ELT First Stone ceremony

1st and 2nd generation ESO Public Surveys
Cherenkov Telescope Array
Highlights of the VIPERS survey
The Messenger
No. 168 – June 2017
The Organisation DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5018

A Long Expected Party — The First Stone Ceremony
for the Extremely Large Telescope

Tim de Zeeuw1

ePOD/J. P. Astorga
Fernando Comerón1
Roberto Tamai1

1
ESO

The ceremony to seal the time capsule,
signalling the beginning of construction
of the dome and main telescope struc-
ture for the Extremely Large Telescope,
took place at the Paranal Observatory
on 26 May 2017, in the presence of the
President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet
and many international guests. Owing
to high winds, the ceremony could not
take place as planned on the levelled
site on Cerro Armazones, but instead
was held at the Paranal Residencia. A
brief report of the event and its organi-
sation is presented, and the welcome cials from the governments of the latter Figure 1. ELT Project Manager Roberto Tamai illus-
trates to President Bachelet the approximate real
speech by the ESO Director General is two countries.
size of each of the nearly 800 segments that will
included. comprise the ELT primary mirror, in front of a model
The significance of the event in the history reproduction of the telescope and enclosure, flanked
of ESO was symbolised by the p ­ resence by the Director of Operations, Andreas Kaufer (left),
and the Director General, Tim de Zeeuw.
Late May is becoming a time for major of the former Directors General Lodewijk
highlights in the history of the Paranal Woltjer, Harry van der Laan and Catherine
Observatory. On 26 May 2017, over two Cesarsky, as well as the Director General tion works. Despite sustained efforts
hundred guests from Europe, Chile and designate Xavier Barcons (see Figure 8). until the last possible minute, under
the rest of the world gathered at the The leaders of major observatories and nearly heroic conditions that involved
­Paranal Residencia to celebrate the First astronomy organisations including the crews staying at Armazones overnight
Stone of the Extremely Large Telescope Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter waiting for the winds to abate, the day
(ELT), as well as the connection of the Array (ALMA), the Asso­ciation of Universi- before the event it was decided to revert
Observatory to the Chilean power grid. ties for Research in Astronomy (AURA), to a backup plan already prepared in
This was exactly 19 years and one day the Carnegie Insti­tution for Science, cooperation with the Presidential team
after Antu, the first Unit Telescope of the Gemini, the Giant Magellan Telescope and to host the ceremony at the Paranal
VLT, saw first light, and one year and (GMT), the Large Synoptic Survey Tele- Residencia. This may well have been a
one day after the signature of the largest scope (LSST), the National Radio Astron- blessing in disguise, as the comfortable
contract in the history of ground-based omy Observatory (NRAO), The University environment of the Residencia made
astronomy, for the construction of the of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) the ceremony much more interactive
dome and main structure of the ELT. and the International Astronomical Union and protected the attendants from the
(IAU) were also present. Managers of hostile conditions on that day at Cerro
The date of the ceremony was carefully companies that are key to the ELT con- Armazones, although at the cost of
chosen to allow the presence of the struction, most notably Astaldi and reducing the obvious symbolism of a
­President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, SAESA, were among the p ­ articipants as ­ceremony on the summit where the ELT
who had expressed a strong personal well. Correspondents of numerous will rise.
interest in using this opportunity to pay national and international media covered
her first visit to an ESO site. The support the ceremony, which was featured Upon the arrival of President Bachelet
of the Chilean government to ESO’s around the world. and other senior dignitaries, an informal
activities was made very visible by the welcome reception took place at the
attendance of the Ministers of Economy, The ceremony had been planned to take Residencia which gave ample opportunity
Mining and Energy, and of many other place at the top of Cerro Armazones, for interaction among the participants
Chilean authorities. The ambassadors of where the ELT will be located and where and with the President (Figures 1–3). This
12 of the 15 ESO Member States were a large tent was being erected one week included, as planned, the leadership
present, as well as the Council President, ahead of the event. However, in the days of the Paranal Union, who presented the
Patrick Roche, members of the ESO before the event exceptional conditions, President with a small vase containing soil
­governing bodies from the Netherlands, with windspeeds much higher than usual, from the five ESO sites in Chile (Vitacura,
France, Spain and Italy, and higher offi- prevented the completion of the prepara- La Silla, APEX, Paranal and Armazones).

2 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
ePOD/J. P. Astorga

ePOD/J. P. Astorga
Figure 2. President Bachelet is shown posing for Figure 3. Paranal Union leaders pose with President
selfies with children from Taltal during the First Stone Bachelet after presenting her with a vase containing
event in the Paranal Residencia. soil samples from the five ESO sites in Chile.

The formal ceremony started at 13:30 which a vision of a large telescope the country. As President Bachelet noted
with the arrival of President Bachelet and advanced a century and a half ago by in her speech, “With the symbolic start
the ESO Director General in the lower Jules Verne was compared with the real- of this construction work, we are building
area of the Residencia, where the attend- ity of the construction of the ELT. His more than a telescope here: it is one
ees were already waiting. A sequence speech was followed by one from Paolo of the greatest expressions of scientific
of introductory videos was shown about Astaldi, President of the leading partner and technological capabilities and of the
the ELT (Figure 4) and the companies in the ACe Consortium that is building the extraordinary potential of international
Astaldi, Cimolai, REOSC and Schott, dome and the main telescope structure. cooperation”.
which have so far signed large ELT con- Next was a speech by the internationally
tracts. Also included was a video pre- renowned astronomer María Teresa Ruiz, The highlight of the ceremony came with
pared by SAESA, the company that has currently President of the Chilean Acad- the filling and sealing of a time capsule
built the extension of the grid to Paranal emy of Sciences. The closing speech which had been manufactured in the
and Armazones. was given by President Michelle Bachelet, ­Paranal workshop by Patricio Alarcón
who stressed the importance of astron- and his team. The Director General started
A welcome speech (presented on p. 5) omy for the development of Chile and the by depositing a copy of the ELT Science
was given by the Director General, in great significance that the event had for Case as foreseen in 2011. President

Figure 4. (Left) Roberto
ePOD/J. P. Astorga

ESO/F. Comerón
Tamai, Project Manager
of the ELT; Paolo Astaldi,
President of the Astaldi
construction group; Tim
de Zeeuw, ESO Director
General; Michelle
Bachelet, President of
the Republic of Chile;
and María Teresa Ruiz,
President of the Chilean
Academy of Sciences,
watch the opening video
at the ELT First Stone
ceremony.

Figure 5. (Right) The
glass plate donated by
President Michelle
Bachelet to be included
in the time capsule. The
legend in Spanish reads:
“Opening the sky of
Chile to the questions of
a whole planet”.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 3
The Organisation de Zeeuw T. et al., The First Stone Ceremony for the Extremely Large Telescope

Figure 7. The ESO ELT
ESO/T. de Zeeuw

ESO/M. Cayrel
Team braving the wind
on Cerro Armazones on
the day after the official
­c eremony.

Figure 6. The time capsule that was filled during describing what the observatory means Paranal, until the time when progress on
the ELT First Stone ceremony, manufactured at the
for them. The Press Release1 contains the construction of the dome allows it
Paranal mechanical workshop. The cover includes
a 1:5 scale reproduction of a segment of the ELT more details of the event, with photo- to be encased in one of the walls, where
­p rimary mirror, made in Zerodur ®. graphs and videos. its cover will be left visible.

Finally the President deposited a pen Following the ceremony many of the
Bachelet followed by depositing a copy made of Chilean copper and the last item guests paid a visit to the VLT telescopes,
of the lavishly illustrated book, “Atacama”, to be added to the time capsule was an which the President was unfortunately
coauthored by ESO staff member Gerd elegant plate of glass, with the sentence unable to join because of another com-
Hüdepohl. Next, the Director General “Opening the sky of Chile to the ques- mitment. In parallel, the extension of the
unrolled two posters with the pictures tions of a whole planet” written in Spanish, Chilean electrical grid, constructed by
and names of staff working at ESO at the from President Bachelet (Figure 5). The SAESA with the support of the Chilean
time, which were held up by the Director time capsule was then closed with a Government, was celebrated and the
General and the President to be shown cover that contains a 1:5 scale reproduc- Armazones power station, that converts
to the audience, then rolled up again and tion of a segment of the ELT primary mir- the voltage from 66kV to 23kV, was inau-
left inside the capsule. At that point, a ror made in Zerodur®, the same material gurated.
group of six school children from the town of which the actual segments will be
of Taltal, in whose grounds Cerro Paranal made by Schott, with the flags of the ESO The First Stone event was also the occa-
is located, were called upon to join the Member States and Chile engraved and sion to introduce the team of the ELT
President and the Director General to a legend commemorating the ephemeris Project Managers to Paranal colleagues.
place in the time capsule their drawings (Figure 6). The capsule is in storage at The agenda of the four-day ELT Team
visit included: the presentation of the ELT
team and updated status to Paranal col-
leagues; exchanges of experience and
lessons learned, and discussions on sub-
jects of mutual interest; an extensive visit
to the telescopes and technical facilities;
and a visit to Armazones (Figure 7). This
contact will facilitate the assembly, inte-
gration and verification of the ELT and its
smooth integration into the operations of
the Paranal Observatory.

Figure 8. Past, present and future Directors General
of ESO at the Paranal Residence. From left to right:
Lodewijk Woltjer (1974–1987); Harry van der Laan
(1988–1992); Catherine Cesarsky (1999–2007); Tim
de Zeeuw (2007–2017); and Xavier Barcons (2017–).
Regrettably, Riccardo Giacconi (1993–1999) could
not attend the ceremony.

4 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Figure 9. President Bachelet accom-
panied by most of the Paranal logistics
team who played a major role in
organising the ceremony.

The symbolic laying of the ELT First Acknowledgements Jane Wallace, Priya Hein and María Adriana Arrau,
for handling and coordinating the invitations, confir-
Stone coincided with the signature of
The success of the event and all the concurrent mations and transport schedules of many of the
the Armazones site handover to the ACe activities in the same week at the Paranal Obser­ guests; and to the production company, Macoffice,
Consortium, following resolution of a vatory owes much more than can be described in which took care of the hardware for the ceremony,
number of technical and legal matters. this article to the Paranal logistics team led by including the tent at Armazones whose installation
­Christine Desbordes (pictured in Figure 9); to the was ultimately prevented by the wind. ESO is also
From now on, access to Armazones will
Education and Public Outreach Department led by indebted to the Presidential Avanzada team for their
have to be approved by ACe. In the next Lars Christensen and by Laura Ventura in Chile; to invaluable assistance and advice with the prepara-
few months, the on-site construction the many colleagues working at Paranal who agreed tion of the ceremony.
activities will begin giving shape to the to leave the comfort of their rooms at Paranal for a
couple of nights stay in Antofagasta, thus making
gigantic telescope and change the physi-
it possible for many important guests to stay at the Links
ognomy of Armazones forever. All the Observatory on the nights before or after the First
hard work will eventually lead to another, Stone event; to the executive assistants of the Cabi- 1
 ress Release on ELT First Stone: http://www.eso.
P
even bigger, celebration; the First Light of net and the Representation in Chile, Isolde Kreutle, org/public/news/eso1716
the ELT in 2024.

Text of Speech

Welcome It is unfortunate that the unusually inclement in Colorado, in order to be able to see the
weather prevents access to the platform on capsule orbiting the Moon. Verne calculated
Cerro Armazones, so we gather here in the that this needed a telescope with a main
Tim de Zeeuw, ESO Paranal Residence instead. ­mirror of 4.8 metres diameter, which was fully
two and a half times larger than that of the
Let me start by taking you back about largest telescope at the time, Lord Rosse’s
President Bachelet, Ambassadors, Ministers 150 years. In 1865, Jules Verne published a Leviathan of Parsonstown, Ireland. A bold
Céspedes, Rebolledo and Williams, Members famous book entitled “The Journey to the step! Verne mentions that the telescope tube
of the Congress, Senator Giannini, State Moon”. It turned out to be uncannily prophetic, was 84 metres long and that the entire system
­Secretaries, Council President, Council dele- describing an Apollo-sized capsule with three was built in a single year. The site had of
gates, Mr. Astaldi, Messrs Sammartano, persons on board, launched by a monster course to be in the United States for reasons
­Marchiori, Diaz and Alliende, former Directors cannon located near Tampa in Florida, very of national pride.
General Woltjer, van der Laan and Cesarsky, close to Cape Canaveral. All at the initiative of
Director General designate Barcons, other an American gun club, with a key role for, yes, It took a century before Borman, Lovell and
distinguished guests, colleagues and friends, a French scientist. Anders orbited the Moon in Apollo 8 in
it is a pleasure to welcome you on this historic December 1968. It took another eighty years
occasion. It is probably less well known that the story before Verne’s giant telescope was built, not
also describes the construction of a giant tele- in Colorado but instead on Mount Palomar in
scope at 4300 metres altitude on Longs Peak California, and with an improved design. This

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 5
The Organisation de Zeeuw T., Text of Speech

is the world-famous 200-inch telescope, often The Chilean government carefully protects because of the enormous scientific return and
referred to as the Big Eye, and inaugurated in the quality of the night skies and realises that ESO’s track record in delivering quality. The
1948. the international observatories provide training key authorisation for construction was granted
and employment for many Chileans: telescope in 2014 under Council President Barcons, who
Only 40 years later, technology had already operators, technicians, engineers, astrono- is now the Director General designate.
advanced sufficiently to gain another factor mers and administrative staff. Chilean univer-
of two in mirror diameter, and today a dozen sities have developed internationally competi- Two other giant telescopes are planned,
fully steerable 8–10-metre-class optical tele- tive astronomy programmes, and some have the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) on
scopes are in operation, including the world- started engineering programmes for astro- Las Campanas here in Chile, and the Thirty
leading Very Large Telescope (VLT) here on technology, creating capabilities and know- Meter Telescope (TMT) in the northern hemi-
Paranal. It is a distinct pleasure to recognise how that will benefit Chilean society more sphere. Together with the ELT, these tele-
Lo Woltjer, who initiated the VLT project and generally. ESO is proud to be associated with scopes will open a new era of discovery
got it funded and approved, Harry van der Laan this impressive growth of capabilities, which whose implications may well go beyond
who selected Paranal as the site, placed all the is also reflected in the fact that the President astronomy. The cooperation between these
major contracts and designed the ­successful of the Chilean Academy of Sciences, María three projects to address technological chal-
collaborative model for instrumentation devel- Teresa Ruiz, who will also speak today, is an lenges is yet another example of international
opment, and Catherine Cesarsky who brought internationally acclaimed astronomer. collaboration for the sake of science. I am
the VLT to full operation. Riccardo Giacconi pleased to acknowledge our colleagues from
had a key role during construction and first Almost exactly a year ago, ESO signed the GMT and TMT present here for this joint
light, but could unfortunately not be here today. largest ever contract in ground-based astron- endeavour, as well as for providing the frame-
omy with the ACe consortium, consisting work of a stimulating and healthy competition
Nearly twenty years have passed since first of Astaldi, Cimolai and the nominated sub- from which we all benefit.
light of the Very Large Telescope. ALMA has contractor EIE Group, for the construction of
meanwhile been constructed on Chajnantor the giant dome and the 3000-tonne telescope The size of the primary mirror of the ELT, and
in Chile by an international partnership structure. Today’s event marks the official start the revolutionary telescope design which
and is operational, and telescope technology of the construction of the telescope structure includes built-in adaptive optics to correct for
has advanced again. Today we officially and dome of the ELT. the turbulence in the atmosphere, will make
start construction of the Extremely Large Tele- the ELT the world’s biggest and sharpest eye
scope (ELT). Its dome will have a diameter Today also marks the connection of Paranal on the sky for the foreseeable future. This
of 85 metres and a height of approximately and Armazones to the Chilean electrical grid. giant leap in capability is as large as that
80 metres, so that Verne’s telescope tube The Chilean Government has helped ESO to experienced by Galileo when he first turned
would fit. However, the ELT has a segmented find a solution for the supply of power to the his telescope to the heavens!
main mirror with a diameter of an astounding Observatory, through the Comisión Nacional
39 metres. This is a jump of a factor four to de Energía, la Superintendencia de Electricidad The goal for its use is not that of Verne, to see
five over any existing telescope! The collecting y Combustibles, and the Ministries of National details on the Moon, or the developments
area of the ELT primary mirror is nearly 1000 Assets and Foreign Affairs and our consultants in the Moon Village proposed by the European
square metres, which is larger than that of from MegaRed. The connection to the central Space Agency, or to watch all of Middle Earth,
all 8–10-metre-class telescopes in the world grid in Paposo is managed by Grupo SAESA, but instead to study the deep Universe, to
combined. Jules Verne would have liked it! and I am very pleased that it is represented resolve the light of nearby galaxies into that of
here today. The grid connection will reduce its constituent stars, and above all to image
A revolutionary telescope needs an excellent costs, provide greater reliability and stability, and characterise the rocky planets that we
site, and the choice of Cerro Armazones and will also reduce the Observatory’s carbon now know orbit most stars. It is in fact possible
was the result of a world-wide site selection footprint. that the ELT will find evidence for life on other
process, chaired by Rene Rutten, who is worlds. It is ironic that this would be done from
here today. The Chilean government gener- It has taken 18 years to get to this point, the magnificent desolation of the Atacama
ously extended the land donated to ESO in thanks to the efforts of many people all over Desert.
1995 towards the east, so that it now contains the world, including former Italian delegate
both Paranal and Armazones, and ESO can Nanni Bignami who unfortunately passed The ELT construction effort is carried out by
operate the ELT as part of the Paranal Obser- away very suddenly two days ago. Roberto a large team with staff from across ESO, led
vatory. The first discussions on this topic were Gilmozzi initiated the precursor 100-metre- by Roberto Tamai who works closely with
with President Bachelet during her previous diameter OWL project, Riccardo Giacconi pro- ESO’s top management. Many team members
term. The process was completed under moted it, Catherine Cesarsky oversaw the are here. Roberto will make sure that the con-
­President Piñera, with key preparatory work careful process that resulted in the start of a struction will stay on schedule, so that what
done by Ambassador Rodriguez of the Ministry full design study in early 2007 for what was, was once a dream becomes reality.
of Foreign Affairs and by ESO’s previous rep- by then, a single European project, and Jason
resentative Massimo Tarenghi. Since then Spyromilio led the extended design effort, car- The ELT will no doubt produce discoveries
ICAFAL, also represented here, have prepared ried out with industry in the Member States. that we simply cannot imagine today, and it
the giant platform and a new access road, so will surely inspire numerous people around the
that today we take the next step, again with In the years that followed it was possible to world to think about science, technology and
President Bachelet. I am sure that the location convince the 15 ESO Member States to ­commit our place in the Universe. This will bring great
of the ELT in Chile is a justified source of significant additional funding for the ELT Pro- benefit to the ESO Member States, to Chile,
national pride, just as in Verne’s story. gramme despite the financial crisis. I am very and the rest of the world. For this reason we
grateful for this support, which was provided seal the ELT time capsule today for all mankind.

6 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Telescopes and Instrumentation
ESO/E. Vernet

The Deformable Secondary Mirror being hoisted
into its hub, already mounted on the top end of
Unit Telescope 4.
Telescopes and Instrumentation DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5019

The Adaptive Optics Facility:
Commissioning Progress and Results

Robin Arsenault1 2017 and the GRAAL ground-layer GRound-layer Adaptive optics Assisted
Pierre-Yves Madec1 adaptive optics mode by the end of the by Lasers (GRAAL) in ground layer adap-
Elise Vernet1 year. tive optics (GLAO) mode is planned by
Wolfgang Hackenberg1 the end of 2017. Then only MUSE with
Paolo La Penna1 GALACSI in Narrow Field Mode (NFM)
Jérome Paufique1 Introduction will remain to be commissioned in 2018.
Harald Kuntschner1
Jean-François Pirard1 Towards the end of 2016, the only miss-
Johann Kolb1 ing pieces of the Adaptive Optics Facility Installation of new M2 unit on UT4
Norbert Hubin1 (AOF) complex (see Arsenault et al., 2010,
2014a and 2016 for previous progress In September 2016, the 14 crates con-
updates) were the new secondary mirror taining the DSM system (Arsenault et al.,
1
ESO (M2) unit — the Deformable Secondary 2013a; Manetti et al., 2014; Briguglio et
Mirror (DSM) — and the Ground Atmos- al., 2014), totalling 9 tonnes and 50 cubic
pheric Layer Adaptive optiCs for Spectro- metres, were unpacked in the New Inte-
All the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) scopic Imaging (GALACSI) adaptive gration Hall (NIH) in Paranal. The system
subsystems are now in Paranal and optics (AO) module. The new M2 unit was was re-assembled in the NIH and func-
the project team is working on com­ installed in October 2016 during a shut- tionalities tested. It was an opportunity
missioning activities on Unit Telescope down of Unit Telescope 4 (UT4 — Yepun) to cross-train our Paranal colleagues
4 (UT4) of the Very Large Telescope. and the whole telescope was recommis- and demonstrate several handling opera-
Excellent progress has been made; the sioned with the new M2 unit by December tions, including the critical thin-shell mir-
new secondary mirror unit, the Deform- 2016. Since then, UT4 has returned to ror handling.
able Secondary Mirror (DSM), was operations and the Paranal telescope
installed in October 2016 and UT4 is and instrument operators (TIOs) and sci- Before proceeding with the removal of
now operating routinely with the DSM in ence support staff have been trained to the old Dornier M2 unit, a laser tracker
non-adaptive optics mode. The other use the telescope with this new second- was installed on the telescope centre-
modules of the AOF, the Ground Atmos- ary mirror in non-adaptive optics mode. piece and used to record reference
pheric Layer Adaptive optiCs for Spec- The AOF team remains in close contact ­positions of markers on the telescope
troscopic Imaging (GALACSI), the with Paranal staff and closely monitors structure and the M2 hub and spiders.
4 Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) and any errors and issues to provide support Additionally, reference measurements
the GRound-layer Adaptive optics and solutions. were taken to characterise the telescope
Assisted by Lasers (GRAAL), have been optical behaviour and performance,
installed and are being qualified. The At the end of 2016, the GALACSI instru- some of them using the GRAAL Mainte-
coupling with the High Acuity Wide ment was dismounted from the Adaptive nance and Commissioning Mode (MCM)
field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) and the Secondary Simulator and InStrument wavefront sensor. Close-out measure-
Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer Testbed (ASSIST) in the Garching integra- ments were also taken for the instru-
(MUSE) has been tested and all ele- tion hall and packed for transport to ments available at UT4 (the Spectrograph
ments are functional and ready to pro- Chile. After reintegration in Paranal, all for INtegral Field Observations in the
ceed with their full commissioning. functionalities were recovered. In late Near Infrared [SINFONI], HAWK-I, MUSE
The goal for the AOF is to complete March 2017, GALACSI was installed on and the VLT Interferometer [VLTI]) with
GALACSI wide-field mode technical UT4 and was then ready to enter the the support of Science Operation. These
commissioning by the end of summer commissioning phase. would later be used to verify that tele-
scope and instrument performance had
The project is now fully involved in not been degraded after the installation
ESO Project Team:
­commissioning activities and these will of the new M2 unit.
D. Bonaccini Calia, P. Duhoux, J.-L. Lizon, S. Guisard, continue during 2017 and into part of
P. Lilley, L. Petazzi, P. Hammersley, I. Guidolin, 2018. Commissioning runs are scheduled On 14 October 2016, the first transport
L. Kern, T. Pfrommer, C. Dupuy, R. Guzman, J. almost every month during bright time. took place to UT4 and the DSM hub
Quentin, M. Quattri, R. Hozlöhner, D. Popovic, M.
Comin, S. McClay, S. Lewis, F. Gago, M. Sarazin,
Some of them may be returned to science was brought to the telescope. The next
P. Haguenauer, A. Jost, J. Argomedo, S. Tordo, operations if commissioning progress is day the DSM followed the same route.
R. Donaldson, R. Conzelmann, M. Lelouarn, rapid and if there are no technical prob- Extreme care was taken during the trans-
R. Siebenmorgen, M. Downing, J. Reyes, M. Suarez lems or bad weather. The intention is to port and the load was accompanied on
Valles, S. Stroebele, S. Oberti, P. Gutierrez Cheetam,
M. Kiekebusch, C. Soenke, E. Aller-Carpentier,
complete the commissioning of the Multi foot all the way to monitor the smooth-
P. Jolley, J. Vernet, A. Manescau-Hernandez, L. Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) with ness of the ride. The replacement began
Mehrgan, G. Calderone, A. van Kesteren, G. Chiozzi, the GALACSI Wide Field Mode (WFM) at with the removal of the Beryllium M2 mir-
H. Sommers, D. Dorigo, T. Bierwirth, J.-P. Kirchbauer, the end of the summer 2017, with Science ror. Then within one day the Dornier hub
S. Huber, G. Fischer, A. Haimerl, S. Leveque, P.
Amico, G. Hubert, S. Brillant, P. Baksai, J.C. Palacio,
Verification planned for August 2017. was removed and the new M2 hub, with
I. Munoz, E. Fuenteseca, P. Bourget, P. Hibon, F. Commissioning of the High Acuity Wide its DSM dummy weight, installed instead.
Selman, G. Hau, S. Egner, T. Szeifert, J.C. Guerra. field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) and the Three days later the DSM was installed in

8 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Figure 1. A jubilant team 0.5 arcseconds at the time of the expo-
after the installation of
sure); see Figure 2, right. This measure-
the DSM on UT4.
ment demonstrates that the optical qual-
ity of the DSM in non-adaptive optics
mode allows seeing-limited observation
even under excellent seeing conditions.

