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Solutions LEARNING


After the chapter, the

5.1 WHAT ARE SOLUTIONS students are expected to:

A Solution is a homogeneous mixture with the presence of only a. Define solution and
one phase and with a uniform appearance throughout the system. give examples of
Examples of solutions are juice drinks, air and water. different kinds of
Components: b. Differentiate
1. Solute: Substance being dissolved; Usually in smaller amounts solubility from rate
of dissolution.
(Minor Component in a Solution)
c. Give the factors
2. Solvent: dissolving medium; Substances present in greater
affecting solubility
amount (Major Component in a Solution) and rate of
Types of Solutions: d. Tell whether a
1. Solid in Solid Metal Alloys compound is
2. Solid in Liquid Sea Water soluble or insoluble
3. Liquid in Solid Dental Amalgam (Mercury in Silver) in water;
4. Liquid in Liquid Alcoholic Drinks, Gasoline e. Perform dilution; &
5. Gas in Gas Air (Mixture of O2, N2 and other gases) f. Express a given
6. Gas in Liquid Carbonated Drinks solution to different
7. Gas in Solid Hydrogen Gas in Palladium Metal ways of
Parameters stated above are applicable only for a solid – liquid
solution (e.g. Salt in water). When the substances are both states, that is in solid, liquid and gas, there is
no clear distinction in identifying which is the solute or solvent. For this type, the solute is usually the
minor component while the solvent is the major component.

Based on the amount of solute in a solution, it can be classified as diluted or concentrated.

Diluted solutions have little solute present than the amount of solvent while concentrated solutions
have relatively large amount of solute present. A typical example to differentiate a concentrated from a
diluted solution is between a condensed milk (concentrated) and evaporated milk (diluted).

Example 5.1
a. Which of the following is a solution? Freshly squeezed pineapple juice or alkaline water
b. What is the solute and solvent in a sugar solution?
c. Identify the solute and solvent in a 75% Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid.
d. Identify the type of solution:
(1) Brass doorknob (2) Syrup (3) Steel (4) Rubbing Alcohol

a. Alkaline Water (A Freshly Squeezed Pineapple juice usually have the pineapple pulps)
b. Solute: Sugar ; Solvent: Water
c. The given solution is made up of 75% Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid and 25% Water.
The solute is water and the solvent is the HCl solution.
d. (1) A metal alloy; Solid in Solid, (2) Solid in Liquid, (3) Solid in Solid, (4) Liquid in Liquid)

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Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given solvent at a
particular temperature to yield a solution at equilibrium. While Rate of Dissolution is how fast or slow a
given solute dissolves in a given amount of liquid at a certain temperature.
A solute can either be soluble or insoluble depending upon a given solvent. When a solution is
soluble, the solute can be dissolved by a given solute. A solute is insoluble if it remains undissolved in a
given solvent.


1. Nature of Solute and Solvents:

A rule of thumb can be expressed as “Like dissolves like”. Polar solvents dissolved polar solutes,
including ionic solutes and non polar solvents dissolved non polar solutes. Non Polar Solvents cannot
dissolve polar solute. This is the reason why when sugar is mixed to water, sugar is soluble to water
forming a sugar solution. Sugar and Water are both polar molecules.

2. Pressure (For Gas-Liquid Systems only)

When there is an increased in pressure, there is an increase in the solubility of gases in liquid.
This can be expressed by Henry’s Law defined as:

Where is the partial pressure of a gaseous solute is the mole fraction of the dissolved gas and
as the Henry’s law constant. As Pressure is raised, the concentration of molecules in the gas phase
and solubility is raised.
One possible application is when you open a bottle of carbonated drinks. Bubbling can be noted
due to escape of carbon dioxide as the bottle is opened or pressure is released.

