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CIRCLES

Terminologies:

1. Circle – a closed curved all points of which are equidistant from a point within
called the center
2. Radius – (plural: radii) is a straight line from the center to any point in the
circle
3. Equal Circle – circles are equal or congruent if their radii are equal
4. Concentric Circle – circles having the same circle
5. Secant – a straight line which
intersects a circle in 2 points
6. Chord – a straight line which joins nay
2 points on a circle.
7. Diameter – A chord which passes
through the center
8. Radius – a line from the center to any
point in the circle
9. Tangent - al line intersects a circle at
exactly one point]
10. Arc – a part of a circle (ex: AC or “arc
AC”)
a. Minor arc – is less than a
semicircle
b. Major arc – is more than a semicircle
11. Semicircle – is an arc which is half of a circle
12. Quadrant – is ¼ of a circle.
13. Central Angle – an angle formed by 2 radii as angle O.
14. Circumference – the length of a circle. It is measure as the usual linear unit
and also a new unit of measure, arc degree. An arc of 10 means 1/360 of the
circumference. In navigation, an arc of 1 minute (1’) measured a great circle of
the earth is called a nautical mile.
15. Arc degree – the unit used to measure the length of an arc

Principles used in Proving Circles

1. Principle 2 – Two magnitudes are equal if heir ration is unity and conversely.
2. Principle 21 – A line intersect a circle in at most 2 points.
3. Principle 31 – A central angle equals numerically intercepted arc.
4. Principle 32 – One circle and only one can be drawn with any point as a
center and with a radius of any given length.
5. Principle 33 – Radii of the same circle (or of equal circles) are equal.
6. Principle 34 – A point is within, on or without a circle according to its
distance from the center is less than, equal or greater than its radius.
7. Principle 35 – Two circles are equal if their radii are equal
8. Principle 36 – A diameter bisects a circle
PROPOSITION 1
Theorem: Central angles of a circle (or of equal circle) have the same ratio as
their arcs.

Given: Central angles O and O1 with arc x and arc x1 in equal circles.
Prove:
Angle O Arc x
Angle = Arc x1
O 1

Statements Facts
1. Angle O equals numerically 1. A central angle equals numerically
intercepted arc x and Angle O equals intercepted arc.
arc x1
Angle O Arc x 2. Axiom of division
Angle = Arc x1
O1

2.

PROPOSITION 2
Theorem: Equal Central angles of a circle (or of equal circle) have equal arcs
and equal arcs have equal central angles

Given: Central angles O equals O1 with arc x and arc x1 in equal circles.
Prove: arc x =arc x1

Statements Facts
Angle O Arc x 1. Central angles of the same circle
=
Angle O1 Arc x1 (or of equal circles) are equal.
1.
Angle O = 2. 2. Two magnitudes are equal if heir
Angle 2. ration is unity and conversely.
O1 1 2.
2.
Arc x Angle O 3. Substitution
= =1
Arc x1 Angle O1
3.
4. arc x =arc x1 4. Same as 2

PROPOSITION 3
Theorem: Equal arcs of a circle (or of equal circle) have equal chords,
conversely, equal chords have equal arcs.

Given: arc x =arc x1 with chords c and c1 in equal circle


Prove: c = c1

Statements Facts
1. Draw radii, a, b , a1 and b1 1. Two points determine a straight
line
2. In ∆ abc and ∆ a1b1c1 , a=a1 and 2. Radii of the same circle (or of equal
b=b1 circles) are equal.
3. arc x =arc x1 3. Given
4. Angle O = Angle O1 4. Equal arcs have equal central
angles
5. ∆ abc = ∆ a1b1c1 5. sas = sas
6. c = c1 6. Corresponding parts ….

INSCRIBED POLYGON – a polygon is in a circle if its sides are chords of the


circle. In such case, the circle are said to be circumscribed about the polygon and
the center of the circle is called the circumference of the polygon

In the same circles of equal circles, arcs are equal if their central
Tool 12
angles and chords are equal

In the same circles of equal circles, central angles and chords are
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equal if their arcs are equal

EXERCISES:
1. Two pair of equal arcs are made by 2 diameters
of a circle.

