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# UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION TO HYDRAULIC POWER
Introduction:
Advantages, disadvantages/limitation and applications of hydraulic system.
Conversion of units.
Pascal`s law, applications of Pascals law and problems on Pascals law.
Continuity equation and problem on continuity equation
Introduction to hydraulic system
Basic components of hydraulic system
Hydraulic pumps and pumping theory
Classification of pumps.
Gear pump
Vane pump
Reciprocating or piston pump
Performances of pumps
Problems on pumps.

Introduction:
Hydraulic & pneumatic technology deals with generates, control and transmission of power using
pressurized fluid.
Hydraulics is a word derived from the Greek word HYDOR which means water. It constitutes with
fluid.
Pneumatics is a word derived from Latin word PNEUMO which means breathing.
Hydraulics & Pneumatics technology is called muscles of industry because all automation is relay
on this technology. The applications of these technologies are unlimited.

## Application of hydraulic technology:

1. Hydraulic presses.
2. Hydraulic jacks.
3. Vehicle braking system.
4. Earth movers
5. Harvest crops,
6. Material handling equipments.
7. Construction industries.
8. Machine tools.

Fluid power:
Fluid power provides flexible and easy control of variable force, distance and speed.
Fluid power can be varied form force f few grams to gigantic forces of 36000 tons or more.
It uses synthetic oil, petroleum oil etc.
Pneumatic system uses compressed air as gas medium because air is very abundantly available and
can be readily exhausted to atmosphere.

## 1. Hydrostatic fluid: is one which mechanics of still fluid.

2. Hydrodynamics fluid: is one which mechanics of flowing fluid.

## Advantages of hydraulic power:

1. Hydraulic power is to produce, transmit, store, maintain and regulate.
2. Weights to power ratio of hydraulic system are compact as compare to electromechanical system.
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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

## 3. Output can be linear, angular or rotational.

4. Noise and vibration of hydraulic system are less.
5. Frictional elements are less as compared to mechanical element.
6. Accuracy is more.
7. It proves power amplifiers and force gain.

## Disadvantages or limitations of Hydraulic power:

1. Leakage of oil problem.
2. Cost of system is high.
3. Corrosion problem.
4. Fire hazards are possible because of petroleum based oils are used at high temperature.
5. Cleaning of oil.
6. Oil ageing and chemical deterioration.

Conversion of units:
Unit FPS MKS CGS
length Foot Meter Centimeter
1 foot= 0.3048 m 1 meter = 3.28084 ft. 1 cm = . 1meter
1 foot=12 inches 1 meter = 39.3008 inches.
1 = 2.54 cms

Mass Pound lb Kg Gm
1 pound = 0.4539 kg. 1kg = 2.205 lb 1 gm = 1/1000 kg.
Time Hour, mins, sec Hour = 60mins, Seconds
1 mins = 60secs.
1 liter = 0.001 m3
1 m3 = 1000 liters
1 bar = 105 pa

## Why oil in hydraulic system instead of water?

The following are the reasons for using oil in hydraulic system instead of water.
1. Compared water, oil is less compressible.
2. Oil has serves as lubrication to the moving parts and do not rust the parts as in the case of water.
3. Seals clearances between the moving parts dissipate heat generated due to friction.

Pascal`s Law:
Statement: the pressure applied on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions and acts
with equal force on equal area at right angles to them.

If area of stopper is 1cm2(A) and load applied on stopper is 10N (F), then pressure acting
on all sides of the wall of the bottle is 10N/cm2 (P = F/A). The pressure remains same
throughout the system.

If the bottom of the bottle area is 10cm2(A), then the total force acting on that area is
100N (F= PXA).