The next step consisted of assessing
the changes in the operation of the active
optics. The strategy was to record the
active optics aberration measurements of
the telescope after application of the so-
called “OneCal”, the look-up table for
the primary mirror (M1) modes versus alti-
tude. Comparisons were made between
the Dornier and the DSM. The values
are very similar between both, and the
active optics functionality and operational
its hub (see p. 7). Using the laser tracker, new M2 unit is fully comparable to that aspects are preserved with the DSM as
it was possible to verify that the DSM hub experienced with the old Dornier. well. The secondary chopping was also
ended up, after its installation on the tele- tested and behaved as expected. Only
scope, within 1 mm of the Dornier hub’s The new magnitude zero points for two points remained to be examined —
position, while its longitudinal axis was HAWK-I were found to be identical, within the flexure of the DSM reference body
colinear within 1 arcminute. Calibrated 3 %, to the former values and the emis- and the DSM flattening vector.
mechanical spacers and alignment tools sivity was measured as 25 % for the
allowed this feat, as well as the expertise Dornier and 24 % for the new M2 unit. The trefoil and astigmatism terms evolve
of the optical engineers in Garching and The plate scale change was measured at with altitude as can be seen in Figure 3.
Paranal. The whole operation was led by 1.00047 ± 0.0005 on the Nasmyth B Only the terms along the altitude axis
the Paranal mechanical team under the guide probe, which compares to 1.00067 show a variation. This does not come as
close supervision of the contractor Micro- when measured directly on HAWK-I; a surprise as it was known that the refer-
gate and the Garching DSM team. these results mean that, for all practical ence body of the DSM is subjected to
purposes, the plate scale change is this sort of deformation. At the zenith, the
It is amazing to think that, after such an ­negligible. reference body is deformed in a threefold
intrusive and major operation on the tele- sag shape (trefoil) because of the system
scope, the first pointing on sky was suc- A series of 10-second J-band images of three supporting points. At the horizon
cessful, with pointing errors of the same were taken of the globular cluster M30 this deformation evolves toward an astig-
magnitude as usual, and the active loop using the new M2 unit. Figure 2 (left) matism. The left plot in Figure 3 shows
was closed successfully after the first shows one of the best images obtained that this variation is seen by the active
iteration! Figure 1 illustrates the effect of with the DSM, with a full width at half optics of the telescope and corrected by
this achievement on the whole team. maximum (FWHM) of the star images of M1. However, the level is quite acceptable
0.37 arcseconds (visual band seeing was and, since the end of the commissioning,

Telescope re-commissioning

During the first nights after installation,
basic tests were carried out to verify
the behaviour of the DSM hexapod. The
focusing motion was as expected and
the three focal planes could be accom-
modated within the DSM focusing range.
The impact of M2 centring on the tele-
scope coma was measured using the
GRAAL MCM wavefront sensor. Excellent
agreement between the centring of the
old Dornier and the new M2 was achieved,
and the GRAAL MCM mode proved
Figure 2. Left: A J-band image taken at a low airmass
extremely useful during all the telescope of part of the globular cluster M30. Right: An analysis
recom­missioning phases. It also shows of the point spread function from multiple star
that mechanical flexure introduced by the images; the FWHM is 2 pixels (0.37 arcseconds).

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 9
Telescopes and Instrumentation Arsenault R. et al., The Adaptive Optics Facility

Figure 3. Left: The d­ ifference in New M2 Unit w.r.t. Dornier Dornier w.r.t. Dornier (different nights)
OneCal residual aberrations 1500 1500
between the DSM and the old
Dornier M2 unit as a function 1000 trefoil 1000
of zenith distance (ZD). Zernike
pairs of orthogonal modes for
Aberration value

Aberration value
500 500
trefoil and astigmatism are
shown. Right: Same as left fig-
ure but for two different sets 0 0
of measu­rements of the Dornier 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
M2 unit on different nights, –500 –500
showing the typical noise level.
The DSM shows clear trends –1000 astigmatism –1000
of the astigmatism and trefoil
aberrations with altitude (zenith
–1500 –1500
distance). ZD (degrees) ZD (degrees)

the active optics has managed this
HD 49798 Before After
change without issue. Note that the cor-
responding mode amplitude applied in the K
DSM flattening vector has been modified
to ensure that the horizontal axis crosso-
ver occurs at a typical operation airmass.

The same type of analysis reflected a
slightly higher scatter in the higher M1
mode amplitudes. We believe that this is
due to some high-order aberrations in
the DSM flattening vector. After these
measurements a calibration was carried
H+K
out to optimise the DSM flattening vector
and reduce its content in high-order
aberrations.

Finally, a detailed analysis of the field
­stabilisation performance took place.
Many small issues were encountered,
resulting from the telescope environment
and the somewhat different control
parameters required by the DSM, but all
were progressively resolved. The final per- H
formance is certainly adequate. The only
remaining issue is poorer performance
when the telescope is facing into a strong
wind. More data need to be recorded
to fully understand the root cause of this
problem before it can be fixed.

An analysis of the field stabilisation
closed-loop rejection transfer function
was performed. For a control frequency
J
of 32 Hz, integration time of 0.01 s and
control parameters of Kp = 0.7, Ki = 1.5
and Koffload = 0.02 and a 3 Hz cutoff fre-
quency, a 6 dB overshoot (> 45° phase
margin) was observed.

Figure 4. PSF samples for the star HD 49798. The
“Before” and “After” columns refer to images obtained
with the Dornier M2 unit and the new DSM M2 unit,
respectively. The external seeing values were similar
in both cases.

10 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
UT4 instrument recommissioning 2000 2000 10.0
9.5
To complete the recommissioning
9.0
­process, the instrument scientists of 1500 1500
HAWK-I, MUSE, SINFONI and the VLTI 8.5
performed a dedicated set of tests to
Y (pixels)

Y (pixels)
8.0
assess the behaviour of these instruments 1000 1000
7.5
after the new M2 installation. These
tests addressed several aspects of the 7.0
instruments’ performance; we show here 500 500 6.5
only a few excerpts from the recommis- 6.0
sioning reports. Figure 4 shows a sample
0 0 5.5
of S
­ INFONI PSFs and corresponding 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000
Strehl ratios in different bands for the star X (pixels) X (pixels) 5.0
HD 49798. The results are essentially
identical, except in the J-band where high oped for this purpose; it is based on sin- Figure 5. Images of the behaviour of the FWHM
across HAWK-I images in Y-band at airmass 1.0.
spatial frequency residuals can be noticed gle conjugate AO, making use of a 1 kHz
Left: with the Dornier M2 unit; Right: with the DSM.
(static speckles around the diffraction – 40 × 40 subaperture wavefront sensor The scale shows the FWHM in pixels (pixel scale is
limited core); these residuals are due to (WFS) looking at a bright natural guide 0.106 arcseconds) and annuli around the star posi-
the high spatial frequency aberrations star on-axis, therefore fully exploiting the tions indicate measured ellipticity.
of the DSM optical surface. The situation 1172 actuators of the DSM. The tests
was later improved by calibrating and were carried out during a run in February t­ransported to UT4 and installed on the
updating the reference vector position of 2017. Unfortunately, many nights were ­Nasmyth platform (Figure 7). Precautions
the DSM when in non-AO mode. lost to high humidity and only slightly were taken to protect the MUSE hardware
more than half of the ten nights could be during installation (a special protective
The HAWK-I recommissioning report used for on-sky tests. The result is that fence was designed and manufactured).
also thoroughly reviewed several perfor- less time was available to optimise the First light was obtained on 20 March
mance criteria for the instrument. The performance. In particular, not enough on GALACSI, despite an emergency tele-
Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) time was available to characterise the scope shutdown which delayed the
Touchstone Fields were observed and non-common path aberrations and apply GALACSI installation by one week.
reduced using the new Cambridge an accurate offset for them on the DSM.
Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) pipeline. Nevertheless, excellent images and per- In April 2017, there was another on-sky
The variation of the FWHM across the formance could be obtained and all the commissioning run during which many
whole field of view was compared and servo-loops and offloads could be vali- technical tests were conducted to reliably
appeared as expected (see Figure 5). dated in this technical mode (this is, how- enable the full adaptive optics correction
The ellipticity of the star images was also ever, not a science observing mode; see performance of the GALACSI WFM,
examined in the different fields. The Figure 6). ­making use of the DSM and the 4LGSF
report concluded that the installation of (Hackenberg et al., 2014; Bonaccini Calia
the new M2 unit has had no impact et al., 2014; Holzlöhner et al., 2008;
on the overall performance of HAWK-I. First commissioning of the GALACSI ­Holzlöhner et al., 2010; Holzlöhner et al.,
Wide Field Mode 2012; Amico et al., 2015). The complete
The reports on MUSE and VLTI also automatic acquisition sequence was run
­concluded that the behaviour remained On 12 March 2017, following re-integration on numerous occasions and timed. The
similar before and after the installation of and verification in the NIH, the GALACSI acquisition involves presetting the tele-
the new M2 unit. Small differences were module (La Penna et al., 2014; Arsenault scope to the target, acquiring the 4 Laser
observed in behaviour, enough to realise et al., 2013b; Stuik et al., 2012) was Guide Stars within the 5 arcsecond field
that the M2 has been exchanged, but
there was certainly no loss in performance
with respect to the Dornier M2 unit.
Figure 6. Left: K-band
narrow filter image
DSM commissioning with the GRAAL of a double star with
0.2 arcsecond separa-
Maintenance and Commissioning Mode tion, obtained with
GRAAL MCM. Right:
The last step of the new M2 commis­ A bright star image
sioning was the verification of the per­ exhibiting 80 % Strehl
ratio (also with K-band
formance of the DSM in AO mode. The narrow filter). The seeing
GRAAL MCM mode (Arsenault et al., was 0.55 arcseconds
2014b; Paufique et al., 2012) was devel- at the time.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 11
Telescopes and Instrumentation Arsenault R. et al., The Adaptive Optics Facility

Figure 7. Left: GALACSI
being hoisted through
the azimuth hatch after
transport from the
­Paranal New Integration
Hall to UT4. Right: The
very tight margin to
manoeuver this sensitive
module between the
Nasmyth acquisition
and image rotator unit
and the MUSE fore-
optics can be seen.

of view of the four GALACSI wavefront dation of the optical quality of the images the atmospheric specification (~1.1 arc-
sensors, performing the detection and delivered by GALACSI to MUSE. Figure 8 seconds) and the target was low in the
centering of the tip-tilt natural guide star, shows that, thanks to a rigid design and sky (zenith distance 50°). This is a very
and then closing all the loops. The final good optical alignment, the stability of good first sign that the GALACSI WFM
results are impressive; after a few nights the pupil shift is pretty good from zenith performs as specified. The ratio of turbu-
spent on improving the automatisation down to 35° altitude, meaning that a lence in the first 500 metres above the
of this process, the overhead for the AOF compensation strategy for this misalign- telescope to the total turbulence given
acquisition after the telescope is ready ment may not be needed, thus simplify- by the SLOpe Detection And Ranging
(two active optics cycles) was measured ing the GALACSI operations. (SLODAR) measurement and the internal
to be less than one minute (50 seconds). estimation was ~ 90 % — i.e., quite high
It should be remembered that the specifi- Rejection transfer functions have been — a situation which is best suited to
cation for the overhead was 5 minutes measured for both the high-order correc- ground-layer AO correction (Kuntschner
and the goal 2 minutes. tion loop and the tip-tilt loop. Both look et al., 2012). Figure 9 illustrates this cor-
good and can be fitted nicely by the rection but much better results were
Amongst many performance tests con- model of the dynamic system with respec- obtained later.
ducted, one of them consisted of evalu­ tively 1.3 ms and 4.3 ms of pure delay.
ating the stability of the registration The results obtained during later nights
between the actuator pattern of the DSM System performance has been finally improved somewhat, and the statistics
and the WFS sub-aperture pattern. Shifts characterised. A gain of 1.5–2 in FWHM showed much better performance. The
with respect to one another are due to at 750 nm was observed between open gain between GLAO and non-GLAO
mechanical flexure in the large distance loop (with telescope field stabilisation) depends strongly on the fraction of turbu-
between them and could lead to a degra- and full closed loop. The seeing matched lence in the lower atmospheric layers.
If a large fraction is concentrated below
30 500 metres, GALACSI will substantially
WFS#1, X shift, 06/04/17
improve the ensquared energy (a gain of
WFS#1, Y shift
four has been obtained). Conversely, if
20 WFS#2, X shift
this fraction falls below ~ 20 %, the gain
Pupil shift (% of sub-aperture)

WFS#2, Y shift will be lower and the observer must
WFS#3, X shift decide whether seeing-limited observa-
10
WFS#3, Y shift tions must be conducted (with shorter
WFS#4, X shift acquisition time and without lasers) or
0 WFS#4, Y shift simply another mode (MUSE NFM) or
WFS#1, X shift, 11/04/17 instrument. This information is provided
WFS#1, Y shift from Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor
–10
... (MASS) and D ­ ifferential Image Motion
Figure 8. The shift in pupil Monitor (DIMM) data at the Observatory.
– 20 alignment on the WFS sub- Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate the ens-
aperture in X and Y for all quared energy performance with open
four LGS sensors is plotted
– 30 for two dates (see legend).
and closed loop, allowing a first assess-
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 The shift is expressed in ment of gains, but with limited statistics.
Telescope altitude (degrees) percent of a sub-aperture. From Figure 11, one can determine that

12 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
3000 Figure 9. The quality of
the image enhancement
2500 by GLAO correction is
illustrated by before
and after images (left)
2000 and profiles through the

Intensity
image centres (right).
1500 See text for full descrip-
tion.
1000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Pixels

30 30
Open loop
25 Closed loop 25
Number of occurences
Number of occurences

20 20

15 15

10 10

5 5

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 1 2 3 4
Percentage of ensquared energy in 0.2ೀ spaxel at 750 nm Ensquared energy gain in 0.2ೀ spaxel at 750 nm

Figure 10. The distribution of values of ensquared Figure 11. The distribution of gain in ensquared
energy per 0.2 arcsecond spaxel with GLAO loop is energy per 0.2 arcsecond spaxel with GLAO loop
shown for closed loop (yellow) and open loop (blue; correction is plotted.
only with field stabilisation).

a gain of 2.0 can be obtained about 69 % Finally, we could verify that the sensitivity Conclusions: AOF is on-sky!
of the time, a gain of 1.9 76 % of the time of GALACSI was consistent with that
and a gain of 1.8 83 % of the time. We will measured on ASSIST in Garching. The Since March 2017, the AOF has been
closely follow up how these histograms tests were performed on an 18.6 mag­ fully installed on UT4. The 4LGSF was the
evolve as more statistics are collected nitude star, the loop was closed and was first AOF component to be bolted onto
with successive commissioning runs. stable, and the performance was within the t­elescope and it is fully commissioned
specification (the specified limiting mag­ on-sky (first light was in April 2016). Then
During one of the commissioning nights, nitude of GALACSI is 17.5). Figure 13 the new M2 unit (DSM) was installed
the patch of sky where we pointed shows the raw image on which the loop and replaced the old Dornier M2 unit in
­happened to have a nice target in the is closed (left), and the resulting images October; since then, the new M2 unit is
middle, so we couldn’t resist taking from averages of 50 frames (centre) routinely being used by the TIOs to make
images at 850 nm with the commission- and 12 000 frames (right). The 50-frames science observations with the suite of
ing camera (Figure 12). The left-hand average will be shown in the GALACSI UT4 instruments. GRAAL was attached
image of Saturn was taken with field sta- display panel, so that the user can to the telescope in late 2016, but will not
bilisation; the right hand image with be confident that the loop is locked on be fully commissioned until the end of
full GLAO. The seeing was fair (0.8 arc- a star. 2017. Last but not least, GALACSI is
seconds) and the pointing was almost at now also available at Paranal. GALACSI
zenith for these observations. WFM commissioning has begun and the

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 13
Telescopes and Instrumentation Arsenault R. et al., The Adaptive Optics Facility

Mag 18.6 – 1 frame 50 frames 12 000 frames or Figure 12. (Above) ­S aturn
@ 200Hz average 1 minute average observed without (left) and with
25 (right) GLAO. The insets show the
60 35 effect of the correction on some
50 30 stellar images.
20
40 25
30 20 15
20 15 Figure 13. Individual 200 Hz frame
10 showing the tip-tilt star s­ ignal (left),
10 10
with 50 (centre) and 12 000 (right)
0 5 5 frames averaged. The star magni-
–10 0 tude is 18.6 and the spaxel size is
0 0.2 arcseconds.

performance is found to be extremely Figure 14. The writing is
on … the sky!
promising so far.

As an anecdote, the AOF team took the
picture shown in Figure 14, illustrating
better than a long speech and without
ambiguity that the AOF is now on sky
(for readers interested in the technical
details, each character is created using
one laser guide star by controlling its
associated 1 kHz jitter mirror; the image
was recorded during a 4 s exposure of
the Laser Pointing Camera installed on
the telescope top ring).

References

Amico, P. et al. 2015, The Messenger, 162, 19
Arsenault, R. et al. 2010, The Messenger, 142, 12
Arsenault, R. et al. 2013a, The Messenger, 151, 14
Arsenault, R. et al. 2013b, Third AO4ELT
Conference, Florence, Italy Briguglio, R. et al. 2014, Proc. SPIE, 9148, 914845 Kuntschner, H. et al. 2012, Proc. SPIE, 8448,
Arsenault, R. et al. 2014a, Proc. SPIE, 9148, 914802 Hackenberg, W. et al. 2014, Proc. SPIE, 9148, 844808
Arsenault, R. et al. 2014b, The Messenger, 156, 2 91483O La Penna, P. et al. 2014, Proc. SPIE, 9148, 91482V
Arsenault, R. et al. 2016, The Messenger, 164, 2 Holzlöhner, R. et al. 2008, Proc. SPIE, 7015, 701521 Manetti, M. et al. 2014, Proc. SPIE, 9148, 91484G
Bonaccini Calia, D. et al. 2014, Proc. SPIE, 9148, Holzlöhner, R. et al. 2010, A&A, 510, A20 Paufique, J. et al. 2012, Proc. SPIE, 8447, 944738
91483P Holzlöhner, R. et al. 2012, Proc. SPIE, 8447, 84470H Stuik, R. et al. 2012, Proc. SPIE, 8447, 84473L

14 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Telescopes and Instrumentation DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5020

ESO Public Surveys at VISTA: Lessons learned from
Cycle 1 Surveys and the start of Cycle 2

Magda Arnaboldi 1 from the ultraviolet (0.33 micron) through and extended wavelength coverage.
Nausicaa Delmotte1 to the Ks-band (2.15 microns). In 2012, These spectrographs will be used for
Dimitri Gadotti 1 Public Spectroscopic Surveys also ­follow-up studies of interesting candidates
Michael Hilker 1 started using the spectrographs Ultra­ identified via their colours and/or morpho-
Gaitee Hussain1 violet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph, logical properties from the Public Surveys
Laura Mascetti 2 UVES, GIRAFFE and the ESO Faint Object and/or space missions (for example, the
Alberto Micol 1 Spectrograph and Camera, EFOSC2. ESA satellite, Gaia, and eROSITA). In the
Monika Petr-Gotzens1 The spectroscopic surveys were further current ESO instrument plan, the 4MOST
Marina Rejkuba1 expanded in 2014 with the addition of spectrograph will replace the wide field
Jörg Retzlaff 1 two new surveys on Unit Telescope 3 near-infrared camera, VIRCAM, on VISTA,
Robert Ivison1 (UT3) using the VIsible MultiObject Spec- with commissioning being planned for the
Bruno Leibundgut 1 trograph (VIMOS). end of 2020.
Martino Romaniello1
As the first cycle of ESO Public Surveys
with VISTA approached its sixth year VISTA Cycle 1 surveys: time allocation
1
ESO of successful telescope operations in and current status
2
TERMA GmbH, Europahaus, Darmstadt, 2015, ESO opened the call for submis-
Germany sion of letters of intent for a second cycle The first cycle of approved VISTA Public
of Public Surveys to run until the end of Surveys includes six imaging projects1
2020, the expected date for the decom- that began observations in April 2010.
The ESO Public Surveys on VISTA serve missioning of the VISTA InfraRed CAMera Figure 1 shows the completion fractions
the science goals of the survey teams (VIRCAM). Thirteen letters of intent were of the requested time in their observing
while increasing the legacy value of ESO submitted by the community by the plans with respect to time. An overview
programmes, thanks to their homoge- deadline of October 2015; these involved of each of the Cycle 1 surveys is given in
neity and the breadth of their sky cover- more than thirteen Principal Investigators Table 1 along with their full titles and
age in multiple bands. These projects (PIs) and 517 co-investigators, with an acronyms; a more complete description
address a variety of research areas: oversubscription factor of over twice the of each of these surveys is presented in
from the detection of planets via micro- total available observing time. The joint The Messenger 154 (2013).
lensing, to stars, the Milky Way and VISTA /VST Public Survey Panel (PSP)
Local Group galaxies, to extragalactic was asked to review these letters to iden- The overall time allocations for these sur-
astronomy, galaxy evolution, the high- tify a well-balanced scientific programme veys are between 1500 and 2200 hours,
redshift Universe and cosmology. In for VISTA. An important consideration except for the VHS, which requires 4710
2015, as the first generation of imaging for the VISTA Cycle 2 Public Surveys was hours for completion. The VHS takes up
surveys was nearing completion, a the exploration of scientific and observing 28 % of the allocated telescope time to
­second call for Public Surveys was parameter space that had not been date, while about 12 % goes to each one
opened to define a coherent scientific ­covered by the previous surveys. These of the other surveys; additionally Chilean
programme for VISTA until the com­ recommendations were passed to the regular and other open-time programmes
missioning of the wide-field multi-fibre Observing Programmes Committee have been allocated 3 % and 4 % of time
spectrograph, 4MOST, in 2020. This (OPC) and the ESO Director General. respectively. Figure 2 shows a pie chart
article presents the status of the Cycle 1 summarising the time committed to the
surveys as well as an overview of the In this article, we provide an overview of VISTA surveys between Periods 85 and
seven new programmes in Cycle 2, the status of the VISTA imaging surveys 99, as a percentage of the total allocated
including their science goals, coverage that started in 2010 and their impact in ­telescope time.
on the sky and observing strategies. terms of data releases and refereed
We conclude with a forward look at the ­publications. We then describe the selec- Based on statistics gathered over three
Cycle 2 data releases and the timelines tion process of the new surveys and pro- years (from October 2012 to September
for their release. vide a summary of their science goals, 2015), the total execution time of suc-
observing strategies, and the content and cessfully observed OBs from the VISTA
timelines of their planned data releases. Cycle 1 surveys is 2340 hours per year.
Introduction The time for open and Chilean time
Looking further ahead, the construction amounts to about 6 % of the total time in
ESO has operated two telescopes that and deployment of two wide-field spec- that period. Thus, 2490 hours/year are
are mostly dedicated to Public Surveys trographs is foreseen: the Multi Object available for successful observations with
since 2010: namely, the 4-metre Visible Optical and Near Infrared Spectrograph VISTA. In 2015, the projected observations
and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astron- (MOONS; Cirasuolo et al., 2011) and the for the VISTA Cycle 1 surveys showed
omy (VISTA; Sutherland et al., 2015) 4-metre Multi Object Spectroscopic that observing time would become availa-
and the 2.6-metre VLT Survey telescope ­Telescope (4MOST; de Jong, 2011) on the ble in certain right ascension (RA) ranges;
(VST; Arnaboldi et al., 1998; Capaccioli & VLT and VISTA respectively. They have hence the need to release a call for VISTA
Schipani, 2011). These provide coverage large multiplexing wide field capabilities Cycle 2 Public Surveys.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 15
Telescopes and Instrumentation Arnaboldi M. et al., ESO Public Surveys at VISTA

Table 1. General obser-
Survey ID, Science Area Filters Magnitude Observing time to
vational parameters for
title & homepage topic (square degrees) limits 1 April 2017 (hours)
the Cycle 1 VISTA Public
UltraVISTA Deep high-z 1.7 Deep Y J H Ks 25.7 25.5 1780 Surveys1. The columns
http://home.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~ultravista/ 25.1 24.5 illustrate the Public Sur-
0.73 Ultra deep Y J H Ks 26.7 26.6 vey programme acronym
26.1 25.6 (column 1), a broad
NB118 26.0 ­classification of the sci-
entific goal (column 2),
VHS — VISTA Hemisphere Survey All sky 17800 Y J H Ks 21.2 21.1 4490 the targeted total area
http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~rgm/vhs/ 20.6 20.0 (column 3), the filters
VIDEO — VISTA Deep Extragalactic Deep high-z 12 Z Y J H Ks 25.7 24.6 1799 (column 4), the magni-
Observations Survey 24.5 24.0 tude limits (10σ AB for
http://www-astro.physics.ox.ac.uk/~video 23.5 VMC; otherwise 5σ AB)
in the different filters
VVV — VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea Milky Way 560 Z Y J H Ks 21.9 21.1 2157/Completed (column 5) and the
http://vvvsurvey.org/ 20.2 18.2 observing hours com-
18.1 pleted up to 1 April 2017
(column 6).
VIKING — VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Extragalactic 1500 Z Y J H Ks 23.1 22.3 2384
Galaxy Survey 22.1 21.5
http://www.astro-wise.org/projects/VIKING/ 21.2
VMC — VISTA Magellanic Clouds Survey Resolved SFH 180 Y J Ks 21.9 21.4 1759
http://star.herts.ac.uk/~mcioni/vmc/ 20.3

100 % Chile
Open UltraVISTA
VHS VMC
Percentage of completion (OB hours)

80 % VIKING
VVV
VMC
60 % UltraVISTA VIKING VHS
VIDEO

40 %

VVV
20 % VIDEO

Figure 2. Pie chart showing VISTA time allocation to
0% the Cycle 1 and 2 surveys, as well as Chilean and
open time programmes, since Period 85.
9

10

0

11

1

12

2

13

3

14

4

15

5

16

6
/1

/1
/1

/1

/1

/1
/1
/0

5/

5/
5/

5/

5/

5/
5/

11

11
11

11

11

11
11
11

Date

Figure 1. The percentage completion for the Cycle 1 the data centres2, 3, 4 provide for uniform science data products for VISTA, which
VISTA Public Surveys with respect to the allocated
data with many astrophysical applica- have been superseded by newer prod-
time. Note that completion fractions include the
observations taken during dry runs in 2009. The VVV tions. The VISTA survey data are listed ucts but remain available on demand by
completed its observations in October 2015. VIKING on the Phase 3 data release manager archive users, for example, for verification
completed observations by the end of 2016, but page5 and can be searched using the purposes.
requires the re-observation of a few tiles that were
ESO ­Science Archive Facility6 (SA F,
found to be out of the specified constraints. Ultra-
VISTA, VHS, VMC and VIDEO all had completion see ­A rnaboldi et al., 2014; Retzlaff et al., Astronomers have access to images,
fractions larger than 90 % by April 2017. 2016). covering 11 × 103 square degrees area
in Y-, J- and Ks-bands from VHS, and
Current active releases provide more deep images plus ­catalogues from the
than 40 TB of science data products UltraVISTA, VIDEO and VIKING surveys.
The scientific impact of the VISTA surveys from the VISTA Cycle 1 surveys which For example, they can extract measure-
and legacy value of the data products have been delivered by the teams. These ments from the billion-source catalogue
products, including calibrated images, for stars in the Milky Way bulge from the
The VISTA surveys produce large, coher- source lists, photometric catalogues and VVV survey, or from the light curves of
ent data sets. The constant monitoring of light curves for multi-epoch observations, Cepheid stars in the Magellanic Clouds
the system stability and the observations are available to the community for their in VMC. Community use can be quanti-
of standard stars in combination with the independent scientific research. There fied by means of the downloaded volume
extensive data reductions carried out by are also approximately 12 TB of additional of the VISTA Cycle 1 survey data, and the

16 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
300 Figure 3. (Left) A histogram of the expected hours of
observations for the Cycle 1 VISTA surveys in the
VIKING UltraVISTA period October 2016 to April 2018. The areas are
250 VMC VHS colour coded according to the Cycle 1 survey acro-
nyms. The full line indicates the typical completed
VIDEO Typical
Expected completion in hours

hours per month based on VISTA operations over
completed
the previous 4.5 years. The available time between
200 hours
the colored areas and the black line was assigned
to the new projects selected during the second
VISTA call. Some Cycle 2 surveys began observa-
150 tions before April 2017, to exploit time freed up
over certain RA ranges by the completion of some
Cycle 1 surveys).
100

50
Figure 4. (Lower) Cumulative curves describing the
volume download (Gb) by archive users of the
0 Cycle 1 VISTA science products (left) and the num-
ber of queries (centre) and distinct users (right)
6

6

17

17

17

17

7

7

18

18

18

18

8
/1

/1

/1
/1

/1

accessing the ESO catalogue query interface (see
2/

4/

6/

8/

2/

4/

6/

8/
10

10
12
10

12

Date Romaniello et al. [2016] for more information).

