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BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION
A base transceiver station or cell site (BTS) is a piece of equipment that
Facilitates wireless communication between user equipment (UE) and a
network. UEs are devices like mobile phones (handsets), WLL phones,
Computers with wireless internet connectivity, Wi-Fi and Wi-MAX
gadgets etc. The network can be that of any of the wireless
Communication technologies like GSM, CDMA, WLL, WAN, Wi-Fi,
WiMAX etc. BTS is also referred to as the radio base station (RBS),
node B (in 3G Networks) or simply, the base station (BS). For discussion
of the LTE standard the abbreviation eNB for enhanced node B is
widely used. So, to understand BTS we have to go through the basics of
GSM system because BTS is a part of a GSM system.

 A BTS can be considered as a complex radio modem that takes the
uplink radio signal from MS and converts it into data for
transmission to other machine within the GSM Network, and
accept data from the GSM network and converts it into a radio
signal that can be transmitted to the MS.

 A BTS performs all the transmissions and receptions functions
relating to the GSM radio interface along with a degree of signal
processing.

 The BTS is used to form the coverage Cells in GSM and it are their
position that determines the network coverage and capacity.

 Although a BTS is concerned with transmission and reception over
the radio interface. The management of the radio interface is

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performed by a BSC. The management functions includes the
allocations of radio channels to MS on call setup, determining
when a handover is required and indentifying a suitable target
BTS, and controlling the initialized power of an ms to ensure that
it is just sufficient to reach its serving BTS.

 A BSC can control up to 40 plus BTS s. The BTS and BSC are

collectively known as base station sub system, BSS.

ASSESSORIES

TOWER
Tower is physical equipment, which gives the radio coverage to a geographical
area.

Types of Tower

 Ground Base Tower (GBT)
 Roof Top Tower (RTT)
 Pole Type Tower (PTT)

ACCESSORIES OF

TOWER

 Mount Pole
 GSM Antenna
 Microwave Antenna

 Aviation Lamp
 Horizontal and Vertical Ladder

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ACCESSORIES OF

SHELTER ROOM

 Power Interface Unit
 Switch Mode Power Supply
 Battery Bank
 Smoke Detector
 PCM Module [used cooling the shelter room in the absence of electricity]

 Diesel Generator
 Digital Distribution Frame [crone Block]
 Internal Ground Base
 External Ground Base

DIESEL GENERATOR

C CABLE BTS . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.C CABLE INTERFACE UNIT SMPS BATTERY BANK D.LTD Power Supply to the BTS 1 CELL = 2 VOLT TOTAL NO. OF CELLS = 24 = 48VOLT TOTAL VOLTS POWER DIESEL GENERATOR A.

1 NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. MOTOROLA. NOKIA)  METRO  Over the platform  ULTRA  Ground  FLEXI  Platform  Indoor  Outdoor  MR (MULTI RADIO) Types of Ultra and Flexi BTS:  INDOOR . Huawei etc.LTD Types (Equipments): • The Equipment providers provides several types 0f BTS there are – NOKIA- SEMEINS. ALKATEL LUSENT. ZTE. Types of BTS Model (Ex. ERICSSION.

NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.LTD  OUTDOOR  Caze  Open land .

NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. Base band Unit 5. RF Unit 7.LTD CONFIGURATION It is an equipment which makes easy the wireless connection between the user equipment and the network. Antenna 8. Interface Unit 4. GPS . Clock Source 3. Main Processor Unit 2. TMA 9. The main configurations of equipments inside the BTS are: 1. Power Supply Unit 6.

Power consumption of 1 Macro Outdoor BTS which have 6 Transceivers Unit is around 150Watt.LTD MAIN PROCESSOR UNIT The functions of this unit are as a brain for the BTS: · BTS initialization and self-testing · Configuration · O&M signaling · Software download · Collection and management of external and internal alarms CLOCK SOURCE UNIT The basic function of this unit is like a heart for the BTS: · Deliver a stable clocking pulse to all digital equipment inside BTS. . this unit creates a data which ready to be feed to RF Unit. POWER SUPPLY UNIT The basic function of power supply unit is like a stomach for the BTS which produce a power for whole equipments in the BTS. With input the AC voltage like food in the human and produce DC voltage as a power. T1 or IP) to digital data and this data will deliver to other digital unit to be next processed BASE BAND UNIT In the base band unit. RF UNIT RF Unit converts the digital signal to Radio Frequency --RF-. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. This signal type is still as an electrical signal. the digital data will be processed and following the GSM standard. INTERFACE UNIT Interface unit have function to translate between Source data which has specific Electrical Standard (E1.Signal (air interface signal) following the GSM Standard.