3. Temperature

A. For Solubility of Solids in Liquids:

a. For an endothermic dissolution: Solute + Solvent + Heat Solution (Heat – Absorbing)

As temperature is increased, solubility is increased. (e.g. Dissolution of NH4Cl in Water)
b. For an exothermic dissolution: Solute + Solvent Solution + Heat (Heat – Releasing)
As temperature is increased, solubility is decreased. (e.g. Dissolution of NaOH in Water)

In terms of Le Chatelier’s Principle, for an endothermic dissolution, the forward reaction

occurs while the exothermic dissolution favors the backward shift.

B. For Solubility of Gas in Liquid:

An increase in temperature means lower temperature and lower solubility. (This will be further
explained through the experiment on the next page. For verification of your results or further reading,
you may consult any General Chemistry Books or Online Resource Classroom Sites. In citing electronic
sources, check the credibility of the website. )

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Materials: Carbonated Drink, 10 mL Pipet, Three Small Test Tubes, Hot Water and Cold Water Bath (250
mL beaker, burner, ice)

Procedure: Prepare three test tubes and label it as Control, HW (Hot Water) and CW (Cold Water). Place
5mL carbonated drink on each test tube. Place test tube HW and CW in hot water and cold water bath
respectively. Place the Control test tube on the rack. Observe for any changes in color for 5 minutes.
Interpret your results. You can also consult your experimental data to any General Chemistry Book.

1. Note the changes that happen to the two set-ups?

2. Describe the changes in each test tube. Note the physical changes for both test tubes.
Test Tube 1:
Test Tube 2:
3. What can you conclude about the relationship of temperature to the solubility of gases?

4. If the test tubes are interchanged from their respective set-ups, what will happen?

A. Saturated: Contains the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given solvent.
B. Unsaturated: Contains less number of solute that a solvent can hold
C. Supersaturated: Contains more solute than the solvent can hold

Example 5.2
If the solubility of an unknown salt named as “Chocosan” is 4 grams per 20 mL distilled water at room
temperature, determine whether the solution at each event is saturated, unsaturated or supersaturated.
If applicable, determine the amount of solute dissolved in the solution.

a. At 5 mL distilled water, 0.5 gram of “Chocosan” is added.

b. Addition of 2 grams of “Chocosan” from the previous mixture.
c. Heating the mixture to 40OC.
d. Cooling the mixture to room temperature.
e. Addition of a small pinch of “Chocosan”

A. Mainly Water Soluble Compounds
1. All nitrates (NO3-), chlorates (ClO3-), perchlorate (ClO4-) and acetates (CH3COO-) are soluble.
2. All chlorides (Cl-) are soluble except compounds with Ag+, Hg22+ and Pb2+.
3. All iodides (I-) and bromides (Br-) are soluble except compounds with Ag+, Hg22+, Hg2+, and Pb2+.
4. All sulfates (SO42-) are soluble except compounds with Cu2+, Ba2+, Pb2+, Ag+, Hg22+,and Sr2+.
B. Insoluble Compounds
1. All sulfides (S2-), carbonates (CO32-), phosphates (PO43-), chromates (CrO42-) and sulfites (SO32-)
are insoluble except compounds with Group 1 Elements and Ammonium ion (NH4+).
2. All hydroxides (OH-) are insoluble except compounds with Group 1 Elements, Ba2+, Ca2+, Sr2+
and Ammonium ion (NH4+).

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Example 5.3

1. Are the following salts soluble or insoluble in water at room temperature? State your reason/s.
a. KCl b. AgCl c. AgI
d. BaO e. BaS f. PbCl2

2. Write the complete chemical equation for the reaction of sodium bromide and silver nitrate. Is there a
possibility in forming an insoluble salt or precipitate?

1. (a) Soluble, (b) Insoluble, (c) Insoluble, (d) Soluble, (e) Insoluble, (f) Slightly Soluble to Insoluble
2. NaBr(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → AgBr(s) + NaNO3(aq). Yes. There is a possibility in forming an insoluble salt.