Sridhara T., Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., SDMIT, Ujire 574 240 Page 2
UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

## Applications of Pascal`s law:

1. Hydraulic Press:
Joseph Bramah of England was developed this equipment.
In which shape of the container is irrelevant. If we now pressurize the surface for A1 with force F1,
then pressure P1 =F1/A1 is acting on all side equally and simultaneously. Therefore it is equal at all
points.
Therefore same pressure is acting on area A2. Hence the force we get at surface A2 is F2=P2.A2

## By Pascal`s law, P1=P2

Therefore F1/A1 =F2/A2
Rewrite as,

## Above equation is called force multiplication ratio.

The ratio of piston movement can be determined by assuming the oil to be incompressible.
The cylindrical volume of oil displaced by input piston equals the cylindrical volume displaced by the output
piston. i.e., V1=V2

Since volume of the cylinder equals to product of cross sectional area of piston and distance moved by
piston (height),
We have,
A1S1=A2S2
S1/S2=A2/A1
Rewrite as

## Substitute equation 1 & 2,

Therefore, F1S1=F2S2
This we called as energy input, E1= F1S1, energy output, E2=F2S2

Sridhara T., Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., SDMIT, Ujire 574 240 Page 3
UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

2. Hydraulic Jack:

## Problems on Pascal`s Law:

1. A hydraulic press has a ram of 40cm diameter and a plunger of 5.5cm diameter as shown in figure. Find
the maximum weight of the load that will be balanced by the press, when a force of 600N is applied on the
plunger.

2. A hydraulic press has a ram of 25 & a plunger of diameter 4cm as shown in figure. If a load of 40kN is to
be lifted. Find the magnitude of the minimum force to be applied on the plunger to keep the 40kN is balance.

Sridhara T., Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., SDMIT, Ujire 574 240 Page 4
UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

3. A force of 500N applied on a plunger of diameter 5cm of hydraulic press moves the piston through a
distance of 20cm as shown in figure. What is the maximum weight of load that can be placed on the ram and
what will be the displacement, if the diameter of the ram is 40cm.

Continuity equation:
This equation based on the principle of conservation of mass is called continuity equation.
According to this principle quantity of fluid flowing per second through a pipe at all its cross section is
same or constant.

In the above figure shows the pipe is varying cross sectional area.
Let:
A1 be area of pipe at section 1-1
1 be the density of the fluid at section 1-1
V1 be the velocity of fluid at section 1-1
Similarly, A2, 2, V2 are, density and velocity of fluid at section 2-2.

Therefore mass flow rate at section 1-1 = A1.1.V1, mass flow rate at section 2-2 = A2.2.V2
According to continuity equation mass flow rate at section 1-1 = mass flow rate at section 2-2
i.e., A1.1.V1 = A2.2.V2 is a continuity equation.

## For compressible fluid, 1 = 2

Therefore A1.V1=A2.V2

## Here discharge Q =A.V..m3/s.

Fluid power, P = Q.p .watts, p = pressure in pa.

Sridhara T., Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., SDMIT, Ujire 574 240 Page 5
UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

## Problems on continuity equation:

1. If the discharge of oil flowing through a pipe shown in figure. is 0.4m3/s, then what is the velocity of the
oil at section A-A. If the velocity at B-B were to be 24m/s. what is the diameter at section B-B. Diameter at
section A-A is 20cm.

2. The diameter of pipe at section 1-1 and section 2-2 are 20cm and 10cm respectively as show in figure.
Find the disadvantage of the oil flowing through pipe. If the velocity of the oil at section 1-1 is 6m/s.

## Introduction to hydraulic system:

Basic components of hydraulic system:
Figure:

## The six basic components of hydraulic systems are:

1. Hydraulic oil tank or Reservoir.
2. Hydraulic Pumps.
3. Direction control valves
4. Pressure control valves.
5. Flow control valves.
6. Linear actuators (cylinders) or rotary actuators (Motors).
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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

Hydraulic oil tank o reservoir: it is used to hold the liquid, usually hydraulic oil. Reservoirs can also help
separate dirt and other particular from the oil, as the particulate will generally settle to the bottom of the
tank.

Hydraulic Pumps: hydraulic pumps supply to the components in the system. They convert mechanical
energy into hydraulic energy.

## Direction control valves: control the directions of fluid flow.

Pressure control valves: it control and regulates the pressure in the system.

Flow control valves: they are used to regulate the flow rate of fluid in to the system.
Actuators (LINEAR & rotary): these are used to convert the hydraulic energy into force and torque. These
may be either cylinders or motors.