This combined with the ventilation system gives the unique field proven LGP Reliability. Combination of horizontal . This unit is very important unit for creating cell dimension. antenna height and antenna tilting influence the radiation pattern of cell. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. Lightning protection is implemented on all ports.LTD ANTENNA UNIT Antenna as a traditional unit. current extractor and a LNA bypass circuit. have a function to convert electrical signal to electromagnetic signal. low noise amplifier (LNA) in a Balanced configuration.vertical polarization. The unique Patented mechanical design has all electronics integrated within the filter body. A micro processor Based system supervises parameters such as current consumption on . TMA TMA TMA Dual Duplex TMA Duplex TMA Simplex A TMA unit comprises high Q band-pass filters.

. VSWR and data communication to the BTS. input voltage.each RF Transistor.

NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.LTD NOKIA FLEXI BTS :- .

AC inside the shelter room Cooling fan inside the cabinet No dust filter Dust filter present At the time of commissioning indoor is selected At the time of commissioning outdoor is selected RX1 TO RXIN RX1 TO RX1 RX2 TO RXIN RX2 TO RX2 GSM ANTENNA DUPLEXER MULTICOUPLER TRX BB2F RRI GSM MICROWAVE D2 BUS ……. D1 BUS ……. IT’S A IT’S A BACK BONE BACK BONE LINK LINK D1 BUS ……. IT’S A BACK BONE BACK BONE LINK TX2 TO TX2 LINK BB2F TRX GSM MICROWAVE RRI COMBINER TXOUT TO DUPLEXER GSM ANTENNA TX1 TXOUT TO TX2 . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. IT’S A TX1 TO TX1 D2 BUS …….LTD INDOOR OUTDOOR Cooling fan.

D2 BUS IT’S A LINK ……. BACK BONE .

NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.LTD ULTRA BTS P P P O O O B B B B B B B R R R W W W E E E B B B B B B O R C R C R C 2 2 2 2 2 2 I R R R A A A R D R D DRX1 R D F F F F F F A I I I TX1 D2 BUS TRX RX1 RX1 DRX1 DRXIN RX1 DRX1 TX1 TX2 TXOUT RXIN RXIN RX2 RX2 DRXIN DRX2 DRX2 RX2 DRX2 TRX TX2 TX1 RX1 RX1ext MULTI RX1 DRX1 TRX TX1 TX2 RX2 RX2ext COULE RX2 DRX2 TRX TX2 TX2 TX1 R TXOUT MULTI TRX COMBINER COULE TRX R DUPLE TRX MULTI XER COULE TRX COMBINER R MULTI TRX COMBINER COULE TRX R DUPLE TRX XER TRX COMBINER .

LTD ULTRA BTS CONFIGURATION MULTICOUPLERE TRX DUPLEXER R 2+2+2 configuration 1+1+1 configuration . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.LTD 3+3+3 configuration 4+4+4 configuration .

LTD 6+6+6 configuration .NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

BASE BAND DOUBLE FREQUENCY I. 6 slots III. It is use for commissioning. 1 power card control 6 TRX. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. 1 BB2F control 2 TRX. It is use for transmission and receiving of signal.LTD II. 2. 3. BOIA CARD II. 13 . III. BASE OPERATIONAL INTERFACE I. It’s the mind of the BTS. IV. 1 slot III. BB2F II. IV. Used for power supply. 3 slots IV.

like those directly from a transmitter output. 5.LTD DUPLEXER I. III. 8 slots. 3 slots. RF receivers can be damaged if high level RF signal. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. is applied to the receiver antenna. POWER AMPLIFIER I. Amplifies the signal from TRx for transmission through the antenna 14 . 6 port II. 3 port II. It’s a device which allows a transmitter operating on one frequency and a receiver operating on a different frequency to share one common antenna with a minimum interference. IV. Use for transmission and reception of signals. GSM 900 GSM 1800 DVJA DVDA 4. Additionally receivers may not receive weak signals when high noise levels or another signal near the receiver frequency is present at the receivers antenna input. TRx Synchronizing Signals Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling I.