1. Particle Size:
Smaller solute promotes more contact with the solvent particles to form solutions than
larger solute particles. For example, it is easy to dissolve a small bar of soap than the family size
soap at constant water volume.
2. Mechanical Agitation
Stirring increases the rate of dissolution. In terms of the Collision Theory, there are
greater chances of collision with the solvent molecules and solute particles to form solution. This
is the reason why when you stir your chocolate drink after adding water and sugar, the sugar
and chocolate granules can be easily dissolved.
3. Temperature
As temperature is increased, heat is also increased. Addition of heat increases the kinetic
energy of the solutes particles. It also increases the chances of effective collisions between solute
and solvent.


Miscibility is the ability of a substance to be completely mixed with another substance. It is only
applicable to liquid – liquid and gas solution. Two substances can be miscible, when two substances are
uniformly distributed or immiscible if the two substances cannot be mixed.
To determine whether two substances are miscible or not, the rule “ Like dissolves like” applies.
Water, a polar molecule is immiscible with gasoline, a non polar molecule.


Dilution is the process of adding more solvent to make the solution less concentrated. The
number of moles before dilution is the same as after dilution. It is usually done when preparing certain
amount of moles per liters from a stock solution.

Since the number of moles before and after dilution is equal:

Molarity1 = Molarity2 where

where: c is concentrated and d is the diluted solution.

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Example 5.4

In a clock reaction experiment, 0.3 M and 0.5 M KOH solutions were needed. At the General Chemistry
preparation room, only 1 M KOH was available. How many liters of the 1M solution and water will be
needed to prepare 0.3L of the 0.3 and 0.5 M solution?

A. For the preparation of a 0.3 M Solution

To prepare the 0.3 L solution, the 0.09 L of concentrated solution will be added with 0.27 L water.

B. For the preparation of a 0.5 M Solution


To prepare the 0.5 L solution, the 0.15 L of concentrated solution will be added with 0.15 L water.


Concentration is a way of expressing the amount of solute per amount of solvent.

A. Mass Percent or Percentage by Mass

Where: Mass of Solution = Mass of Solute + Mass of Solvent

Example 5.4

A chemistry student dissolved 15 grams of calcium chloride in water to make 0.3 L of solution. If the
density of the solution is 4 g/mL, Find the Percentage by Mass of the solution.

Given: 0.5 grams calcium chloride (mass of solute)

0.3 L solution; (converting to mL = 300 mL)
4 g/mL, density of solution

To find the mass of solution:
Since: Density = Mass/Volume. By rearranging the equation, Mass = Density x Volume

Applying % mass:

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B. Percentage by Volume

C. Percentage by Mass and Volume

Example 5.5

Calculate the percentage composition of 10 mL lard in 210 mL solution.

Given: Volume of Solute: 10 mL lard

Volume of Solution: 210 mL solution
Find: % v/v

D. Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. It is expressed as M and also known as
molar concentration.

Example 5.6

If 14.12 grams of sulfuric acid is dissolved in water to make 420 mL solution, find the molarity.

Given: 14.12 g H2SO4

98.08 g/mol H2SO4
420 mL H2SO4Solution


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E. Molality is the number of moles per kilogram of solvent. It is expressed as m and also known as
molal concentration.

Example 5.7

How many grams of an unknown solute with a molar mass of 166.0 g/mol is needed to produce a 0.25
molal solution with 600 grams of unknown solvent.

Given: 166 g/mol of solute

600 g of unknown solvent (Converting it to kg = 0.600 kg)
0.25 molal


Rearranging the equation:

F. Normality (N) is defined as the number of equivalents of solute per liter of solution.

In determining the number of replaceable:

1. For Acids: It is equivalent to the weight in grams that will yield one mole of H+ ion.
Example: HCl = 1 H2SO4 = 2 H3PO4 = 3
2. For Base: It is equivalent to the weight in grams that will yield one mole of OH- ion.
Example: NaOH = 1 Mg(OH)2 = 2 Al(OH)3 = 3
3. For Salts: depends upon the product of the positive and negative charges of the ions.
Example: NaCl: Na+ + Cl- = 1 Fe2(SO4)3: Fe3+ + SO42- = 6

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Note: Get first the value of the equivalent weight before getting the no. of equivalent. The process is
NOT a continuous division.