Pump:
A device which converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy is called hydraulic pump.

## Pump theory or working of a pump:

Hydraulic pump is a source of hydraulic power. It imparts hydraulic energy to the oil.
The principle upon which any pump function is that a partial vacuum is created when the internal parts
(gears in the gear pump and all type pump with internal moving elements) receives mechanical energy and
go through their cycle oil is forced into the pump casing due to the atmospheric pressure acting on the oil
and the suction created by the pumping element. This oil is then squeezed between the pumping
elements/casing resulting in increase in pressure. Pressurized oil forced into system and process repeats.

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

Classifications of pumps:

## Hydro-dynamic or non-positive displacement pump:

Pump where in inertia of the fluid motion is used to displace and transfer the fluid are called non
positive displacement pumps.
These pumps are generally used for low pressure and high volume flow applications.
The max. Pressure capacities of these pumps are limited 1.7 to 2 Mpa. Hence their application is
limited in fluid power.
Example: centrifugal pump, axial and radial flow pumps.

## Advantages of NPD pumps:

a. Low initial cost.
b. Minimum maintenances.
c. Noiseless operation.
d. Simplicity in operation.
e. High reliability.

## Positive displacement pumps:

The fluid is always being in contact during its cycle of operation with the moving elements such
types of pumps are called as positive displacement pumps.
They use hydraulic fluid power.
They are capable for high pressure and fixed volume of flow.
They can withstand max. Pressure upto 70MPa or higher.

Pumping cycle: movement of pumping element from max volume to min volume and from min volume to
max volume is called pumping cycle.

## Advantages of positive displacement pumps:

a. Displacement is fixed or variable
b. Flow capacity is more.
c. Volumetric efficiency is more as compared to NPD.
d. With stand high pressure.

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

Gear Pumps:
A gear pump consists of two meshing gears of equal sizes. One gear is connected to driving shaft known as
drive gear and it drives the second gear that called driven or idler gear.

These gears are enclosed in housing with side plates often called wear or pressure plate. Pumping
chamber is formed between the gear teeth.
The gears may be either helical or spur or spiral type.

## The gears pumps are broadly classified into:

1. External gear pump
2. Lobe/Lobo pump (External gear pump type)
3. Internal gear pump
4. Gerotor (Internal gear pump type)

1. External gear pump: a positive displacement type pump with rotary type.

or

Construction:
An external gear pump consists of two meshing gears of equal sizes meshing externally. Each gear is
mounted on shaft supported in the end covers. One of these shafts is coupled to the prime mover.
Driving shaft known as drive gear and drives the second gear called driven or idler gear.

These gears are enclosed in housing with side plates often called wear or pressure plate. Pumping
chamber is formed between the gear teeth.

Working:
As the gear unmeshed at inlet a partial vacuum is created, drawing fluid into the chamber formed
between the teeth. The chamber carries the fluid around the outside of the casing and between the
teeth.
The fluid get pressurized at outlet because of gears are meshing at outlet. The high pressure fluid is
entering into system.
The volumetric displacement of gear pump is mainly depends on the size of the gears, width of the
teeth and speed.
Speed of this gear pump as high as 2700rpm.

## Advantages of Gear pump:

1. Simple in design
2. Have longer life.
3. Economical.
4. Fewer moving parts.
5. Noiseless operation

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

## 2. Lobe/Lobo pump (External gear pump type):

The lobo pump operates on the same principal as external gear pump but has higher displacement because
few numbers of teeth on each gear (in the figure three teeth on each gear). The teeth are to be wider and
more curved than those found in regular external gear pump.

## 3. Internal Gear pump:

Construction:
An Internal gear pump consists of two meshing gears meshing internally. This consists of an external
gear that meshes with the teeth of an annular gear as shown in figure.
The pumping chamber is formed between the teeth. The external gear has 1 tooth less than internal
gear.
The Crescent seal is machined into the space between the meshing and unmeshing region of the
gears is maximum, where the maximum clearance between the annular gear and external gear.