These types may use band-reject (notch) or band-pass filters. TRANSMISSION MODULE  RRI I. A device for connecting several receivers or transmitters to one antenna in such away that the equipment impedances’ are properly matched to the antenna impedence. GSM 900 GSM 1800 M2LA M2HA 8. composed of RF filters and interconnecting transmission line. III. I. MULTI COUPLER I. Radio Relay Interface. IV. 3 or 6 ports II. a combiner can be categorized as branched (star point) or balanced (constant- impedance). Use for transmission of E1. Two types of port:  Flexi Bus 1  Flexi Bus 2 15 . 3 slots. III.LTD 6. Generally. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. III. II. Two types: Wide Band Combiner Remote Band Combiner 7. or combiner. 6 ports II. COMBINER Transmitting several frequencies from a single broadband antenna system requires the use of a combining system. Combines feeds from several TRx so that they could be sent out through a single antenna.

It has max. total of 32 time slots.LTD  E1/T1 I.  Every sector there is a synchronization & signaling frame  12 signaling channel for 12 TRx. The The bits are numbered 1 to 8. in 13 & 14  Enhanced Data for Protocol (EDAP): its use for GPRS activation. 9-12 3rd sector.048MHz with a total of 24 time slots. 120Ω or 75Ω.  1-12 used as TCH  1-4 is 1st sector. with the 8th bit bits are numbered 1 to 8. the frames are numbered 0 to 12 in the SF/D4 format. 12 slots  There are 4 (OMU) Operation Maintains Unit 16 . 15 in the CRC-4 and CAS multiform formats. Even Transmission II. Four types of ports:  INTERFACE1  IF2 IF3  IF4 T1 E1 It’s the interference of 24 time slots each with bit It’s the interference of 32 time slots each with bit rate of 64 kbps rate of 64 kbps The T1 system operates at 1. The The channel time slots are numbered 1 to 24. It depends upon the subscribers to use the GPRS system. the least significant bit (LSB). The T1 pulse shape contains overshoot and The E1 pulse shape is a perfectly rectangular undershoots and is driven on a line impedance of pulse shape and is driven on a line impedance of 100Ω. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. with the 8th bit being being the least significant bit (LSB). 5-8 2nd sector. the frames are numbered 1 to In E1 systems. channel time slots are numbered 0 to 31.544MHz with a The E1 system operates at 2. In T1 systems. and 1 to 24 in the ESF.

LTD ULTRA BTS CONFIGURATION MULTICOUPLER TRX DUPLEXER ER 1+1+1 configuration 2+2+2 configuration 17 . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.LTD 3+3+3 configuration 4+4+4 configuration 18 .

LTD COMBINER TRX DUPLEXER MULTICOUPLER 6+6+6 configuration 19 . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

LTD SIGNAL PASSING IN A BTS . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

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NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.LTD FLEXI BTS .

5 BUS CABLE RF CABLES POWER CABLE NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.LTD Grounding the Plinth .

The plinth is grounded to the site main ground. The plinth must be grounded after is installed. .

LTD ESMA System Module Interfaces . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

NIV- TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.LTD TRANSMISSION UNIT .

LTD Transmission unit: DTRX Module Interfaces ER_ A PWR DP RxB RxA RxB Div Div TxA RxA Bus . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

25 TxB Grounding point .

LTD Dual Duplexer Module interfaces RxA4 RxB1 RxA3 RxB2 RxA2 RxB3 ExtA RxA1 RxB4 ANT A ANT B TxA RxAO ExtB RxAI TxB . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

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BOIA CARD II. BASE OPERATIONAL INTERFACE I. 1 power card control 6 TRX. 2. It is use for transmission and receiving of signal. 1 BB2F controls 2 TRX. BB2F II. POWER CARDS I. IV. • For creating this configuration. PWSB II. Used for power supply. BASE BAND DOUBLE FREQUENCY I. 6 slots III. 3. 3 slots IV. you need: • One System Module (ESMA) • three Dual TRX Modules (EXxA) • Two Dual Duplexer Modules (ERxA) • one transmission sub-module (FIxA) • Four Wideband Combiner Sub-modules (EWxx) NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. IV.Creating a cost-optimized 3+3 configuration (splitting a sector) A cost-optimized 3+3 Flexi EDGE configuration can be installed in a stack. It is use for commissioning . It’s the mind of the BTS. 1 slot III. III. in Flexi Cabinet for Indoor (FCIA) and Flexi Cabinet for Outdoor (FCOA).LTD Various Cards Description 1.