25 000 8000 1200
VHS VIDEO 7000 Number of queries
Processed by ESO
20 000 VMC UltraVISTA Distinct users 1000
Processed by external users
6000 Number of catalogues (× 10)

Number of users
VVV VIKING
Volume (Gb)

800
15 000 5000
4000 600
10 000
3000
400
5000 2000
200
1000
0 0 0
1
2

06 2
12 3
3
4
4

12 5
06 5
12 6
6

03 1
09 2
06 2
12 3
06 3
12 4
06 4
12 5
06 5
12 6
6
6
6
3

5
3

5
2

4

4

7
/1

/1
/1
/1
/1
/1
/1

/1
/1
/1
/1

/1

/1
/1
/1
/1
/1
/1

/1
/1
/1
/1
/1
/1

/1

/1

/1

/1
/1

/1

/1

/1
12

06
06

06
12
12

09
09
09

09

09

09
03

03

03

03

03

number of distinct queries of the cata- VISTA Cycle 2 surveys: science goals and mally began observations on 1 April 2017.
logues that have been published through observing strategies The full titles and acronyms of each of
the query interface (see Figure 4). these surveys are given in Table 2 along
In this section we provide an overview of with a brief summary of their observing
A robust legacy from the Cycle 1 surveys the selection process of the Cycle 2 sur- parameters; in Figure 5 and 6 we show
is also demonstrated by the sizeable con- veys and a summary of their science the footprints of the approved surveys
tribution to the total number of refereed goals, observing strategies and relevant and the requested hours in each RA bin
publications based on VISTA data. Among milestones. As noted earlier, the process per year, together with an illustration of
the merit parameters that quantify the of selecting and defining the second the available hours per year.
scientific impact of the first cycle of VISTA cycle of VISTA surveys started in October
Public Surveys, there are the number of 2015 with the submission of 13 letters The majority of the new surveys explore
refereed publications by the survey teams of intent from the community. The PSP the time domain. When the VVVX reaches
and archive users. By April 2017, there met in January 2016 and recommended completion in 2020, its multi-epoch ob­­
were more than 300 refereed publications seven projects that were subsequently servations will have a baseline of over ten
based on the data generated by the invited to submit formal proposals for the years (when combined with the Cycle 1
Cycle 1 surveys, according to the ESO May 2016 OPC meeting. Following their VVV survey). The science quality and the
Telescope Bibliography 7. The numbers of review and endorsement by the PSP, the constant monitoring of the stability of
refereed publications are as follows: VHS OPC and the Director General, the teams the VISTA/VIRCAM system support the
45; UltraVISTA 82; VVV 129; VIDEO 25; prepared Survey Management Plans requirements of these surveys to measure
VIKING 32; and VMC 34. A total of 86 ref- (SMPs), which were in turn reviewed by accurate and consistent stellar positions
ereed publications (~ 25 % of the total) the ESO survey team. This process was and fluxes in several bands, over this
are based on VISTA archival data (raw or completed in January 2017, with the timeframe. VINROUGE exploits the stabil-
reduced) and come from authors who ­publication of the approved SMPs on the ity of VISTA in combination with the effi-
were not co-investigators in the Public ESO Public Surveys web pages1 and ciency of the Target of Opportunity (TOO)
Survey proposals. their announcement in the ESO Science mode to trigger the quick follow-up and
Newsletter8. The seven new projects for- monitoring of transient events.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 17
Telescopes and Instrumentation Arnaboldi M. et al., ESO Public Surveys at VISTA

Table 2. Overview of
Survey Acronym Survey title & homepage PI Area Filters Total hrs Multi-epoch
the Cycle 2 VISTA Public
(square degrees) observations
Surveys. The columns
VINROUGE Kilonova counterparts to Gravitational N. Tanvir ~300 YJ 420 yes illustrate the Public
wave sources (10 triggers) Ks ­Survey acronym (col-
http://www.star.le.ac.uk/nrt3/VINROUGE/ umn 1), the survey title
(column 2), the PI name
Cont. UltraVISTA Completing the legacy of UltraVISTA J. Dunlop, 0.75 JH 756 no (column 3), the area
http://home.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~ultravista/ M. Franx, Ks covered (column 4), the
J. Fynbo, filters (column 5), the
O. Le Fèvre total hours requested
VVVX Extending VVV to higher Galactic latitudes D. Minniti, 1700 JH 1985 yes (column 6) and the
http://vvvsurvey.org/ P. Lucas Ks request for multi epoch
observations (column 7).
VEILS VISTA Extragalactic Infrared Survey M. Banerji 9 J Ks 1153 yes
http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~mbanerji/VEILS/
veils_index.html
GCAV Galaxy Clusters at VIRCAM M. Nonino 30 YJ 560 no
http://www.GCAV.it Ks
VISIONS VISTA star formation atlas J. Alves 550 JH 553 yes
https://visions.univie.ac.at/ Ks
SHARKS Southern Herschel-Atlas Regions I. Oteo 300 Ks 1200 no
K-band survey
http://sharks.roe.ac.uk/

Figure 5. Sky coverage
of the Cycle 2 VISTA
Public Surveys. The
­c olour coded footprints
of their targeted areas
are: VVVX (light-blue);
VISIONS (green);
SHARKS (yellow); GCAV
(violet); VEILS (light-red),
UltraVISTA (red). As
pointings for VINROUGE
are set by gravitational-
wave triggers, they
­c annot be included
here.

1. VINROUGE — VIsta Near-infraRed at least one neutron star. Such systems the behaviour of kilonovae is better char-
Observations Unveiling Gravitational are also expected to give rise to r-process acterised, and its strategy will be tailored
wave Events — PI Nial Tanvir (Univer- ­kilonovae/macronovae, with spectral to the parameters of each event. The total
sity of Leicester) energy distributions peaking in the near- time requested by this survey project is
This survey will conduct near-infrared infrared in the days following the merger. 420 hours, nominally for up to ten triggers,
­follow-up imaging of the error regions Detection of an electromagnetic (EM) resulting in a coverage of ~ 300 square
for gravitational wave (GW) detections counterpart would trigger considerable degrees. The baseline plan is to image
identified by the Laser Interferometer further follow-up, providing the route to the first visit in three filters (Y, J, Ks)
Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)- the redshift and host environment, and and one filter (J) at a repeat epoch to
Virgo Collaboration. It will specifically tar- heralding a new era of GW-EM astro- probe variability. Typically the limiting
get events that are likely to be due to a physics. The Public Survey strategy will magnitude of the images is expected to
merger of a compact binary pair including evolve over the course of the survey, as reach JAB = 21.

18 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
500 Figure 6. Requested hours per RA bin per year for
the Cycle 2 VISTA Public Surveys. The continuous
450 VINROUGE UltraVista black line shows the typical available hours, based
on the performance of VISTA in the previous
SHARKS VEILS 4.5 years. The RA range for VINROUGE shown here
400 is set by the time of the year during which gravita-
G-CAV VISIONS
tional wave alerts may be triggered by the LIGO-
350 VVVX Typical Virgo collaboration.
completed
300 hours
4. VEILS — The VISTA Extragalactic
Hours

250 Infrared Legacy Survey — PI Manda
200
Banerji (University of Cambridge)
This is a deep J and Ks-band transient
150 and wide-field survey with the following
primary goals: to understand the epoch
100 of reionisation and the build-up of massive
galaxies; and constrain the cosmo­logical
50
equation of state using Type I a super­
0 novae and active galactic nuclei dust lags.
0–1 2–3 4–5 6–7 8–9 10–11 12–13 14–15 16–17 18–19 20–21 22–23 VEILS will cover 9 square degrees over
Right ascension (hours) three fields: the European Large Area
ISO Survey (ELAIS) S1 (RA = 00 h 30 m;
2. Completing the legacy of UltraVISTA 3. V
 VVX — The VVV eXtended ESO Dec = –43° 00′); the Chandra Deep
— PI Jim Dunlop (University of Public Survey — PIs Dante Minniti Field South, CDF-S (RA = 03 h 36 m; ­
­Edinburgh), Marijn Franx (Leiden (Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago Dec = –28° 00′); and XMM-Newton Large
Observatory), Johan Fynbo (University de Chile), Philip Lucas (University of scale Synoptic ­Survey field, the XMM-
of Copenhagen), Olivier Le Fèvre Hertfordshire) LSS (RA = 02 h 22 m; Dec = –06° 00′).
(Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de The Cycle 1 Survey, VVV, mapped the The proposed per-epoch survey depths
­Marseille) Milky Way bulge and the adjacent south- are J < 23.5 and Ks < 22.5 mag in all
The purpose of this survey is to complete ern mid-plane repeatedly over six years. fields and in total 33–50 epochs per field
the legacy of UltraVISTA by delivering the The new VVVX survey, will fill the gaps per filter are expected over the entire
deepest degree-scale near-infrared imag- left between the VVV and VHS areas and duration of the survey. VEILS will take a
ing of the sky, within the unparalleled extend the baseline of VVV further, ena- total of 1153 hours (128 nights) in < 1 arc-
Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. bling proper motion measurements second seeing conditions to complete
This three-year programme will bring of < 0.3 milliarcseconds per year in the the survey.
the J, H and Ks imaging across the full optically obscured regions where the
1.5 square degrees footprint of VIRCAM Gaia satellite mission is limited by extinc- 5. G
 CAV — Galaxy Clusters At VIRCAM
to the same depths as has been achieved tion. VVVX will take ~ 2000 hours, and — PIs Mario Nonino (INAF, Trieste)
within the ultra-deep strips of the Cycle 1 cover 1700 square degrees of the south- GCAV is a 560-hour infrared survey of a
UltraVISTA programme at Data Release 4; ern sky, for the range of Galactic longi- sample of 20 galaxy clusters, evenly dis-
i.e., J = 26.0, H = 25.7, Ks = 25.3 (AB mag, tude, 20° ≤ l ≤ 130° (7 h < RA < 19 h). tributed over the 0-24h RA range, which
5σ, 1.8-arcsecond apertures). This will VVVX will provide a deep JHKs catalogue will mainly explore galaxy evolution over
be well matched to the depths of the opti- of about 2 × 109 point sources, as well a broad, and largely unexplored, range of
cal imaging from the new S ­ ubaru Hyper- as a Ks-band catalogue of ~107 variable cluster environments.
SuprimeCam deep survey, and to the sources. Within the area overlapping with
depths of the SPitzer Large Area Survey the Cycle 1 VVV survey, VVVX will pro- All of the selected clusters have already
with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH) using duce a 5-D map of the surveyed region been observed by the Advanced Camera
the Spitzer telescope. This 756-hour sur- by combining positions, distances and for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Cam-
vey will deliver new results on the galaxy proper motions of well-understood dis- era 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Tele-
UV luminosity function out to redshift, tance indicators (for example, red clump scope (HST) by the following programmes:
z = 8 and the g ­ alaxy stellar mass function stars, and RR Lyrae and Cepheid varia- Cluster Lensing And Supernovae Search
out to redshift, z = 6. It will also be a key bles) in order to unveil the inner structure with Hubble (CLASH), Hubble Frontier
resource for the study of dust-enshrouded of the Milky Way. The VVV and VVVX Fields (HFF) and the Frontier Fields and
star-forming galaxies, and for identifying ­catalogues will complement those from Reionisation Lensing Cluster Survey
spectroscopic targets for NASA’s James Gaia with very red sources and will feed (RELICS). Furthermore, a wealth of ground
Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This pro- spectroscopic targets for the forthcoming based ancillary data, from optical imaging
ject maximises the value of the VISTA time ESO high-multiplex spectrographs, and spectroscopy to radio observations,
already invested in the C ­ OSMOS field, MOONS and 4MOST. is available for most of the proposed
and will secure the long-term legacy of clusters. The total area coverage is about
VISTA for studies of the distant Universe. 30 square degrees and the expected

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 19
Telescopes and Instrumentation Arnaboldi M. et al., ESO Public Surveys at VISTA

depths are 24.5, 24.0, and 23.0 mag for 7. SHARKS — Southern H-ATLAS ple, HST), radio (for example, LOFAR) or
Y, J and Ks respectively (5σ in point Regions Ks-band Survey — PI Ivan X-ray measurements. The time domain
sources). The wide-area coverage cou- Oteo (University of Edinburgh) also plays a major role in setting the
pled with the expected depths will also SHARKS is a wide and deep VISTA Pub- ­legacy value of the VISTA Cycle 2 sur-
open up further scientific studies, for lic Survey over the South Galactic Pole veys. For example, the multi-messenger
example, the search for high redshift and the fields covered by the GAlaxy and astronomy nature of the GW-EM obser-
quasars, lensed quiescent galaxies, L Mass Assembly (GAMA) and Herschel- vations by VINROUGE, or the delivery
and T dwarfs, as well as infrared Galactic Astrophysical Tetrahertz Large Area Sur- of photo­metric catalogues with proper
star counts and colours. vey (H-ATLAS) in the Ks-band. This survey motions for millions of Milky Way stars in
covers 300 square degrees to a 5σ depth the Bulge by VVVX and their synergy with
6. VISIONS — VISTA Star Formation of Ks ~ 22.7 AB mag in 1200 hours. The the results from Gaia, will have a transfor-
Atlas — PI João Alves (University of SHARKS fields will also be followed up mational impact on the science carried
Vienna) by a number of future deep and/or wide out by the ESO community.
VISIONS is a sub-arcsecond near-infrared far-IR and radio surveys.
survey of all nearby (< 500 parsecs) star
formation complexes accessible from The main goals of this survey are as Acknowledgments
the southern hemisphere. This atlas will ­follows: to provide the best possible We would like to thank our La Silla Paranal col-
become the community’s reference star counterpart identification for ~ 90 % of leagues for their work in supporting the science
formation database, covering the mass the sources detected in the redshift operations of the ESO Public Surveys. We wish to
spectrum down to a few Jupiter masses range, 0 < z < 3, by H-ATLAS, the Low acknowledge our colleagues from the Department
of Engineering for the development of the tools
and spatial resolutions reaching 100– Frequency Array (LOFAR), the Square required for carrying out Phase 1, Phase 2 and
250 au. The survey will cover a total of ­K ilometre Array (SKA), and the Australian Phase 3 for the ESO Public Surveys, and the ESO
~ 550 square degrees distributed over the SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP); to produce a library team for the careful monitoring of refereed
six star forming complexes of Ophiuchus, sample of a thousand strong lenses for publications. We would like to thank the members of
the Public Survey Panels, particularly the Chairs,
Lupus, Corona Australis, Chamaeleon, cosmography studies; and, to study the Duccio Macchetto and Danny Lennon, for their work
Orion, and the Pipe Nebula. These are evolution of the most massive structures and support on the definition of the survey scientific
due to be completed within three years of in the Universe. The depth of the deepest programme with VISTA. Finally, we wish to thank
the start of observations. available observations over the proposed the principal investigators of the Public Surveys and
their collaborators, including the data centres at
fields (VIKING survey, Ks < 21.2 AB mag the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU2),
VISIONS is separated into three phases. at 5σ) is currently not enough to accom- the Wide Field Astronomy Unit (WFAU3) and the
The first phase will conduct H-band plish any of these aims. The SHARKS ­Traitement Élémentaire Réduction et Analyse des
imaging of the target regions distributed fields will also overlap with future optical PIXels (TERAPIX4), for their hard work.
over six epochs, with an effective expo- observations (using the Large Synoptic
sure time of 60 seconds and a limiting Survey Telescope) and with observations References
magnitude of H ~ 19 mag. The immedi- in the near-infrared (using ESA’s Euclid
ate objective is to derive positions and mission), representing a complementary Arnaboldi, M. et al. 1998, The Messenger, 93, 30
Arnaboldi, M. et al. 2007, The Messenger, 127, 28
proper motions of the embedded and dataset with an extensive legacy. Arnaboldi, M. et al. 2014, The Messenger, 156, 24
dispersed young stellar population that Capaccioli, M. & Schipani, P. 2011, The Messenger,
is inacces­sible to Gaia, as well as to pro- 146, 2
vide photo­metry to complement the first Science data products from Cycle 2 Cirasuolo, M. et al. 2011, The Messenger, 145, 11
de Jong, R. 2011, The Messenger, 145, 14
generation VHS survey that fully covered ­surveys Retzlaff, J. et al. 2016, SPIE, 9910, 09
all target regions in the J- and Ks-bands. Romaniello, M. et al. 2016, The Messenger, 163, 5
In the second phase, VISIONS will carry The science policies concerning the return Sutherland, W. et al. 2015, A&A, 575, 27
out a set of deep observations that will of science data products also apply to
image the high-column density regions of the VISTA Cycle 2 surveys. A short sum- Links
the star-forming complexes. The deep mary of the timeline for the delivery of their
imaging in J-, H-, Ks-bands of 57 point- data products from their survey manage- 1
 SO Public Surveys: ­
E
ings, with a 600-second exposure time ment plans is presented here. The first http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/PublicSurveys/
sciencePublicSurveys.html
per pointing, will reach limiting magni- delivery of data products such as images 2
Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit:
tudes of J ~ 21.5 mag, H ~ 20.5 mag, and source lists is expected 1.5 years http://casu.ast.cam.ac.uk/
and Ks ~ 19.5 mag. The third phase is to after the start of observations of the sur- 3
W ide Field Astronomy Unit:
observe a set of additional six control veys, i.e., in October 2018. The aperture- http://www.roe.ac.uk/ifa/wfau/
4
TERAPIX: http://terapix.iap.fr/
fields with the same limiting magnitudes matched multi-band catalogues and light 5
Phase 3 releases: http://www.eso.org/sci/observ-
and a similar strategy as the deep obser- curves should become available a year ing/phase3/data_releases.html
vations, for statistical com­parison with later in a second data release. The cata- 6
ESO Science Archive Facility: http://archive.eso.org/
the galactic field population. The total logues may not be limited to VISTA near- wdb/wdb/adp/phase_main/form
7
telbib: http://telbib.eso.org
requested time for VISIONS amounts to infrared photometry, as several teams 8
ESO Science Newsletter: http://www.eso.org/sci/
553 hours. have committed to delivering multi-wave- publications/newsletter/
length data, including optical (for exam-

20 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Telescopes and Instrumentation DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5021

The Cherenkov Telescope Array: Exploring the
Very-high-energy Sky from ESO’s Paranal Site

Werner Hofmann1

ESO/M. Tarenghi
for the CTA Consortium
Vulcano Llullaillaco
6739 m, 190 km east
1
Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik,
­Heidelberg, Germany
Cerro Armazones
ELT

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is
a next-generation observatory for
ground-based very-high-energy gamma-
Cherenkov Telescope
ray astronomy, using the imaging atmos-
Array Site
pheric Cherenkov technique to detect
and reconstruct gamma-ray induced air
showers. The CTA project is planning
to deploy 19 telescopes on its northern Cerro Paranal
La Palma site, and 99 telescopes on
its southern site at Paranal, covering VISTA Very Large
the 20 GeV to 300 TeV energy domain Telescope
and offering vastly improved perfor-
mance compared to currently operating
Cherenkov telescopes. The combination
of three different telescope sizes (23-,
12- and 4-metre) allows cost-effective
coverage of the wide energy range. based detectors that are limited to detec- Figure 1. The location of the CTA southern array,
in the valley between Cerro Paranal and Cerro
CTA will be operated as a user facility, tion areas of around a square metre,
­A rmazones.
dividing observation time between Cherenkov telescopes use the Earth’s
a guest observer programme and large atmosphere as a detection medium and Figure 2. Detection of primary γ-rays using the
Key Science Projects (KSPs), and the provide detection areas in excess of ­Cherenkov light from the γ-ray induced air showers.
data will be made public after a one- 105 square metres, capable of coping A telescope will “see” the γ-ray if it is located in the
year proprietary period. The history of with the very low flux of VHE γ-rays. ~ 250-metre diameter Cherenkov light pool. The
­different views of the air shower provided by multiple
the project, the implementation of the Today’s instruments use arrays of IACTs telescopes allow reconstruction of the shower
arrays, and some of the major science to image a cascade from different view- geometry and hence of the direction of the incident
goals and KSPs, are briefly summarised. ing angles, improving angular and energy γ-ray.

Primary γ
Introduction γ-ray enters the atmosphere

In the coming years, up to 99 of the e+
Electromagnetic cascade e–
Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) tele-
scopes with dish sizes between 4 metres e+ γ γ
and 23 metres will be installed at the e–
e+
­Paranal site, in the flat areas east of route γ
e –
e+
e+ γ
B-710 (Figure 1). CTA will be the premier e–
e–
observatory for imaging the Universe at
very high energies (VHE), covering
the electromagnetic spectrum at energies
from 10’s of GeV to 100’s of TeV. More
information can be found in Acharya et al.
(2013) and on the CTA website1.

CTA employs Imaging Atmospheric
­Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) —
large telescopes with ultraviolet–optical
reflecting mirrors that focus flashes of 10 nanosecond snapshot
Cherenkov light produced by γ-ray initi-
ated atmospheric particle cascades (air 0.1 km2 “light pool”, a few photons per m2
showers) onto nanosecond-response
cameras (Figure 2). Compared to space-

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 21
Telescopes and Instrumentation Hofmann W., The Cherenkov Telescope Array

resolution of the γ-rays, as well as speed of light with photon energy; and 2015, the RB decided to enter into
increasing the rejection of similar cas- photon-axion oscillations in cosmic detailed contract negotiations around
cades initiated by cosmic-ray particles. magnetic fields. 
 hosting the southern array on the Paranal
site in Chile and the northern array at the
Ground-based γ-ray astronomy at very CTA is envisaged as a general-­purpose Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC),
high energies is a young branch of observatory for the VHE waveband, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory
astronomy that has developed very rapidly building on the techniques and technolo- in La Palma, Spain. The hosting agree-
since the detection of the first cosmic gies demonstrated by the currently oper- ment with IAC was signed in September
VHE source in 1989 by the Whipple tele- ating IACTs, and improving on essentially 2016; the hosting agreement with ESO
scope (Hillas, 2013). The initial concepts all aspects of their performance. CTA was approved in late 2016 by both the
for CTA as the first major open obser­ will be the first truly open VHE observa- CTAO and ESO Councils. It is envisaged
vatory for this waveband were formulated tory, providing accessible data products that ESO will become a scientific partner
in 2005, motivated by the success of and support services to a wide scientific in CTA, expanding ESO’s portfolio of
existing IACTs, such as the High Energy community. It will exploit large arrays wavebands and leveraging the scientific
Stereoscopic System (HESS), the Major of Cherenkov t­elescopes on two sites to and operational synergies with its optical
Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov provide all-sky coverage, broad energy telescopes and the Atacama Millimeter/
(MAGIC) and the Very Energetic Radia- coverage and unprecedented precision. submillimeter Array (ALMA). ESO will
tion Imaging Telescope Array System ­operate the southern telescope array for
(VERITAS). These instruments have dem- CTAO and will receive observation time
onstrated that observations at these Some history on CTA’s arrays as well as voting rights in
extreme energies are not only technically the CTAO’s governing bodies. Also in
viable and competitive in terms of pre­ The CTA project was proposed and 2016, the decision was taken to locate
cision and depth, but also scientifically developed by the CTA Consortium the CTA Headquarters at Bologna in Italy;
rewarding and with broad scientific (CTAC) that was formally established in the Science Data Management Centre
impact. Their success has resulted in a 2008. The Consortium has now grown will be hosted at Zeuthen near Berlin,
rapid growth in the interested scientific to over 1300 scientists and engineers Germany.
community. Topics addressed with γ-ray from more than 200 institutes in 32 coun-
observations include2: tries, involved in the design and proto­ The full economic cost for implementing
(i) The origin and role of relativistic cosmic typing of the telescopes and the associ- CTA is estimated at 400 M€; however,
particles. Particles in our G ­ alaxy and ated auxiliary instruments and software, even with a reduced number of tele-
beyond are traced by the γ-rays they as well as in the characterisation of sites scopes, CTA will provide a state-of-the-
emit when interacting with gas or with for the telescopes. Of ESO’s 16 Member art astronomical facility, and a funding
radiation fields; this allows us to address States, 13 are also represented in the level of 250 M€ was established as the
questions like: what are the sites of CTA Consortium. In 2014, the CTA Obser- threshold for starting the implemen­tation.
high-energy particle acceleration in the vatory (CTAO) gGmbH was founded in Signature of a Memorandum of Under-
Universe? what are the mechanisms ­Heidelberg, to provide a legal framework standing (MoU) towards construction and
for cosmic particle acceleration? and for the operation of the CTA Project operation is underway and currently
what role do accelerated particles play Office, and for the contracts towards accounts for over 200 M€; the 250 M€
in feedback mechanisms related to star implementation of CTA. The CTAO gGmbH threshold should be reached in the near
formation and galaxy evolution? is governed by its Council of representa- future.
(ii) Probing extreme environments, for tives of the shareholders from Austria, the
example, the physical processes that Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy,
are at work close to neutron stars Japan, Spain, Switzerland and the United The telescope arrays
and black holes and the characteris- Kingdom, and from the Netherlands and
tics of relativistic jets, winds and explo- South Africa as Associate Members. In all aspects, CTA represents a signifi-
sions. γ-ray interactions can also be Work towards CTA was and is supported cant step forward with respect to c ­ urrent
used to explore the radiation fields and by the European Union under FP7 and instruments, and the combined effect is
magnetic fields in extreme cosmic H2020; since 2008, CTA is listed in the expected to be transformational for the
voids, and their evolution over cosmic roadmap of the European Strategy Forum field. For example, the improved γ-ray
time. 
 on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). collection area, the background rejection
(iii) E xploring frontiers in fundamental power and the larger field of view increase
physics, such as: searching for dark A comprehensive programme of site the survey speed of CTA by a factor of
matter particles annihilating into search and site evaluation was conducted several hundred with respect to current
γ-rays, allowing us to probe the nature by the CTA Consortium from 2010 to instruments. Sensitivity to point sources
and distribution of dark matter; inves- 2013, resulting in a shortlist of sites and of γ-rays will be up to an order of magni-
tigating mechanisms affecting photon detailed input to a Site Selection Com- tude higher than current instruments. The
propagation over cosmological dis- mittee appointed by the CTA Resource angular resolution of CTA will approach
tance, such as quantum gravitational Board (RB) of agency representatives (the one arcminute at high energies — the
effects causing tiny variations of the RB preceded the CTAO Council). In July best resolution of any instrument operat-