Working:
The internal gear drives the external gear and affects a tight seal where the teeth are meshing.
Rotation of the gears causes unmeshing near the inlet port. The cavity volume increases and suction
occurs.
Oil is entererd into pump from tank and carried to outlet between the teeth and along the sides of the
crescent. When teeth are meshing each other; hence oil is pressurized and sent this high pressure oil
into system.

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

## 4. Gerotor (Internal gear pump type):

It is the most common type of internal gear motor.
In this case also the inner gear has one tooth less than the external gear and is keyed the driving
shaft.
This gear does not have crescent seal.

OR
Construction:
An Internal gear pump consists of two meshing gears meshing internally. This consists of an external gear
that meshes with the teeth of an annular gear as shown in figure.
The pumping chamber is formed between the teeth. The external gear has 1 tooth less than internal gear.

Working:
As the gear rotate, each tooth of the inner gear is in contact mesh with the teeth of annular gear(inner teeth
gear). As the annular has one tooth more than the inner gear, it rotates at a slower speed. Space between the
rotating teeth increases during the first half. Hence fluid enters into pump. In second half the space between
rotating teeth decreases, forces the fluid to system with high pressure through the outlet.

## Volumetric displacement of an external gear pump:

As we know that volumetric displacement of gear pump is mainly depends on the size of the gears, width of
the teeth and speed.

Let
VD = volumetric displacement of pump m3/rev.
Do = outside diameter of the gear . m.
Di = inside diameter of the gear.m.
W= width of the teeth of gear .m.
N=speed of the pump .rpm.
Theoritical discharge or theoretical flow rate ..m3/min.

## Therefore volumetric displacement of gear pump is given by,

( )

Sridhara T., Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., SDMIT, Ujire 574 240 Page 11
UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

## Theoretical displacement of pump is given by,

For a given gear pump, the size of the gear, width of the teeth are constant, hence equation of theoretical
flow rate reduces to,

Where K= ( )

## Therefore theoretical flow rate is directly proportional to speed of the pump.

The graph:
Speed (N) Vs discharge ( graph gives for a given speed (N), is constant.

Volumetric Efficiency:
Volumetric efficiency of the pump is the ratio of actual discharge to theoretical discharge of the pump. In
which actual discharge is lesser because of leakage of the oil.

## For given pressure and discharge graph is given by,

Pump slipping:
Pump slipping is the ratio of difference between the ) to .

## %ge of slip = x100

Pump slipping is also given by, S= (1- )

## Problems of Gear motor:

1. A gear pump has gears of external & internal diameter of 75mm & 50mm respectively & volumetric
efficiency is 90% at rated pressure. What is the actual flow rate of the pump, if the speed of the pump is
1000 rpm & width of teeth is 25mm.

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

2. determine the volumetric efficiency of a gear pump of external & internal diameter of 75mm & 50mm
respectively & width of teeth is 50mm. if the actual discharge is 30PM at 1800rpm.

Vane Pump:
Vane pump is a positive displacement pump of rotary type.
A vane pump is available in 2 different types. Namely, fixed displacement and variable displacement
vane pump. Also balanced and unbalanced vane pump.
Vane pumping is having cam ring, rotor with radial slots and vanes.

## Unbalance vane pump:

Or
Construction:
Vane pumping is having circular cam ring, rotor with radial slots and rectangular vanes.
The rotor whose axis is positioned eccentric to circular cam ring rotates inside it.
Figure shows fixed displacement unbalanced vane pump.
The eccentric center is zero then there is no flow.

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

Working:
Unbalanced Vane pump operates on the principle of increasing and decreasing volume. In this case
the vanes are allowed to track along a ring generally called cam ring.
The vanes which are free to slide inside their slots provided in the rotor move outward due to
centrifugal force.
During first half of rotation of the rotor, the volume increases progressively between the rotor and
the cam ring. This increase in volume causes reduction of pressure and suction of oil into pump from
tank.
In second half rotation, the vanes pushes to back to slots from the cam ring their by volume
decreases and pressure increases. This high pressure oil enters into system.
The vane pumps operating is maximum upto 20Mpa and volumetric efficiency is above 94%
Variable displacement unbalance vane pump:

Or

Construction & working is same as fixed displacement pump in working add these points.