Given: Circle O, 2 diameters (AC and DB)


To prove: Arc AD = Arc CB. Arc AB = Arc CD

Statements Facts
1. angle 1 = angle 2 1. Vertical angles are
equal
2. arc AD = arc BC 2. Equal central angles
have equal arcs
2. If O is the center 3. Angle 3 = angle 4 3. same as 1
of a circle, and L1 4. arc AB = arc CD 4. same as 2
= L2. Prove arc AD
equals arc CB

Statements Facts

1. angle 1 = angle 2 1. Given

2. <2 + <3 = <1 + <3 2. Axiom of Addition

3. arc AD = arc CB 3. Equal central angles


have equal arcs

3. Conversely, If O is the center of a circle and arc AD equals arc CB,


then L1 = L2
Statements Facts

1. arc AD = arc CB 1. Given


2. arc AD – arc CD = 2. Axiom of Subtraction
arc CB – arc CD
3. arc AD = arc CB 3. Equal central angles have
equal arcs

4. If the line joining the midpoints, 2 radii of a


circle equals the line joining the midpoint of 2
other radii of that circle, the radii intercept equal
arcs.

Given: OA, OB
OD, OC
E, F, L & M are midpoints of the radii
To prove: arc AB= arc CD
Statements Facts

1. OA = OC, OB = OD 1. Radii of the same circle (or of


equal circles) are equal.
2. OE=OL, OF = OM 2. Halve of equals are equal.

3. EF = M 3. The line joining the midpoint of


the 2 radii is equal to the other.
4. ∆ EOF =∆ MOL 4. sss = sss

5. L1 = L2 5. Corresponding parts…

6. arc AB = arc CD 6. Equal central angles have equal


arcs

5. If OD is a radius and AD=CB, Prove arc AD = arc DB


Given: AC=AB OD is a radius
To prove: arc AD = arc DB
Statements Facts
1. Connect OA and OB 1. Two points determine a
straight line
2. OA = OB 2. Radii of the same circle
(or of equal circles) are
equal.
3. AC=CB 3. Given
4. OC=OC 4. Identical
5. ∆ CAO= ∆ COB 5. sss = sss
6. L1 = L 2 6. Corresponding parts ….
7. arc AD = arc DB 7. Equal central angles
have equal arcs

6. If arc PR = arc PS = arc RS, prove ∆ PRS is


equiangular
Statements Facts

1. arc PR = arc PS = arc RS 1. Given


2. L1= L3 = L2 2. Equal arcs have equal
central angles
3. In ∆ROP, ∆POS, ∆ROS, 3. Radii of the same circle
OR, OP & OS or OR=OP=OS (or of equal circles) are
equal.
4. ∆ ROP =∆POS =∆ROS 4. sas = sas
5. RP=PS=PR 5. Corresponding parts…
6. ∆ PRS is equiangular 6. definition of an
equiangular triangle
7. If the diameter AC and BC are ┴, ABCD is a square
Given: AC and BD are diameters, AC ┴ BD
To Prove: ABCD is a square

Statements Facts

1. AC=BD 1. Diameters of the same circle are equal

2. AC ┴ BD 2. Given

3. CD is a square 3. definition of a square/ A quadrilateral


whose diagonals are = and ┴ each to each is
a square

8. If arc AB = arc CD, chord AC=chord BD,


To prove, Chord AC= chord BD
Statements Facts

1. arc AB = arc CD 1. Given

2. arc AB + arc CB= 2. Axiom of Addition


arc CD + arc CB
3. Chord AC= chord BD 3. Equal arcs have equal
chords.

9. Conversely, if AC=BD, Prove arc AB = arc CD


Statements Facts

1. AC=BD 1. Given

2. arc AC=arc BD 2. Equal chords of a circle


have equal arcs
3. arc AC – arc BC = 3. Axiom of Subtraction
arc BD – arc BC
.
.. arc AB = arc CD
PROPOSITION 4
Theorem: A line through the center of a circle perpendicular to the chord bisects
the chord and its 2 arcs.

