted by small and early Arab trader settlements Arabic script, they can, ifthey are literatethus,
of mostly Yemeni and Basran descent on the Malabar roughly half of all Indian Muslimsde facto read and
coast, by limited contingents of Yemeni mercenary write theArabic script. Since Qur'anic recitation in the
soldiers employed by various Muslim rulers, and by original Arabic is an integral part of the
occasional Arab visitors. Thus, Arab Muslims never mandatoryritual prayer (salah), those who can read
really had a major presence in India. The locals and those who cannot all consider it a
continued for the most part to use their own Indo- religiousobligation to memorize suras. They most
European and Dravidian languages, with Arabic commonly learn by heart the shorter suras,including
playing a subsidiary (albeit religiously significant) al-ftiha, al-ns, al-falaq, al-ikhls, al-kawthar, al-
linguistic role.Versteegh,2001) nasr, and al-qadr. They alsorecite al-ftihafor the
Currently, itis used almost solely by the 13.19 million benefit of a deceased soul and upon visits to the
Muslims who form 13.43 percent of the total1.03 shrine of a saint (Kaur,1990;Rahman,2000;and
billion Indian population.'' Conversely, almost all Rahman,2014).
Muslims in India appear to havesome acquaintance
with Arabic. From the early eighth century, Arabic in III. TEACING OF ARABIC AS A LANGUAGE
India has borne anIslamic identity, which has OF RELIGION
continued to be elaborated and strengthened through
the thirteencenturies of its use under Muslim, Hindu, The religious need of Indian Muslims to learn Arabic
and British rule. The succeeding dynasties ofMuslim gave rise over the centuries to a largenumber of

Proceedings of ISER 33rd International Conference, New Delhi, India, 4th -5th September 2016, ISBN: 978-81-925751-2-4
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The Influence of Arabic on Indian Language: Historically and Lingustically