The pump is having displacement setting screw by which we can adjust the eccentricity of the rotor
and cam ring and varying the flow rate.
Once the eccentricity is zero then there is no flow.

## Balanced Vane Pump:

The problem of unbalanced loading in vane pump can be overcome by replacing the circular cam ring with
an elliptical cam ring as shown in figure.

Construction:
The circular rotor is concentrically placed with the elliptical cam ring as shown in figure.
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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

This creates two inlet and two outlet chambers such that force acting on the shaft are fully balanced.
The ports are 1800 opposite to each other.
In actual design the two inlets and two outlets are connected to a common inlet and outlet as shown
in figure.

Working:
Balanced Vane pump operates on the principle of increasing and decreasing volume. In this case the
vanes are allowed to track along a ring generally called cam ring.
The vanes which are free to slide inside their slots provided in the rotor move outward due to
centrifugal force.
During first half of rotation of the rotor, the volume increases progressively between the rotor and
the cam ring. This increase in volume causes reduction of pressure and suction of oil into pump from
tank.
In second half rotation, the vanes pushes to back to slots from the cam ring their by volume
decreases and pressure increases. This high pressure oil enters into system.

## Pressure compensated vane pump:

In certain hydraulic system, it is desired that the pump should stop pumping when asset or pre-
determined pressure is reached. This is possible by using pressure compensated vane pump.
In this case, the system pressure is directly acting on cam ring on the right side as shown in figure.
These forces the cam ring against the compensatory spring loaded piston on the left of the cam ring.

When the discharge pressure of the pump is large enough, it overcomes the spring forces and moves
he come ring to the left. This result in reduction in eccentricity. If eccentricity is zero, the pump stops
the flow.
This pump is having self protection on high pressure.

## Volumetric displacement of a Vane pump:

As we know that volumetric displacement of vane pump is mainly depends on the diameter of the rotor &
cam ring, width of the teeth and speed.

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

Let
VD = volumetric displacement of pump m3/rev.
dr = diameter of the rotor. m.
dc = diameter of the cam ring.m.
e = eccentricity..m
W= width of the vane .m.
N=speed of the pump .rpm.
Theoretical discharge or theoretical flow rate ..m3/min.

## Problems on vane pump:

1. A vane pump has a volumetric displacement of 90cm3. It has rotor dia of 5.0cm and cam ring dia of 7.5cm
and a vane width of 5.0cm. What must be the eccentricity?

2. A vane pump has a rotor diameter of 60mm, a cam ring diameter of 9mm and a vane width of 50mm. if
the eccentricity is 10mm. determine the volumetric displacement.

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

## Reciprocating type Pump or Piston type Pump:

These pumps are positive displacement pump of reciprocating type.
These pumps are again classified into 2 types namely, Axial piston pump and radial piston pump.

## Axial piston pump:

In which pistons are arranged axially to the rotation of the shaft hence they are called as axial piston
pump.
These pumps are again classified into 2 types. Namely, In-line axial piston pump and Bent-Axis
axial piston pump.

## In-line axial piston pump:

Inline piston pumps are again classified into two types. Namely, swash plate and wobble plate axial
piston pump.
In in-line piston pumps, the pistons are arranged axially to each other around the circumferential
periphery of the cylindrical block.
The pistons are driven to and fro inside bores in the cylindrical block.
In these pumps cylindrical block is rotating or swash plate is rotating, it causes the piston movement.
In which the angle of offset of swash plate is very important. If offset angle is zero then there is no
flow.
In which swash plate is fixed or rotating. If it is fixed is called fixed cam plate. If it is rotating is
called wobble plate.

Working:
As the cylindrical block rotates, the piston shoe follows the surface of the swash plate. Since swash
plate is at an angle to the axis of the driving shaft. The piston has to reciprocate within the cylinder
bore.
Oil is drawn from the tank during retraction of piston with first half rotation and in second half
rotation it discharges the oil into to system when piston is extending.

