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Terminologies:

1. Circle – a closed curved all points of which are equidistant from a point within

called the center

2. Radius – (plural: radii) is a straight line from the center to any point in the

circle

3. Equal Circle – circles are equal or congruent if their radii are equal

4. Concentric Circle – circles having the same circle

5. Secant – a straight line which

intersects a circle in 2 points

6. Chord – a straight line which joins nay

2 points on a circle.

7. Diameter – A chord which passes

through the center

8. Radius – a line from the center to any

point in the circle

9. Tangent - al line intersects a circle at

exactly one point]

10. Arc – a part of a circle (ex: AC or “arc

AC”)

a. Minor arc – is less than a

semicircle

b. Major arc – is more than a semicircle

11. Semicircle – is an arc which is half of a circle

12. Quadrant – is ¼ of a circle.

13. Central Angle – an angle formed by 2 radii as angle O.

14. Circumference – the length of a circle. It is measure as the usual linear unit

and also a new unit of measure, arc degree. An arc of 10 means 1/360 of the

circumference. In navigation, an arc of 1 minute (1’) measured a great circle of

the earth is called a nautical mile.

15. Arc degree – the unit used to measure the length of an arc

1. Principle 2 – Two magnitudes are equal if heir ration is unity and conversely.

2. Principle 21 – A line intersect a circle in at most 2 points.

3. Principle 31 – A central angle equals numerically intercepted arc.

4. Principle 32 – One circle and only one can be drawn with any point as a

center and with a radius of any given length.

5. Principle 33 – Radii of the same circle (or of equal circles) are equal.

6. Principle 34 – A point is within, on or without a circle according to its

distance from the center is less than, equal or greater than its radius.

7. Principle 35 – Two circles are equal if their radii are equal

8. Principle 36 – A diameter bisects a circle

PROPOSITION 1

Theorem: Central angles of a circle (or of equal circle) have the same ratio as

their arcs.

Given: Central angles O and O1 with arc x and arc x1 in equal circles.

Prove:

Angle O Arc x

Angle = Arc x1

O 1

Statements Facts

1. Angle O equals numerically 1. A central angle equals numerically

intercepted arc x and Angle O equals intercepted arc.

arc x1

Angle O Arc x 2. Axiom of division

Angle = Arc x1

O1

2.

PROPOSITION 2

Theorem: Equal Central angles of a circle (or of equal circle) have equal arcs

and equal arcs have equal central angles

Given: Central angles O equals O1 with arc x and arc x1 in equal circles.

Prove: arc x =arc x1

Statements Facts

Angle O Arc x 1. Central angles of the same circle

=

Angle O1 Arc x1 (or of equal circles) are equal.

1.

Angle O = 2. 2. Two magnitudes are equal if heir

Angle 2. ration is unity and conversely.

O1 1 2.

2.

Arc x Angle O 3. Substitution

= =1

Arc x1 Angle O1

3.

4. arc x =arc x1 4. Same as 2

PROPOSITION 3

Theorem: Equal arcs of a circle (or of equal circle) have equal chords,

conversely, equal chords have equal arcs.

Prove: c = c1

Statements Facts

1. Draw radii, a, b , a1 and b1 1. Two points determine a straight

line

2. In ∆ abc and ∆ a1b1c1 , a=a1 and 2. Radii of the same circle (or of equal

b=b1 circles) are equal.

3. arc x =arc x1 3. Given

4. Angle O = Angle O1 4. Equal arcs have equal central

angles

5. ∆ abc = ∆ a1b1c1 5. sas = sas

6. c = c1 6. Corresponding parts ….

circle. In such case, the circle are said to be circumscribed about the polygon and

the center of the circle is called the circumference of the polygon

In the same circles of equal circles, arcs are equal if their central

Tool 12

angles and chords are equal

In the same circles of equal circles, central angles and chords are

Tool 13

equal if their arcs are equal

EXERCISES:

1. Two pair of equal arcs are made by 2 diameters

of a circle.

To prove: Arc AD = Arc CB. Arc AB = Arc CD

Statements Facts

1. angle 1 = angle 2 1. Vertical angles are

equal

2. arc AD = arc BC 2. Equal central angles

have equal arcs

2. If O is the center 3. Angle 3 = angle 4 3. same as 1

of a circle, and L1 4. arc AB = arc CD 4. same as 2

= L2. Prove arc AD

equals arc CB

Statements Facts

have equal arcs

then L1 = L2

Statements Facts

2. arc AD – arc CD = 2. Axiom of Subtraction

arc CB – arc CD

3. arc AD = arc CB 3. Equal central angles have

equal arcs

circle equals the line joining the midpoint of 2

other radii of that circle, the radii intercept equal

arcs.

Given: OA, OB

OD, OC

E, F, L & M are midpoints of the radii

To prove: arc AB= arc CD

Statements Facts

equal circles) are equal.

2. OE=OL, OF = OM 2. Halve of equals are equal.

the 2 radii is equal to the other.