Given: t ┴ AB at D and passes through the center


To prove: AD=DB, arc x=arc y, arc p= arc r

Statements Facts
Draw radii OA and OB 1. Two points determine a straight
line.
In rt. ∆ ODA and ODB, AO=OB 2. Radii of the same circle are equal
OD=OD 3. Identity
rt. ∆ ODA = rt. ∆ ODB 4. hy.l=hy.l
AD=DB 5. Corresponding parts..
L1=L2 6. same as 5
arc x=arc y 7. Equal central angles have equal
arcs
L3 is the supplement of L1 and L4 is the 8. If 2 adjacent angles have their
supplement of L2 exterior sides on a straight line, they
are supplementary
L3 = L4 9. Supplements of equal angles are
equal
10. arc p = arc r 10. same as 7

Corollary 1 of Proposition 4
A line through the center that bisects a chord, which is not a
diameter, is perpendicular to the chord
Given: t is a line through the center O making AD=DB
To prove: t ┴ AB

Statements Facts
1. OA=OB 1. Radii of the same circle are equal
2. AD=DB 2. Given
3. O and D are points equidistant 3. Identity
from A and D , D and B, OD=OD
4. t ┴ AB 4. Two points equidistant from the
ends of a line determine the
perpendicular bisector of the line,.

Corollary 2 of Proposition 4
The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the
center of the circle
Given: CD┴ AB, AD=DB
To prove: CD produces passes center circle.
Hint: Since CD is the perpendicular bisector of AB and DA=DB, O lies on CD.

Statements Facts
1. CD┴ AB, AD=DB 1. Given
2. Draw radii OA and OB, OA=OB 2. Radii of the same circle are equal
3. O and D are points equidistant to 3. Two points equidistant from the
AB at O ends of a line determine the
perpendicular bisector of the
4. CD produces passes center circle. 4. Any points equidistant from the
extremities of the line lies in its
perpendicular bisector

EXERCISES
1. A line from the midpoints of a chord is the midpoint of
the arc is perpendicular to the chord.
Given: C & D are midpoints of the chord and its arc
To Prove: DC ┴ AB
Statements Facts
1. Draw AD and DB 1. Two points determine a straight
line
2. AC=CB 2. Given
3. CD=CD 3. Identical
4. ∆ ADC = ∆ DCB 4. sss=sss
5. L1= L2 5. Corresponding parts ….
6. DC ┴ AB 6. If one straight line meets another
and forms 2 equal adjacent
supplementary angles, they are
said to be perpendicular

2. If a radius bisects an arc, it bisects the chord of the arc


and is perpendicular to the chord
Given: AB is a chord, OC is a radius bisecting arc AB
To Prove: AD=DB
Statements Facts
1. arc AC = arc AB 1. Given
2. L1=L2 2. Equal arcs have equal central
angles
3. AO=OB 3. Radii of the same circle are equal
4. OD=OD 4. Identity
5. ∆ADO= ∆DOB 5. sas=sas
6. AD=DB 6. Corresponding parts

3. If points A and B on a circle are equidistant from the


extremities of a chord. Show that AB is a diameter.
Given: pts. A and B are equidistant from the extremities of a
chord
To prove: AB is a diameter
Statements Facts
1. CA=AD 1. Given
2. arc CA = arc AD 2. Equal chords have arcs
3. CB=CD 3. Given
4. arc CB= arc CD 4. same as 2
5. CA+CB=AD+DB 5. Axiom of Addition
6. AB is a diameter 6. A chord that bisects a circle
is a diameter

4. If chord AB and BC are equal, prove that radius OB bisects the chord AC.
Given: AB=BC, OB is a radius
To prove: OB bisects chord AC or A

Statements Facts
1. AB=BC 1. Given
2. AO=OC 2. Radii of equal circles are equal
3. L1=L2 3. The line joining the vertices of 2 isosceles
∆ on the same base bisects the angles at
those vertices
4. BD=BD 4. Identity
5. ∆ABD = ∆BDC 5. sas=sas
6. AD=DC 6. Corresponding parts……
5. Conversely, if radius OB bisects chord AC, AB=BC

Statements Facts
1. AO=OC 1. Radii of the same circles are equal
2. OD=OD 2. Identity
3. AD=DC 3. Given
4. ∆OAD=∆ODC 4. sss=sss
5. L3=L4 5. Corresponding parts……
6. arc AB= arc AC 6. Equal central angles have equal
arcs
7. AB=BC 7. Equal arcs have equal chords

6. The perpendicular bisector of the side of an inscribed


quadrilateral meet in a point
Given: ABCD is an inscribed quadrilateral. e, f,g and h are
perpendicular bisector of the side
Prove: e, f,g and h meet at a point

