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What is literature?

The name has traditionally been applied to DRAMA
those imaginative works of poetry and prose NOVEL AND SHORT STORY
distinguished by the intentions of their authors POETRY
and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their ESSAY
execution. Literature may be classified EPIC
according to a variety of systems, including
Literary Genre
language, national origin, historical period,
genre, and subject matter. The Drama- The artistic work is performed as
Writings in which expression and form, in an objective occurrence witnessed by the
connection with ideas of permanent and audience
universal interest, are characteristic or essential Tragedy- In his Poetics, Aristotle defined
features, as poetry, novels, history, biography, tragedy as an organized presentation of human
and essays suffering. Main causes of sufferings: (a) Fate, the
position of a persons life that he cant control;
FORMS OF LITERATURE (b) character, which he can control.
PROSE Comedy- It is intended to reform. Not merely
POETRY laughable, but one of the richest ways a man
has to discover his own nature. Story of
achievement Literary Genre
the Novel and the Short Story- In case of
fiction made up of the novel and the short story,
INGREDIENTS OF LITERATURE the audience or the readers are present. The
SUBJECT reader holds the literary work in his hand.
FORM Short story began with Edgar Allan Poe and
POINT OF VIEW Nathaniel Hawthorne. Story must not be so
long that it cannot be read at one sitting, and
PRINCIPAL INGREDIENTS OF LITERATURE that it must have a certain single or unique
Subject - Any work of literature is about effect.
something, and for this reason, it has a subject. Characteristics of a Short Story: Unity,
Theme. brevity and intensity Short Story
Form- The vehicle used by literature to Factors to Consider in Evaluating the Short
communicate its subject. A verbal and artistic Story
structuring of ideas. E.g.: Sonnet Point-of-View Characters Plot Literary
Point of View- The angle of vision of the Genre
narrator. (first person, omniscient, limited Poetry- The poet speaks spontaneously to
omniscient, etc.) himself or to the universe, or perhaps, to an
absent lover.
Rhythm and Rhyme that a text is a reflection of the authors life and
Poetic Forms times. What does the work reveal about the
Lyric Poetry Narrative Poetry author or the history?
The Essay- It is a communication from the Edgar Allan Poe
individual author, as a person, to the audience It's always a little hard to separate the life of
(the reader). Received its name from the title of the legendary Poe from his works. In this case,
Michel de Montaignes first collection of short there are some big similarities. Poe was also in
prose Essais which means an attempt. love with a young woman, his cousin Virginia
Types: Clemm, and married her when she was just 13.
Formal Informal She had died two years before this poem was
the Epic- In ancient times, the epic was written. Whether or not this poem is
recited by a bard to an audience with the "autobiographical," we can be sure that Poe
accompaniment of a lyre. Now, it is rare in its knew what he was talking about here. This
literal form. intense and fascinating poem is one of Poe's
most famous. Whether you're an old fan of Poe
APPROACHES IN APPRECIATING LITERATURE or brand new to his work, "Annabel Lee" is a
LITERARY CRITICISM -a description and really cool example of his unique style and
evaluation of its object: literature (literary subject matter.
writings, writers, literary classes, etc.)
Text Dependent Approach
Critical approaches to literature reveal how or Roman Jakobson
why a particular work is constructed and what A style of inquiry that focuses on the features of
its social and cultural implications are. the literary text itself.
Understanding critical perspectives will help Emphasis on the FORM.
you to see and appreciate a literary work as a Evaluates inherent features of a text.
multilayered construct of meaning. Exegesis: the unfolding of meaning, line by line
Reading literary criticism will inspire you to or even word by word
reread, rethink, and respond. Soon you will be a Text Dependent Approach
full participant in an endless and enriching Structuralism Studies- the systems of
conversation about literature. relationships that are embedded in words and
the process of understanding what the nature Reader-dependent Approach
of literature is, what functions it has, what the the meaning is an interpretation created or
relation of text is to author, to reader, to constructed or produced by the reader
language, to society, to history. (informed readers or competent readers).
Author-dependent Approach Readers are asked to examine, explain, and
Text-dependent Approach defend her/his personal reaction to a reading.
Reader-dependent Approach Why like or dislike the reading, agree or
disagree with the author. Identify the reading's
Author-dependent Approach
purpose, and critique the text.
Historical- Biographical Approach- Assumes