4. ∆ EOF =∆ MOL 4. sss = sss

5. L1 = L2 5. Corresponding parts…

arcs

Given: AC=AB OD is a radius

To prove: arc AD = arc DB

Statements Facts

1. Connect OA and OB 1. Two points determine a

straight line

2. OA = OB 2. Radii of the same circle

(or of equal circles) are

equal.

3. AC=CB 3. Given

4. OC=OC 4. Identical

5. ∆ CAO= ∆ COB 5. sss = sss

6. L1 = L 2 6. Corresponding parts ….

7. arc AD = arc DB 7. Equal central angles

have equal arcs

equiangular

Statements Facts

2. L1= L3 = L2 2. Equal arcs have equal

central angles

3. In ∆ROP, ∆POS, ∆ROS, 3. Radii of the same circle

OR, OP & OS or OR=OP=OS (or of equal circles) are

equal.

4. ∆ ROP =∆POS =∆ROS 4. sas = sas

5. RP=PS=PR 5. Corresponding parts…

6. ∆ PRS is equiangular 6. definition of an

equiangular triangle

7. If the diameter AC and BC are ┴, ABCD is a square

Given: AC and BD are diameters, AC ┴ BD

To Prove: ABCD is a square

Statements Facts

2. AC ┴ BD 2. Given

whose diagonals are = and ┴ each to each is

a square

To prove, Chord AC= chord BD

Statements Facts

arc CD + arc CB

3. Chord AC= chord BD 3. Equal arcs have equal

chords.

Statements Facts

1. AC=BD 1. Given

have equal arcs

3. arc AC – arc BC = 3. Axiom of Subtraction

arc BD – arc BC

.

.. arc AB = arc CD

PROPOSITION 4

Theorem: A line through the center of a circle perpendicular to the chord bisects

the chord and its 2 arcs.

To prove: AD=DB, arc x=arc y, arc p= arc r

Statements Facts

Draw radii OA and OB 1. Two points determine a straight

line.

In rt. ∆ ODA and ODB, AO=OB 2. Radii of the same circle are equal

OD=OD 3. Identity

rt. ∆ ODA = rt. ∆ ODB 4. hy.l=hy.l

AD=DB 5. Corresponding parts..

L1=L2 6. same as 5

arc x=arc y 7. Equal central angles have equal

arcs

L3 is the supplement of L1 and L4 is the 8. If 2 adjacent angles have their

supplement of L2 exterior sides on a straight line, they

are supplementary

L3 = L4 9. Supplements of equal angles are

equal

10. arc p = arc r 10. same as 7

Corollary 1 of Proposition 4

A line through the center that bisects a chord, which is not a

diameter, is perpendicular to the chord

Given: t is a line through the center O making AD=DB

To prove: t ┴ AB

Statements Facts

1. OA=OB 1. Radii of the same circle are equal

2. AD=DB 2. Given

3. O and D are points equidistant 3. Identity

from A and D , D and B, OD=OD

4. t ┴ AB 4. Two points equidistant from the

ends of a line determine the

perpendicular bisector of the line,.

Corollary 2 of Proposition 4

The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the

center of the circle

Given: CD┴ AB, AD=DB

To prove: CD produces passes center circle.

Hint: Since CD is the perpendicular bisector of AB and DA=DB, O lies on CD.

Statements Facts

1. CD┴ AB, AD=DB 1. Given

2. Draw radii OA and OB, OA=OB 2. Radii of the same circle are equal

3. O and D are points equidistant to 3. Two points equidistant from the

AB at O ends of a line determine the

perpendicular bisector of the

4. CD produces passes center circle. 4. Any points equidistant from the

extremities of the line lies in its

perpendicular bisector

EXERCISES

1. A line from the midpoints of a chord is the midpoint of

the arc is perpendicular to the chord.

Given: C & D are midpoints of the chord and its arc

To Prove: DC ┴ AB

Statements Facts

1. Draw AD and DB 1. Two points determine a straight

line

2. AC=CB 2. Given

3. CD=CD 3. Identical

4. ∆ ADC = ∆ DCB 4. sss=sss

5. L1= L2 5. Corresponding parts ….

6. DC ┴ AB 6. If one straight line meets another

and forms 2 equal adjacent

supplementary angles, they are

said to be perpendicular

and is perpendicular to the chord

Given: AB is a chord, OC is a radius bisecting arc AB

To Prove: AD=DB

Statements Facts

1. arc AC = arc AB 1. Given

2. L1=L2 2. Equal arcs have equal central

angles

3. AO=OB 3. Radii of the same circle are equal

4. OD=OD 4. Identity

5. ∆ADO= ∆DOB 5. sas=sas

6. AD=DB 6. Corresponding parts

extremities of a chord. Show that AB is a diameter.

