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8.

If 2 chords intersect a diameter at D and makes equal angles with


it, the chords are equal
Given: chord AB & CD intersecting a diameter at D, L1=L2
To prove: AB=CD

Statements Facts
1. Draw OX ┴ AB, OX ┴ CD 1. From a point, one and only one can
be drawn perpendicular to a given
line
2. OD=OD 2. Identical
3. L1=L2 3. Given
4. rt. ∆ OXP = rt. ∆ OYP 4. hy.a = hy.a
5. ox=oy 5. Corresponding parts…
6. chord AB=chord CD 6. Chords equally distant from the
center are equal

PROPOSITION 6
Theorem: a line perpendicular to a radius at its outer extremity
has only one point in common with the circle.
Given: PA ┴ OA, a radius of circle O
To prove: A is the only point common to PA and the circle.

Statements Facts
1. Draw radius OB 1. Between 2 points, one and only one
line can be drawn
2. OB=OA 2. Radii of the same circle are equal
3. LA=LB 3. Reductio ad Aburdum Theorem
4. PA┴OA (e.i LA=90o) 4. Given
5. LA=LA=900 5. Substitution
6. OB (as well as OA is ┴ to PA from O 6. A point is within, on or without a
circle according to its distance from
the center is less than, equal or
greater than its radius.
7. But OB and OA cannot be both ┴ to 7. Through a point, one and only one
PA can be drawn ┴ to a given line

Corollary 1 – A tangent is a radius drawn to a point of


tangency are ┴ to each other. (same figure as Proposition 6)

Given: PA is tangent to circle O at A, OA is a radius


To Prove: OA ┴ PA

Statements Facts
1. point A is the only point common to a 1. Given
tangent and a circle
2. From any other point B on the 2. Two points determine a straight line
tangent, Draw BO
3. Since B is without the circle, OB is 3. Prin. 34
longer than a radius (OA)
4. OA is the shortest line from O to PA 4. The ┴ from a point to a line is the
... OA ┴ PA shortest line between the points and
a line.

PROPOSITION 7
Theorem: Tangents from a point to a circle are equal and make
equal angles with the line from the point to the center.

Given: t and t 1 are tangent from P to circle O


To Prove: t=t1 and L1=L2

Statements Facts
1. Draw S from pt. O and draw r to r1 to 1. Bet. 2 points one and only one line
the points of tangency can be drawn from a given line
2. r┴t and r1┴t1 2. A tangent and a radius drawn to a
point of tangency are ┴ to each
other.
3. r=r1 3. radii of the same circle are equal
4. s=s 4. Identity
5. rt. ∆ rst = rt. ∆ r1s1t1 5. hy.l=hy.l
6. t=t1 and L1=L2 6. Tool 3

EXERCISES:
1. Tangents to a circle at A, B, and C meet at R and S. Show that AR+
CS=RS
2.
Statements Facts
1. AR=RB 1. Tangents from a point to a
circle are equal
2. CS=BS 2. same as 1
3. AR+CS=BS 3. Axiom of Addition

2. If AB and AC are tangents to a circle whose center is O, AO is


the ┴ bisector of BC
Given: AB and AC are tangents to O whose center is O
To Prove: OA is the ┴ bisector of BC

Statements Facts
1. AB=AC 1. Tangents from a pt. to a circle are
equal
2. L1=L2 2. Tangents from a point to a circle are
equal and make equal angles with
the line from the point to the center.
3. AD=AD 3. Identity
4. ∆BDA = ∆DAC 4. sas=sas
5. L3=L4 and BD = BC 5. Tool 3
6. OA is the ┴ bisector of BC 6. Definition of ┴ bisectors

3. A chord parallel to a tangent is bisected by the diameter drawn


from the point of contact
Given: AB || CD, CD is a tangent, XE is a diameter drawn from the pt.
of contact
To prove: AY=YB

Statements Facts
1. XE ┴ CD 1. A diameter drawn from the point of
contact is ┴ to the tangent
2. AB || CD 2. Given
3. XE ┴ AB 3. A line ┴ to one of the || lines is ┴ to
the other
4. AY=YB 4. A diameter ┴ to a chord bisects the
chord

4. If 2 circles are concentric, tangents to the inner circle which are


limited by the outer circle are =.
Given: 2 concentric circles
To Prove: AB and CD are tangents to the inner circle are equal

Statements Facts
1. Draw OX and OY 1. B/w 2 points, one line can be drawn.
2. OX┴ AB, OY┴ CD 2. A radius drawn to the point of
contact is ┴ to the tangent
3. AB=CD 3. Chords equally distant from the
center of a circle are equal

5. if 2 tangents form a 60 degree angle, the chord joining the points


of contact equals the tangent;
Given: LB=600
To prove: AC=AB=BC

Statements Facts
1. AB=BC 1. Tangents from a point to a circle are
equal
2. LA=LC 2. Angles opposite equal sides in the
same ∆ are equal
3. LA + LB + LC = 180 3. The sum of the angles of a ∆ equals
180
4. LB = 60 4. Given
5. LA+LC = 120 5. Axiom of Subtraction
6. LA=LC=60 6. Axiom of Division
7. AB=AC=BC 7. An equiangular ∆ is equilateral