religious schools catering only to Muslim students, has to do with religion, moral values, and issues
called maktab and madrasa.(The terms are somewhat discussed extensively in
fluid, the word madrasa sometimes being used to the Qur'an. Heaviest absorption appears to be into
denote a maktab;other terms used are hifz-khnafor languages used to a great extent by
Qur'an memorization schools, and jmi'aor dar al- Muslims, in particular Urdu, The following sample
'ulumfor higher education institutes. In premodem Arabic terms have been simultaneouslyassimilated
times, the term madrasa was also used for secular into four Indian languages, Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati, and
schools with both Muslim and Hindu students.). The Marathi: din (religion),hajj (the Hajj pilgrimage),
curriculum followed in these madrasas through the hjji(one who has made the hajj pilgrimage),
centuries focused on Islam as asubject and Arabic as imn(belief),jannat(heaven), jahannam(hell),
a tool. The method of teaching Arabic in these haqlqat(reality), haqq(right), hikmat(wisdom),
madrasas is grammar-centered and text-oriented.The duny(this world), risla(message), slam(greeting),
focus is on reading and understanding classical shaytn(satn), sadaqa(alms), zulm(oppression),
Arabic texts. Speaking skills are notemphasized, but 'adlat(justice), ghusl ([ritual] hath),
stylized prose writing skills (insh') are given some fasd(corruption), qabr(grave), qalam(pen),
attention( Desai,1978). Generally,modern kafn(shroud), ladhdhat(pleasure), mtam(mourning),
proficiency-based techniques are not used, although maqm(station), mawt(death), waf' (loyalty),
there is a slow move towardstheir utilization. Rote wjib(mandatory), wa'da(promise), yaqln(certainty).
memorization is favored over analysis.). Theodore Religious Arabic phrases are habitually interjected
&Wright(1966) stated that the British colonial into Urdu (and other Indian-language)speech. These
government in India de-emphasized religious phrases usually contain an "Allah" component, such
madrasa education; theyfocused on the creation of as al-hamd" li'llh(praisebe to God),
institutions of secular learning which they claimed shukrli'llh(thanks be to God), tnsha' allh(what
would makethe world's academic and scientific [wonders] God haswilled!), insh' allh(if God wills),
progress accessible to the Muslims of India. Arabic and jazk'llh(may God reward you!).
inthese institutions was initially somewhat Additionally,the introductory parts of Muslim
marginalized and "orientalized," both in terms speeches and sermons are often in Arabic and may be
ofteaching method and modified curriculum. The brief,one-sentence openings or longer, multi-
change of direction was often administeredby Muslim paragraph ones. These typically contain the name
modernist reformers rather than directly by the andpraise of God (basmalaand hamdala), and
British. Thus, three modem-styleMuslim universities benedictions on the Prophet (tasliya); Qur'an and
(which were open to non-Muslim students) came into Hadlth quotations are used heavily in religious
being: AligarhMuslim University, 30 the first Muslim communications, both written and oral,such as
institution of secular learning, was founded in 1875in religion classes and the Friday sermon (Muhammad
Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, by the reformist Sir Sayyid Ishaq,1955; Seddiqui,2002; Qutbuddin,2007;and
Ahmad Khan; it attained the status ofa university in Haque,2013).
1921, and currently has two full departments of Many Arabic words which have more general
Islamic Studies, viz., Arabicstudies and theology. The meanings in Middle Eastern Arabic take
JamiaMilliaIslamia has a more clearly Islamic bent, on a religious connotation in India. Sahifa, which can
and aimsto offer modem secular education mean several things in Arabic, includinga leaf in a
simultaneously with religious education. It was notebook, a page, a newspaper, or a prayer book,
founded in1920 in Aligarh, and moved to Delhi in signifies here the lastsense only. Ziyrat, which
1925. The Jamia Osmania University in means visit, connotes here a visit to the shrine of a
Hyderabad,Andhra Pradesh, was established in 1917 saint. Majlis,which means sitting or assembly,
by the Nizam of Hyderabad; it has a departmentof indicates here a religious assembly. Other words of
Islamic studies in which Arabic is taught, and where generalmeaning, in both Arabic and Indian languages,
research in Islamic studies (mostlyArabic-based) is can denote a religious meaning in the latter.
encouraged. The issues related to the teaching of Similarly, the word kitb, which means any book,
Arabic in these universitiesand in other institutions in often represents here a religious book, picking up on
India have been the subject of several conferences the designation of the Qur'an as The Book or Kitb.
and monographs. Furthermore, the Arabic language is
offered as an academic subject in a fewnon- V. IMPACT OF ARABIC LANGUAGE ON
denominational universities. OTHER LANGUAGES

IV. ARABIC RELIGIOUS VOCABULARY The influence of Arabic on Muslims is well


INCORPORATED AND INTERJECTED INTO manifested in their languages and it left a tremendous
INDIAN LANGUAGES influence on the languages and literatures of Muslim
nations like Iran, Afghanistan and India etc. Persian is
Much of the Arabic vocabulary that has been written in Arabic script, and more than 30 percent of
incorporated into Indian languages over the centuries vocabulary is of Arabic origin. Turkish before the

Proceedings of ISER 33rd International Conference, New Delhi, India, 4th -5th September 2016, ISBN: 978-81-925751-2-4
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The Influence of Arabic on Indian Language: Historically and Lingustically