Given: pts. A and B are equidistant from the extremities of a

chord

To prove: AB is a diameter

Statements Facts

1. CA=AD 1. Given

2. arc CA = arc AD 2. Equal chords have arcs

3. CB=CD 3. Given

4. arc CB= arc CD 4. same as 2

5. CA+CB=AD+DB 5. Axiom of Addition

6. AB is a diameter 6. A chord that bisects a circle

is a diameter

4. If chord AB and BC are equal, prove that radius OB bisects the chord AC.

Given: AB=BC, OB is a radius

To prove: OB bisects chord AC or A

Statements Facts

1. AB=BC 1. Given

2. AO=OC 2. Radii of equal circles are equal

3. L1=L2 3. The line joining the vertices of 2 isosceles

∆ on the same base bisects the angles at

those vertices

4. BD=BD 4. Identity

5. ∆ABD = ∆BDC 5. sas=sas

6. AD=DC 6. Corresponding parts……

5. Conversely, if radius OB bisects chord AC, AB=BC

Statements Facts

1. AO=OC 1. Radii of the same circles are equal

2. OD=OD 2. Identity

3. AD=DC 3. Given

4. ∆OAD=∆ODC 4. sss=sss

5. L3=L4 5. Corresponding parts……

6. arc AB= arc AC 6. Equal central angles have equal

arcs

7. AB=BC 7. Equal arcs have equal chords

quadrilateral meet in a point

Given: ABCD is an inscribed quadrilateral. e, f,g and h are

perpendicular bisector of the side

Prove: e, f,g and h meet at a point

Statements Facts

1. e, f,g and h pass through the 1. Given

center of a circle

2. e, f,g and h meet at a point 2. A line perpendicular to the chord at

its midpoint passes through the

center

center of a circular plate or section of a shaft

Given: AO=OB, L1=L2

To prove: OC passes through the center

Statements Facts

1. Connect AB 1. Two points determine a straight

line

2. AO=OB 2. Given

3. L1=L2 3. Given

4. OD=OD 4. Identity

5. ∆DOA = ∆BOD 5. sas = sas

6. AD=Db and L3=L4 6. Corresponding parts….

7. OC passes through the center 7. A line which bisects a chord and

perpendicular to it passes the

center.

perpendicular bisector of the chord.

Given: arc AC = arc CB, arc AD=arc BD

To prove: CD is the perpendicular bisector of the chord.

Statements Facts

1. Connect AC, CB, AD, DB 1. Between 2 points one straight line

can be drawn

2. arc AC = arc CB and arc AD=arc 2. Given/ Equal chords have equal

BD arcs

3. L1=L2 3. The line joining the vertices of 2 isosceles

∆ on the same base bisects the angles at

those vertices

4. DE=DE 4. Identity

5. ∆ADE = ∆EBD 5. sas=sas

6. AE=EB 6. Corresponding parts

7. CD is the perpendicular bisector of 7. Definition of a perpendicular

the chord. bisector

bisector of their included angle is a diameter.

Given: AB=BC and L1=L2

To prove: BD is a diameter

Statements Facts

1. AB=BC 1. Given

2. L1=L2 2. Given

3. OB=OB 3. Identity

4. ∆AOB=∆COB 4. sas=sas

5. Connect AC 5. Two points determine a straight

line

6. AO=OC, L3=L4 6. Corresponding parts

7. BD passes the center 7. A line perpendicular to a chords at

its midpoints passes the center

8. BD is a diameter 8. Definition of a diameter

10. If AB=CD are parallel, chords and diameter, GH bisects CD. Prove

that CH bisects AB

Given: AB || CD, GH is a diameter and bisects CD

To prove: GH bisects AB

Statements Facts

1. GH bisects CD 1. Given

2. If GH is a diameter, it is 2. A line through the center that

perpendicular to CD bisects a chord which is not a

diameter is perpendicular to the

chord

3. GH perpendicular to AB 3. A line perpendicular to one of the

parallel lines is perpendicular to

the other

4. GH bisects AB 4. A line through the center of a circle

perpendicular to a chord bisects

the chord and its 2 arcs.

Prove that AB is bisected by OR.

Given: O is the center of the figure and OR || AD

To prove: AB is bisected by OR

Statements Facts

1. Connect AB 1. Two points determine a straight

line

2. BO=OD 2. The center of the circle is the

midpoint of the diameter

3. OR || AD 3. Given

4. Chord AB is bisected 4. A line which bisects a side of the

triangle and parallel to the 2nd side

bisects the 3rd side

5. arc AR = arc BR 5. A line through the center that

bisects a chord which is not a

diameter is perpendicular to the

chord and bisects the 2nd arcs of

the chord

PROPOSITION 5

Theorem: Equal chords of a circle (or

of equal circle) are equally distant from

the center. Conversely, chords equally

distant from the center are equal.

To prove: a=a1

Statements Facts

1. Draw radii r and r1 1. 2 points determine a straight line

2. a ┴ c, a1┴ c1 2. Given

3. In rt. ∆s RAB and R1A1B1, r=r1 3. Radii of equal circle are equal

4. b=½c and b1=½c1 4. A line through the center

perpendicular to the chord and

bisect the chord and its arcs are

equal

5. c=c1 5. Given

6. b(or ½c) = b1(or ½c1) 6. Substitution

7. rt. ∆s RAB = R1A1B1 7. hy.l=hy.l

8. : a=a1 8. Corresponding parts

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