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DERIVATIVES AND INTEGRALS YIELDING 1 cos sin sin cos cos sin

sin2

TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 2 2 cos cos cos sin sin

1 cos tan tan

cos2 tan

BASIC THEOREMS ON DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION 2 2 1 tan tan

1 cos

Product Rule: If f(x) g(x)h(x) , then f ' (x) g(x)h' (x) g' (x)h(x) tan2 tan tan

2 1 cos tan

g(x) g ' (x)h(x) g(x)h' (x) 1 tan tan

Quotient Rule: If f (x) , then f ' (x)

h(x) [h(x)2 ]

INTEGRALS OF YIELDING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

n 1

x cos xdx sin x C

If n is any real number such that n≠1, then x n dx C

n 1 sin xdx cos x C

DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS sec2 xdx tan x C

Chain Rule: csc2 xdx cot x C

Dx(sin x) cos x Dx(sin u) cos u Dx u

sec x tan xdx sec x C

Dx(cos x) sin x Dx(cos u) sin u Dx u

Dx(tan x) sec 2 x Dx(tan u) sec 2 u D x u csc x cot xdx csc x C

Dx(cot x) csc 2 x Dx(cot u) csc 2 u D x u

DERIVATIVES OF INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Dx(sec x) sec x tan x Dx(sec u) sec u tan u Dx u

1 1

Dx(csc x) csc x cot x Dx(csc u) csc u cot u Dx u Dx( Arc sin x) Dx( Arc cos x)

2

1 x 1 x2

Recall: 1 1

Dx( Arc tan x) Dx( Arc cot x)

The Fundamental Identities Double Measure Identities 1 x2 1 x2

sin csc 1 sin2 2 sin cos 1 1

Dx( Arc sec x) Dx( Arc csc x)

cos sec 1 cos 2 cos2 sin2 x x2 1 x x2 1

tan cot 1 cos 2 2 cos2 1

sin 2 Chain Rule on Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

tan cos 2 1 2 sin

cos 1 1

2 tan Dx( Arc sin u) Dx u Dx( Arc cos u) Dx u

cos tan 2 1 u2 1 u2

cot 1 tan2

sin 1 1

Dx( Arc tan u) Dx u Dx( Arc cot u) Dx u

1 u2 1 u2

sin2 cos2 1 1 1

Dx( Arc sec u) Dx u Dx( Arc csc u) Dx u

sec2 tan 2 1 u u2 1 u u2 1

csc2 cot2 1

INTEGRALS YIELDING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 1

1 1 For x ≠ 0, Dx(ln x )

dx Arc sin x C dx Arc cos x C x

2

1 x 1 x2 1

Chain Rule: If u is a differentiable function of x, Dx(ln x ) Dx u

1 1 x

dx Arc tan x C dx Arc cot x C

1 x2 1 x2

1 1 DERIVATIVES OF LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS

dx Arc sec x C dx Arc csc x C log e x ln x

x x2 1 2

x x 1 Recall: Dx(log b x) Dx (Base Change)

log e b ln b

If a is a constant:

1 x 1 x Derivative of Logarithmic Function with base b

dx Arc sin

C dx Arc cos C

a 2

x 2 a a 2

x 2 a

1 1

1 1 x 1 1 x Dx(log b x)

2 2

dx Arc tan C 2 2

dx Arc cot C ln b ln x

a x a a a x a a

1 1 x 1 1 x Chain Rule: If u is a differentiable function of x,

dx Arc sec C dx Arc csc C

x x 2

a 2 a a x x 2

a 2 a a 1 1

Dx(log b u) Dx u

ln b ln u

du u du u 1

Arc sin

C Arc cos

C General Rule: dx ln x C

a2

u 2 a a2

u 2 a x

du 1 u du 1 u 1

Arc tan C Arc cot C Chain Rule: If u is a differentiable function of x, dx ln u C

a 2

u 2

a a a 2

u 2

a a u

du 1 u du 1 u 1 1

Arc sec C Arc csc C For dx ln ax b C , where a, b and c are constants.

u u2 a2 a a u u2 a2 a a ax b a

DERIVATIVES OF NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS

1

For all x > 0, Dx(ln x) tan xdx ln sec x C tan udu ln sec u C

x

1 cot xdx ln sin x C cot udu ln sinu C

Chain Rule: If u is a differentiable function of x, Dx(ln x) Dx u

x sec xdx ln sec x tan x C sec udu ln sec u tan u C

Recall: ln(ab) ln a ln b ln( a r ) r ln a

csc xdx ln csc x cot x C csc udu ln csc u cot u C

a

ln ln a ln b ln 1 0

b

DERIVATIVE OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS Recall:

For natural exponential function: Dx(e x ) e x -function Values of Multiples of , , and within 0 , 2

u u 6 4 3 2

Let u be a differentiable function of x: Dx(e ) e Dx u

x

For Exponential Functions: If a > O, a≠1, Dx(a ) a x ln a

Let u be a differentiable function of x: Dx(a u ) a u ln a D x u

Chain Rule: Let u be a differentiable function of x: e u du eu C

x ax

For exponential functions: a dx C

ln a

au

Chain Rule: Let u be a differentiable function of x: a u dx C

ln a

Growth and Decay

particle at a given time t. C. Related Rates: how one variable changes through time depending

ds on how another variable varies through time.

Velocity, v f ' (t)

dt Assume that x and y are functions of t such that y f (x)

d 2 s dv dy dx

Acceleration, a f ' (t) Solve for given and vice versa.

dt dt dt dt

a. Determine critical points of f (values of x where f’(x) = 0) Exponential Model: y B e

kt

Where: B is the quantity at t=0

numbers by the second derivative test.

k is the rate of change

If f " (c) O , minimum

If f " (c) O , maximum

INDETERMINATE FORMS For the form of

0

Basic Limit Theorems Express the given as a single quotient. Then use L’Hopitals’ Rule if

0

1. lim x a

x a

or is obtained.

2. lim c c , c is a constant

x a

3. Infinite Limits 0 0

1 For the case of 0 , or 1

a. lim r

x 0 x a. Consider y f(x)

1 , if r is odd b. Get the natural logarithm of both sides of y f(x) so that

b. lim r

x 0 x , if r is even ln y ln f (x)

4. Limits at infinity c. Apply properties of logarithm. Evaluate lim(ln y) .

1 x a

a. lim r 0 d. Use: lim(ln y) lim e ln y

x x x a x a

1

b. lim r 0

x x The following are NOT indeterminate forms:

( ) ( )

Use L’Hopital’s Rule 0

( ) ( )

0 0

For the form of

0

If lim f(x) 0 and lim g(x) 0,

x a x a

f ( x) 0 f ' ( x)

Then, lim lim

x a g(x) 0 x a g ' ( x)

x a x a

f ( x) f ' ( x)

Then, lim lim

x a g(x) x a g ' ( x)

0 1 1

Convert 0 to a form of or by expressing as or 0 as

0 0

respectively. Then use L’Hopital’s Rule.

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