3 slots. 6 ports .LTD DUPLEXER I. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

Amplifies the signal from TRx for transmission through the antenna NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. It’s a device which allows a transmitter operating on one frequency and a receiver Operating on a different frequency to share one common antenna with a minimum interference. IV. Generally. 5. I. III. Combines feeds from several TRx so that they could be sent out through a single antenna. GSM 900 GSM 1800 DVJA DVDA 4. a combiner can be categorized as branched (star point) or balanced (constant- impedance). 3 Ports II. 8 Slots . is applied to the receiver antenna.LTD 6. Two types:  Wide Band Combiner  Remote Band Combiner 7. like those directly from a transmitter output. Additionally receivers may not receive weak signals when high noise levels or another signal near the receiver frequency is present at the receivers antenna input . II. These types may use band-reject (notch) or band-pass filters. III. 3 or 6 ports II. COMBINER Transmitting several frequencies from a single broadband antenna system requires the use of a combining system. MULTI COUPLER . RF receivers can be damaged if high level RF signal. TRx Synchronizing Signals Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling I. or combiner. composed of RF filters and interconnecting transmission line. Use of transmission and reception of signals. POWER AMPLIFIER I.

Monitors the Power Plant and DG battery health. The Alarms can be transmitted to remote user using GSM Modem through SMS text messages. The Heart of the ABSAM is based on a ASTER GENERATOR AND BTS SITE CONTROLLER (GBSC)-1. ABSAM is provided with sufficient Input & Output capability to perform the monitoring of various site parameters and generate Alarms. III. Major functions of the Auto BTS Alarm Manager: 1.2. 5. Monitors the output to load for managing the DG set. A device for connecting several receivers or transmitters to one antenna in such away that the equipment impedances’ are properly matched to the antenna impedance. 2. . TRANSMISSION MODULE  RRI I. GSM 900 GSM 1800 M2LA M2HA 8. Radio Relay Interface. IV. 3 slots. III. 3.LTD ALARM Auto BTS Site Alarm Manager (ABSAM) The ABASM is based on high speed microcontroller integrated with GSM Modem. I. Two types of port:  Flexi Bus 1  Flexi Bus 2 NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. Monitors the temperature of the enclosure/shelter. 4. Monitors the engine of DG Set (Cylinder temperature. Use for transmission of E1. Oil Pressure) to indicate fault in case of generator not producing the output. II. 6 ports II. Monitors the fuel level in the DG Set.

Interfaces/Ports GBSC in the panel provides 232 uplink . Hence it is possible to go through the history. Auto/ Manual mode selection 2. 6. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. Parameters Monitored 1. Right / Manual Load On 8. 7. Commercial Mains and Power Plant Battery Usage Hours and transmits the same to remote location over GSM Modem in SMS format. DG cylinder temperature. Manual Stop 4. DG voltages 1/3 phase and frequency 3. DG Engine Oil pressure as digital input. 8. Data Logging Logs and records the events with date-time stamps. BTS Battery (48V) voltage. DG Battery (12V) voltage. YN. Visual indications through LEDs: .LTD Keypad 9 keys programming keypad 1. 8. Sends periodic reports of DG. Fuel level. Down 6.to send SMS to remote location using a GSM Modem. Load current 1/2/3 phases. Left / Reset alarms 7. Up 5. 5. 7. Enter ABSAM Indications: 1. Commercial Power voltage 3 phases RN. BN and NE 2. Can monitor upto 28 Alarm signals from the BTS site and transmits the same to remote location over GSM Modem in SMS format. 6. Escape 9. Manual Start 3. Monitors the DG Run hours. Commercial Mains Run Hours and the Power Plant Battery usage time. 4.

