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Writing and Naming Chemical Formulas and Compounds

I. Binary Compound – Compounds of 2 elements


1. Ionic Compounds – Metal + Non-Metal
Rule in Naming: Give the name of the 1st element followed by the second element ending in –ide.
2. Covalent Compounds – Non-Metal + Non-metal
Rule in Naming: Use the Greek prefixes
1 – mono 6 - hexa
2 – di 7 - hepta
3 – tri 8 - octa
4 – tetra 9 - nona
5 – penta 10 – deca
3. Metallic Compounds – Metals with variable oxidation numbers

Metal Classical Stock System Sn+2 Stannous Tin (II)


Tin
Name Sn+4 Stannic Tin (IV)
Cu+1 Cuprous Copper (I) Sb+3 Stibious Antimony (III)
Copper Antimony
Cu+2 Cupric Copper (II) Sb+5 Stibic Antimony (V)
Pb+2 Plumbous Lead (II) Au+1 Aurous Gold (I)
Lead Gold
Pb+4 Plumbic Lead (IV) Au+3 Auric Gold (III)
Hg+1 Mercurous Mercury (I) Ni+2 Nickelous Nickel (II)
Mercury Nickel
Hg+2 Mercuric Mercury (II) Ni+3 Nickelic Nickel (III)
Pt+2 Plantinous Platinum (II) Fe+2 Ferrous Iron (II)
Platinum Iron
Pt+4 Platinic Platinum (IV) Fe+3 Ferric Iron (III)

4. Hydrogen + Non-metal = acid without oxygen


Ex.: H+1 + S-2 = Hydrosulfuric Acid

II. Ternary Compounds – compounds of 3 elements


 Polyatomic ions – are composed of more than 2 elements but behave like single ions. (Metals +
Polyatomic ions)

NH4+1 Ammonia SO4-2 Sulfate OH-1 Hydroxide


CO3-2 Carbonate PO3 -3
Phosphite BrO -1
Hypobromite
HCO3-1 Bicarbonate
ClO-1 Hypochlorite PO4 -3
Phosphate BrO2 -1
Bromite
ClO2 -1
Chlorite CrO4 -2
Chromate BrO3 -1
Bromate
ClO3-1 Chlorate Cr2O7- 2
Dichromate BrO4-1 Perbromate
ClO4 -1
Perchlorate C 2O 4 -2
Oxalate IO -1
Hypoiodite
NO2 -1
Nitrite MnO4 -1
Permanganate IO2 -1
Iodite
NO3 -1
Nitrate Mn03 -1
Manganate IO3 -1
Iodate
SO3 -2
Sulfite Mn02 -1
Manganite IO4-1 Periodate

1. Metal + Polyatomic Ion: Na+1 + OH-1 = NaOH or Sodium Hydroxide


Mg + NO3-1 = Mg(NO3)2 or Magnesium Nitrate
+2

2. Hydrogen + Polyatomic Ion: Non-metal + Polyatomic = Hydrogen + Polyatomic


H+1 + SO4-2 = H2SO4 or Sulfuric Acid
H+1 + NO2-1 = Nitrous Acid
3. Metal + Hydroxide = Base Na+1 + OH-1 = NaOH or Sodium Hydroxide
Mg + OH-1 = Mg(OH)2 or Magnesium Hydroxide
+2

What is a Chemical Equation?

It is a shorthand way of writing chemical reactions using symbols and formulas


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Ex: Hydrogen + Oxygen  Water
H2 + O2  H2O

Parts of a Chemical Equation


1. Reactant – left side
2. Products – right side
3. (+) – b/w the compound or element
4.  / = - separate the reactant from the product
5. (reversible arrows) – describe either the reactant or product
6. Symbols – used to describe the physical property of an element
a. (g) or  - gas d. (aq) – aqueous or water solution
b. (s) or  - solid e. ∆ - heat
c. (l) or __ - liquid
Types of Chemical Reaction
1. Combination – A + B = AB
2. Decomposition – AB = A + B
3. Single Replacement – A + BC = AC + B
4. Double Replacement - AB + CD = AD + CB

How to Balance Chemical Equations

 BY INSPECTION or TRIAL AND ERROR


 BY REDUCTION – OXIDATION (REDOX) REACTION

The Reduction – Oxidation Reaction loss and gain of electrons

Oxidation – Loss of electrons and the adition of oxygen


- Attain in a more (+) oxidation number
Reduction – gain of electrons and removal of oxygen
- Attain in a more (-) oxidation number
 The element that is oxidized means addition of oxygen or reducing agent
 The element that is reduced is called the oxidizing agent

Stoichiometry

It refers to the measurement based on a balanced chemical equation

1. Formula Mass - total mass of an element in a compound in amu


2. Molecular Mass – refers to a mass of an molecule/covalents in amu
3. Molar Mass – refers to the formula mass in grams
Moles = mass in grams/molecular mass
4. Percentage Composition – percent per 100
5. Empirical Formula – based on % composition and molecular mass or the simplest formula
6. Molecular Formula – true formula of a compound

Date: December 9, 2007


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