Statements Facts
1. e, f,g and h pass through the 1. Given
center of a circle
2. e, f,g and h meet at a point 2. A line perpendicular to the chord at
its midpoint passes through the
center

7. The figure represents an instrument for finding the


center of a circular plate or section of a shaft
Given: AO=OB, L1=L2
To prove: OC passes through the center

Statements Facts
1. Connect AB 1. Two points determine a straight
line
2. AO=OB 2. Given
3. L1=L2 3. Given
4. OD=OD 4. Identity
5. ∆DOA = ∆BOD 5. sas = sas
6. AD=Db and L3=L4 6. Corresponding parts….
7. OC passes through the center 7. A line which bisects a chord and
perpendicular to it passes the
center.

8. A line which bisects the 2 arcs of a chord is the


perpendicular bisector of the chord.
Given: arc AC = arc CB, arc AD=arc BD
To prove: CD is the perpendicular bisector of the chord.

Statements Facts
1. Connect AC, CB, AD, DB 1. Between 2 points one straight line
can be drawn
2. arc AC = arc CB and arc AD=arc 2. Given/ Equal chords have equal
BD arcs
3. L1=L2 3. The line joining the vertices of 2 isosceles
∆ on the same base bisects the angles at
those vertices
4. DE=DE 4. Identity
5. ∆ADE = ∆EBD 5. sas=sas
6. AE=EB 6. Corresponding parts
7. CD is the perpendicular bisector of 7. Definition of a perpendicular
the chord. bisector

9. If AB and CB are equal chords of the circle, prove that the


bisector of their included angle is a diameter.
Given: AB=BC and L1=L2
To prove: BD is a diameter

Statements Facts
1. AB=BC 1. Given
2. L1=L2 2. Given
3. OB=OB 3. Identity
4. ∆AOB=∆COB 4. sas=sas
5. Connect AC 5. Two points determine a straight
line
6. AO=OC, L3=L4 6. Corresponding parts
7. BD passes the center 7. A line perpendicular to a chords at
its midpoints passes the center
8. BD is a diameter 8. Definition of a diameter

10. If AB=CD are parallel, chords and diameter, GH bisects CD. Prove
that CH bisects AB
Given: AB || CD, GH is a diameter and bisects CD
To prove: GH bisects AB
Statements Facts
1. GH bisects CD 1. Given
2. If GH is a diameter, it is 2. A line through the center that
perpendicular to CD bisects a chord which is not a
diameter is perpendicular to the
chord
3. GH perpendicular to AB 3. A line perpendicular to one of the
parallel lines is perpendicular to
the other
4. GH bisects AB 4. A line through the center of a circle
perpendicular to a chord bisects
the chord and its 2 arcs.

11. In the figure, O is the center of the figure and OR || AD.


Prove that AB is bisected by OR.
Given: O is the center of the figure and OR || AD
To prove: AB is bisected by OR
Statements Facts
1. Connect AB 1. Two points determine a straight
line
2. BO=OD 2. The center of the circle is the
midpoint of the diameter
3. OR || AD 3. Given
4. Chord AB is bisected 4. A line which bisects a side of the
triangle and parallel to the 2nd side
bisects the 3rd side
5. arc AR = arc BR 5. A line through the center that
bisects a chord which is not a
diameter is perpendicular to the
chord and bisects the 2nd arcs of
the chord
PROPOSITION 5
Theorem: Equal chords of a circle (or
of equal circle) are equally distant from
the center. Conversely, chords equally
distant from the center are equal.

Given: circle O=O1, c=c1, a ┴ c, a 1┴ c1


To prove: a=a1

Statements Facts
1. Draw radii r and r1 1. 2 points determine a straight line
2. a ┴ c, a1┴ c1 2. Given
3. In rt. ∆s RAB and R1A1B1, r=r1 3. Radii of equal circle are equal
4. b=½c and b1=½c1 4. A line through the center
perpendicular to the chord and
bisect the chord and its arcs are
equal
5. c=c1 5. Given
6. b(or ½c) = b1(or ½c1) 6. Substitution
7. rt. ∆s RAB = R1A1B1 7. hy.l=hy.l
8. : a=a1 8. Corresponding parts