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7, JULY 2009

Miniaturized Microstrip Wilkinson Power

Divider With Harmonic Suppression
Jianpeng Wang, Jia Ni, Yong-Xin Guo, Senior Member, IEEE, and Dagang Fang, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—A microstrip Wilkinson power divider with harmonic was utilized in the power divider design. Compact Wilkinson
suppression and size reduction is presented in this letter. The pro- power divider with harmonic suppression can be realized due
posed power divider not only effectively reduces its occupied area to the bandstop and slow wave characteristics of EBG.
to 36.5% of the conventional design at 2.65 GHz but also has higher
order harmonics suppression. From the measured results, a 29 dB Power divider with EBG cells effectively reduced the occu-
suppression for the third harmonic and a 34 dB suppression for the pied area to 70% of the conventional case in [4] and to 61% of
fifth harmonic are achieved while maintaining the characteristics the conventional one in [5]. In [4] the third and fifth harmonic
of a conventional Wilkinson power divider. Based on a 15 dB re- suppression were about 32.5 dB and 12 dB, respectively. Fur-
turn-loss criteria, the measured fractional bandwidth is 48%. At thermore, as defected ground structure (DGS) can provide the
an operation frequency of 2.65 GHz, the insertion losses are better
than 3.4 dB, the return loss is 27 dB, and the isolation is better than same properties as EBG, it was also used to design compact and
22 dB. harmonic suppression power divider. Using DGS in Wilkinson
Index Terms—Harmonic suppression, microstrip, slow-wave
power divider design, Woo et al. proposed a Wilkinson power
structures, Wilkinson power divider. divider with occupied area reduced to 90% of the conventional
case in [6]. This power divider also achieved a 26 dB second
harmonic suppression and a 25 dB third harmonic suppression.
I. INTRODUCTION Recently resonant-type left-handed transmission lines have also
been applied to compact Wilkinson power dividers design [7].
The saved circuit size of the power divider proposed in [7] is
W ILKINSON power dividers are widely used in various
microwave applications such as power amplifiers,
mixers, and frequency multipliers [1]. The conventional power
about 50% as compared with conventional design.
In this letter, a miniaturized microstrip Wilkinson power
divider is composed of two quarter-wavelength transmis- divider based on standard printed-circuit-board (PCB) etching
sion-line sections at the designed frequency, which results in a processes is presented. It has four microstrip high-low
large occupied area especially at low frequencies. Therefore, impedance resonator cells uniformly placed inside the
many methods were proposed to reduce the size of power Wilkinson power divider resulting in high slow-wave ef-
divider as reported in [2]–[7]. fect. The proposed power divider not only effectively reduces
By capacitive loading of the quarter wave transmission lines the occupied area to 36.5% of the conventional one at 2.65 GHz
employed in conventional Wilkinson power divider, Scardelletti but also has a more than 29 dB suppression for the third
et al. designed a Wilkinson power divider with its circuit area harmonic and 34 dB suppression for the fifth harmonic. The
reduced to 26% of the conventional design [2]. This design measured fractional bandwidth is 48% when dB.
was based on standard IC processing to gain high capacitive In the operation frequency band, measured power splits are
loading. On the other hand, based on standard printed-cir- about dB and phase difference between and
cuit-board (PCB) etching processes, compact Wilkinson power is about , which indicates a good work performance.
divider can also be designed in the form of slow-wave loading.
Using a -type multiple coupled slow-wave microstrip line II. CIRCUIT DESIGN
structure, Lee et al. introduced a Wilkinson power divider with
a circuit area reduction of 63% of the conventional one [3]. In The configuration of the proposed power divider is shown in
[4], [5] microstrip electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure Fig. 1, which consists of four high-low impedance resonators
placed inside the free area of a conventional power divider.
Each high-low impendence resonator is constructed by a high-
Manuscript received December 21, 2008; revised March 25, 2009. First pub- impedance line cascaded with a low-impedance line. This type
lished June 23, 2009; current version published July 09, 2009 This work was of loading will introduce four high-low impedance resonators
supported by the Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant 60671038,
China Postdoctoral Foundation under Grant AD41209, Jiangsu Province Post-
that are parallel with the main transmission lines of the power di-
doctoral Foundation under Grant AD41197, and by Singapore Ministry of Edu- vider. Fig. 2 shows the equivalent circuit of the proposed power
cation Academic Research Fund Tier 1 project under Grant R-263-000-534-133. divider under odd-mode and even-mode exciting respectively.
J. Wang, J. Ni, and D. Fang are with the Ministrial Key Laboratory of JGMT,
NJUST, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
In the circuit, models the main transmission lines and
(e-mail: models the high-impedance lines. accounts for the gap cou-
Y.-X. Guo is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, pling effect between two adjacent low-impedance lines and
National University of Singapore (e-mail: accounts for the capacitive loading effect caused by the low-
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at impedance lines. Notice that the capacitance effects of the main
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LMWC.2009.2022124 transmission line and the high-impedance line are not included
1531-1309/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE

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Fig. 1. Proposed power divider.