Amber Led c) DG present ---.LTD m) DG V-Belt Fail Y n) Fuel Theft Alarm Y o) DG Contactor Fail Y p) EB Contactor Fail Y q) Mains Fail Y r) Over Load Y s) Room Hot Y t) RT Sensor Faulty Y u) Neutral Fail Y v) GCU-RTC Failure Y w)GCU-EEP Failure Y x) SMS Link Fail Y y) Emergency Shut OFF Y z) Shelter Door Open Y aa Low Power Plant Y bb DG FAULT (Any Fault) Y 3.a) Mains Present ---.Amber Led e) Manual/Auto mode---.Red Led 2.Red Led h) DG fault ---.Yellow Led g) Global Alarm ---. Green Led d) Load on DG ---. Visual Indications through LCD: . Faults/Alarms which are extended over SMS (GSM MODEM): ALARMS SMS a) DG Failed to Start Y b) DG Failed to Stop Y c) DG Fuel Low Y d) DG Low Lube Oil Pressure Y e) DG Alternator Fail Y f) DG Low 12V Battery Y g) DG Cylinder Hot Y h) DG Over Speed Y i) DG Freq Not OK Y j) DG Volts Not OK Y k) DG Low Fuel Warning Y l) DG Under Speed Y NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.Yell f) Low Fuel ---. Green Led b) Load on Mains ---.

Status Information: a) PC Mode (AUTO/Manual) b) Mains ½/3 Phases Voltages (in Volts) c) Load on EB d) DG 1/3 Phases Voltages (in Volts) e) Load on DG .a) Low Oil Pressure b) DG failed to start c) DG failed to stop d) Low fuel level e) DG volts Not OK f) Low 12V Battery g) Fuel Warn Level h) DG Frequency not ok i) Over load j) Emergency shutoff k) Neutral Fail l) GBSC EPROM failure m) GBSC RTC failure n) SMS Link Fail o) Low 48V Battery p) Room Hot 4.

Room Temperature Generator and BTS Site Controller I/P Range 7 to 15 V.LTD f) DG OFF g) DG Running h) DG Battery Voltage (in Volts) i) 1/2/3 Phases load currents. DG Run Hours 8. Reverse voltage with stand 100V max.(in Amps) j) DG Run Hours ( HH:MM:SS format) k) Current fuel levels in DG (in Liters) l) DG frequency (in Hz) m) DG running status n) Status Time o) Telecom Battery Voltage (in Volts) p) Alarms None (if Alarms are not present) q) Room Temperature (in centigrade) r) Current Time in 24Hours Format s) Status Log Description ABSAM Module Metering The ABSAM Controller will have following Metering 1. Mains Voltages in the1/2/3 phases 3. Power Plant battery Voltage 6. reverse polarity protection. Current Fuel Level 9. DG voltages in 1/3 Phases 4. DG Battery Voltage 7. Brown out voltage < 5 V Over voltage with stand 38 V max. Current Time in 24 Hours format 10. DG Frequency 5. AC Load Currents in the 1/2/3 phases 2. Minimum Operating current 60 mA (LCD Back light off) Maximum operating current 150 mA (LCD Back light ON) Input from DG Set Input Range 0 to 300 V AC (Ph-N) @ 50 Hz (1/3- phases) Maximum Over Voltage 500 V . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

1 .5kgs Product Supply The product Aster Auto BTS Alarm Manager is supplied with the following: Aster Generator and BTS Site Controller (GBSC)-1 GSM MODEM (with coaxial cable and Antenna). NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.1 set RS 232C Cable (for connecting GBSC with MODEM.LTD Total Harmonic Distortion ≤15% Input from commercial mains Input Range 0 to 300 V AC (ph-N) @ 50 Hz (1/2/3 phases) Maximum Over Voltage 500 V Total Harmonic Distortion ≤15% Other specifications Operating Temperature Range -0 °C to +70°C Dimension (GBSC) 196X96X100 mm Weight 2.

LTD PART-1  Fill up all the cards as per requirement  Before commissioning give the power to BTS  Login the laptop in the LMP port . after that . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

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LTD PART-2 . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

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LTD PART-4 . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

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PART-5

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PART -6

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PART-7

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An imperfection in an otherwise uniform transmission line. .2 times greater than the minimum. II.  Reflection occurs in transmission line due to discontinuity.2:1 which means that the maximum standing wave amplitude i. Discontinuity happens because: I. When a transmission line is terminated with other than the characteristic impedence.LTD The Effects of VSWR on Transmitted Power SWR: It is an indicator of reflected waves bouncing back & fore within the transmitting line.e 1.  Reflection coefficient consists of real & imaginary parts. Relationship to reflection coefficient volt V max V min Frequency The voltage component of SWR in an uniform transmission line consist of forward wave (Vf) & super imposed on the reflected wave (Vr). VSWR: It denotes 1. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. The reflection coefficient (Γ) Reflected Wave Γ = ------------------------- Forward Wave  Reflection coefficient is a complex number. But we consider the real part removing imaginary part.