reforms of the twenties was also written in Arabic. (chair), ijazat ( permission), qubul ( agree), mshhoor
The Hausa language before the coming of the British (famous), khss (special, distinct).(Retrieved from
colonialists was written in Arabic and the script is http://baheyeldin.com/linguistics/hindi-words-arabic-
known as Ajami Script. The incidence of Arabic origin.html).
loan-words in Hausa language is very high. Ali Abu
Bakr observed that one-fifth of currently used words VI. FUTURE OF ARABIC IN INDIA
in Hausa and Fulani are of Arabic origin. If one
ventures into a Hausaspeaking community with an Arabic language will be part of the Indian mosaic
Arabic speaker using only Arabic; such a speaker has since for a significant part of the Indian population
been found to establish quite a fair degree of (Muslims) it is the language of the religious (Islamic)
communication with the people. Thus, Hausa words, scripture and carries with it religious approval and
al-maksh(scissors), bindiga (gun), hakimi(ruler), sanction. Arabic is the language of the Qur'an which
alkalami (pen) are of Arabic origin. The vocabulary is the central religious text of Islam and learning of
of Yoruba, the language of the inhabitants of South Qur'an is necessary for practicing correct rituals of
Western Nigeria, is highly influenced by Arabic, the Islam. So, at least liturgical use of Arabic language
influence transcends religious usage, it includes every such as recitation of Qur'an, litanies (tasbih), ritual
day and routine speech.(Khan,2013) prayer (salah) and such will lead to learning the
Another feature of the significance of Arabic among language. The religious need of Indian Muslims to
Muslims is the establishment of Quranic Arabic learn the Arabic language will continue to lead to the
Schools in every Muslim community to teach the establishment, maintenance and running of madrasas
Holy Quran, Arabic language and fundamentals of and Islamic seminaries in India. So, the religious need
Islamic religion. The Ministry of Education of of Indian Muslims to learn the Arabic language will
Northern Nigeria in 1958 puts the number of the remain one of the greatest factors for the development
Quranic Arabic Schools found in the area at the of the language in India in the future also.
beginning of the 20th century at 20,000 schools with As far as the prospects of the non-sacred usage of
approximately 250,000 students. A considerable Arabic language is concerned, it has a great future
number of works have been written on the language ahead as we see in modern times in economic
in Arabic and other languages spoken by Muslims. activities around the world: it is one of the significant
This enthusiasm is summed up in the observation of languages in the world for business, technology and
Al-Thaalib I (d.1038 A.D.). He says, When the labour market. There are more than 20 countries
Almighty ennobled and exalted the Arabic language, where Arabic is an official language. It is one of the
He elevated its rank and showed greater regard to it six official languages of the United Nations. The
than any other language. He decreed for its fate Arabic language gained more importance after the
guarding and treasuring a select people, the leaders of economic boom of the oil producing Arab countries
virtues and the luminaries of the earth who gave up in the global market. Furthermore, after the economic
lust and roamed the desert land in its service; who globalization, the importance of Arabic language has
befriended the notebooks, the book case and inkstand increased manifold opening up of many employment
for its acquisition, and who exerted themselves opportunities. It was bolstered further by the opening
systemising its rules, and dedicated their life to up of the Indian market to the global business. There
immortalizing its books. In the present scenario, for are many scopes for Arabic learners in both private
the growth and promotion of Arabic language, we all and government sectors. The government sector may
have to make efforts in the right perspective and need include, but is not limited to, Foreign Service,
to make a recourse to our pristine values, we should embassies, cultural attaches and diplomatic services,
be the transmitters of knowledge, particularly that of intelligence, tourism and so on. The private sector
Arabic language and Islam, from our progenitors to may include jobs in international organizations, mass
our progenies(Abdul,2001). communication, publishing, entertainment, education,
Whatever the avenues are, here are other some words interpretation and translation, business and industry,
with the Arabic meaning, which the Hindi derives finance and banking and such others.
from, but may deviate somewhat from.
wqt(time),admi(human being) ,insan (human being) CONCLUSION
,takriban (approximately, almost) ,leken (but) ,shaitan
(devil, satan) ,mabhoom(hidden, unknown future Much of the Arabic vocabulary that has been
event) incorporated into Indian languages over the centuries
shukriya( thank you, not an exact copy, "ya" is has to do with religion, moral values, and issues
added) ,khabar(news item ),khbar(plural of discussed extensively in the Quran. Heaviest
news),mohtaram (respected) , sahib (companion, absorption appears to be into languages used to a
friend, used as Mister in Hindi) ,dab ( good great extent by Muslims in particular Urdu. In India,
manners), ynak ( from eye (ain), means spectacles in during Mughal period, Persian was very dominant
Hindi), alam ( universe) ,alim (scholar, scientist, language and all the official correspondence was
learned person) , sali ( original) , qalm ( pen) ,kursi done in Persian, as a result of which the integration of

Proceedings of ISER 33rd International Conference, New Delhi, India, 4th -5th September 2016, ISBN: 978-81-925751-2-4
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The Influence of Arabic on Indian Language: Historically and Lingustically

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