Example 5.8

Find the normality of 13 grams triprotic acid dissolved in water to make a 4 L solution. The molar mass of
the acid is 97.98 g/mol.

Given: Mass in grams: 13 g

Molecular weight: 97.98 g/mol
No. of Replaceable: 3 (Since it is a triprotic acid)
Liters of Solution: 4 L


G. Mole Fraction:

To check if your answer is correct, Mole Fraction of Solute + Mole Fraction of Solvent = 1

Example 5.9

Find the mass of potassium acid phthalate (KHC8H4O4) if the mole fraction of NaOH is 0.14.

Given: Mole Fraction of NaOH = 0.14

Since Mole Fraction of Solute + Mole Fraction of Solvent = 1
Rearranging the equation, Mole Fraction of Potassium Acid Phthalate = 1 - Mole Fraction of NaOH
Mole Fraction of Potassium Acid Phthalate = 1 – 0.14
Mole Fraction of Potassium Acid Phthalate = 0.86

To get the Mass: Mass = Molar Mass x Mole

Mass = 204.22 g/mol x 0.86 moles
Mass = 175.63 g

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H. Parts per Million

I. Parts per Billion

Example 5.10

a. If 0.25 mg Barium Chloride was found in 540 mL of solution sample obtained from a deep water
excavation, Find ppm of BaCl.
Given: 0.25 mg BaCl
540 mL solution (Converting it to liters, 0.540 L)


b. A laboratory analyst tested the amount of a toxic compound of lead on children toys. In a sample
obtained from a famous children’s toy store, 9 μg of Pb was found out on a toy car weighing 581 grams.
(a) Calculate the parts per billion of the amount of Pb. (b) If the inhibitory amount of Pb is 14.2 ppb, is
the sample tested harmful or not?

(a) Given: 9 μg Pb
581 g of solution or 0.581 kg


(b) It is considered harmful.

Two students of General Chemistry were preparing a 0.55 L of an unknown
solution of Cj2M3 (with a density of 0.3g/mL). If 4 grams of the solute (Molar
Mass of 125.25 g/mol) is used and the solvent is MVe8 with twice the molar
mass of solute, Find:
1. Moles of Solute 7. Molality
2. Mass of Solution 8. Normality
3. Mass of Solvent 9. Mole Fraction of Solute
4. Percentage by Mass 10. Mole Fraction of Solvent
5. Percentage by Mass/Volume 11. Parts per Million
6. Molarity 12. Parts per Billion

Chapter 5: Solutions | 50
Chapter Review
A. Choose the best answer. If none of the answers are correct, write the atomic symbol of the
most electronegative atom in the periodic table.

1. When preparing diluted solutions from a stock solution, the process of ______ is most important.
a. Miscibility c. Solubility
b. Dilution d. Concentration

2. Which of the following reaction produces an insoluble salt?

a. Calcium Chloride and Sodium Phosphate
b. Potassium Chloride and Sodium Acetate
c. Potassium Hydroxide and Ferric Chloride
d. Both A and B

3. All of the following are solutions EXCEPT __________.

a. Acetic Acid and Water b. Dental Amalgam
c. Kerosene and Water d. Salt Water

For nos. 4- 5, Consider the reaction: Cj5M6(aq) + M2V(aq) → Cj2V6(s) + M5M(aq) ∆H = -58.5 kJ

4. What happens to the solubility of solids in liquids?

a. increase b. decrease
c. no change d. cannot be determined

5. What happens to the rate of dissolution?

a. increase b. decrease
c. no change d. cannot be determined

For nos. 6 -7, Consider the following:

Sodium Chloride + Dihydrogen monoxide Lard + Kerosene Lard + Water

6. Which among the two choices will give an immiscible mixture?

a. Sodium Chloride + Dihydrogen monoxide c. Lard + Kerosene
b. Lard + Water d. Both A and B

7. Which will form a solution?

a. Sodium Chloride + Dihydrogen monoxide c. Lard + Kerosene
b. Lard + Water d. Both A and B

For nos. 8 to 10, Consider the following: If the maximum capacity of compound XYZ on water is 2.5 g/L at
21OC, is the mixture saturated, unsaturated or supersaturated.