Fig. 3. Simulated and measured S-parameters of the Wilkinson power divider:

(a) insertion loss and (b) return loss.

divider. It has also been applied to miniaturized 3-dB coupler

design in [8]. We can get a desired slow-wave factor by ad-
justing the structure parameters of the new power divider prop-
erly. Therefore, with optimal design and EM simulation, the di-
mensions of the proposed power divider are as follows:
mm, mm, mm, mm,
mm, mm. They can be
Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit of the Wilkinson power divider: (a) Odd-mode, easily implemented by using the standard printed-circuit-board
(b) Even-mode. etching processes. The characteristic impedances of the three
ports are 50 . An isolation resistor (100 ) is implemented be-
tween port 2 and port 3. The substrate used here has a relative
in the equivalent circuit as they are trivial. Based on Fig. 2, dielectric constant of 3.38 and a thickness of 0.508 mm, and the
it is seen that capacitances and caused by the loading total area of the proposed new power divider is 40.72 mm .
high-low impedance resonators could achieve large shunt ca-
pacitance, thus resulting in compact divider topology because III. SIMULATED AND MEASURED RESULTS
the propagation constant is given by
Simulation was accomplished using IE3D, which is an
(1) electromagnetic simulation software based on the method of
moment (MOM). Measurement was carried out on an Agilent
where L represents total inductance in per unit length resulted 5230A network analyzer. Fig. 3(a) shows the simulated and
from the main transmission line and high-impedance lines, and measured insertion loss of proposed power divider. Fig. 3(b)
C denotes the total capacitance in per unit length main transmis- shows the results of return loss. Referring to the measured
sion line of the power divider caused by the low impedance line results in Fig. 3, the central frequency located at 2.65 GHz
and the coupling between adjacent two low impedance lines. can be clearly observed. At the central frequency, the mea-
Due to the capacitance C is greatly larger than that of the trans- sured and are dB, dB and dB,
mission line of a conventional power divider, the propagation respectively.
constant is enhanced drastically, corresponding to a greatly re- From Fig. 3(a) we can also observe that at higher frequen-
duced circuit size. This new type of slow-wave loading does not cies, the proposed power divider performs like a low pass filter
occupy extra area of the circuit as the high-low impedance res- with a high frequency rejection, which has resulted in a 29 dB
onators are placed inside the free area of conventional power suppression for third harmonic and a 34 dB suppression for fifth

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Fig. 4. Simulated and Measured S of the Wilkinson Power divider. Fig. 6. Photograph of the proposed Wilkinson power divider.

A miniaturized Wilkinson power divider has been presented.
Due to the high slow-wave factor, the new structure has effec-
tively reduced the occupied area to 36.5% of the conventional
case at about 2.65 GHz. The high slow-wave factor has been
generated with the high-low impedance loading properly ad-
justed. A sample microstrip Wilkinson power divider has been
fabricated and measured. Measured results indicate at operation
frequency the magnitudes of and are about dB
with a phase difference of . This performance is comparable
to conventional Wilkinson power divider. Furthermore, the new
Fig. 5. Measured phase difference between S and S of the Wilkinson power divider also has a more than 29 dB suppression for the
power divider. third harmonic and 34 dB suppression for the fifth harmonic.
The proposed power divider is compact, easy for fabrication,
TABLE I and applicable for microwave system application.
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harmonic. This is because the loading capacitance shifts the spu- [4] C. M. Lin, H. H. Su, J. C. Chiu, and Y. H. Wang, “Wilkinson power
rious resonant frequencies of the resonator from the integer mul- divider using microstrip EBG cells for the suppression of harmonics,”
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interferences from high-order harmonics [9], [10]. The conven- [5] F. Zhang and C. F. Li, “Power divider with microstrip electromagnetic
tional Wilkinson power divider does not have this property; it bandgap element for miniaturisation and harmonic rejection,” Electron.
Lett., vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 422–423, Mar. 2008.
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ulated and measured in Fig. 4, the measured isolation is power divider using dual-band rejection by asymmetric DGS,” IEEE
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[8] S. C. Jung, R. Negra, and F. M. Ghannouchi, “A design methodology
In order to study the size reduction, we have also investigated for miniaturized 3-dB branch-line hybrid couplers using distributed ca-
a conventional Wilkinson power divider which operates at the pacitors printed in the inner area,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.,
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[9] J. P. Wang, B. Z. Wang, Y. X. Guo, L. C. Ong, and S. Q. Xiao, “A com-
proposed power divider with conventional design. As listed in pact slow-wave microstrip branch-line coupler with high performance,”
Table I, the area of the proposed power divider occupies only IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 501–503, Jul.
36.5% of the conventional one at 2.65 GHz. Fig. 6 is the pho- 2007.
[10] L.-H. Hsieh and K. Chang, “Compact elliptic-function low-pass filter
tograph of fabricated miniaturized microstrip Wilkinson power using microstrip stepped-impedance hairpin resonators,” IEEE Trans.
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