22 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
CTA/Gabriel Pérez Diaz/IAC/SMM/ESO/B.Tafreshi

ing above the X-ray band — allowing Figure 3. (Above) Artist’s
Southern hemisphere
rendering of the south- Type:
detailed imaging of a large number of
ern CTA site.
γ-ray sources.
23-M LST
12-M MST
CTA will take the IACT technique to its
4-M SST
next level, by deploying extended arrays
of Cherenkov telescopes (Figures 3 and
4). In the current arrays, with at most five
telescopes spaced by about 100 metres
(compared to the ~ 250-metre diameter
of the Cherenkov light pool), the bulk of
the recorded air showers have impact
1000 m
points outside the footprint of the array,
implying that usually only two telescopes
record the shower, and that the angle
Figure 4. (Right) Layout Circles:
between stereoscopic views of the cas- – 400 m
of the southern tele-
cade is modest, impacting the spatial scope array, combining – 800 m
– 1200 m
reconstruction. CTA will for the first time 4 LSTs, 25 MSTs and
deploy telescopes across areas that 70 SSTs. 4 LSTs, 25 MSTs, 70 SSTs
exceed the size of the Cherenkov light
pool, resulting in: area to increase with γ-ray energy, com- − The highest energy γ-rays are detected
− a dramatically increased rate of air pensating for the rapid drop of γ-ray flux by a multi-kilometre square array of 70
showers contained within the footprint with increasing energy (for typical sources, Small-Sized Telescopes (4-metre SSTs)
of the telescope array; the γ-ray flux drops with energy, E, like in the south.
− an increased number of views of the air dN γ/dE ~ E−2 or faster). Hence, rather than
shower from different viewing angles, deploying one type of Cherenkov tele- The small telescopes are only foreseen
improving both the reconstruction of scope on a regular grid, the CTA arrays for the southern array (Figure 4), since the
air-shower parameters and the rejection use a graded approach: highest energies are most relevant for
of cosmic-ray induced air showers as −T he lowest energies are covered by the study of Galactic sources. The use of
the major source of sensitivity-limiting an arrangement of four Large-Sized three different sizes of telescope proved
background; Telescopes (LSTs, of 23-metre dish to be the most cost-effective solution,
− a lower effective energy threshold diameter), capable of detecting γ-rays and it allows each telescope type to be
since, for contained showers, there are as low as 20 GeV. optimised for a specific energy range.
always telescopes in the region of high- −T he 0.1 to 10 TeV range is covered by The detailed specifications of the tele-
est density of Cherenkov light. larger arrays of 25 (south) and 15 (north) scopes and the layout of the CTA arrays
Medium-Sized Telescopes (12-metre are the result of a multi-step optimisation
For wide usable energy coverage, it is MSTs). process, extending over several years
desirable for the effective γ-ray detection and using 10’s of millions of CPU-hours

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 23
Telescopes and Instrumentation Hofmann W., The Cherenkov Telescope Array

Telescope Large Medium Small
LST MST SCT SST-1M ASTRI SST-2M GCT SST-2M
Number North array 4 15 TBD 0
Number South array 4 25 TBD 70
Optics
Optics Parabolic mirror Modified Davies-­ Schwarzschild- Davies-Cotton Schwarzschild- Schwarzschild-
Cotton Couder Couder Couder
Primary mirror diameter (m) 23 12 9.7 4 4 4
Secondary mirror diameter (m) — — 5.4 — 1.8 2
2
Eff. mirror area after shadowing (m ) 370 90 40 7.4 6 6
Focal length (m) 28 16 5.6 5.6 2.1 2.3
Focal plane instrumentation
Photo sensor PMT PMT Silicon Silicon Silicon Silicon
Pixel size (degr.), shape 0.10, hex 0.18, hex 0.07, square 0.24, hex 0.17, square 0.15–0.2, square
Field of view (degr.) 4.5 7.7/8.0 8.0 9.1 9.6 8.5–9.2
Number of pixels 1855 1764/1855 11328 1296 1984 2048
Signal sampling rate GHz 250 MHz/GHz GHz 250 MHz S&H GHz
Structure
Mount alz-az, on circular rail alt-az positioner alt-az positioner alt-az positioner alt-az positioner alt-az positioner
Structural material CFRP/steel steel steel steel steel steel
Weight (full telescope, tons) 100 85 ~85 9 15 8
Max. time for repositioning (s) 20 90 90 60 80 60

Table 1. Parameters of the different CTA telescopes
Gabriel Pérez Diaz, IAC, SMM

currently under prototyping. For details of telescope
technology, see Gamma, 2016 3.
GCT MST SCT

for detailed simulations of the air showers
and the response of the telescopes
(Bernlöhr et al., 2013).

The parameters of the telescopes are
SST-1M summarised in Table 1. The different tele-
scopes (Figure 5) have rather different
design drivers. For example, the main
drivers for the LSTs are the huge light-
collecting power and rapid repositioning
requirements (needed in particular for
­follow-up of γ-ray bursts), and for the SSTs
ASTRI the large number of elements implies
tight constraints on unit cost and mainte-
nance effort. Three different SST designs
are being prototyped, the Gamma-ray

Figure 5. Main image: CAD models of the different
CTA telescopes, shown to scale. The Small-Sized
Telescopes (SST, from left: GCT, ASTRI, SST-1M)
have a mirror diameter of about 4 metres, the
Medium-Sized Telescope (MST, middle) has a
12-metre mirror, and the Large-Size Telescope (LST)
a 23-metre mirror. Insets: Prototypes of CTA tele-
scopes under test: GCT (at Meudon), ASTRI (on
­Sicily), SST-1M (at W­ arsaw), MST (at Berlin), and SCT
(in Arizona). ­C onstruction of an LST prototype has
started on La Palma (not shown).

24 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Figure 6. Simulation of the Milky Way seen with CTA 4

Latitude (deg)
in very-high-energy γ-rays.
2
0
Cherenkov Telescope (GCT) and the –2
Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia –4
Replicante Italiana (ASTRI) dual-mirror 90 80 70 60 50 40 30
telescopes and the SST-1M single-mirror
4
variant. The dual-mirror telescopes use Latitude (deg)
2
Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optics, real-
0
ised for the first time in CTA’s C
­ herenkov
–2
telescopes. Also, a dual-mirror version
–4
of the MST is being considered (SCT);
30 20 10 0 –10 –20 –30
compared to the classical single-mirror
Cherenkov telescopes; the novel dual- 4
Latitude (deg)

mirror telescopes offer improved imaging 2
quality and allow a smaller plate scale 0
and rather compact cameras. The LST –2
and MST with their large (3-metre) –4
­cameras use photomultipliers with very 330 320 310 300 290 280 270
Longitude (deg)
high quantum efficiency to detect the
Cherenkov light, whereas the smaller
sensor areas of the SSTs and the SCT t­elescope configurations, and specify lactic Survey; (vi) Transients; (vii) Cosmic-
are covered with silicon sensors. trigger conditions, time constraints aris- ray PeVatrons; (viii) Star-forming Systems;
ing from coordinated observations with (ix) Active Galactic Nuclei; (x) Clusters of
other observatories, etc. Users will Galaxies; and (xi) Beyond gamma-rays.
The CTA Observatory receive processed and calibrated data in In the following, only the survey KSPs are
the form of photon-candidate event lists briefly introduced; these will form a basis
The CTA facility will be open to a wide similar to the products of other photon- for subsequent guest observer proposals.
community of scientific users: from counting instruments, provided in the
astronomy and astrophysics, to astropar­ Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) The combination of CTA’s wide field of
ticle physics, particle physics, cosmology format, together with relevant instrument view (FoV) and its unprecedented sensi-
and plasma physics. CTA observation response functions and auxiliary data, tivity ensures that CTA can deliver sur-
time and data products will be provided as well as science analysis tools. veys 1–2 orders of magnitude deeper
to users through several different modes: than existing surveys very early in the life
– The Guest Observer Programme is Science data, calibration data and auxil- of the CTA Observatory. CTA surveys will
a proposal-based system that will give iary data will be permanently stored in the open up discovery space in an unbiased
users access to time for observations CTA data archive and made available to way and generate legacy datasets of
requiring anywhere between a few hours archive users after the proprietary period. long-lasting value. The following surveys
and hundreds of hours. The data archive will remain available form part of the KSPs:
– The Key Science Projects (KSPs) beyond the operational period of the CTA − The Extragalactic Survey — covering
defined by the CTA Consortium are Observatory. High-level data, such as one quarter of the sky to a depth of
large programmes that ensure that the sky maps, light curves, and source cata- ~ 6 mCrab. No extragalactic survey has
key science issues are addressed in a logues will be made available in a Virtual ever been performed using IACTs. A
coherent fashion, generating legacy Observatory (VO) compliant format. 1000-hour CTA survey of such a region
data products. KSPs require anything Alerts from CTA on noteworthy astro- will reach the same sensitivity as the
between 100 and 1000 hours of obser- nomical events (for example the detection decade-long HESS programme of
vation time. of transients) will be sent to the wider inner-Galaxy observations, and cover a
– The Director’s Discretionary Time will community in the VO Event format. solid angle ~ 40 times larger, providing
represent a small fraction of observa- a snapshot of activity in an unbiased
tion time that will be used for, for exam- sample of galaxies. 

ple, unanticipated targets of opportu- The CTA Key Science Projects − The Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) —
nity or outstanding proposals from consisting of a deep survey (~ 2 mCrab)
non-member countries. The detailed volume Science with the of the inner Galaxy and the Cygnus
– Archive Access to CTA data will be Cherenkov Telescope Array is about region, coupled with a somewhat shal-
made available worldwide after a pro- to be published. Proposed CTA KSPs lower survey (~ 4 mCrab) of the entire
prietary period of about one year. include: (i) the Dark Matter Programme; Galactic Plane (see Figure 6). For the
(ii) the Galactic Centre Survey; (iii) the typical luminosity of known Milky Way
Observations will take place in service Galactic Plane Survey; (iv) the Large TeV sources of 1033–34 erg s –1, the
mode; the user may request specific Magellanic Cloud Survey; (v) the Extraga- CTA GPS will provide a distance reach

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 25
Telescopes and Instrumentation Hofmann W., The Cherenkov Telescope Array

of ~ 20 kpc, detecting essentially the surveys is not only that they provide the of the full scope of the arrays may pro-
entire population of such objects in the basis for a population synthesis of cosmic gress gradually. Science operation will
Galaxy and providing a large sample particle accelerators, but also that they start with partial arrays, before deploy-
of objects one order of magnitude enable discovery of key objects — the ment of the full arrays is completed. Tele-
fainter. The excellent angular resolution equivalents of the Hulse-Taylor pulsar or scopes are successively handed over
of CTA is critical here if it is to avoid the Double Pulsar found in radio pulsar from the construction project to opera-
being limited by source confusion surveys. tions. Prior to user science operation, the
rather than flux. performance of the (initially partial) arrays
− The Galactic Centre Survey — con­ will be verified and documented. It is
sisting of a > 500 hours deep exposure Construction of the CTA anticipated that construction activities will
of a ± 1 degree window around Sgr A *, start in 2018, with the first data from par-
covering the Galactic Centre source, The Design Phase of CTA has been con- tial arrays becoming available in 2021.
the centre of the Dark Matter halo, cluded; the project is currently near the
­multiple supernova remnants and pul- end of the Pre-Construction Phase in In summary, CTA will provide a next-­
sar wind nebulae, central radio lobes which instrument designs were evolved to generation VHE γ-ray observatory with
and arc features. An additional 300 production readiness and were reviewed unprecedented capability. CTA perspec-
hours extended survey covers a 10 by in the Science Performance and Require- tives in relativistic astrophysics include
10 degree region around Sgr A *, includ- ments Review, the Preliminary Design the in-depth understanding of known VHE
ing the edge of the Galactic Bulge, Review and the final Critical Design γ-ray emitters and their mechanisms,
the base of the Fermi Bubbles, the Review — all performed by CTA’s Sci- detection of new object classes and dis-
radio spurs and the Kepler supernova ence and Technical Advisory Committee. covery of new phenomena. As with many
remnant. facilities breaking new ground, the most
− The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) The forthcoming Pre-Production Phase important discoveries may not be the
­Survey — providing a face-on view covers the deployment of approximately ones discussed in today’s science case
of an entire star-forming galaxy, resolv- 10 % of the final number of telescopes documents.
ing regions down to 20 pc in size with with the aim of verifying and optimising
sensitivity down to luminosities of production schemes, as well as exer­cising
~1034 erg s –1. CTA aims to map the dif- and optimising deployment, testing soft- References
fuse LMC emission as well as individual ware, etc. Based on the Pre-Production Acharya, B. S. et al. 2013, Astroparticle Physics,
objects, providing information on rela- Readiness/Deployment Reviews, Pre- 43, 3
tivistic particle transport. Production telescopes will be installed Bernlöhr, K. et al. 2013, Astroparticle Physics,
on the sites; after retro­fitting to final pro- 43, 171
Hillas, A. M. 2013, Astroparticle Physics, 43, 19
These surveys will establish the popula- duction status where ­relevant, they are
tions of VHE emitters in Galactic and planned to be used in the final CTA arrays.
extragalactic space, providing samples Links
of objects large enough to understand Once Pre-Production is successfully 1
 TA Observatory: www.cta-observatory.org
C
source evolution and/or duty cycle. Data established for a given telescope type, 2
For an overview of CTA science, see articles in the
products from the survey KSPs include this element moves to the Production Special CTA edition of Astroparticle Physics, 43,
catalogues and flux maps which will Phase. To first approximation, telescopes 1-356, 2013
3
serve as valuable long-term resources are not dependent on each other for C ontributions of CTA to the 6th International
­S ymposium on High-Energy Gamma-Ray
for a wide community. The value of these operation and the cumulative completion ­A stronomy (Gamma 2016), arXiv:1610.05151

The panorama from the planned site of the Cherenkov
Telescope Array looking towards the Very Large
­Telescope on Cerro Paranal.

26 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Astronomical Science

Near-infrared three-filter (Y-, J- and Ks-band)
ESO/VISTA VMC

­c olour-composite image of the centre of the Small
Magellanic Cloud obtained with the Visible and
Infrared Survey T
­ elescope for Astronomy (VISTA).
See Photo Release eso1714a for more information.
Astronomical Science DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5022

To be or not to be Asymmetric? VLTI/MIDI and the
Mass-loss Geometry of AGB Stars

Claudia Paladini 1 O-rich ones. The nature of the asym- interaction with an unseen companion;
Daniela Klotz 2 metric structures so far detected (dusty and the irregular shape applies to objects
Stephane Sacuto 2, 3 discs versus blobs) remains uncertain showing extended and non-detached
Eric Lagadec 4 and will require imaging on milli-arcsec- material (as opposed to rings).
Markus Wittkowski 5 ond scales.
Andrea Richichi 6 Observations carried out using other
Josef Hron2 techniques (from near-infrared inter­
Alain Jorissen1 Background ferometric campaigns to radio and sub-
Martin A. T. Groenewegen 7 millimetre studies — examples include:
Franz Kerschbaum 2 Stars with low to intermediate initial mass ­Cruzalèbes et al., 2015; Lykou et al.,
Tijl Verhoelst 8 (≲ 8 M⊙), including our Sun, undergo a 2015; Kervella et al., 2014; Ramstedt et
Gioia Rau 2 short evolutionary phase, called the AGB, al., 2014; and Maercker et al., 2012)
Hans Olofsson 9 towards the end of their lives and undergo showed a very complex picture. Alto-
Ronny Zhao-Geisler 10 several mass dredge-up events. Stars gether it became clear that observations
Alexis Matter 4 on the AGB usually have O-rich chemis- needed to probe all spatial scales for a
try. However, after the third dredge-up, defined sample of stars in order to under-
stars with initial masses between 1 and stand the physics of the outflow.
1
Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, 4 M⊙ can reach a C/O ratio > 1, and their
Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium spectra are then dominated by C-bearing
2
Department of Astrophysics, University molecular and dust species. The VLTI/MIDI survey
of Vienna, Austria
3
Department of Physics and Astronomy, The atmosphere of a star on the AGB can Our VLTI/MIDI Large Programme (Paladini
Division of Astronomy and Space be as large as a few au, and it is stripped et al., 2017) observed a subsample of the
­Physics, University of Uppsala, Sweden away by a stellar wind on a typical time- MESS targets to understand how asym-
4
Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte scale of thousands of years. Observations metric structures develop within a very few
d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, of the following evolutionary stages, the stellar radii (2–10 R★) of the atmosphere
CNRS, Nice, France post-AGB and planetary nebula, show as a result of the mass-loss process. The
5
ESO some very asymmetric envelopes and questions we wanted to answer were:
6
National Astronomical Research Insti- emission nebulae around the central star. (i) whether the mass loss is an episodic
tute of Thailand, Chiang Mai, Thailand For many years, AGB stellar mass loss process; (ii) where the asymmetric struc-
7
Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van België, was considered to be mainly symmetric. tures form, and what is the mechanism
Brussel, Belgium It is accepted in the planetary nebula responsible; (iii) how do the asymmetries
8
Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, community that binary interaction can be change as the star moves up the AGB;
Brussels, Belgium responsible for the asymmetric morphol- and (iv) whether the asymmetric struc-
9
Department of Earth and Space ogy (Jones & Boffin, 2017), but the popu- tures detected by Herschel are con-
­Sciences, Onsala Space Observatory, lation of binaries on the AGB does not nected to the ones eventually observed in
Sweden match that in the post-AGB phase. In the inner atmospheres of AGB stars.
10
Department of Earth Sciences, fact, because of the pulsation of the star
National Taiwan Normal University, itself and the dust around the AGB star, Of course, performing a study of the
­Taipei, Taiwan the companions are difficult to detect. global geometry with a two-telescope
beam combiner is very challenging. How-
Between 2009 and 2013, the Herschel ever, MIDI was the only facility available
The Mid-infrared Interferometric instru- Space Telescope imaged the interface worldwide with the angular resolution
ment (MIDI) at the Very Large Telescope between the outer atmosphere and the needed to resolve the inner dust-forming
Interferometer (VLTI) has been used to interstellar medium for a sample of AGB region of these stars. We carried out an
spatially resolve the dust-forming region stars within the MESS (Mass-loss from extensive preparatory study to select the
of 14 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) Evolved StarS) guaranteed observing time right baselines to sample the same spa-
stars with different chemistry (O-rich programme (Groenewegen et al., 2011). tial frequencies in all targets necessary
and C-rich) and variability types (Miras, The MESS programme identified four for simple morphology studies. For this
semi-regular, and irregular variables). ­different geometries: ring, fermata, eye we used the Jean-Marie Mariotti Centre
The main goal of the programme was to and irregular (Cox et al., 2012). The ring (JMMC) tool Aspro21 and the ESO Vis-
detect deviations from spherical sym- shape is due to the interaction between Calc2 tool. An in-house tool optimised for
metry in the dust-forming region of these different episodic mass-loss events; the MIDI was also developed to analyse the
stars. All the stars of the sample are fermata (so named because of its simi­ data (GEometrical Model Fitting for INter-
well resolved with the VLTI, and five are larity to the symbol used in music) is ferometric Data [GEM-FIND]; Klotz et al.,
asymmetric and O-rich. This finding caused by interaction between the stellar 2012).
contrasts with observations in the near- wind and the interstellar medium; the
infrared, where the C-rich objects are eye shape is due to a mixture of the pre- A total of 115 hours on the Auxiliary Tele-
found to be more asymmetric than the vious two mechanisms, and possibly the scopes was devoted to observing the

28 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
O-rich star R Leo O-rich star R Crt S-type star Pi1 Gru Figure 1. Some exam-
1.0 1.0 1.0 ples of the MIDI visibility
spectra of AGB stars
0.8 0.8 0.8 with different chemistry
observed within the pro-
0.6 0.6 0.6 gramme. The molecular
Visibility

Visibility

Visibility
and dust features char-
acterising the visibility
0.4 0.4 0.4 spectra are highlighted.
The typical error bar is
0.2 SiO + H 2O 0.2 SiO + H 2O 0.2 SiO + H 2O of the order of 10 %.
Silicate AI 2O 3 Silicate From Paladini et al.
0.0 0.0 0.0 (2017).
8 9 10 11 12 13 8 9 10 11 12 13 8 9 10 11 12 13
Wavelength (μm) Wavelength (μm) Wavelength (μm)

C-rich star R Lep C-rich star TX Psc C-rich star U Ant
1.0 1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6 0.6
Visibility

Visibility

Visibility
0.4 0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2 0.2
C 2H 2 + HCN SiC C 2H 2 + HCN C 2H 2 + HCN
0.0 0.0 0.0
8 9 10 11 12 13 8 9 10 11 12 13 8 9 10 11 12 13
Wavelength (μm) Wavelength (μm) Wavelength (μm)

14 targets initially selected. The objects 9 μm, where C2H2 and HCN molecules in the visibility. Perhaps a recent episodic
have different chemistry: five are O-rich contribute, is observed for all the C-stars. strong stellar wind might have dissolved
stars with C/O < 1; two are S-type stars Evolved Mira variables, such as R Lep, the shell, but no such event has been
with 0.5 < C/O < 1; and seven are C-rich show a drop in the visibility around 11 μm, reported in the literature.
stars with C/O > 1. When available for where the SiC dust feature appears. Stars
any of the selected targets, archival data without SiC emission in the integrated Follow-up observations with the VLT
were also analysed. spectrum have a visibility more like that Imager and Spectrometer for mid-InfraRed
of TX Psc (Figure 1, lower row, central (VISIR) and the VLTI second-generation
panel). instrument Multi AperTure mid-Infrared
Visibility versus wavelength SpectroScopic Experiment (MATISSE),
see Lopez et al. (2006) and Kasper et
The MIDI observables are photometry, Peculiar cases al. (2013), as well as detailed dynamic
visibility amplitudes and differential phases modeling (for example, Rau et al., 2017),
spread across the N-band (8–13 μm). The In the literature to date, all the features should help to solve the mystery of these
analysis of the visibilities (also called the identified in the mid-infrared spectra of two stars.
visibility spectrum) provides information AGB stars have always been mirrored in
about the brightness and angular size of the visibility spectrum. However, we
the molecular and dust components of observed two interesting and unexpected Variability
the envelope. Figure 1 shows the typical cases in our sample. The Infra-Red
visibility spectra of the O-rich cases (upper Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and MIDI The rich archive of MIDI observations
row), where SiO and water molecules spectra of the C-rich star U Ant show the gave us the chance to study the inter­-
dominate the region between 8 and 9 μm. typical 11.3 μm silicon carbide dust fea- ferometric and spectroscopic variability
Silicate dust emission in the integrated ture, but there is no trace of such a fea- for some targets. Comparing visibility
spectrum usually corresponds to a drop ture in the visibility spectrum (Figure 1, spectra taken at different visual phases,
in the visibility around 10 μm. Such a visi- lower row, right panel). It might therefore but with the same projected baseline
bility drop indicates that the envelope be that the interferometer is resolving out and position angle, gives information on
is more extended and/or brighter in that the dust shell in this case. the size variation of the target. On the
wavelength range. other hand, the variability in the integrated
Another peculiar star in our sample is spectra corresponds to variation in the
The C-rich counterparts of the sample the C-star S Sct. While SiC dust is clearly colour (temperature).
(examples in the lower row in Figure1) detected in the Infrared Space Observa-
have different visibility spectrum morphol- tory (ISO) spectrum, there is no trace of The only case of interferometric varia-
ogy. A drop in the visibility between 8 and such a feature in the MIDI spectrum and bility detected in our sample is shown in

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 29
Astronomical Science Paladini C. et al., VLTI/MIDI and the Mass-loss Geometry of AGB Stars

R Lep (II) regular variable RT Vir, the fluxes observed This result is illustrated in Figure 4 on an
1.0
with MIDI at different visual phases follow IRAS colour-colour diagram.
a sinusoid where the N-band maximum
0.8 is slightly shifted with respect to the visual Near-infrared observations point to the
maximum (Figure 3). These findings agree fact that carbon stars are very asymmet-
with previous work (Le Bertre, 1993; ric and O-rich objects are not; thermal
0.6 Karoricova et al., 2011, and references infrared data show that the percentage
Visibility

therein). of asymmetries between AGB stars with
different chemistry is nearly the same
0.4
(­Blasius et al., 2012). This result can be
Morphology interpreted in terms of the dust composi-
0.2 tion and characteristics of the stars with
B = 40; PA = 147; ø v = 1.43 The main goal of our investigation was to different chemistry. The O-rich dust in
B = 40; PA = 142; ø v = 0.66
study the geometry of the targets, with the near-infrared is nearly transparent, as
0.0 a focus on the detection of non-spherical one sees deeper into the envelope, and
8 9 10 11 12 13
Wavelength (μm) symmetry. A model-independent way not as many asymmetries are expected
to achieve this goal consists in compar- in that wavelength range. On the other
Figure 2. Interferometric variability for the C-rich ing visibilities probing the same spatial hand, the C-rich dust absorbs the radia-
Mira star R Lep. Comparison between two visibility
frequency at different position angles. A tion in the near-infrared, making the stars
spectra observed at different visual phases, with the
same position angle and projected baseline, is second approach is to use the differential appear blob-like. In the mid-infrared, the
shown. phase observed; objects with a spherical O-rich dust is more blobby than in the
brightness distribution have differential C-rich cases because there are stronger
Figure 2. The observations of the C-rich phases equal to zero or 180 degrees. non-linear effects in the radiative acceler-
Mira star R Lep indicate that the molecu- Alongside these two direct methods, we ation.
lar environment (8–10 μm) is slightly tested the data with spherical, elliptical,
smaller before minimum visual phase and two-component geometrical models.
(green line). No size variation is observed, Prospects
however, in the SiC dust emission wave- The differential phase of the two O-rich
length region (~11 μm). stars, RT Vir and R Leo, immediately indi- Our Large Programme has shown that
cates that the stellar environment of the stellar wind produces asymmetric
These findings confirm that interfero­ these stars is very complex. The analysis structures in the very inner part of the
metric variability is connected to pulsation, of the other objects showed that all the dust-forming region. However, the nature
as previously reported by Ohnaka et al. carbon stars were surprisingly symmetric. of such asymmetries (dust clumps versus
(2007) for V Oph. Both the S-type objects are asymmetric, circumstellar discs) will require an imag-
as is one of the remaining O-rich stars. In ing campaign with MATISSE. Our pro-
We observed flux variation within photo- summary, we find that asymmetric struc- gramme initially included a VISIR cam-
metric cycles for four targets. In all the tures in the N-band wavelength domain paign, designed to fill in the gap between
cases the N-band magnitude variation is are more common among the stars with the spatial scales of MIDI and Herschel
of the order of 0.8–1 mag. For the semi- O-rich chemistry. (see Figure 5 for the colour-colour plot of

600 2.0 Figure 4. The tar-
Uniform Disc (UD) gets analysed in
ISO the programme
Gauss
500 Cycle –1 Asymmetric plotted in the IRAS
Cycle 0 UD + Gauss
1.5 colour-colour dia-
Cycle 2
gram (van der Veen
400 & Habing, 1988).
Flux @ 8μm (Jy)

Vl a Vl b The lower part of
the diagram is pop-
300 1.0
ulated with O-rich
(25)–(60)

stars (magenta) and
200 S-type stars (bright
blue). The C-rich
0.5
Vll objects are located
100 in boxes V I a and
V II. Asymmetric
targets (stars) are
0 0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 ­c oncentrated in the
Visual phase l lower part of the
ll lll a diagram.