8. What is the resulting mixture if 5 grams is added in a 2 L solution at 21 OC?

9. Addition of 0.3 gram (At constant volume and Temperature).
10. Addition of 0.5 L water.

B. Give the difference between:

a. Solubility and Rate of Dissolution c. Molarity and Molality
b. Miscibility and Solubility d. Saturated, Unsaturated and Supersaturated Solutions

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C. Classify the following as a solution or not. If applicable, determine the solute and solvent in the

1. Mayonnaise 3. Paint 5. 75% Isopropyl alcohol

2. Blood 4. Red Wine 6. Energy drinks

D. Write the following chemical equation with the respective states of the following compounds.
Predict whether a precipitate will form.
1. Calcium Chloride and Sodium Phosphate
2. Potassium Hydroxide and Ferric Chloride
3. Potassium Chloride and Sodium Acetate

E. Find the equivalent weight of:

1. Potassium Iodate 3. H2SO4 5. NaOH
2. Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate 4. Al(OH)3 6. Ca3(PO4)2

F. Solve the following. Report your answers with complete solution and proper significant figures.

1. Find the original concentration of a stock solution if 5 mL was obtained to produce a 10 mL of a 2 M

2. Jaja was preparing a 46% KOH solution (by mass) for his laboratory experiment. If the total mass of
the solution is 250 grams and the mass of the solute comprises 1/5 of the total mass of the solution,
find the mass of solute and solvent.
3. A 2% by volume solution was found to be with 2 mL ethyl alcohol and an unknown quantity of water.
Find the amount of water in the solution.
4. Calculate the percentage concentration of 5 grams KMnO4 in 0.05 mL HCl.
5. An unknown polyprotic acid with a density of 2.3 g/mL has a molarity of 0.40 mol/L. Calculate the
mass in grams of the acid.
6. How many grams of Ba(NO3)2 is needed to prepare a 2.5 L of 0.20 M solution?
7. How many milliliters of a 0.425 M NaNO3 solution is needed to prepare 0.9 mole NaNO3?
8. Calculate the percentage concentration of 20 g KOH in a 500 mL solution. Also, calculate molarity of
the solution.
9. Compute for the mass of napthalene, C10H8, added to 542 grams unknown solvent (with a molal
concentration of 25.21 g).
10. In an experiment to test sodium bicarbonate as a leavening agent, 5 N solution was assigned to the
group of Shelah. (a) Compute for the equivalent weight. (b) If 5 L was needed for the test, how many
grams of the leavening agent should be weighed? (c) If they need 3 L of solution, how many grams
are needed?
11. Suppose Compound A has a molar mass of 35g/mol and Compound B with twice the molar mass of A.
Find the Mole Fraction of Compound A and B if both have a mass of 5 g.
12. A newly discovered compound, Insiderinidium, was found to be present in bodies of thermophilic
bacteria in Mudspring, Mt. Makiling. They found out that only 5 μg is present in 5 L of water. Calculate
ppm and ppb.
G. Explain briefly.
1. Why is Kerosene immiscible with water? Explain briefly.
2. Will the reaction of Potassium Acid Phthalate and Sodium Hydroxide produce a precipitate?
3. Can Normality be used as a unit of concentration in dilution?

Try it!
When Element A-1245 was combined with Element B-9456, compound A5VcH2 was synthesized. If 4 10-3
grams of compound A5(VcH)2 was prepared to make 1.2 10-10 L, Find the Molarity of the solution.

The Mass of the Respective Atoms of Compound A5(VcH) 2 is as follows:

A: Vc2 grams Vc: 2 grams
H: grams

Chapter 5: Solutions | 52