## 3D view of axial piston pump:

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

## Bent-axis axial piston pump:

In these pumps, the pistons are arranged with angle of inclination to the driving shaft.
In this case, the cylindrical block rotates with the drive shaft, but at an offset angle as shown in
figure. The piston rods are attached to drive shaft flange by ball joints and are forced in and out of
their bores as the distance between the drive shaft flange and cylinder varies.
A universal link keys the cylinder block to the drive shaft to maintain the alignment and to assure
that they turn together.

Derivation of Volumetric displacement of an Inline axial pump and Bent axis axial piston pump:

As we know that volumetric displacement of axial piston pump is mainly depends on the diameter of the
bore, no. of pistons, piston diameter and offset angle.
Let
n be the number of piston.
Db be the diameter of the bore,
S be the stroke length of the piston,
Dp be the diameter of the piston
be offset angle in degrees.

The stroke length S depends on the pitch circle diameter of the piston or the bores and the inclination of the
swash plate is given by,

dp

## Then theoretical volumetric displacement is given by,

VD = n x Ap X S
VD = n x Ap x db x tan

## Where, Ap is area of piston = x db2 m2.

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

## Theoretical displacement of pump is given by,

For a given axial piston pump, bore diameter, piston diameter and no of pistons are constant, hence
displacement is directly proportional to the offset angle.

VD .

## Radial Piston Pump:

In this pump, the pistons are arranged radially in a cylindrical block and perpendicular to the rotation
of the driving shaft.
2 types of radial piston pumps. Namely radial piston with rotating cylindrical block and radial piston
pump with stationary cylindrical block.

The cylindrical block and the outer ring are placed eccentrically. The pistons are thrown out by
centrifugal force and pushed back because of the eccentricity between the rotor and the cylindrical
block.

In stationary cylindrical block radial piston pump, the cylinder block is kept stationary and the
reciprocation of piston is imported to the piston by rotating the cam outer cover is connected to the
inlet as shown in figure and discharge through check valve. Each piston bore having its own inlet &
outlet ports.

In rotating cylindrical block, the block is connected to driving shaft. The outer cam ring may be
either fixed or rotating with block. There by pumping action take places. Here common inlet and
outlet ports.

## Problems on piston pumps:

1. Find the flow rate in lpm that an axial piston pump delivers at 1200 rpm. The piston has 12, 15mm
diameter pistons arranged on a 120mm piston circle diameter. The offset is set to10 0 and volumetric
efficiency is 94%.

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

2. Find the flow rate in lps that an axial piston pump delivers at 1000rpm. The pump has nine; 15mm
diameter pistons are arranged on 125mm diameter piston circle. The offset angle set to 10 0 and volumetric
efficiency is 94%.

## Pump Selection parameters:

The factors influencing on the selection of pumps are as follows:
a. Volumetric displacement of the pump, VD
b. Discharge of the pump, Q
c. Operating Speed, N.
d. Volumetric & Mechanical efficiency.
e. Operating pressure, P
f. Performance.
g. Noise,
h. Power lost.
i. Desired service life.
j. Reliability.
k. Fluid used.
l. Maintenance cost.
m. Wear and tear of the pump.

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Pump performance:

x 100 %

Overall efficiency:
..%

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UNIT 1: Introduction to Hydraulic Power

## Pump Performance Comparisons for your reference:

Conversions

To
Into Multiply By
Convert
Bar PSI 14.5
cc Cu. In. 0.06102
(C x 1.8) +
C F
32
Kg lbs. 2.205
KW HP 1.341
Liters Gallons 0.2642
mm Inches 0.03937
Nm lb.-ft 0.7375
Cu. In. cc 16.39
F C (F - 32) / 1.8
Gallons Liters 3.785
HP KW 0.7457
Inch mm 25.4
lbs. Kg 0.4535
lb.-ft. Nm 1.356
PSI Bar 0.06896
In. of HG PSI 0.4912
In. of H20 PSI 0.03613
For extra problems and sketches refer class notes and text books.
Sridhara T., Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., SDMIT, Ujire 574 240 Page 22