Figure 3. Spectroscopic variability observed with –0.5
MIDI over several cycles for the O-rich semiregular –0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
variable RT Vir. From Paladini et al. (2017). (12)–(25)

30 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
object morphology). However, adverse 2.0 Figure 5. Same as
Fermata Figure 4 (van der
weather conditions, and the decommis- Eye Veen & Habing,
sioning of VISIR for upgrade, prevented Irregular 1988) but colour-
us from carrying out this part of the pro- Point Source coded by the
1.5 Ring
gramme. Future observations in this ­H erschel morphol-
ogy identified in
direction are planned.
Vl a Cox et al. (2012).
Vl b
Linking the Her-
1.0
schel and MIDI
(25)–(60)
Acknowledgements observations will
require the inter-
This work was supported by the Austrian Science mediate spatial
Fund FWF under the project AP23006, the Belgian 0.5 scales probed by
Vll
Federal Science Policy Office via the PRODEX Pro- VISIR.
gramme of ESA, the Belgian Fund for Scientific
Research F.R.S.- FNRS, and the European Union’s
Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agree- 0.0
ment 312430. This research has made use of the l
SIMBAD database, operated at CDS Strasbourg, ll lll a
France. We acknowledge with thanks the variable
star observations from the AAVSO International –0.5
Database contributed by observers worldwide and –0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
used in this research. We thank the ESO Paranal (12)–(25)
team for supporting our VLTI/MIDI observations.
F. Bufano, L. Burtscher, M. Cesetti, S. Höfner, Jones, D. & Boffin, H. 2017, NatAs, 1, 117 Rau, G. et al. 2017, A&A, 600, 92
T. Lebzelter, J.-B. Le Bouquin, G. C. Sloan, and Karovicova, I. et al. 2011, A&A, 532, A134 van der Veen, W. E. C. J. & Habing, H. J. 1988,
K. ­Tristam are thanked for their key contributions. Kervella, P. et al. 2014, A&A, 564, 88 A &A , 194, 125
Klotz, D. et al. 2012, Proc. SPIE, 8445, 84451
Le Bertre, T. 1993, A&AS, 97, 729

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Lopez, B. et al. 2006, Proc. SPIE, 6268, 62680
Blasius, T. D. et al. 2012, MNRAS, 426, 4 Maercker, M. et al. 2012, Nature, 490, 212 1
J MMC interferometric tool Aspro2:
Cox, N. L. J. et al. 2012, A&A, 537, A35 Ohnaka, K. et al. 2007, A&A, 484, 371 http://www.jmmc.fr/aspro_page.htm
Cruzalèbes, P. et al. 2015, A&A, 446, 3277 Paladini, C. et al. 2017, A&A, 600, 136 2
ESO VisCalc tool:
Groenwegen, M. A. T. et al. 2011, A&A, 526, A162 Ramstedt, S. et al. 2014, A&A, 570, 14 https://www.eso.org/observing/etc/
ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/R. Sahai

Composite Atacama Millimeter/submillimeter Array
(ALMA) and NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
(HST) image of the pre-planetary nebula, the
­Boomerang, which was ejected by an evolved low
mass star. The background bipolar structure (purple)
is from the HST visible light image, while the narrow
elongated CO (3-2) emission mapped by ALMA
is shown in orange. The outflow has exceptionally
low brightness temperature (≲ 10 K). See Picture of
the Week potw1724 for more details.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 31
Astronomical Science DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5023

Towards a Sharper Picture of R136 with
SPHERE Extreme Adaptive Optics

Zeinab Khorrami 1, 2 Local Group. In the heart of 30 Doradus, its better-than-nominal performance that
Farrokh Vakili 1 the most massive and compact star clus- surpasses previous NAOS-CONICA
Thierry Lanz 1 ter R136 is located. This cluster hosts the (NACO) and Multi-conjugate Adaptive
Maud Langlois 3, 4 most massive stars known in the Local optics Demonstrator (MAD) observations.
Eric Lagadec1 Universe (Crowther et al., 2016; Crowther The air mass during these observations
Michael R. Meyer 5, 6 et al., 2010). R136 provides a unique ranged from 1.54 to 1.67. The average
Raffaele Gratton 7 opportunity to study the formation of Strehl ratio (SR) in the J- and Ks-bands
Jean-Luc Beuzit 8 massive stars and their feedback on clus- was determined to be 0.40 ± 0.05 and
David Mouillet 8 ter formation and evolution. 0.75 ± 0.03, respectively.

We used the second-generation Very In order to qualify our data, we compared
1
 chool of Physics and Astronomy,
S Large Telescope (VLT) SpectroPolari­ the reduced Ks-band images with pub-
­Cardiff University, United Kingdom metric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch lished images of R136 from HST (with the
2
Université Côte d’Azur, OCA, CNRS, (SPHERE) instrument to observe the Wide Field Planetary Camera 3, WFC3)
Lagrange, France ­central core of R136 in the near-infrared. in the V-band and with the MAD imaging
3
Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Using the small field of view (FoV) of the (Campbell et al., 2010) in the Ks-band
CNRS, CRAL UMR5574, Saint-Genis SPHERE InfraRed Dual-band Imager and (Figure 2). This comparison confirms that
Laval, France Spectrograph (IRDIS), more than one our data present better spatial resolution
4
Université Aix Marseille, CNRS, thousand sources have been detected in and point-spread function (PSF) sampling
­L aboratoire d’Astrophysique de Ks- and J-band data in the core of R136 which are more suitable for applying
­Marseille, UMR 7326, France (10.9 × 12.3 arcseconds) covering almost deconvolution techniques. For the photo­
5
Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, 2.7 x 3.1 pc at the distance of R136 metry, we used the Starfinder package
Switzerland (50 kpc). (Diolaiti et al., 2000), implemented in the
6
Department of Astronomy, University of Interactive Data Language (IDL). Star-
Michigan, Ann Arbor, U.S.A. SPHERE’s extreme adaptive optics (AO) finder is designed for the analysis of AO
7
INAF — Astronomical Observatory of system results in the same resolution with images of crowded fields such as the
Padua, Italy the VLT Melipal telescope in the Ks-band Galactic Centre (Pugliese et al., 2002). It
8
Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) enables determination of the empirical
­Institut de Planétologie et yields in the visible (0.055 arcseconds). local PSF from several isolated sources in
d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, France In the J-band the resolution of 0.035 arc- the image and uses this PSF to extract
seconds exceeds that of the HST, and other stellar sources across the FoV.
does so with a better pixel sampling of
The SPHERE extreme adaptive optics 12.25 milli-arcseconds per pixel. Three well-isolated stars (no neighbours
instrument was used to observe the cen- within 0.47 arcseconds) were used to
tral core of the Large Magellanic Cloud, extract the PSF in the J- and Ks-band
R136, in the near-infrared. This chal- Observations data separately. The extracted PSFs from
lenging observation demonstrated the the J- and Ks-band data were used as
capabilities of SPHERE for imaging dis- We collected data in Guaranteed Time input for the stellar source detection by
tant clusters. More than one thousand Observation (GTO) runs to image R136 Starfinder. The full width half maximum
sources have been detected in Ks- and using the classical imaging mode of IRDIS (FWHM) of the extracted PSFs are 54.71
J-band images in the small field of view (Langlois et al., 2014). Observations were and 65.16 milli-arcseconds in the J- and
of IRDIS covering almost 2.7 × 3.1 pc of performed in September 2015, with high Ks-band data, respectively. As a conse-
the core of R136. Based on isochrone dynamic and high angular resolution quence, 1110 and 1059 sources were
fitting of the colour-­magnitude diagram, imaging in J- and Ks-bands, over a FoV detected in the J- and Ks-bands, respec-
ages of 1 and 1.5 Myr for the inner of 10.9 × 12.3 arcseconds, centred on tively, with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)
3-arcsecond core and the outer core of the core of the cluster (Figure 1). The see- better than two. The AO correction
R136 fit our data best. The mass func- ing was 0.63 ± 0.1 arcseconds during ­efficiency degrades as a function of dis-
tion slope is – 0.96 ± 0.22 over the mass the observations and the night was rated tance from R136a1, which is the refer-
range of 3 to 300 M⊙. Using SPHERE as clear. Less than 10 % of the sky (above ence star for the AO loop. At the borders
data, we have gone one step further in 30 degree elevation) was covered by of the FoV, the isoplanatic limits are
partially resolving the core of R136, but clouds, and the transparency variations approached. Overall, the PSF is not cen-
this is certainly not the final step and were lower than 10 %. tro-symmetric at large distances from
higher resolution is still required. R136a1. We took these distortions into
The SPHERE data consist of 300 frames, account to estimate the local statis­tical
each of 4.0 s exposure, in the two IRDIS errors, which become significant for
30 Doradus, in the Large Magellanic broad-band Ks and J filters (BB-Ks, BB-J). those sources that are more distant from
Cloud (LMC), is one of the most massive The Wolf-Rayet star R136a1 was used to the centre of the image than typically
and optically brightest H II regions in the guide the AO loop of SPHERE, confirming 3 arcseconds.

32 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
NASA, ESA, F. Paresce (INAF-IASF, Bologna, Italy), R. O'Connell (University of Virginia, Charlottesville),
and the Wide Field Camera 3 Science Oversight Committee
Figure 1. (Upper left) Zooming into the core of R136 Figure 2. (Lower) Comparison of images of the R136 the lower row of images are zoomed into the very
(275 arcseconds), from a large-field BVR image with core with the highest available angular resolution. core of R136 (FoV of 1.5 × 1.5 arcseconds). From
FORS1 to the core of R136 (upper right) from an HST The FoV of all the images in the upper row is the left to right: HST/WFC3 (V-band), MAD (Ks-band),
WFC3 JH-band image (59 arcsecond field-of-view), same as the IRDIS data (10.9 × 12.3 arcseconds); and SPHERE/IRDIS (Ks-band).
showing the area imaged by SPHERE IRDIS.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 33
Astronomical Science Khorrami Z. et al., Towards a Sharper Picture of R136 with SPHERE Extreme AO

Full FoV r < 3ೀ r > 3ೀ
Age and extinction 11 7 11 6 11 6

To estimate the stellar ages and the 12 12 12
extinction in the core of R136, we used 6
13 13 5 13 5
the effective temperature (Teff ) and lumi-
nosity (log L) of 54 stars that were stud-
14 14 14
ied spectroscopically by Crowther et 5
al. (2016). We also chose a grid of isoch- 15 15 4 15 4
rones at different ages (from 0.1 up to
8 Myr) with the LMC metallicity (Z = 0.006) 16 16 16
4
from the latest sets of PARSEC evolution-
ary models (Bressan et al., 2012), a theo- 17 17 3 17 3
J

retical library1 that includes the latest set
of stellar phases from pre-main sequence 18 3 18 18
to main sequence and covering stellar
masses from 0.1 to 350 M⊙. By fitting the 19 19 2 19 2
isochrones to each star, we estimated its 2
age and intrinsic colour with error bars. 20 20 20
An age range of 1.8 +–1.0.28 Myr is the most
probable for these stars. The extinction 21 21 1 21 1
1 0.6 Myr 0.6 Myr
in J- and Ks-bands is 0.45 ± 0.5 and 0.6 Myr
22 1 Myr 22 1 Myr 22 1 Myr
0.2 ± 0.5 mag, respectively. 1.5 Myr 1.5 Myr 1.5 Myr
2 Myr 2 Myr 2 Myr
Figure 3 (upper) shows the colour-magni- 23 0 23 0 23 0
–1 0 1 2 –1 0 1 2 –1 0 1 2
tude diagram (CMD) of detected sources J–Ks J–Ks J–Ks
in J- and Ks-band IRDIS data with their
error bars. The CMD is plotted for the 1000
whole FoV (818 sources), in the very core 0.6 Myr
of the cluster (r < 3 arcseconds), and 1.0 Myr
­outside (r > 3 arcseconds), from left to 1.5 Myr
right. The PARSEC isochrones at four dif- Γ0.6 Myr=–0.88 +/– 0.12
ferent ages (0.6, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Myr) Γ1.0 Myr=–0.90 +/– 0.13
are also plotted in this figure using a dis- Γ1.5 Myr=–0.98 +/– 0.18
100
tance modulus of 18.49 to R136 and
­central extinction values in J (0.45 mag)
and K (0.2 mag).
N

We note that, based on the CMD isoch-
rone fitting, ages of 1 Myr for the inner
10
core (r < 3 arcseconds) and 1.5 Myr
­outside the core (r > 3 arcseconds) fit
the data best. Interestingly, the age of
stars in the very core (r < 3 arcseconds)
is younger than in its outer region. This
result appears to be consistent with
the older population found beyond the 1
1 10 100 1000
core of R136, like the northeast clump Mass (M๬
ob­served by Sabbi et al. (2012), and, at
a greater distance (3 arcminutes), the old ence between the two regions can also Figure 3. Upper: Colour-magnitude diagram (CMD)
in 3D showing the number density of stars. The CMD
cluster Hodge301, studied by Grebel & be explained by an observational bias,
is plotted for the whole FoV (left), in the very core of
Chu (2000). In future it should be possible because the central region of R136 is the cluster (r < 3 arcseconds, centre) and outside
to understand this apparent age trend in very compact and bright so the incom- (r > 3 arcseconds, right). Solid red, black, pink, and
R136, and also in the 30 Dor region, in pleteness level is very low. yellow lines depict PARSEC isochrones (corrected
for distance modulus of 18.49 and central values
terms of formation. Moreover, a key ques-
of extinctions, AJ = 0.45 mag and AK = 0.2 mag) at
tion is how the younger population in the Considering the errors on the extinction, the ages of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Myr, respectively.
centre of the cluster can be explained by we can estimate the stellar mass range Lower: Generalised histogram of the stellar masses
star cluster formation scenarios (Wünsch for each star at a given age. We esti- (mass function, MF) at 0.6, 1 and 1.5 Myr. PARSEC
models were used to estimate the stellar-mass range
et al., 2017). We note that this age differ- mated the stellar masses only for com-
for each source using the extinction range.

34 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
1.2 40 Figure 4. Histogram of
the separation of the
1 35
Separation (arcsec)

close detected sources
30 versus their distance
0.8 25 from the core of R136.
0.6 20

N
0.4 15
10
0.2 5
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Distance from the core (arcsec)

mon sources between J and Ks data, that even the sources at larger radii have mass function (IMF), and put models of
using their magnitudes fitted to PARSEC close visual companions, so that the dynamical evolution to serious test. This
isochrones at three different ages: 0.6, 1, large number of close visual companions future work may help us understand
and 1.5 Myr. The histogram of mass, i.e. is not just an effect of 2D projection on massive star formation, the impact mas-
the mass function (MF), is plotted on the the sky across the FoV. sive stars have on their environment, and,
basis of a Gaussian distribution for each ultimately, the formation and evolution
stellar mass. The Gaussian uncertainty in The most massive stars, R136a1, R136b of massive star clusters as possible sites
the mass of each star was accounted for and R136c, have visual companions for the emergence of stellar black hole
when constructing the MF. detected in the near-infrared. R136a3 is binaries whose mergers have recently
also resolved as two stars with the PSF been detected as sources of gravitational
Figure 3 (lower) shows the generalised fitting technique. Both stars of the pair waves.
histogram of the mass (MF) at three dif- have a high correlation coefficient (above
ferent ages (0.6, 1, and 1.5 Myr). The MF 70 %) with the input PSF. The separation
slopes for the 1 and 1.5 Myr isochrones between the R136a3 primary and second- References
are Γ1 Myr = −0.90 ± 0.13 and Γ1.5 Myr = ary is about 58.9 ± 2.1 milli-arcseconds, Beuzit, J.-L. et al. 2008, SPIE, 7014, 701418
−0.98 ± 0.18, respectively, for the mass which is larger than the FWHM of the Bressan, A. et al. 2012, MNRAS, 427, 127
range of 3 – 300 M⊙. These values are PSF. We note that even the closest visual Campbell, B. et al. 1992, AJ, 104, 1721
lower limits to the steepness because of companions, like R136a3, are physically Campbell, M. A. et al. 2010, MNRAS, 405, 421
Cassinelli, J. P., Mathis, J. S. & Savage, B. D. 1981,
incompleteness and the central concen- distant from each other (0.059 arcseconds Sci, 212, 1497
tration of bright stars. The derived MF corresponds to 2890 au). This visual Grebel, E. K. & Chu, Y.-H. 2000, AJ, 119, 787
is limited by the resolution of the instru- ­separation implies a period of more than Crowther, P. A. et al. 2010, MNRAS, 408, 731
ment and also by the detection limit of 10 4 yr for a binary system, so that these Crowther, P. A. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 458, 624
Diolaiti, E. et al. 2000, A&AS, 147, 335
the observation. In future, using higher sources are probably not gravitationally Feitzinger, J. V. et al. 1980, A&A, 84, 50
angular resolution data, we may resolve bound to each other. Hunter, D. A., Shaya, E. J. & Holtzman, J. A. 1995,
binaries and low-mass stars, which affect ApJ, 448, 179
the shape of the MF. Khorrami, Z. et al. 2016, A&A, 588, L7
Langlois, M. et al. 2014, SPIE, 9147, 91479P
Future prospects Sabbi, E. et al. 2012, ApJ, 754, L37
Savage, B. D. et al. 1983, ApJ, 273, 597
Visual companions Using SPHERE data, we have gone one Weigelt, G. & Baier, G. 1985, A&A, 150, L18
step further and partially resolved the Wünsch, R. et al. 2017, ApJ, 835, 60
For each star detected in both J- and core of R136, but this is certainly not the
Ks-bands, we determined the distance final step. R136 needs to be observed in Links
between the star and its closest neigh- the future with higher resolution, such as
1
bour. Figure 4 shows the number of with the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT)  ARCSEC evolutionary models:
P
http://stev.oapd.inaf.it/cgi-bin/cmd
detected neighbouring stars in Ks and J and the James Webb Space Telescope
versus their separation in arcseconds. (JWST) over a wide wavelength range
More than 250 star pairs have a closest (and field of view). JWST, while more sen-
neighbour at a separation of less than sitive than our VLT observations, will
0.2 arcseconds. Over 90 % of massive remain confusion-limited in the core.
objects (brighter than 16.7 mag in Ks and However, it will provide sensitive observa-
15 mag in J) have a closest neighbour tions from 1–28 μm, over a field of several
at a separation less than 0.2 arcseconds. square arcminutes, enabling us to place
the R136 cluster in context. The ELT,
Figure 4 shows the separation between with its enhanced spatial resolution, will
close-by stars versus their distance from be our best chance to resolve the core,
R136a1 in the core. This figure indicates assess the low-mass end of the initial

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 35
Astronomical Science DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5024

1000 High-redshift Galaxies with Spatially-resolved
­Spectroscopy: Angular Momentum over 10 Billion Years

Chris Harrison 1, 2

L. Cortese and Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Mark Swinbank 2
Late-type spirals
1
ESO
2
Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy,
Durham University, United Kingdom Early-type spirals

Angular momentum
A sample of ~1000 high-redshift
(z ~ 0.3–1.7) star-forming galaxies has Lenticulars
been observed with three-dimensional
spectroscopy using the KMOS and
MUSE spectrographs in order to explore
the dynamical properties of galaxies Ellipticals
across cosmic time. A summary of the
survey is presented along with one set
of results that explores the relationship
between the angular momentum of the
star-forming gas and galaxy morphol-
ogy. This work expands previous angu-
lar momentum studies that mostly Mass
focused on local galaxies, to cover the
past 10 billion years of cosmic time.
of their initial angular momentum, but Figure 1. A schematic diagram showing the relative
position of low-redshift galaxies with different mor-
this drops to only ~10 % for early-type
phologies in the angular momentum versus stellar
Galaxy formation, morphologies and ellipticals/spheroidals. As visualised in mass plane.
angular momentum Figure 1, the Hubble Sequence of galaxy
morphologies appears to follow a strict
Galaxies have a range of morphological sequence of increasing angular momen- this epoch (and any corresponding evolu-
types, including ellipticals, spheroidals tum for a fixed mass. tion) provides a critical test of galaxy for-
and late-type spirals, which form the mation models.
morphological “Hubble Sequence”. Iden-
tifying the dominant physical processes The need for high-redshift integral field The most efficient way to obtain the
that were responsible for the formation of surveys required dynamical measurements for
the Hubble Sequence has been one of large samples of high-redshift galaxies is
the major goals of galaxy formation stud- Morphological surveys of high-redshift to use spatially-resolved spectroscopy,
ies for decades. In the cold dark matter galaxies, in particular using the Hubble via integral field unit (IFU) data, to map
paradigm, baryonic galaxies (i.e., the Space Telescope (HST), have suggested bright emission lines such as Hα or [O II]
stars and gas) form at the centres of dark that the Hubble Sequence began to 3727 Å. Motivated by this, we set out
matter halos. If unperturbed, the baryons emerge when the Universe was just under to obtain measurements for almost 1000
inside dark matter halos should cool half of its present age (i.e., a redshift of galaxies out to z ~ 1.7, covering ~10 bil-
and collapse, weakly conserve angular z ~ 1.5; for example Mortlock et al., 2013). lion years of cosmic time, using two IFU
momentum and form a galaxy disc which This is the epoch when spirals and ellipti- instruments on the Very Large Telescope
follows an exponential light profile. cals appear to become as common as (VLT): the K-band Multi-Object Spectro-
irregular/clumpy galaxies. Consequently graph (KMOS); and the Multi Unit Spec-
However, the angular momentum (i.e., there is a clear need to expand local troscopic Explorer (MUSE).
the product of the mass, velocity and dynamical studies of angular momentum
radial distance) of the baryons can also to galaxies in the distant, high-redshift
be redistributed through mergers, inflows, Universe. Furthermore, recent simulations Dynamics of 1000 high-z emission-line
outflows and chaotic motions. From the suggest that most of the angular momen- galaxies with KMOS and MUSE
dynamics of gas and stars of nearby gal- tum redistribution (that later defines gal-
axies, it has been shown that angular axy morphologies) occurs at high redshift For our studies, we constructed a sam-
momentum appears to be the fundamen- (for example, Lagos et al., 2017). If true, ple of high-redshift (z = 0.3–1.7) star-
tal property defining the local Hubble then the redistribution of angular momen- forming galaxies with IFU data using two
Sequence (for example: Fall & Romanow- tum in high-redshift galaxies plays a approaches: firstly, using KMOS Guaran-
sky, 2013; Cortese et al., 2016; see Fig- dominant role in the formation the Hubble teed Time Observations (GTO); and sec-
ure 1). Indeed, Fall & Romanowsky (2013) Sequence. Moreover, constraining the ondly, using archival MUSE observations.
show that local spiral discs retain ~ 80 % angular momentum of galaxies around The KMOS spectrograph (Sharples et al.,

36 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
2013) has been in operation at the VLT et al., 2016). The project ran from Period MUSE serendipitous sources
since late 2012. KMOS has 24 near-infra- 92 to 95, and consists of a final sample
red (~ 800–2500 nm) IFUs that can be of 743 star-forming galaxies at z = 0.7–1.1 In order to extend the redshift and mass
moved independently within a 7-arc- (Harrison et al., 2017). All targets were range of our KMOS survey, we exploited
minute field of view. This enables the observed in the YJ-band, targeting the MUSE observations of 17 extragalactic
dynamics of large samples of high-red- Hα emission line. The bright Hα emission “deep” fields that were observed during
shift galaxies to be determined (at a rate line enables us to map the two-dimen- commissioning, Science Verification
that is ~ 20× faster than previously possi- sional gas dynamics on 3–10 kpc scales and Period 94. These fields include stand-
ble). The MUSE IFU (Bacon et al., 2010), within these galaxies. Of the final sample, ard extragalactic “deep” fields (such as
which has been in operation since 2014, about 80 % are detected in Hα emission, ­COSMOS), as well as high-redshift galax-
provides spectral coverage of the optical providing a sample of 586 galaxies for ies, quasars and cluster fields. By search-
wavelengths, spanning 477–930 nm and which dynamical measurements — and ing through the data cubes for the [O II]
a contiguous field of view of 60 by 60 arc- consequently angular momentum con- 3727 Å emission line, we identified 364
seconds. This combination of field of view straints — can be derived (Harrison et al., star forming galaxies at z = 0.3–1.7 with
and spectral coverage for an IFU means 2017). sufficient data quality to perform dynami-
that large samples of high-redshift star- cal analyses and consequently obtain
forming galaxies can be detected in angular momentum constraints (Swinbank
emission lines — serendipitously — dur- KMOS Galaxy Evolution Survey (KGES) et al., 2017).
ing any observation of an extragalactic
field. Our results on the angular momen- KGES is an ongoing Durham University
tum of our combined MUSE and KMOS project utilising ~ 25 nights of GTO time Angular momentum of high-redshift star-
samples are presented across two papers on KMOS between Periods 95 and 100. forming galaxies
— Harrison et al. (2017) and Swinbank et Building on KROSS, the observations are
al. (2017) — and consist of data from the designed to measure the dynamics of Using our KMOS and MUSE IFU data we
three observational surveys detailed below. ~ 300 star-forming galaxies at z = 1.3–1.7. produced maps of the emission-line gas
The first 17 galaxies from this survey are intensity, velocities and velocity disper-
presented in Swinbank et al. (2017), and sions (i.e., random motions) for each gal-
KMOS Redshift One Spectroscopic the results from the first half of the survey axy. Examples can be seen in Figure 2.
­Survey (KROSS) will be presented in Tiley et al. (2017). These maps were used to identify the

KROSS is a 30-night KMOS GTO project
Figure 2. HST and KMOS data for three example dynamical axis); (5) one-dimensional velocity profile
that was led by Durham University and objects. From left to right: (1) HST image (dashed line (with model rotation curve overlaid); (6) one-dimen-
the University of Oxford, with contributions shows major axis); (2) Hα intensity map; (3) velocity sional dispersion velocity profile (with dashed lines
from the University of Edinburgh (Stott map; (4) velocity dispersion map (solid line shows showing intrinsic velocity dispersion).

