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Unit 1 Half-Measure Identities Sum and Difference Identities

DERIVATIVES AND INTEGRALS YIELDING 1 cos sin sin cos cos sin
sin2
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 2 2 cos cos cos  sin sin
1 cos tan tan
cos2 tan
BASIC THEOREMS ON DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION 2 2 1 tan tan
1 cos
Product Rule: If f(x) g(x)h(x) , then f ' (x) g(x)h' (x) g' (x)h(x) tan2 tan tan
2 1 cos tan
g(x) g ' (x)h(x) g(x)h' (x) 1 tan tan
Quotient Rule: If f (x) , then f ' (x)
h(x) [h(x)2 ]
INTEGRALS OF YIELDING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
n 1
x cos xdx sin x C
If n is any real number such that n≠1, then x n dx C
n 1 sin xdx cos x C
DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS sec2 xdx tan x C
Chain Rule: csc2 xdx cot x C
Dx(sin x) cos x Dx(sin u) cos u Dx u
sec x tan xdx sec x C
Dx(cos x) sin x Dx(cos u) sin u Dx u
Dx(tan x) sec 2 x Dx(tan u) sec 2 u D x u csc x cot xdx csc x C
Dx(cot x) csc 2 x Dx(cot u) csc 2 u D x u
DERIVATIVES OF INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Dx(sec x) sec x tan x Dx(sec u) sec u tan u Dx u
1 1
Dx(csc x) csc x cot x Dx(csc u) csc u cot u Dx u Dx( Arc sin x) Dx( Arc cos x)
2
1 x 1 x2
Recall: 1 1
Dx( Arc tan x) Dx( Arc cot x)
The Fundamental Identities Double Measure Identities 1 x2 1 x2
sin csc 1 sin2 2 sin cos 1 1
Dx( Arc sec x) Dx( Arc csc x)
cos sec 1 cos 2 cos2 sin2 x x2 1 x x2 1
tan cot 1 cos 2 2 cos2 1
sin 2 Chain Rule on Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
tan cos 2 1 2 sin
cos 1 1
2 tan Dx( Arc sin u) Dx u Dx( Arc cos u) Dx u
cos tan 2 1 u2 1 u2
cot 1 tan2
sin 1 1
Dx( Arc tan u) Dx u Dx( Arc cot u) Dx u
1 u2 1 u2
sin2 cos2 1 1 1
Dx( Arc sec u) Dx u Dx( Arc csc u) Dx u
sec2 tan 2 1 u u2 1 u u2 1
csc2 cot2 1
INTEGRALS YIELDING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 1
1 1 For x ≠ 0, Dx(ln x )
dx Arc sin x C dx Arc cos x C x
2
1 x 1 x2 1
Chain Rule: If u is a differentiable function of x, Dx(ln x ) Dx u
1 1 x
dx Arc tan x C dx Arc cot x C
1 x2 1 x2
1 1 DERIVATIVES OF LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
dx Arc sec x C dx Arc csc x C log e x ln x
x x2 1 2
x x 1 Recall: Dx(log b x) Dx (Base Change)
log e b ln b
If a is a constant:
1 x 1 x Derivative of Logarithmic Function with base b
dx Arc sin
C dx Arc cos C
a 2
x 2 a a 2
x 2 a
1 1
1 1 x 1 1 x Dx(log b x)
2 2
dx Arc tan C 2 2
dx Arc cot C ln b ln x
a x a a a x a a
1 1 x 1 1 x Chain Rule: If u is a differentiable function of x,
dx Arc sec C dx Arc csc C
x x 2
a 2 a a x x 2
a 2 a a 1 1
Dx(log b u) Dx u
ln b ln u

If u is a differentiable function of x and a is a constant INTEGRALS YIELDING LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS

du u du u 1
Arc sin
C Arc cos
C General Rule: dx ln x C
a2
u 2 a a2
u 2 a x
du 1 u du 1 u 1
Arc tan C Arc cot C Chain Rule: If u is a differentiable function of x, dx ln u C
a 2
u 2
a a a 2
u 2
a a u
du 1 u du 1 u 1 1
Arc sec C Arc csc C For dx ln ax b C , where a, b and c are constants.
u u2 a2 a a u u2 a2 a a ax b a

Theorems: Chain Rule:

DERIVATIVES OF NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
1
For all x > 0, Dx(ln x) tan xdx ln sec x C tan udu ln sec u C
x
1 cot xdx ln sin x C cot udu ln sinu C
Chain Rule: If u is a differentiable function of x, Dx(ln x) Dx u
x sec xdx ln sec x tan x C sec udu ln sec u tan u C
Recall: ln(ab) ln a ln b ln( a r ) r ln a
csc xdx ln csc x cot x C csc udu ln csc u cot u C
a
ln ln a ln b ln 1 0
b
DERIVATIVE OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS Recall:
For natural exponential function: Dx(e x ) e x -function Values of Multiples of , , and within 0 , 2
u u 6 4 3 2
Let u be a differentiable function of x: Dx(e ) e Dx u

x
For Exponential Functions: If a > O, a≠1, Dx(a ) a x ln a
Let u be a differentiable function of x: Dx(a u ) a u ln a D x u

For natural exponential functions e x dx ex C

Chain Rule: Let u be a differentiable function of x: e u du eu C
x ax
For exponential functions: a dx C
ln a
au
Chain Rule: Let u be a differentiable function of x: a u dx C
ln a

Growth and Decay

A. Rectilinear Motion: s f(t) where s is the directed distance of a

particle at a given time t. C. Related Rates: how one variable changes through time depending
ds on how another variable varies through time.
Velocity, v f ' (t)
dt Assume that x and y are functions of t such that y f (x)
d 2 s dv dy dx
Acceleration, a f ' (t) Solve for given and vice versa.
dt dt dt dt

B. Optimization: D. Exponential Growth or Decay:

a. Determine critical points of f (values of x where f’(x) = 0) Exponential Model: y B e
kt

b. Determine if the function has an extremum in the critical

Where: B is the quantity at t=0
numbers by the second derivative test.
k is the rate of change
If f " (c) O , minimum
If f " (c) O , maximum
INDETERMINATE FORMS For the form of
0
Basic Limit Theorems Express the given as a single quotient. Then use L’Hopitals’ Rule if
0
1. lim x a
x a
or is obtained.
2. lim c c , c is a constant
x a
3. Infinite Limits 0 0
1 For the case of 0 , or 1
a. lim r
x 0 x a. Consider y f(x)
1 , if r is odd b. Get the natural logarithm of both sides of y f(x) so that
b. lim r
x 0 x , if r is even ln y ln f (x)
4. Limits at infinity c. Apply properties of logarithm. Evaluate lim(ln y) .
1 x a
a. lim r 0 d. Use: lim(ln y) lim e ln y
x x x a x a
1
b. lim r 0
x x The following are NOT indeterminate forms:
( ) ( )
Use L’Hopital’s Rule 0
( ) ( )
0 0
For the form of
0
If lim f(x) 0 and lim g(x) 0,
x a x a

f ( x) 0 f ' ( x)
Then, lim lim
x a g(x) 0 x a g ' ( x)

If lim f(x) and lim g(x) ,

x a x a

f ( x) f ' ( x)
Then, lim lim
x a g(x) x a g ' ( x)

For the form of 0

0 1 1
Convert 0 to a form of or by expressing as or 0 as
0 0
respectively. Then use L’Hopital’s Rule.