The reflection coefficient iii.Vr = Vf . Maximum -ve reflection when transmission line is short circuit  Γ is the magnitude of ρ always fall in the range of 0 & 1  VSWR ≥ 1 The intensity of the standing wave is referred to as the "Voltage Standing Wave Ratio". or VSW R. --------- Vf . The mismatch loss. There are four quantities that describe the effectiveness of transferring power from a line to a load or antenna: i. we show them graphically on the next figure. For now. Maximum +ve reflection when transmission line is open circuit Γ=0 . ii.Vr 1-ρ Conditions of reflection coefficient: Γ = +1 .LTD  IΓI =ρ Vr = ρ Vf  Vmax is superimposed of reflected wave Vmax = Vf + Vr = Vf + ρ Vf Vmin = Vf .ρ Vf V f + Vr 1+ρ SWR = --------------. When no reflection when transmission line is perfectly match Γ = -1 . . The VSWR. iv. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. The return loss. to obtain a feeling for their meaning.

4.j80 ohms. line connected to a short monopole antenna that is not matched (antenna input Impedance is 20 .j80 ohms Reflection Coefficient = 0. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.7080 Absolute Value of Reflection Coefficient = 0. Red Curve: Standing wave on line with open circuit at left end (antenna terminals) [This is very bad: no power transferred past end of line] Load Impedance = ∞ Reflection Coefficient = 1 VSWR = ∞ Mismatch Loss = ∞dB Return Loss = 0 dB Blue Curve: Standing wave on 50-ohm line into short monopole antenna [This is not too good. line connected to a matched load.LTD This graphs three conditions: a. b.5 dB Return Loss = -1.8038 VSWR = 9.3805 .2 Mismatch Loss = . The line is open at the end where the antenna should have been connected.5 dB from that available traveling down line] Load Impedance = 20 . power into load or antenna is down -4.9 dB Green Curve: Standing wave on 50-ohm line with matched 50-ohm load at end [This is perfect.j0. no standing wave. compared to the transmission line impedance of 50 ohms). all power goes into antenna/load] Load Impedance = 50 ohms Reflection Coefficient = 0 VSWR = 1 Mismatch Loss = 0 Db Return Loss = ∞dB 31 . c.

Reflections occur as a result of discontinuities. It is given by the following relation: Mismatch Loss = 10 log ( 1 -ρ2 ) Formulas: VSWR = Emax/Emin = (Efrd + Eref)/ (Efrd .ρ) Where: ρis the reflection coefficient of the antenna (absolute value of voltage reflection) Return loss = 10 log(Pr / Pi) = 20 log (Er / Ei) 32 . then the Maximum power will be delivered to the antenna. it requires a feed line to transfer power between the two.Eref) Where: Emax = maximum voltage on the standing wave Emin = minimum voltage on the standing wave Efrd = incident voltage wave amplitude Eref = reflected voltage wave amplitude VSWR =(1 + ρ)/(1 . or when a transmission line is terminated with other than its characteristic impedance. such as an imperfection inane otherwise uniform transmission line.LTD Formal Definition of VSWR and Seasoned Measurements The voltage component of a standing wave in a uniform transmission line consists of the forward wave (with amplitude Vf) superimposed on the reflected wave (with amplitude Vr). Return loss is a measure in dB of the ratio of power in the incident wave to that in the reflected wave. and we define it to have a negative value. Return loss = 10 log(Pr / Pi) = 20 log (Er / Ei) Also of considerable interest is the mismatch loss. and matches Both the transmitter output impedance and the antenna input impedance. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. This is a measure of how much the transmitted power is attenuated due to reflection. Since the antenna is usually located some distance from the transmitter. In this case the VSWR will be 1:1 and The voltage and the current will be constant over the whole length of the feed line. If the feed line has no loss.

LTD Ideally. with a perfect 1:1 VSWR there would be no reflected power. you will get the forward and reflected power: 33 . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. From the SeaSonde monitor below. Consequently the return loss on the feed line would appear to be infinite.