2 2 2 100
Vel. (km s –1) σobs (km s –1) 80
C-HiZ_z1_195 Hα intensity
1 1 1
Vel. (km s –1)

1 50
σobs (km s –1)

60
arcsec

0 0 0 0 40
0
–1 –1 –1 –1 20
–95 0 95 0 40 81 –50
ID:13
–2 –2 –2 0
–2 –1 0 1 2 –2 –1 0 1 2 –2 –1 0 1 2 –2 –1 0 1 2 –10 –5 0 5 10 –10 –5 0 5 10
2 2 2
E-zmus_z1_119 Hα intensity Vel. (km s –1) σobs (km s –1) 200 150
Vel. (km s –1)

1
σobs (km s –1)

1 1 1
100
arcsec

0 100
0 0 0
0
–1 –1 –1 –200 –1 50
ID:183 0 200 0 78 156
–100
–2 –2 –2 0
–1 0 1 –2 –1 0 1 2 –2 –1 0 1 2 –2 –1 0 1 2 –10 –5 0 5 10 –10 –5 0 5 10
2 2 2 2 200
E-zmus_z1_12 Hα intensity Vel. (km s –1) σobs (km s –1) 150
σobs (km s –1)

100
Vel. (km s –1)

1 1 1 1
100
arcsec

0 0 0 0 0

–1 –1 –1 –1 –100 50
ID:184 –202 0 202 0 68 135
–200
–2 –2 –2 –2 0
–2 –1 0 1 2 –2 –1 0 1 2 –2 –1 0 1 2 –2 –1 0 1 2 –10 –5 0 5 10 –10 –5 0 5 10
arcsec arcsec arcsec arcsec r (kpc) r (kpc)

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 37
Astronomical Science Harrison C. & Swinbank M., 1000 High-z Galaxies with Spatially-resolved ­Spectroscopy

dynamical (“rotational”) axes of the gas
and one-dimensional velocity profiles KMOS + MUSE V/σ > 1
were extracted along these axes. Rotation 4.0 KMOS + MUSE V/σ < 1
velocities are measured at twice the half- z = 0 Spirals
light radii for each galaxy. The rotation

Specific ang. momentum (km s –1 kpc)
velocity, in combination with the galaxy’s 3.5
size, enables the angular momentum to
be calculated. Throughout the analyses,
great care was taken to remove any artifi- 3.0
cial “blurring” or “smearing” due to instru-
mental and atmospheric effects during
the observations. 2.5

In Figure 3 we plot the specific angular
momentum (i.e., the angular momentum 2.0
per unit mass) as a function of the stellar
mass for each galaxy in our sample. The t
1.5 0 fi
relationship between angular momentum z=
and galaxy mass for our high-redshift
galaxies shows the same trend (i.e.,
slope) as seen in local galaxies (for exam- 1.0
ple, Fall & Romanowsky, 2013). However, 9 10 11
as discussed below, on average the high- Stellar mass (Mღ/M๬ )
redshift galaxies appear to have lower
angular momentum than the spiral galax- morphologies. This may not be unex- Figure 3. Specific angular momentum (angular
momentum per unit stellar mass; j = J/M ) for the
ies seen today (when the stellar masses pected, but shows that the emergence * *
combined sample of high-redshift galaxies in the
are considered). of the Hubble Sequence in the high red- KMOS and MUSE samples. The high-redshift sam-
shift Universe is closely related to the ple is split into those galaxies which are dominated
angular momentum of the star-forming by rotation (filled squares) and those that are domi-
nated by dispersion support (open squares). Local
Angular momentum and morphology gas. However, note that the discs in
spiral galaxies are shown as filled triangles. The run
our high-redshift sample (see Figure 4) of the median specific angular momentum of the
By comparing the rotational velocities are not smooth, but consist of several high-redshift galaxies is shown by the large blue
with the intrinsic velocity dispersions (see “clumps” which may be the result of their points. The full KMOS + MUSE sample reveals a
similar relationship between stellar mass and angular
Figure 2), we determine whether the star- relatively low angular momentum com-
momentum as for local spirals.
forming gas in each galaxy is predomi- pared to their low redshift-counterparts
nantly “rotationally dominated”, or the (see below). In summary, the strong rela-
galaxy is “dispersion dominated”. This is tionship between angular momentum,
an important way to categorise the gal­ mass and morphology that is observed types (early and late type spirals). Fig-
axies as it is strongly related to whether locally appears to be falling into place as ure 5 reveals that selecting star-forming
the galaxies are “discy” in nature. In Fig- early as redshift z ~ 1.5. galaxies at increasing redshift (and time)
ure 3, the filled points show the galaxies results in selecting systems with decreas-
that are dominated by rotation, versus ing angular momentum. To test how this
those which are dominated by dispersion The evolution of angular momentum compares to predictions from numerical
(open symbols). This shows that “discier” models, we also include the evolution
gal­a xies appear to have the most angular The galaxies in our sample span a range of angular momentum of model galaxies
momentum. This is in qualitative agree- of redshifts from z ~ 0.3–1.7. To test how from the EAGLE1 simulation (Schaye et
ment with the results sketched in Figure 1 the specific angular momentum evolves al., 2015), selected in the same way as
for local galaxies — spiral galaxies have with time, we split the sample into four the g­ alaxies in our observed sample.
more angular momentum for a fixed mass redshift bins. However, to account for any In both the data and the model, as star-
than elliptical galaxies. underlying evolution of the stellar masses, forming galaxies increase their specific
we adopt the ratio of angular momentum angular momentum, their morphologies
In order to test this result further, we iso- of the stellar component to stellar mass transform into smooth spiral discs.
lated the galaxies with the most angular ( j /M 2/3), which should remove the ex­­
* *
momentum per unit mass and those with pected underlying stellar mass evolution In summary, our results have shown that
the least angular momentum per unit with redshift. In Figure 5 we plot this the fraction of rotationally supported
mass and compared their HST images mass-normalised angular momentum as disc-like galaxies at high-redshift is high,
(see Figure 4 for examples). The galaxies a function of redshift (and time). Also yet most of these galaxies appear clumpy
with the highest angular momentum have included on the plot are the locations of (examples in Figure 4). We attribute the
the most prominent discs and spiral-like local galaxies of various m­ orphological clumpy nature of the high-redshift galax-

38 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
log (M /M๬ ) = 9.7–10.0 log (M /M๬ ) = 10.0–10.3 log (M /M๬ ) = 10.3–10.6
* * * Figure 4. I-band HST
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 images for the six galax-
Highest j for fixed mass

ies from the sample with
the lowest (lower panels)
and highest (upper pan-
204 km s –1 123 km s –1 121 km s –1 138 km s –1 226 km s –1 179 km s –1 194 km s –1 287 km s –1 290 km s –1 els) specific angular
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 momentum for three
stellar mass bins. This
shows that the galaxies
with the highest angular
164 km s –1 92 km s –1 169 km s –1 191 km s –1 205 km s –1 268 km s –1 262 km s –1 252 km s –1 274 km s –1 momentum have the
most prominent discs
and spiral-like morphol-
–1.3 –1.2 –1.2 –1.7 –1.0 –0.9 –0.7 –0.5 –0.5 ogies. The value in the
Lowest j for fixed mass

lower left corner of each
panel is the (inclination
corrected) rotational
26 km s –1 15 km s –1 27 km s –1 9 km s –1 63 km s –1 88 km s –1 120 km s –1 96 km s –1 127 km s –1 velocity, and in the
–1.0 –1.0 –0.9 –0.9 –0.9 –0.8 –0.5 –0.4 –0.3 upper left, the value of
Δ log ( j ).
*

38 km s –1 44 km s –1 48 km s –1 25 km s –1 84 km s –1 117 km s –1 135 km s –1 141 km s –1 155 km s –1

ies to the low angular momentum of the Age (Gyr)
gas, which results in globally unstable, 13.7 8.6 5.9 4.3
Figure 5. The redshift
turbulent systems. With decreasing KMOS + MUSE evolution of the specific
­redshift, the angular momentum of gas –3.6 angular momentum
discs appears to gradually increase (such (normalised by mass)
as in Figure 5), and this appears to play from z = 0 to z = 1.5.
The z = 0 galaxies are
a major role in defining the disc stability Sc
split into their morpho-
log( jღ /M2/3 [km s –1 kpc/M๬2/3 ])

and morphology (Figure 4). As the spe- –3.8
logical types (from S0 to
Sb
cific angular momentum of growing discs Sd). To compare with
increases below z ~ 1, the galaxy discs model predictions, the
evolution of angular
must evolve from globally unstable momentum for galaxies
–4.0 (1 + z) – 0.5
clumpy, turbulent systems into the stable, Sa in the EAGLE simulation
flat regular spirals we see today. is overlaid. Toy-model
tracks that show evolu-
tion according to
–4.2 (1 + z) –1.0 (1 + z)−n with n = 0.5 and
Ongoing work and prospects n = 1.0 are also shown.
S0

The efficiency of KMOS and MUSE means
that the next few years will see a contin- –4.4
ued increase in the sample sizes of galax-
ies with well resolved dynamics, but also
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5
in the range of stellar mass, star forma- Redshift
tion rate and redshift. In the near future,
the launch of the James Webb Space
Telescope will also allow the first system- Acknowledgements References
atic study of the stellar kinematics of
Based on observations data obtained under ESO Bacon, R. et al. 2010, SPIE Conf. Ser., 7735, 8
high-redshift galaxies to be carried out, programmes: 060.A-9100; 060.A-9302; 060.A-9306; Cortese, L. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 463, 170
building on the work here which focuses 060.A-9318; 060.A-9321; 060.A-9323; 060.A-9325; Fall, M. S. & Romanowsky, A. J. 2013, ApJ, 769, 26
on the star-forming gas kinematics. Con- 060.A-9326; 060.A-9331; 060.A-9334; 060.A-9338; Harrison, C. M. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 467, 1965
060.A-9460; 092.B-0538; 093.B-0106; 094.B-0061; Lagos, C. d. P. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 464, 3850
fronting the gaseous and stellar content
094.A-0141; 094.A-0280; 095.B-0035; 095.A-0570; Mortlock, A. et al. 2013, MNRAS, 433, 1185
of galaxies will provide a critical measure 095.A-0748. The authors acknowledge support Schaye, J. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 446, 521
of the interaction between star formation from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Sharples, R. et al. 2013, The Messenger, 151, 21
and gas dynamics, and further improve Council (ST/L00075X/1) and the Leverhulme Stott, J. P. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 457, 1888
­Foundation. Swinbank, A. M. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 467, 3140
the constraints linking galaxy morpholo-
gies and angular momentum–mass–­
morphology relationships in galaxies Links
around the peak epoch of galaxy forma-
1
EAGLE Project: http://icc.dur.ac.uk/Eagle/
tion at z ~ 1.5.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 39
Astronomical Science DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5025

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey
(VIPERS): Science Highlights and Final Data Release

Luigi Guzzo1 summarised and an overview of the management infrastructure to an even
The VIPERS Team* key scientific results published so far is higher level (see Garilli et al., 2012 and
provided. The VIPERS data, obtained Guzzo et al., 2014).
within the framework of an ESO Large
1
Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy Programme over the equivalent of just
under 55 nights at the Very Large Tele- The VIPERS project
scope, will remain the largest legacy
The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Red- of the VIMOS spectrograph and its still The way to achieve this goal has been
shift Survey (VIPERS) released its final unsurpassed ability to reach target den- to measure redshifts for galaxies with
set of nearly 90 000 galaxy redshifts sities close to 10 000 spectra per square iAB < 22.5 mag., further limited to redshift
in November 2016, together with a degree. z >  0.5 through a robust ugri colour pre-
series of science papers that range selection. This nearly doubled the density
from the detailed evolution of galaxies of galaxies at 0.5 < z < 1.2, compared
over the past 8 Gyr to the growth rate Introduction to the pure magnitude-limited sample
and the power spectrum of cosmo­ and was made possible by the accurate
logical structures measured at about Galaxy redshift surveys represent one five-band photometry provided by the
half the H
­ ubble time. These are the main pillar of the current “standard” Λ ­Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy
results of a map of the distribution of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmological Survey (CFHTLS) Wide data1, on which
galaxies and their properties which is model, in combination with observations VIPERS is based. The goal was to focus
unprecedented in its combination of of distant supernovae and the Cosmic the effort at high redshifts by excluding
large volume and detailed sampling at Microwave Background (see for example the galaxies in the low-redshift volume
0.5 < z < 1.2. In this article, the survey Planck Collaboration, 2016). The ampli- that would not be competitive with the
design and data properties are briefly tude of galaxy clustering on different wide-angle samples already available.
scales is a probe of both the initial con­ With an average sampling of 47 %, the
ditions and the physical processes that VIPERS strategy has in fact yielded a
* L. Guzzo1, 2, B. Garilli3, M. Scodeggio3, B. Granett2, 1, governed the growth of cosmic fluctua- spatial density close to 10 –2 h3 Mpc –3
M. Bolzonella4, S. de la Torre 5, U. Abbas 6, C. tions since the Big Bang. Surveys like the (where h is the normalised Hubble con-
Adami 5, D. Bottini 3, A. Cappi4, 7, O. Cucciati4, I. 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (Colless et stant) at the peak of the survey selection
Davidzon5, 4, P. Franzetti3, A. Fritz3, A. Iovino2, J.
Krywult8, V. Le Brun 5, O. Le Fèvre 5, D. Maccagni 3,
al., 2001) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey function.
K. Malek 9, F. Marulli10, M. Polletta3, A. Pollo9, 11, L. (SDSS) led this effort at the turn of the
Tasca5, R. Tojeiro12, D. Vergani13, A. Zanichelli14, S. millennium. The SDSS in particular, in its A volume comparable to that of the
Arnouts 5, J. Bel15, E. Branchini16, J. Coupon17, G. subsequent incarnations the Luminous 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, i.e., close
De Lucia18, A. Gargiulo 3, C.P. Haines2, A.
Hawken2, 1, O. Ilbert5, E. Jullo5, A. Marchetti 3, C.
Red Galaxy (LRG) survey (Eisenstein et to 5 × 107 h–3 Mpc3, was secured by
Marinoni15, H. J. McCracken19, Y. Mellier19, L. al., 2011) and, more recently, the Baryon tiling an overall footprint of 23.5 square
Moscardini10, T. Moutard20, 5, J. A. Peacock 21, W. J. Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS: degrees with a mosaic of 288 VIMOS
Percival22, A. Pezzotta 2, 23, S. Rota3, G. Siudek 24, Alam et al., 2015), progressively increased pointings over the W1 and W4 CFHTLS
G. Zamorani4.
the cosmological yield by maximising the fields (192 and 96 pointings, respectively),
sampled volume at the expense of restric- which are shown in Figure 1. 372 hours
1
Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy; 2 INAF — tion to specific, sparse sub-populations of multi-object spectroscopy (MOS)
Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy; of galaxies. It was the original SDSS main observations (45 min exposure per field),

INAF — IASF Milano, Italy; 4 INAF — Osservatorio
Astronomico di Bologna, Italy; 5 LAM, Marseille,
sample of 10 6 objects with measured and 68.5 hours of pre-imaging were
France; 6 INAF — Osservatorio Astronomico di redshifts, however, that also allowed the invested on VLT Unit Telescope 3 (Melipal),
Torino, Italy; 7 Université de Nice, Obs. de la Cote properties of galaxies and their scaling corresponding to a total of about 55 night-
d’A zur, France; 8 Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, relationships to be defined with exquisite equivalents.
Poland; 9 National Centre for Nuclear Research,
Warsaw, Poland; 10 Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia,
accuracy, thanks to its broad selection
­Università di Bologna, Italy; 11 Astron. Observatory, function, good resolution spectra and Working at low resolution between
Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland; 12 School multi-band imaging (York et al., 2003). 5500 and 9500 Å with the LR-Red grism
of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. (resolution, R = 210) resulted in a typical
Andrews, UK; 13 INAF — IASF Bologna, Italy; 14 INAF
— IRA Bologna, Italy; 15 CPT Université de Provence,
The VIPERS project was started in 2008 redshift root mean square (rms) error
­Marseille, France; 16 Università Roma 3, Rome, (Period 82), with the goal of extending of sz = 0.00054 (1 + z). This value has
Italy; 17 Dept. of Astronomy, University of Geneva, such precise measurements of both been directly estimated from about 3000
­S witzerland; 18 INAF — Osservatorio Astronomico structure and galaxy properties to red- double measurements available in the
di Trieste, Italy; 19 Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris,
France; 20 Dept. of Astron. & Physics, St. Mary’s
shifts approaching unity. VIPERS was final sample (Scodeggio et al., 2017). A
Univ., Halifax, Canada; 21 Institute for Astronomy, built upon the experience of earlier VIsible few examples of VIPERS spectra are pre-
University of Edinburgh, UK; 22 Inst. of Cosmology Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) sented in Figure 2.
and Gravitation, Univ. of Portsmouth, UK; ­surveys, such as the VIMOS Very Deep
23
Università di Milano-Bicocca, Italy; 24 Centre for
Theoretical Physics, Warsaw, Poland.
Survey (VVDS: Le Fèvre et al., 2005) and The final Public Data Release 2 (PDR-2)
See http://vipers.inaf.it for a full list of the VIPERS zCOSMOS (Lilly et al., 2009), pushing includes 86 775 measured redshifts for
team including former and associated members. the data size, reduction techniques and galaxies in the statistical VIPERS t­ arget

40 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
–4.25
–4.50
Declination (deg)

–4.75
–5.00
–5.25
–5.50
–5.75
–6.00
38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30
Right ascension (deg)

–4.25
–4.50
Declination (deg)

–4.75
–5.00
–5.25
–5.50
–5.75
–6.00

337 336 335 334 333 332 331 330 329
Right ascension (deg)

16 Figure 1. (Above) Layout of the 288 VIMOS pointings
z = 0.6747 iAB = 22.2 flag = 4.5 z = 0.7081 iAB = 20.8 flag = 4.5 comprising the VIPERS survey, over the W1 (upper)
12 and W4 (lower) fields of the CFHTLS photometric
8 survey. From Scodeggio et al. (2017).

4
0 sample. Of these, 78 586 (90.6 %) have
12 z = 0.7086 iAB = 22.1 flag = 3.5
been validated as highly reliable (confi-
z = 0.6735 iAB = 20.9 flag = 3.5
dence level > 96 %) and represent the
8 sample to be used for statistical inves­
tigations. 2247 targets turned out to
be stars, a very low residual contamina-
Fλ (10 –18 erg cm –2 s –1 Å)

4
tion (2.5 %) that confirms the quality of
0 the original star-galaxy separation (see
8 z = 0.6729 iAB = 22.4 flag = 2.5 z = 0.7299 iAB = 21.6 flag = 2.5 appendix in Guzzo et al., 2014). More
details of the PDR-2 sample can be found
6
in Scodeggio et al. (2017); the survey
4 construction and first data release were
2
presented in Guzzo et al. (2014) and
Garilli et al. (2014), respectively. The
0 PDR-2 data are available both in the ESO
z = 0.6734 iAB = 22.5 flag = 1.5 z = 0.6961 iAB = 22.5 flag = 1.5 Science Archive and, together with other
4 complementary information, from the
VIPERS website2.
2
The combination of sampling and volume
provided by VIPERS at these redshifts
0
6000 7000 8000 9000 6000 7000 8000 9000
can be appreciated from the cone dia-
Wavelength (Å) Wavelength (Å) grams in Figure 3 and represents a unique
feature among redshift surveys of the
Figure 2. Examples of VIPERS spectra at z around flag < 2 (bottom row) are not part of the statistical z > 0.5 Universe. In the same figure, gal-
0.7, i.e. near the peak of the VIPERS redshift distri- sample of highly reliable redshifts, as discussed in
bution. For different values of the redshift quality the text. The decimal part of the flag (0.5) indicates
axy positions are marked by circles
flags, examples of both a late-type and an early-type agreement with the photo­m etric redshift. From of different size and colour, reflecting the
galaxy spectrum are shown. Note that objects with ­Scodeggio et al. (2017). actual luminosity and ultraviolet rest-frame

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 41
Astronomical Science Guzzo L. et al., The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey

1.0 1.05
Redshif t 0.9 0.95
0.8 0.85
0.7 0.75

02h30m
0.65
0.6
0.55
0.5

02h15m
1300 1400 1500 16 00 1700 18 00 19 00 20 00

02h0 0m
Co movin g distan 2100 2200
ce (h –1 Mp c) 2300 2400 2500

Redshif t 1.0 1.05
0.9 0.95
0.8 0.85
0.7 0.75
0.6 0.65
0.5 0.55

22h15m
130 0 140 0 150 0

22h0 0m
160 0 170 0 180 0 190 0 200 0 210 0
Com ovin g distanc e (h –1 220 0 230 0
Mp c) 240 0 250 0

Figure 3. The detailed picture of the large-scale measurements. This classic statistic con- Relativity (GR). A modification of the laws
structure of the Universe at 0.45 < z < 1.1, delivered
tains information about the mean total of gravity on large scales may represent
by the VIPERS survey over the W1 and W4 CFHTLS
fields (upper and lower, respectively). The opening density of matter in the Universe and the an alternative to dark energy as an
angle corresponds to Right Ascension and the data ­baryonic-to-dark matter fraction. The ­explanation of the apparent acceleration
are projected over ~ 2 degrees in declination. The estimated posterior distribution of these of cosmic expansion. Galaxy peculiar
size of each dot is proportional to the galaxy B-band
quantities, obtained through a combined velocities that trace this growth manifest
luminosity and the dot colours reflect the intrinsic U-B
colour of each galaxy. From Scodeggio et al. (2017). likelihood analysis of the four P(k) esti- themselves by corrupting our redshift
mates, is shown in Figure 5, compared to measurements: they add a Doppler com-
results from other surveys. Such a com- ponent along the line of sight that distorts
colours of the galaxies, respectively, pro- parison provides an important test of the galaxy maps and the derived clustering
viding evidence of some of the unique validity of the ΛCDM model. The position measurements. Such redshift-space
information yielded by the VIPERS data. of the first acoustic peak measured by ­distortions (RSD: Kaiser, 1987; Peacock
A first characterisation of such filamen- Planck constrains the combination ΩM h3, et al., 2001) produce a detectable anisot-
tary structure and its relation to galaxy while the galaxy power spectrum on large ropy in the measured power spectrum,
properties is presented in Malavasi et al. scales probes ΩM h. Therefore, although or its Fourier counterpart the two-point
(2017). the error bars are currently large, the gal- correlation function. This function can be
axy power spectrum measurements can estimated as a 2D map, x(rp,π), in which
help to resolve the tension between esti- the distortion affects only the radial direc-
Straddling local surveys and Planck: mates of the Hubble constant made in tion, i.e. the π axis, in Figure 6.
a consistency test of the ΛCDM model the local Universe and at the last scatter-
ing surface. This figure shows a measurement based
Figure 4 shows the estimate of the power on the full VIPERS sample, which has
spectrum of the galaxy distribution, P(k), been split into two redshift bins. The
from four independent sub-samples Measuring the growth rate of structure effect of RSD is evident in the flattening
of the VIPERS PDR-2 data over the red- with redshift-space distortions of x(rp,π) along the line of sight direction.
shift range 0.6 < z < 1.1. At about half This flattening is proportional to the
the H
­ ubble time, this is the highest red- Measurements of the growth rate of growth rate of cosmic structure f(z), which
shift where such a measure has been structure constitute a key observation to can be extracted through model fits and
produced, straddling Planck and local detect possible deviations from General is characterised by gravity theory. In GR

42 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
0.35

104 0.30

0.25
P(k) [h–3 Mpc 3 ]

0.20

fB
10 3

0.15
W1 0.6 < z < 0.9 VIPERS VIPERS
W4 0.6 < z < 0.9 0.10 2dFGRS WiggleZ
W1 0.9 < z < 1.1 SDSS LRG Planck
10 2 W4 0.9 < z < 1.1 Planck
0.05

0.01 0.10 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
k (h Mpc –1) ΩM h ΩM h

Figure 4. Estimates of the redshift-space power spec- Figure 5. VIPERS constraints on the baryonic frac- from Planck observations. The left panel shows low-
trum of the galaxy distribution P(k) from four inde- tion f B and the matter density parameter times the redshift constraints from the 2dFGRS at z = 0.2 and
pendent VIPERS subsamples (two redshift bins in Hubble parameter ΩM h, obtained from a fit of a the SDSS LRG at z = 0.35. The right panel instead
each of W1 and W4 fields). A representative error cor- ΛCDM model with flat prior to the measured VIPERS compares VIPERS to WiggleZ results at comparable
ridor (shaded) is shown for one of the samples, and power spectra. These are compared to similar redshift. See Rota et al. (2017) for details and refer-
was obtained from the dispersion of a corresponding measurements from other galaxy surveys and those ences to the literature data.
set of 150 mock catalogues. From Rota et al. (2017).

we expect a growth rate f(z) = [ΩM(z)]0.55. implications for the understanding of The richness of information and the
A more precise measurement of this ­cosmic acceleration (Guzzo et al., 2008). broad selection function of VIPERS allow
quantity at z approaching unity was one us to extend this result with the full data
of the original motivations for the VIPERS A first VIPERS estimate of the cosmic release by applying different estimation
survey, following the early proof of con- growth rate from RSD was obtained from techniques to improve the systematics
cept from the VVDS-Wide data and its the PDR-1 data (de la Torre et al., 2013). inherent in the analytic models (for exam-
ple, de la Torre & Guzzo, 2012). Using the
PDR-2 data, therefore, a series of RSD
50.00 investigations using a variety of methods
30 has been planned, some of which are still
being completed. Pezzotta et al. (2017)
20
present the measurement on the full
sample with a focus on the required non-
π (h–1 Mpc)

10 10.00
linear corrections and investigate in detail
0 the systematic effects present in the
VIPERS data.
–10 1.00
In de la Torre et al. (2017), these investi-
–20
gations have been supplemented by
0.5 < z < 0.7
–30
measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing
0.50
performed on the parent photometric
Figure 6. The redshift- sample, the CFHTLS, allowing the growth
20
space two-point corre- rate of structure to be separated from the
lation function x(r p,π) amplitude of matter fluctuations. While
0.25 computed from the final
10 the RSD in the galaxy correlation function
VIPERS catalogue within
π (h–1 Mpc)

two redshift bins, tell us how large-scale structures are col-
0 0.5 < z < 0.7 (upper) and lapsing, we are also looking at how the
0.10 0.7 < z < 1.2 (lower). The cosmic voids are expanding. A first cata-
large-scale deviations
–10
from circular symmetry
logue of voids was built from PDR-1
(i.e., oval shape) are the (Micheletti et al., 2014) and then updated
–20 fingerprint of peculiar to PDR-2 in Hawken et al. (2017), where
0.01 motions produced by the void-galaxy cross-correlation has
0.7 < z < 1.2
the growth of cosmic
–30 structures. From de la
been fitted with a model to give a comple-
–40 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 40 Torre et al. (2017) and mentary measure of the growth of struc-
rp (h–1 Mpc) Pezzotta et al. (2017). ture from the lowest density environments.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 43
Astronomical Science Guzzo L. et al., The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey

These different VIPERS estimates are
shown in Figure 7, compared to similar 0.8
WiggleZ (Blake et al., 2012) VIPERS PDR1 (de la Torre et al., 2013)
measurements from the literature. The BOSS (Reid et al., 2012) VIPERS voids (Hawken et al., 2016)
6dFGS (Beutler et al., 2012) VIPERS PDR2 (this work)
scatter in the different VIPERS values
VVDS (Guzzo et al., 2008) VIPERS RSD+g-g lensing (de la Torre et al., 2016)
provides a direct indication of the level SDSS (Howlett et al., 2014)
of systematic errors in the different 0.7
FastSound (Okumura et al., 2016)
­techniques.

Two further RSD measurements using 0.6
different galaxy tracers/techniques are in
preparation. Both works aim at reducing
fσ8

the complex non-linear signal in the data,
0.5
while keeping the modeling as simple
as possible. The first shows that use of
the luminous blue galaxies as tracers of
RSD can sensibly reduce the impact of 0.4
non-linearities (Mohammad et al., in
­preparation). In the second (Wilson et al.,
in preparation), the so-called “clipping”
0.3
technique is used to linearise the density
field before computing P(k) and estimat-
ing redshift distortions.
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
z
A detailed movie of galaxy transformations
over the past 9 Gyr Figure 7. Published estimates of the growth rate of 2017). These VIPERS measurements are compared
structure from redshift space distortions (RSD) in to the earlier PDR-1 estimate and to a collection of
the VIPERS PDR-2 data, as summarised in Pezzotta similar results from the literature (see the journal
The description of the physical proper- et al. (2017). In addition to developing an improved paper for references). Two further analyses of RSD
ties of VIPERS galaxies is significantly modeling in this paper, RSD have been combined are currently in preparation (see text). The growth
enhanced by the availability of a series of with galaxy-galaxy lensing (de la Torre et al. 2017) rate f is plotted in its conventional combination with
and also extracted in a completely independent way the amplitude of clustering, fs8.
ancillary photometric observations that
using galaxy outflows in cosmic voids (Hawken et al.
complement the five high-quality bands
of the CFHTLS. These include two ultra­
violet bands (from the Galaxy Evolution by young stars (D4000 ~ 1.2; the blue ­ alaxies could have been formed (Fig-
g
Explorer [GALEX] satellite) and the near- cloud population) and the red sequence ure 9). What emerges is that while
infrared K-band (from the CFHT Wide- of old, passive galaxies (D4000 ~ 1.9). ­compact objects in this class seem to
field InfraRed CAMera [WIRCAM]), which This figure shows the assembly of the be there from previous epochs and their
comprise the so-called VIPERS Multi- red sequence, extending to ever lower number density does not change as a
Lambda Survey (Moutard et al., 2016). masses, but also the decline of the blue function of cosmic time, the less com-
These data are combined to perform cloud, its high-mass limit remarkably pact ones (left panel, green points) show
­reliable spectral energy distribution (SED) dropping by a factor of around 3 from instead a significant increase.
fits and, in turn, estimate luminosities, z ~ 1 to today.
colours and stellar masses. What is most interesting is that this
Important extra value has been added observed increase quantitatively matches
All these quantities, coupled to spectral to VIPERS by the morphological analysis the parallel disappearance of star-forming
information (like the amplitude of the of the CFHTLS images, which allowed objects within the same mass range,
4000 Å break) and structural parameters us to obtain reliable Sérsic indexes consistent with a scenario in which the
from a morphological analysis (Krywult and effective radii for the majority of the least compact passive galaxies replace
et al., 2017), have allowed us to look at ob­jects in the catalogue (Krywult et al., the massive star-forming ones, whose
the evolution of classic relationships 2017). Benefiting from this crucial infor- number density drops five-fold from
observed at z ~ 0. In Haines et al. (2017), mation, in Gargiulo et al. (2017) we stud- z = 1.0 to z = 0.5, as shown in Figure 10
VIPERS and the SDSS have been com- ied the evolution of the number density (from Haines et al., 2017). VIPERS pro-
bined to trace the evolution in redshift of of massive (> 1011 M⊙) passive galaxies vides statistically definitive evidence for
the bimodality of galaxy properties, (MPGs) and their stellar population ages, the decline of this blue massive popula-
­producing an unprecedentedly clear and separating objects by surface stellar tion between z = 1 and z = 0.5, consist-
coherent picture. This is visible in Fig- mass density. With an unprecedented ent with the value measured at z ~ 0
ure 8 for the D4000 index, revealing the sample of about 2000 such galaxies, from the SDSS. Comparison with the
developing bimodality of galaxies into VIPERS provides a novel picture of how ­z COSMOS-20K bright sample (Lilly et al.
those whose optical light is still dominated the current population of massive red [2009] re-analysed by us in this work;

44 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
0.25 0.25
0.80 < z < 1.00 0.65 < z < 0.80

0.20 0.20 2524
1922 2418
1751 2403
1950 2477
0.15 0.15
2165 2355
Fraction

Fraction
1899 1770
1206 935
0.10 511 0.10 412

0.05 0.05

0.00 0.00
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2
D4000 D4000

0.30
0.25
0.50 < z < 0.65 SDSS 0.02 < z < 0.08
14190
0.25
2604 18184
0.20 2336 22092
2168 26310
2336 0.20 28835
2291 25575
0.15
1913 19971
Fraction

Fraction

1190 0.15 13071
575 6580
0.10 245 2801

0.10

0.05
0.05

0.00 0.00
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2
D4000 D4000

9.6 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 11.0 11.2 9.6 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 11.0 11.2
log [M/M๬ ] log [M/M๬ ]

purple points) clearly demonstrates that (Fritz et al., 2014) and the stellar mass Figure 8. The evolution from z = 1 of the bimodal
distribution of the 4000 Å break amplitude (D4000),
the gain in our understanding of these function (Davidzon et al., 2013), give
for galaxies in four redshift ranges with different
rare, massive galaxies is due to the much a remarkably consistent picture of how ­stellar masses (see colour bar), as traced by com­
larger volumes covered by VIPERS galaxies migrate from the blue to the bining VIPERS with the local SDSS DR7 data. The
(Haines et al., 2017). red sequences in the colour-magnitude y-axis scale indicates the fraction of galaxies within
bins of width 0.05 in D4000. The coloured numbers
diagram as a function of redshift. The
down the right-hand side indicate the number of
These works, together with the earlier measurements suggest that dry mergers ­g alaxies in each stellar mass bin. From Haines et al.
studies of the colour-magnitude diagram are not the main mechanism to produce (2017) where further details can be found.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 45
Astronomical Science Guzzo L. et al., The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey

Σ < 1000 M๬pc –2 1000 ู Σ < 2000 M๬pc –2 Σ ฺ 2000 M๬pc –2
10
Number density (10 –5 gal/Mpc –3 )

8

6

4

W1

W4
2

0.6 0.8 1 0.6 0.8 1 0.6 0.8 1
z z z

Figure 9. (Above) The evolution of the number Figure 10. (Left) Same
­d ensity of massive (M > 1011 M⊙ ) passive galaxies 12 as ­Figure 9 but now for
Passive galaxies
split into different classes of mass surface density. the evolution of the
VIPERS shows that the abundance of the most Σ < 1000 M๬ pc –2 whole population of
­c ompact of such galaxies (right panel) does not 1000 < Σ < 2000 M๬ pc –2 massive galaxies (M >
*
change with cosmic time, while the least compact 10 Σ > 2000 M๬ pc –2 1011 M⊙), including star-
zCOSMOS
of these objects do increase in number. The solid forming objects (blue
and open circles are for the W1 and W4 fields points). These are com-
respectively, demonstrating the robustness of the pared to passive
Number density (10 –5 Mpc –3 )

observed trend, a consequence of the large survey objects, again split as a
volume, allowing samples of rare populations with 8 function of mass surface
unprecedented statistics. From Gargiulo et al. (2017). density. The least com-
pact passive galaxies
VIPERS
appear to replace the
6 massive star-forming
the population of massive passive gal­ ones, whose number
density drops five-fold
axies seen at low redshifts. This scenario
from z = 1.0 to z = 0.5;
is supplemented by a parallel study of see text for details. From
4
the star formation history of massive gal- Haines et al. (2017).
axies (Siudek et al., 2016), while in another
work in preparation we are trying to derive Star-forming
constraints on the quenching mechanism 2 (D4000 < 1.55) galaxies
(Manzoni et al., in preparation). At the
same time, the fraction of star-forming vs. SDSS 0.02 < z < 0.08
passive galaxies is q ­ uantified as a function
0
of local density (­Cucciati et al., 2017), 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
revealing that it is higher in low-density Redshift
regions and for the most massive galax-
ies at redshift approaching unity.
scopic surveys with broader scope and refining the scaling relationships that
selection functions will be necessary to were only hinted at so far, owing to the
Conclusions assess to high statistical precision the limited size of deep samples, and ena-
evolution of the physical properties of the bling novel ways to look at the data,
Redshift surveys remain at the forefront full population (see for example the report ­self-consistently modelling the galaxy
of cosmological research in the 21st cen- of the ESO Working Group on the Future properties and the underlying density
tury. Huge cosmology-focused surveys, of Multi-Object Spectroscopy, Ellis et al., field through a Bayesian approach
such as Euclid3 and the Dark Energy 2017). These surveys will be similar in (­Granett et al., 2015). This is a necessary
Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI4), are spirit to VIPERS, involving a detailed sam- path, if the goal is to understand the full
being prepared with the goal of collecting pling of large-scale structure over large growth history of galaxies and the cosmic
tens of millions of redshifts in the distant volumes to determine accurate informa- web they inhabit, providing the crucial
Universe. Such projects will typically tion on galaxy properties, possibly link between the cosmological dark-­
deliver low signal-to-noise (SNR) spectra enhanced by higher spectral resolution. matter skeleton and the objects we use
with limited information, often targeting to trace it.
specific sub-populations of galaxies. VIPERS has opened the way to such
This implies that complementary spectro- accurate statistical studies at z > 0.5,

46 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Acknowledgements Fritz, A. & VIPERS Team 2014, A&A, 563, 92 Moutard, T. & VIPERS Team 2016, A&A, 590, 102
Gargiulo, A. & VIPERS Team 2017, A&A, in press, Peacock, J. A. et al. 2001, Nature, 410, 169
We acknowledge the support of the ESO staff for all arXiv:1611.07047 Pezzotta, A. & VIPERS Team 2017, A&A, in press,
operations in Garching and at Paranal. We especially Garilli, B. et al. 2012, PASP, 124, 1232 arXiv:1612.05645
thank Michael Hilker and Marina Rejkuba for their Garilli, B. et al. 2014, A&A, 562, 23 Planck Collaboration 2016, A&A, 594, 1
constant help during several phases of the project. Granett, B. R. & VIPERS Team 2015, A&A, 583, 61 Rota, S. & VIPERS Team 2017, A&A, in press,
Guzzo, L. et al. 2008, Nature, 451, 541 arXiv:1612.05644
Guzzo, L. & VIPERS Team 2013, The Messenger, Scodeggio, M. & VIPERS Team 2017, A&A, in press,
References 151, 41 arXiv:1612.05648
Guzzo, L. & VIPERS Team 2014, A&A, 566, 108 Siudek, M. & VIPERS Team 2017, A&A, 597, 107
Alam, S. et al. 2015, ApJS, 219, 12 Hawken, A. & VIPERS Team 2017, A&A, in press, York, D. et al. 2000, AJ, 120, 1579
de la Torre, S. & Guzzo, L. 2012, MNRAS, 427, 327 arXiv:1611.07046
de la Torre, S. & VIPERS Team 2013, A&A, 557, 54 Haines, C. P. & VIPERS Team 2017, A&A, in press,
de la Torre, S. & VIPERS Team 2017, A&A, arXiv:1611.07050 Links
submitted, arXiv:1612.05647 Kaiser, N. 1987, MNRAS, 227, 1
1
Colless, M. et al. 2001, MNRAS, 328, 1039 Krywult, J. & VIPERS Team 2017, A&A, 598, 120  FHTLS:
C
Cucciati, O. & VIPERS Team 2017, in press, Le Fèvre, O. et al. 2005, A&A, 439, 845 http://www.cfht.hawaii.edu/Science/CFHLS
2
arXiv:1611.07049 Lilly, S. J. et al. 2009, ApJS, 184, 218 VIPERS web site: http://vipers.inaf.it
3
Davidzon, I. & VIPERS Team 2013, A&A, 558, 23 Malavasi, N. & VIPERS Team 2017, MNRAS, Euclid satellite mission: http://sci.esa.int/euclid/
4
Eisenstein, D. et al. 2011, AJ, 142, 72 465, 3817 DESI: http://desi.lbl.gov/
Ellis, R. S. et al. 2017, arXiv:1701.01976 Micheletti, D. & VIPERS Team 2014, A&A, 570, 106
ESO/CFHT

A small region (42 × 41 arcminutes)
of the Canada France Hawaii Tele-
scope Legacy Survey W1 field, which
was covered by VIPERS, centred at
2 h 27 m, –4° 24′, in a u-, r- and
z-band colour composite. See Release
eso1212.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 47
Astronomical News

ESO/M. Zamani

Upper: The signature of the contract
with SCHOTT for the ELT primary mirror
­s egment blanks took place at ESO
Headquarters on 30 May 2017.
ESO/M. Zamani

Lower: And the contract signing with
Safran Reosc for production of the ELT
­p rimary mirror segments on the same
day. See Release eso1717 for details.

48 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Astronomical News DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5026

Report on the Workshops

VLTI Community Days
VLTI Winter School
held at ESO Headquarters, Garching, Germany, 6–10 March 2017

Antoine Merand1 GRAVITY, were presented by Frank resolution, allowing exquisite images of
Eisenhauer from the Max-Planck-Institut stellar surfaces.
für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), the
1
ESO Principal Investigator of the instrument. In
particular, the community was impressed VLTI Winter School
by the observations of the Galactic Cen-
The infrastructure of the Very Large tre 2. Results with the first generation The school, held from 6 to 8 March 2017,
­Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is in the VLTI instruments, the MID-infrared Inter- just prior to the VLTI Community Days,
process of being upgraded and sec- ferometric instrument (MIDI) and the Pre- attracted about 15 participants, ranging
ond-generation interferometric instru- cision Integrated Optics Near-infrared from masters students to postdocs. The
ments are entering service (GRAVITY) Imaging ExpeRiment (PIONIER) were also four half-day sessions aimed specifically
or under construction (MATISSE). The presented. The status of the Multi Aper- at providing the necessary knowledge to
VLTI Community Days presented these Ture mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experi- apply for time with the latest VLTI instru-
developments and began a discussion ment (MATISSE), the second-generation ment GRAVITY. The programme included
with the community on the future of instrument still under construction and an introduction to interferometry, obser-
the VLTI. Prior to the VLTI Community due for commissioning in 2018, was also vation preparation, and GRAVITY data
Days, a short Winter School was held to presented. reduction, as well as general interferome-
­introduce early stage researchers to try data reduction and image reconstruc-
VLTI observation and data reduction. The second day of the meeting was dedi- tion. The classes and practical sessions
cated to the forthcoming evolution of were given by members of the User Sup-
VLTI operations, as well as the result of port Department and Paranal Science
VLTI Community Days prospective exercises by ESO (the VLTI Operations, as well as participation from
Roadmap, which was presented to the VLTI community experts.
There have been two previous VLTI Com- 89th Scientific Technical Committee
munity meetings — one at the European [STC] in April 2017), and the report from Details of the programmes of both the
Week of Astronomy and Space Science the working group of the European Inter- Community Days and the Winter School,
(EWASS) in 2015 in La Laguna in Tenerife ferometry Initiative entitled “The future of together with links to some of the presen-
(“VLTI Community Day”) and one com- interferometry” 3. tations, are on the workshop webpage4.
bined with a PIONIER community meet-
ing in 2014 in Grenoble. This meeting in The last day of the meeting provided
Garching attracted nearly 60 members of the opportunity for the community to Links
the VLTI community, including ESO per- ­present ideas and science cases for 1
 SO Annual Report 2015: https://www.eso.org/
E
sonnel. On the first day of the meeting, future instruments. Two projects were public/products/annualreports/ar_2015/
speakers from ESO updated the commu- presented: the first was for an L-band 2
GRAVITY observations of the Galactic Centre:
nity on the status of the VLTI following high-contrast interferometric instrument, https://arxiv.org/abs/1705.02345
3 European Interferometry Initiative: http://www.
the upgrades to the VLTI infrastructure aimed at ­studying planet formation european-interferometry.eu/working-groups/the-
over recent years (see ESO 2015 Annual around young stars and, ultimately, the future-of-interferometry-in-europe
Report 1), as well as the forthcoming planets themselves. The second was for 4
Workshop webpage: http://www.eso.org/sci/meet-
ones. The early results from the first of a visible high-spectral-resolution instru- ings/2017/VLTI-2017.html
the second-generation VLTI instruments, ment, which would boost VLTI angular

Figure 1. (Left) The participants at Figure 2. (Above) All the participants
the VLTI Community Days pose in the at the VLTI Winter School, both
entrance hall at ESO Headquarters. ­students and lecturers together, in the
Headquarters lobby.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 49
Astronomical News DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5027

Report on the Workshop

Stellar Populations in Stellar Clusters and Dwarf Galaxies —
New Astronomical and Astrophysical Challenges
held at ESO Vitacura, Santiago, Chile, 2–3 March 2017

Bruno Dias1 Key questions that we wanted to address Some highlights from the various ses-
Ivo Saviane1 during the two days of the conference sions are presented.
were: Are massive young clusters the
prototypes of future globular clusters?
1
ESO What is missing in stellar evolution mod- The Milky Way
els, in particular concerning evolved
stars, such as those in the asymptotic Two sub-sessions were dedicated to this
Chile hosts many world-leading expert giant branch (AGB) and horizontal branch vast topic. We started with an invited talk
groups working on stellar populations (HB) phases? What is the relationship by Patricia Tissera who discussed the
and stellar clusters. This field has between stars in clusters and dwarf gal- chemical evolution of Milky Way-type gal-
undergone something of a revolution axies, and stars in the Galactic halo and axies. The results from the simulations
during the last decade with the advent bulge? What are the fractions of Galactic show that the outer halo was mostly
of large photometric and spectroscopic clusters formed in situ and those that accreted, while the inner halo has a mix
surveys, and preparations for relevant formed in dwarf galaxies captured by the of histories (see for example,
new facilities are underway. A Chilean Milky Way? What are the differences and ­Scannapieco et al., 2011). The Disc was
meeting on stellar populations and star similarities between star clusters in the formed more recently and the Bulge was
clusters was therefore timely. The goal Milky Way and Local Group galaxies? mostly formed in situ with a fraction
was to bring together experts in the How can star clusters be used as tracers accreted at high redshift. These stars
field for discussion and to encourage of the chemical and dynamical evolution contribute to the spheroidal, dispersion-
collaboration. The workshop was open history of their host galaxy? What is the dominated component while most of the
to all astronomers and advanced stu- best complement of instruments that is stars formed in situ make up the bar
dents, especially those in Chilean insti- needed to answer these questions? structure. Patricia showed that a good
tutes, limited to a maximum of 50 par- way to disentangle populations formed in
ticipants in order to foster discussion. In order to promote focused discussions, situ from those that have been accreted
the workshop was divided into five ses- is to look at the [a/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plot,
sions: The Milky Way; The Magellanic thanks to its sensitivity to star formation
A significant fraction of the Chilean astro- Clouds; Dynamics and models; Extraga- efficiency (Tissera et al., in prep.).
nomical community is involved in the lactic stellar populations; and a special
investigation of stellar populations in star session dedicated to the VVV survey. This review was followed by a series of
clusters and dwarf galaxies, and in the Each session was followed by a half- talks on multiple populations in globular
last few years this research field has hour discussion where everyone had the and open clusters. The applicability of
­witnessed many developments. So in late opportunity to express their opinions and the sodium-oxygen anticorrelation as a
2016 we felt there was a need to dis- make plans for collaborations on topics default characteristic of Milky Way globu-
cuss the new results in a national meet- triggered by the chair. The full programme lar clusters was explored (see review
ing, which took place in March this year. can be found on the workshop webpage4. by Gratton et al., 2012). Some young

Particular topics we wanted to discuss
were, for example: the high-precision
photometric and spectroscopic observa-
tions revealing multiple stellar generations
in young and old Galactic and extragalac-
tic massive clusters; the large surveys
that are amassing impressive datasets on
the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies
(such as VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea
[VVV 1], Gaia-ESO 2, the Sloan Digital Sky
Survey [SDSS], the Apache Point Obser-
vatory Galactic Evolution Experiment
[APOGEE 3], the GlObular clusTer Homo-
geneous Abundance Measurements
­survey [GOTHAM], etc.); and the associ-
ated theoretical efforts that are attempt-
ing to make sense of all this information.
Observers and theoreticians are together
trying to solve the puzzle of how star
clusters form and evolve, and how this is
Figure 1. The workshop participants, mostly from all
connected with the history of their host regions in Chile with others from Argentina, Australia
galaxy. and Spain, photographed in the ESO Vitacura
­g arden.

50 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
massive clusters (for example, Geisler et for CN, CH and Na abundances (Salgado years, the VVVX ESO Public Survey
al., 2012; Schultheis et al., in prep.), and et al., in prep.). Finally, a different point (see ­Arnaboldi et al. p. 15). There could
extragalactic clusters (Niederhofer et al., of view was presented for the abundance be thousands of young clusters and up
2017; Salgado et al., in prep.) also show spread in the subgiant branch, which is to 100 globular clusters hidden in the
the anticorrelation. Dynamics and black usually thought to explain the photo­ infrared imaging data (Ivanov et al., 2017).
holes were then discussed for the case of metric evidence of multiple populations Challenging Bulge clusters were analysed
w Centauri. To better understand the in clusters. The claim is that stellar varia- in a following talk, the conclusion of
­origin of multiple stellar populations, the bility plays an important role in this regard which was that dust must be studied in
search is on for special cases with a sin- and the presence of multiple populations different environments. Another talk
gle stellar population. Different surveys is only one of the possible interpretations on young star clusters showed evidence
of Milky Way populations were presented: (Salinas et al., 2016). of 120 M⊙ stars in small clusters. There
APOGEE, GOTHAM, Gaia-ESO for spec- were also two talks on the characteri­
troscopy, and Hubble Space Telescope sation of variable sources from within the
(HST) for photometry of Bulge clusters. Dynamics and models survey.
In particular, the GOTHAM survey has
defined a new metallicity scale for Milky This was a short and intense session led
Way globular clusters (Dias et al., 2016a, by the invited speaker Michael Fellhauer, Extragalactic populations
b) and has established a non-linear who stated that there is no accepted
­calibration for Ca II triplet strength with model for globular cluster formation. The last session of the two days covered
metallicity (Vasquez et al., in prep.), essen- Models which focus on dynamics cannot globular cluster systems in other galaxies
tially confirming the results of S­ aviane et explain the observations concerning the and the Milky Way neighbourhood. The
al. (2012). chemistry of stellar populations, as dis- first topic was addressed in the invited
cussed above, but they certainly con- review by Thomas Puzia. He came back
strain the relation between globular clus- to the formation of globular clusters,
The Magellanic Clouds ters and dwarf galaxies, for example. offering at least three channels: in situ via
He also discussed the formation of ultra- mergers; as a leftover from stripped
The invited talk by Celeste Parisi reviewed compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies, which dwarfs; or formed in primordial dark mat-
the chemical evolution of the Magellanic either originated as threshed nucleated ter halos. He showed evidence that most
Clouds. Recent studies argue in favour dwarfs after getting rid of dark matter globular clusters are found in luminous
of a first close passage of the Clouds into (Bekki et al., 2001) or are merger prod- and low-metallicity galaxies (see review
the Milky Way neighbourhood, which ucts from intense starbursts forming by Brodie & Strader, 2006).
contrasts with the classical scenario in many star clusters in a small confined
which the Clouds are orbiting the Milky area (Fellhauer & Kroupa, 2002). Dwarf Galactic neighbours are increasing in
Way (for example, Besla et al., 2007; spheroidal (dSph) galaxies could have number, as more than 40 new dwarfs
Diaz & Bekki, 2011). It is possible that the formed from tidally disrupted discs, either and 20 globular clusters were discovered
Clouds are the largest members of a through interactions with a major galaxy in the past few years (see, for example,
group of dwarf galaxies that came into (ram-pressure and tidal stripping) or Bechtol et al., 2015; Koposov et al.,
the Milky Way halo at late times. The through dwarf-dwarf interactions (reso- 2015). More tidal streams around globular
peculiar metallicity gradients in the Clouds nant stripping), or in isolation through clusters have been characterised, sup-
inspired discussion. This invited talk merging and dissolution of star clusters porting the disruption scenario for dwarf
was followed by one on the VIsible photo- inside a dark matter halo. In the first two galaxies and globular clusters in the
metric survey on SOAR star Clusters formation scenarios, the basic building Milky Way halo. Moreover, the effect of
from tApii Coxi HuguA (VISCACHA) and blocks in the Universe are dwarf discs, different star formation histories on the
the first results on the Small Magellanic while in the last they are in fact the dSph mass-to-light ratio was discussed. This
Cloud (SMC). This survey reveals four galaxies. effect directly impacts on the stellar mass
components of star clusters, three of estimation of dwarf galaxies.
them related to the tidal history. All exter- There was also a talk on young stellar
nal regions present peculiar age and cluster formation and one on the possi­
metallicity gradients, and each component bility that gas filaments eject proto- Take-home messages
seems to have a specific age-metallicity stars. The effect of binaries was also
relation (Dias et al., 2016c). addressed. From two intense days of discussions
with 50 participants, we can safely say
The star formation region of 30 Doradus that the meeting was rather successful,
was discussed in the light of the findings VVV thanks to a few key factors:
of sequential star formation during the – We chose a topic which is very popular
last two million years. The case of light Dante Minniti discussed globular clusters among the Chilean community (and
element abundance variations in globular in the VVV survey using data from the beyond);
clusters was discussed with respect to past six years, and announced the – The short, two-day span focused the
Magellanic Cloud clusters, in particular ­extension of the survey for the next few talks and discussions;