The increase current will increase resistive loss. iii. WHEN VSWR INCREASE: i. Low level of pickup & radiation. There is increase in the power line beyond the actual transmission power.  Mismatch impedance keep high SWR & an increase loss in the transmission line. ii. 34 . NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. Reasonably flexible.  Match impedance keep ideal power transfer. 2. 3. Low level of loss. The increase voltage will cause dielectric loss iv. Increase power will increase the RF loss.LTD RF FEEDER: 1.

.544MHz of 32 time slots. and 1 to 24 in the ESF. with a total of 24 time slots. It depends upon the subscribers to use the GPRS system. with the 8th bit being the least significant bit (LSB). impedance of 100Ω. the frames are numbered 1 to 15 in the CRC-4 and CAS multiform formats. The E1 pulse shape is a perfectly rectangular pulse The T1 pulse shape contains overshoot shape and is driven on a line impedance of 120Ω or and undershoots and is driven on a line 75Ω. the frames are numbered 0 to In T1 systems. In E1 systems. Four types of ports:  INTERFACE1  IF2  IF3  IF4  1-12 used as TCH  1-4 is 1st sector. The bits are numbered 1 to 8. to 24. with the 8th bit being The channel time slots are numbered 1 the least significant bit (LSB). channel time slots are numbered 0 to 31. The bits are numbered 1 to 8.LTD  E1/T1 I. It has max. 5-8 2nd sector. 9-12 3rd sectors.048MHz with a total The T1 system operates at 1. The 12 in the SF/D4 format. in 13 & 14  Enhanced Data for Protocol (EDAP): its use for GPRS activation. 12 slots  There are 4 (OMU) Operation Maintains Unit E1 T1 It’s the interference of 32 time slots each with bit It’s the interference of 24 time slots rate of 64 kbps each with bit rate of 64 kbps The E1 system operates at 2. Even Transmission II.  Every sector there is a synchronization & signaling frame  12 signaling channel for 12 TRx. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.

1800.LTD TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS Without cabinet. indoors and outdoors: Installation Option with modules stacked on the floor or a shelf. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.5 – 57 VDC Nominal AC voltage 184 – 276 VAC Operating –35 to +55 °C temperature Ingress protection IP55 class E1 (asymmetric): 8 x 2M PCMs Transport E1/T1 (symmetric): 8 x 2M PCMs RRI: Integrated microwave radio indoor and interconnect unit with 2 x Flexbus interfaces .5/53 dBm Maximum Capacity 216 TRx Maximum number of 6 sectors BTS dimensions 4+4+4 with 7 modules stack installation: BTS height 800 mm (18 U)* BTS width 447 mm BTS depth 560 mm Module dimensions 133 mm (3U).900. mounted on a wall. pole or mast With cabinet. indoors and outdoors: inside a Nokia Flexi cabinet or any 19” rack Frequency Bands GSM/EDGE 800.1900 MHz Output Power 47/49. 89 mm (2U) 447 mm Module height 560 mm outdoor (422 mm without covers) Module width Module depth 11 kg heaviest single unit in stack configurations Maximum weight 148 kg for 4+4+4 TRX indoor/outdoor BTS* Power consumption 1 kW with 4+4+4 configuration Nominal DC voltage 40.

)=14 TCH.  Traffic per cell= 14 TCH with 2% GOS implies 8.000  Available frequency :24  GOS : 2%  Traffic per subscriber : 25mE this leads to calculate  Frequency per cell = 24/12=2  Traffic per cell=2*8-2(control ch. NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.LTD TO CALCULATE NO.  No of subscriber :10.  If following data exit for a network.  If n=1 & T=90sec. 35 . then traffic per subscriber A= (n*T)/3600= (1*90)/3600=25mE.  If there are 10000 subscribers then no. no of 3 sector needed is 30/3=10.  No of subscriber per cell = 8.  Therefore. OF BTS  To determine the no and layout of BTSs the no of subscriber and GOS have to be known.2E/25mE=328 sub/cell. of cell needed is 10000/328=30 cell.2 Enlarge per cell.  The GOS is % of allowed congested calls and defines the quality of services.

NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT. NOT FOR SALE . We acknowledge respective sources .LTD MUX: Multiplexer:- It means transmitting a large number of information units over a smaller number of channel and lines. Advantages: We use multiplexer for cost saving by connecting a multiplex and demultiplex. CONCLUSION The information contained in this book has been compiled from various sources for classroom discussions Only .