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 51
Astronomical News

– The chairs did an excellent job of mod- expected as the detection and charac- committee members (Javier Alonso-García, Jura
­Borissova, Márcio Catelan, Doug Geisler, Steffen
erating the discussions and launching terisation of variables progresses;
Mieske, Dante Minniti, Christian Moni-Bidin and
interesting themes at the end of each 6. The accumulation of large spectro- Ricardo Muñoz) for stimulating a good scientific
session. scopic datasets is both a blessing and ­e nvironment for discussions and collaboration. Last
a challenge for the simulations of gal- but not least, financial support from ESO, El Instituto
Milenio de Astrofísica (MAS) and the Center for
While it is not possible to convey here the axy evolution that need to reproduce
Excellence in Astrophysics and associated Technol-
full range of the discussions, a few main them; ogies (CATA) is warmly acknowledged.
topics emerged during the workshop: 7. Nevertheless, simulations of Milky
1. Many new results about multiple stellar Way-type galaxies are reaching signifi-
References
populations in globular clusters were cant maturity, and we can expect an
presented, but there is no theoretical ever-improving match to observations Bechtol, K. et al. 2015, ApJ, 807, 50
model that can explain all the evi- in the near future; Bekki, K., Couch, W. J. & Drinkwater, M. J. 2001,
dence. This is in no small part due to 8. B  oth known Milky Way streams, and ApJL, 552, 105
Besla, G. et al. 2007, ApJ, 668, 949
the sheer computational power that the search for new ones with wide-field
Brodie, J. P. & Strader, J. 2006, ARA&A, 44, 193
is required to simulate physical pro- imaging surveys, were discussed. In Dias, B. et al. 2016a, A&A, 590, 9
cesses from the stellar to the galactic agreement with recent observational Dias, B. et al. 2016b, The Messenger, 165, 19
scale, and over long time scales; results, simulations predict that outer Dias, B. et al. 2016c, A&A, 591, 11
Diaz, J. & Bekki, K. 2011, MNRAS, 413, 2015
2. S pectroscopic tagging of stellar popu- galactic halos are mostly formed by
Fellhauer, M. & Kroupa, P. 2002, MNRAS, 330, 642
lations is becoming one of the key accretion; Geisler, D. et al. 2012, ApJL, 756, 40
tools to uncover the past evolution of 9. Photometric and spectroscopic Gratton, R. G., Carretta, E. & Bragaglia, A. 2012,
the Milky Way and its sub-components; ­surveys are helping to disentangle the A&ARv, 20, 50
Ivanov, V. D. et al. 2017, A&A, 600, 112
3. M ore and more, the spectroscopic complex evolution history of the
Koposov, S. E. et al. 2015, ApJ, 805, 130
data are delivered by large surveys Magellanic Clouds. Stellar populations Niederhofer, F. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 465, 4159
(such as, VVV(X), APOGEE, Gaia-ESO, from external regions (star clusters Salinas, R. et al. 2016, ApJL, 832, 14
GOTHAM, etc.); in particular) are useful tools to charac- Saviane, I. et al. 2012, A&A, 540, 27
Scannapieco, C. et al. 2011, MNRAS, 417, 154
4. S urveys are revealing that we lack terise the tidal interaction history of
basic data for many Galactic compo- both galaxies.
nents, even after decades of research Links
efforts (such as for globular clusters).
1
Acknowledgements  ariables in the Via Lactea survey:
V
Perhaps hundreds of young clusters
https://vvvsurvey.org/
and globular clusters are hidden in the We thank the ESO Office for Science in Chile for
2
Gaia-ESO survey: https://www.gaia-eso.eu/
highly extincted regions of the Milky allowing us to host the conference at the ESO
3
SDSS APOGEE survey: http://www.sdss3.org/
Way; ­p remises, and we are grateful to the local organising surveys/apogee.php
4
­c ommittee (Paulina Jirón, María Eugenia Gómez, Workshop web pages: http://www.eso.org/CG2017
5. Variable stars are a powerful tool to
and César Muñoz) for ensuring that all practical
find those hidden clusters and other issues were smoothly managed behind the scenes.
structures, so many results can be We are also thankful to the scientific organising

Engineering and Technical Research Fellowship Programme

Research and development is at the
core of ESO’s activities. Following the
framework of the prestigious science
­Fellowship Programme, ESO is opening
an engineering and technical research
­fellowship programme. Post-doctoral
­fellowships will be awarded to outstand-
ing early-career young researchers in
an engineering or technical discipline to
begin in 2018. They will share their time
between one of the ESO-defined projects
and a personal research topic.
Full details and the call for candidates will
be issued in July on the ESO Recruitment Inside one of the
page (https://recruitment.eso.org/). ESO laser labs.

52 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Astronomical News DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5028

In Memoriam Giovanni Bignami

Tim de Zeeuw 1 physics (INAF). At the time of his death

Cirone-Musi
Roberto Gilmozzi 1 Nanni was chair of the Board of the Square
­K ilometer Array (SKA) and vice chair of
the S­ cientific and Technical Committee of
1
ESO the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

Nanni was well known for the discovery
Giovanni Bignami, still very active at age of Geminga. This peculiar object was first
73 and a member of ESO Council from detected as a gamma ray source in the
2013 to 2015, has sadly passed away. constellation of Gemini by the NASA
He chaired the Tripartite Group, served ­Second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-2),
on Council’s Strategy Working Group, hence its nickname as the Gemini gamma
and was instrumental in convincing the ray source (with an additional meaning
Italian government to ­participate in ESO’s in Milanese dialect for ‘not there’, alluding
Extremely Large T­elescope (ELT) pro- to the difficulty of its identification) and
gramme. later confirmed, although not localised to
better than a few degrees, by the COS-B
Giovanni (Nanni to everyone who knew satellite. It was detected by the Einstein
him) graduated from the University of satellite (as 1E 0630+178; Bignami et al.
Milan and started work on detection of 1983) and then found to be X-ray bright, within our lifetime. He was awarded many
cosmic gamma-ray sources. From 1988 optically faint and with very weak radio honours and prizes, and asteroid 6852
to 1997 he was Principal Investigator of emission: this demonstrated that it is an was named after him (“Nannibignami”).
the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM- isolated neutron star which is relatively
Newton) and a professor at the University close to the Sun and hence has a large Nanni’s energetic and proactive approach
of Pavia. He directed the Centre d’Etude proper motion (178 mas yr –1). Nanni to anything he turned his attention to was
Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse ­continued to study Geminga in collabora- a shining example for all he worked with.
(2003–2006). He chaired ESA’s Space tion with his wife, Patrizia Caraveo, and
Science Advisory Committee and in this together they contributed an authoritative
role was the main architect of Cosmic review (Bignami & Caraveo, 1996) References
Vision 2015–2025 which laid out the Bignami, G. F. et al. 1983, ApJ, 272, L9
ambitious series of missions that ESA is Nanni was an enthusiastic and avid Bignami, G. F. & Caraveo, P. A. 1996, ARAA, 34, 331
currently implementing. Nanni was scien- ­promoter of science and its role in our Bignami, G. F. 2012, We are the Martians: Connect-
tific director of the Italian Space Agency culture, with many appearances on ing Cosmology with Biology, (Milan: Springer
Verlag Italia Srl)
from 2007 to 2008 and served as its ­television and articles in newspapers. He Bignami, G. F. & Sommariva, A. 2013, A Scenario for
president from 2010 to 2012. In the same authored popular books on science (e.g., Interstellar Exploration and Its Financing, Springer
period he was the first Italian president Bignami, 2012; 2014) and was a strong Briefs in Space Development, (Milan: Springer
of the Committee on Space Research promoter of the exploration of the Solar Verlag Italia Srl)
Bignami, G. F. 2014, Imminent Science: What
(COSPAR). From 2011 to 2015 he was System (Bignami & Sommariva, 2013), Remains to be Discovered, (Milan: Springer
president of the National Institute of Astro- convinced that man would walk on Mars Verlag Italia Srl)
ESO/Juan Pablo Astorga

Giovanni Bignami (fourth from the right) at Paranal,
during the visit by the Italian Prime Minister Matteo
Renzi (third from the right) in October 2015.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 53
Astronomical News DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5029

Fellows at ESO

s­ itting on a hard drive and had no clue
what to do with it. Within ESO I mostly
continued working on theory. Focusing
more on sub-mm emission lines, but also
changing fields towards the formation
and destruction of dust in galaxies and
dust absorption. ESO has been an ideal
place to receive observational input for
my own work, but also for me to provide
theoretical insights for the observational
projects of colleagues. Through my func-
tional work in the ALMA Regional Centre
(ARC), I have also learned what to do with
the ALMA data sitting on my hard drive.
I recently finished my first PI observa-
tional ALMA paper to study the gas prop-
erties of compact star-forming galaxies
in the early Universe, something I could
not have done without my experiences in
the ARC.

Spending time at ESO to learn new
things, like how observations are carried
out, how different types of instruments
at the La Silla Paranal enable different
Gergö Popping first real science project, a multi-wave- kinds of science, what the wide capabili-
length study of star formation within the ties of ALMA and the Atacama Pathfinder
Growing up in Groningen, the Nether- bars of spiral galaxies. EXplorer (APEX) are, how surveys are
lands, I was mostly passionate about designed and how data handling works,
classical ballet. Like many I enjoyed look- By the end of my studies I applied for a have all provided me with the under-
ing at the night sky, but never really saw PhD position within my home university standing I was hoping for when I started
myself pursuing a career as an astrono- and was lucky enough to get it. The pro- as a Fellow. Multiple surgeries in the
mer. I imagined myself performing in ject I applied for was supposed to be a Calama hospital because of appendicitis
­theatres all over the world, becoming a little bit of theory with a lot of interfero- during an ALMA observing run gave me
star in dance, not studying them. It was metric observational work, but it ended a memorably different look at what the
only during the last year of high school up being a lot of theory with no observa- life of an observational astronomer can
that I realised a career in dance would tional work at all. I developed galaxy for- be like. Recovering for two weeks in
also mean missing out on the intellectual mation models for the HI and H2 content the Santiago guest house and being
challenge that mathematics and physics and the sub-mm line emission of galax- approached every day by different ESO
offered me. So I changed my plan and ies. These models are geared towards colleagues saying “Oh, you are the
enrolled as a student in physics and the newest generation of interferometric appendicitis guy!” and “Oouw, Calama,
astronomy at the University of Groningen. observatories such as the Atacama Large that’s rough...”, will strangely enough
I had become acquainted with astronomy Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and always be one of my fondest memories of
as a science through my family and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and my time at ESO.
thought it would be an interesting topic to its pathfinders. Galaxy formation theory
study for me as well. was a completely new field for me, but I will soon move on to a new position in
one with a lot of exciting challenges and Heidelberg with new adventures, chal-
During my third year of university we a field that I truly enjoy. The practical lenges, and opportunities. I am still not
went on an observing run with the Isaac approach — I have an idea, I implement always sure if choosing a career in
Newton Telescope on La Palma as a part it in my model, I see what the result is — astronomy over ballet was the right deci-
of the observational astronomy course. suits me well. sion, but my time in astronomy has
I observed the Ha emission line in two been great so far. The three years at ESO
barred spirals (NGC 1530 and NGC 2903, Joining ESO as a theorist may seem a have been a scientific and social high-
the latter still being my favourite galaxy to ­little bit odd, but actually made a lot light with tremendous opportunities to
date). The dark night sky was magical of sense. I felt that, after spending four develop as a scientist within an incredibly
and it was during this run that, for the first years in the theory world, it would be friendly and fun environment. Thank you
time, it struck me how much fun a career wise to understand a bit more about the all for enabling that!
in astronomy could actually be. Back in observational side of astronomy. On the
Groningen I used the observations for my more practical side, I had ALMA data

54 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Adriano Agnello Despite my early enthusiasm, the path to is discussed and recommendations are
science was not immediate. While at sent to the Office for Science. It has
When I was four, my mum took me with high-school, I often changed my mind, opened an interesting window onto how
her to the school where she was teach- deciding that I would be an architect, a different people review the same applica-
ing. As she was demonstrating an experi- choreographer, an interpreter, ... before tion, and the expectations that visitors
ment, heating samples of sugar into char- settling on physics, then astrophysics for have towards ESO. As part of my ESO
coal, I was amazed by this kind of magic my Masters, with a short hiatus when I Fellowship duties, I opted for training and
that anyone could understand and briefly considered changing to mathe­ operations on Unit Telescopes (UT) 4
that my mum would master so confidently matics. Still at “Scuola Normale”, in my and 1 instruments. Timing was lucky, as I
(and explain so patiently). So I decided University years, I used to spend most arrived when UT4 was being upgraded
that I would be a scientist one day. of my spare time with my colleagues in with four powerful lasers and new adap-
the Humanities. The PhD itself was a bit tive optics technology.
Encouraging my curiosity was easy for of a drift: I started with paper-and-pen
my parents, thanks to their scientific edu- ­Bogoliubov–Born–Green–Kirkwood–Yvon In the photo, I am standing with an old
cation, and I had the luck of attending (BBGKY) hierarchy computations, then friend in front of UT4 during a laser dem-
nearby State schools with excellent did some dynamical modeling of discrete onstration at twilight. The view of the
teachers. There is a peculiar atmosphere tracers in Milky Way dwarf spheroidals southern sky from Paranal is breathtak-
where I grew up; about half of my science and nearby ellipticals, then changed to ing, and somehow soothing during the
and maths teachers were women (a strong lensing. This happened also thanks long winter nights. When I sneak out
­common occurrence in Italy), and half of to my supervisor, who wisely avoided onto the platform, the four UTs make an
the girls in my hometown would pursue ­giving me a single project that would impressive presence; with their sizes,
STEM studies (science, technology, engi- stick with me for my whole career. In my silently rotating and staring, they resem-
neering and mathematics), but on the first postdoc, while mining large data- ble temples high on sacred mountains
other hand volleyball or ballet were “girly bases to discover “new” lensed quasars, where a few initiated interrogate the
things” that males were not supposed I was often sent observing at Keck, which heavens. I wonder what some archeolo-
to do. Things changed somewhat when I spurred new interest in how telescopes gists may think of us in a few thousand
moved to Pisa to attend University, in a and observatories work. years.
town mostly populated by students and
academics. After Keck, the Nordic Optical Telescope ESO, and especially Paranal, is a truly
(NOT), Paranal and La Silla, telescopes multi-cultural environment, with enriching
are strangely becoming a familiar envi- human experiences every day. Students,
ronment, something I would have not fellows and young staff are particularly
foreseen a few years ago. On account of active on diversity, inclusiveness and
my job and age, I am used to moving to equal opportunities, despite the slow
a new place every two or three years, changes in rules (and sometimes mind-
crossing borders and oceans, so in sets) that unfortunately are physiological
this constant feeling of uncertainty, tele- within a large inter-governmental organi-
scopes instill a sense of return to a sation. There are, however, improve-
“home away from home”. La Silla, in par- ments that I hope will be considered in
ticular, has gained a special place in my the near future; as in the motto proudly
heart. Talking with other astronomers, I worn on our t-shirts at Paranal, “People
discovered that many of them share my are the Stars”. The friendly and informal
love for its intimate atmosphere, the vari- atmosphere is a precious asset; even
ety of telescopes all within a short walk, though senior staff are very busy with
and the quiet days and nights (observing their duties, they always have time for
with music!) in the middle of some beau­ instructive chats and advice; and with
tiful nature. Walking among its many two other Fellows, I am having fun organ-
domes, it is saddening to see some of ising a workshop on “Cosmic Beacons”.
them now with decommissioned instru- As the “job hunting” season approaches,
ments inside. I can hardly realise that two years have
already gone by; the clocks tick so
ESO is a demanding organisation to be quickly here!
managed, and Fellows are encouraged
to help with small tasks. My little tasks
include helping with the Visitor Selection
Committee, where prospective visits are
Adriano Agnello (on the left). reviewed, feedback by previous visitors

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 55
Astronomical News

ESO Fellowship Programme 2017/2018

Fast-track your scientific career at Europe’s leading astronomy organisation

Each year, several outstanding early- organisation of scientific workshops, co- or at ESO Headquarters in Garching, or
career scientists have the opportunity supervising PhD students, coordi­nating at any astronomy/astrophysics institute
to further develop their independent thematic research groups, joining ­scientific in an ESO Member State. There are no
research programmes at the European committees, organising seminars, etc. functional duties during the fourth year,
Organisation for Astronomical Research except in the case that the fourth year is
in the Southern Hemisphere. The highly The fellowship positions in Garching spent at ESO Chile, where fellows are
dynamic scientific environment supports are three years in duration. In addition to expected to carry out functional work for
ESO Fellows in steering their careers developing their independent research up to 25 % of their time. Under certain
by gaining new skills, unique insights and programmes, ESO Garching Fellows are conditions, the fellow may also be hosted
valuable experience. expected to engage in functional work for by a Chilean institution where she/he
up to 25 % of their time. Previous fellows will be eligible to apply for time on all tele-
ESO’s approximately 110 staff astrono- have rated functional work as much more scopes in Chile through competition for
mers, 40 fellows and 40 PhD students positively influential in their career than Chilean observing time.
conduct front-line research in fields previously thought as it had equipped
­ranging from exoplanets to cosmology. them with essential professional skills. The programme is open to applicants
Observational, theoretical and funda­ Duties are varied and can relate to instru- who will have achieved their PhD in
mental astrophysics are all areas where mentation, the VLT/I, ALMA, APEX, ELT, astronomy, physics or a related discipline
­fellows can benefit from one of the most science operations support either in before 1 November 2018. Early-career
vibrant and stimulating scientific settings Garching or at one of the ESO Observa- scientists from all astrophysical fields are
anywhere in the world. tories in Chile, software development, welcome to apply. While scientific excel-
or public outreach and education via the lence is the primary selection criterion
Fellowships are available both at ESO’s unique on-site ESO Supernova Planetar- for all fellowships, candidates should also
Headquarters in Garching near Munich, ium & Visitor Centre. The oppor­tunity to explain (in their motivation letter) how
Germany, and at ESO’s astronomy centre gather experience from ESO’s frontline ESO’s facilities and environment and their
in Santiago, Chile. projects and operations brings fellows a work at ESO would facilitate their scien-
privileged vantage point, no ­matter where tific development.
ESO Headquarters is situated in one their career path takes them next.
of the most active research centres in We offer an attractive remuneration pack-
Europe, boasting one of the highest con- Fellowships in Chile are granted for four age including a competitive salary and
centrations of astronomers. High-calibre years. During the first three years, the allowances (tax-free), comprehensive
scientists, instrument experts, and other ­fellows are assigned to one of the science social benefits, and financial support for
professionals within easy reach provide operation groups of Paranal, ALMA or relocating families.
fellows with valuable opportunities for APEX, where they will contribute at a level
starting collaborations and learning new of 80 nights per year. For ALMA F ­ ellows, Application procedure
skills. ESO’s offices are adjacent to the a fraction of their duties can alternatively If you are interested in enhancing your
Max Planck Institutes for Astrophysics be spent on data processing, participation early career through an ESO Fellowship at
and for Extraterrestrial Physics and close in the ALMA review process as technical the most advanced ground-based obser-
to the observatory of Munich’s Ludwig- experts, software testing, optimisation vatory in the world, then please apply
Maximilian University. Additionally, ESO and extension of the array capabilities. At by completing the web application form
­participates in the Excellence Cluster Paranal, fellows have the opportunity to available at http://recruitment.eso.org.
­Universe at the Garching campus, which join an Instrument Operations Team (IOT).
brings together nearly 200 scientists. In the role of Instrument Fellow, they Please include in your application:
gain an in-depth knowledge of different – a cover/motivation letter;
In Chile, fellows interact with visiting aspects of a given instrument, such as – a curriculum vitae with a list of publica-
astronomers from a broad area of engineering and technological character- tions, and a brief summary of r­ elevant
research and have the opportunity to istics, operations and data reduction. experience (e.g., observing/technical/
­collaborate with the rapidly growing They further develop useful skills in the programming/modelling);
­Chilean astronomical community and basics of project management, team – a proposed research plan (maximum of
with astronomers at other international coordination, and communicating in a two pages);
observatories located in Chile. The multidisciplinary environment. This exqui- – the names and contact details of three
ALMA building next to ESO’s Santiago site mix of technical knowledge and close persons familiar with your scientific
offices with its many astronomers and contact with the science carried out at work and willing to provide a recom-
­fellows further enhances the stimulating the Observatories, allows ESO Chile Fel- mendation letter. Referees will be auto-
scientific environment available to ESO lows to build a solid science programme matically invited to submit a recom-
Chile Fellows. that can boost their future careers. mendation letter. However, applicants
are strongly advised to trigger these
At both sites, ESO Fellows are expected to During the fourth year, a Chile Fellow may invitations (using the web application
actively participate in ESO’s scientific life choose to spend the fourth year either form) well in advance of the application
by proposing and getting involved in the at ESO’s astronomy centre in Santiago, deadline.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 57
Astronomical News

The closing date for applications is For a list of current ESO staff and fellows, Although recruitment preference will be
15 October 2017. Review of the applica- and their research interests please see: given to nationals of ESO Member States
tion documents, including the recom- http://www.eso.org/sci/activities/ (members are: Austria, Belgium, Brazil,
mendation letters, will begin immedi- personnel.html. the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,
ately. Incomplete or late applications France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
will not be considered. Details of the Terms of Service for fellows Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
including details of remuneration are ­Switzerland and the United Kingdom)
Candidates will be notified of the results of available at: http://www.eso.org/public/ and Chile, no nationality is in principle
the selection process between December jobs/conditions/fellows/. excluded.
2017 and February 2018. F ­ ellowships will
begin in the second half of 2018. For any additional questions please The post is equally open to suitably quali-
contact: fied female and male applicants.
Further information For Garching: Eric Emsellem,
For more information about the fellowship email: eric.emsellem@eso.org.
programme and ESO’s astronomical For Chile: Claudio De Figueiredo Melo,
research activities, please see: email: cmelo@eso.org.
http://www.eso.org/fellowship.
ESO/M. Kornmesser

ESO’s facilities in Chile merged into
an imaginary landscape.

58 The Messenger 168 – June 2017
Astronomical News

Personnel Movements

Arrivals (1 March–30 June 2017)

ESO/B. Tafreshi (twanight.org)
Europe

Dembet, Roderick (FR) Software Engineer
Guerlet, Thibaut (FR) Optical Laboratory Technician
Heijmans, Jeroen (NL) Instrumentation Engineer/Physicist
Lyubenova, Mariya (BG) Outreach Astronomer
Ubeira Gabellini, Maria Giulia (IT) Student

Chile

Alarcon, Patricio (CL) Mechanical Workshop Leader
André, Mylène (FR) Outreach Officer
Faez, Robinson (CL) Telescope Instruments Operator
Friedli, Ivanna (CL) Bilingual Secretary
Jofré, Felipe (CL) Procurement Officer
Palominos, Rodrigo (CL) Telescope Instruments Operator

Departures (1 March–30 June 2017)

Europe

Laing, Robert (UK) Instrument Scientist
Ménardi, Serge (FR) Opto-Mechanical Engineer
Puglisi, Annagrazia (IT) Student

Chile

Bugueno, Erich (CL) Mechanical Engineer
Garcia, Diego Alex (ES) Operations Astronomer
Glaves, Percy (CL) Head, Central Services Desk
Iglesias, Daniela (CL) Student
Mardones, Pedro (CL) Instrumentation Engineer

The Bulge and Plane of the Milky
Way stretching above the Paranal
Observatory.

The Messenger 168 – June 2017 59
ESO, the European Southern Observa- Contents
tory, is the foremost intergovernmental
astronomy organisation in Europe. It The Organisation
is supported by 16 countries: Austria, de Zeeuw T. et al. — A Long Expected Party —
Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, The First Stone Ceremony for the Extremely Large Telescope 2
Denmark, France, Finland, Germany,
Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Telescopes and Instrumentation
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the Arsenault R. et al. — The Adaptive Optics Facility:
United Kingdom. ESO’s programme is Commissioning Progress and Results 8
focused on the design, construction Arnaboldi M. et al. — ESO Public Surveys at VISTA:
and operation of powerful ground- Lessons learned from Cycle 1 Surveys and the start of Cycle 2 15
based observing ­facilities. ESO oper- Hofmann W. — The Cherenkov Telescope Array: Exploring the
ates three observatories in Chile: at Very-high-energy Sky from ESO’s Paranal Site 21
La Silla, at Paranal, site of the Very
Large Telescope, and at Llano de Astronomical Science
Chajnantor. ESO is the European partner Paladini C. et al. — To be or not to be Asymmetric?
in the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub- VLTI/MIDI and the Mass-loss Geometry of AGB Stars 28
millimeter Array (ALMA).­Currently ESO Khorrami Z. et al. — Towards a Sharper Picture of R136 with
is engaged in the construction of the SPHERE Extreme Adaptive Optics 32
Extremely Large T ­ elescope. Harrison C. & Swinbank M. — 1000 High-redshift Galaxies with
Spatially-resolved S
­ pectroscopy: Angular Momentum over 10 Billion Years 36
The Messenger is published, in hard- Guzzo L. et al. — The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS):
copy and electronic form, four times Science Highlights and Final Data Release 40
a year: in March, June, September and
December. ESO produces and distrib- Astronomical News
utes a wide variety of media c ­ onnected Merand A. — Report on the Workshops “VLTI Community Days”
to its activities. For further information, “VLTI Winter School” 49
including postal subscription to The Dias B. & Saviane I. — Report on the Workshop
Messenger, contact the ESO education “Stellar Populations in Stellar Clusters and Dwarf Galaxies —
and Public Outreach Department at: New Astronomical and Astrophysical Challenges” 50
Engineering and Technical Research Fellowship Programme 52
ESO Headquarters de Zeeuw T. & Gilmozzi R. — In Memoriam Giovanni Bignami 53
Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2 Fellows at ESO — G. Popping, A. Agnello 54
85748 Garching bei München, Germany ESO Fellowship Programme 2017/2018 56
Phone +49 89 320 06-0 Personnel Movements 59
information@eso.org

The Messenger:
Editors: Jeremy R. Walsh and Gaitee
A. J. Hussain; Graphics: E­ d Janssen;
Design, Production: Jutta ­Boxheimer;
­L ayout, Typesetting: Mafalda Martins.
www.eso.org/messenger/

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Unless otherwise indicated, all images
in The Messenger are courtesy of ESO,
except authored contributions which Front cover: Artist’s rendering of the Extremely
are courtesy of the respective authors. Large T­ elescope (ELT) in night-time operation
on Cerro ­A rmazones. The ceremony for the First Stone
© ESO 2017 of the ELT dome was held on 26 May 2017 and is
ISSN 0722-6691 described in de Zeeuw et al., p. 2. Credit: ESO/L. Calçada